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CHAPTER 1 ( SET 1 )

1 ( i ) newton (N) ( ii ) ft-lb ( iii ) velocity ( iv ) Hookes ( v ) friction 1x 5


2 ( i ) False ( ii ) False ( iii ) True ( iv ) True ( v ) True 1x 5
3 Amount of work done is more advantageous to pay wages than power. 1
m = 80 kg, h = 4 m, t = 3 s, W =? 1
W = m g h = 80 x 10 x 4 = 3200 J 2
4 Work done may be defined as the product of force applied and displacement. 1
Power is defined as the rate of doing work. 1
Units of work done are joule (J), erg, ft-lb
Units of power are Js-1 (W), ergs-1, ft-lbs-1, horse power(hp)
They are scalar. 1
5 Hookes Law: As long as the elastic limit of a body is not exceeded, the strain produced is 1x2
proportional to the stress causing it.
F x, F = kx ( F=stress, x=strain, k = constant ) 1
The springs are obey Hookes law. 1
6 P = 3000 W, m = 1000 kg, v = ? 1
3000 3
P = Fv, v = P/F = P/w = P/mg = = 0.3 ms-1
1000 10

7 The unit of power equal to a rate of energy transfer of 1 joule per second is called 1 watt. 2
If the work done in 1 s is 550 ft -lb, its power is 1 hp. 1
7
1 hp = 746 W = 746 x 10 ergs = 550 fl-lbs -1 -1 2

8. VR = 9, Win = 1500 J, Wout= w x dload = 1.5 x 500 = 750 J, efficiency, MA =? 1

750
efficiency = x 100 % = x 100 % = 50 % 1
1500

50 %
Efficiency = x 100 % , MA = x VR = x 9 = 4.5
100 % 100 % 1

9. Mechanical advantage of machine is defined as the ratio of the load (w) to the effort (p). 2

MA = = , W= load , P= effort

The ratio of the distance per second moved steadily by the effort to that of the load is 2
called velocity ratio of the machine.

VR =
2
No, MA and VR always greater than 1.They have no units.
m = 40 kg, h = 20 m, t = 1 min = 60s , P = ?
2
P =W/t = (m g h) / t = 40 x 10 x 20/60 = 133.34 W
10. The ratio of output work to input work is defined as the efficiency of the machine. 2

Efficiency =
x 100 %
The efficiency can be expressed as percentage (%) form. 2
h = 200 m (a) m = 1 kg, W = ?
W = m g h = 1 x 10 x 200 = 2000 J 2

1
(b) Rate of 20g s-1, m=20g = 20x10-3 kg, t= 1s , P = ? 2
-3
P = W/t = ( m g h ) / t = (20x10 x 10 x 200 ) / 1 = 40 W

10 Efficiency = x 100 %, MA = mechanical advantage, VR=velocity ratio 2


VR = , deffort = distance moved by effort, dload = distance moved by load 2

The term efficiency is used in association with machines and devices which transmit force
from point to the next. 2

Load=720 N , effect = 200N, MA=?


MA =

=
720
= 3.6 2
200

CHAPTER 1 ( SET 2 )

1 ( i ) watt ( ii ) simpler ( iii ) displacement ( iv ) 550 ft-lb s-1 ( v ) work 1x 5


2 ( i ) True ( ii ) False ( iii ) True ( iv ) False ( v ) True 1x 5
3 Input work: The work done by the effort. 1
Output work: The work done on the load. 1
Input work is always greater than output work. 2
4. VR = 25 , load =3300N, effort= 165 N , MA =? , efficiency =? 1
3300 1
MA = = = 20
165
20 2
Efficiency = x 100 %= x 100 %= 80 %
25
5. P = W/t = F s /t =F v ( W=Fs, v=s/t ) 2
The efficiency of a machine is less than 100% because input work is always greater than 2
output work.
6. The applied force to an elastic body is called stress. 1
The elongation of length is called strain. 1
-1
V = 0.01 ms ,T= F= 4000 N , P =? 1
P = F V= 4000 x 0.01 = 40 W 1
7. x 2
Efficiency = x 100 % = = 100 %
x
m=200 kg, h=6m, t=10s, g= 10 ms-1, P = ?
2
P = W/t = (mgh)/t =(200x10x6)/10= 1200 W
8 strain
F = kx , F = stress , k = constant, x= strain 2

stress
Power is very useful concept for practical work. Machines are classified and graded by their
rated power. Practical purpose is selected on basic of power rating. 2
9 A machine is an appliance that enables work to be done. 1
There are three types of simple machine. They are lever, inclined plane and hydraulic 2
press.
2
The ability to retain to its original form is called elasticity. 1
There is a limit, beyond which if the spring or any other elastic object is stretched, it will 1
not return to its original form. Such a limit is called elastic limit.
1 5
P1 = 3 P2 , t2 = 2 t
2 1
= t
2 1
P1 = 3 P2 1
1 2 1
=3
1 2
1 1 1 6 1
=3 =3 5 =
2 2 21 5
W1 : W2 = 6 : 5 , First worker is the better worker.
10.
length of spring (cm)

Load (N)
2
(i) When load = 1.1 N , length of the spring = 43 cm
2
(ii) Length of the un-stretched spring = 30 cm
2
(iii) An extension of 20 cm, length of spring = 20+30 = 50 cm,
Load = 1.6 N

CHAPTER 2 ( SET 1 )

1 ( i ) locality ( ii ) density of liquid ( iii ) direction ( iv ) Pascals law ( v ) 1atm /760mmHg 1x 5


2 ( i ) True ( ii ) True ( iii ) False ( iv ) False ( v ) False 1x 5
3 Pressure is force per unit area. 1
1 pascal : A unit of pressure equivalent to a force of 1N action on 1m2. 1

Units of pressure ; Pa, atm, mmHg, bars, torr x4

4 Pman = 3 atm, g = 10ms-2, 0 = 1000 kgm-3, h =? 1


Pman = Patm + 0 g h , 1
3 atm = 1 atm + (1000 x 10 x h)
2 atm = 104 h 1
5 4
h =(2x1.01x10 ) /10 = 20.2 m 1
5 The ratio of mass to volume of a substance is defined as density. 1

3
h = 9 m, g = 10 ms-2, 0 = 1000 kgm-3, Pdiver =? 1
Pdiver = Patm + 0 g h= (1.01x105)+(1000x10x9) =1.91x105Pa 2
6 The pressure exerted on a body by the atmosphere, due to the weight of the atmosphere. 1
is called atmospheric pressure.
The pressure in a liquid is called liquid pressure. 1

Ptotal =4atm, g=10ms-2, 0 =1000 kgm-3, h=?


Ptotal = Patm+0 gh 1

4atm =1atm+(1000x10xh)
3atm =104 h
h =(3x1.01x105) /104 = 30.3 m 1
7 A glass tube, open at both ends and bent into a U-shape, serves as a sensitive device for 1
measuring pressure when filled with colored water or light oil. Such a device is called a
manometer.
A device for measuring atmospheric pressure is called a barometer. 1
A device for measuring the density or relative density of liquid is called hydrometer. 1
Colored water, light oil and mercury must be filled in a manometer. 1
8 V = 1 cm3, = 0.8 gcm-3, 0 = 1 gcm-3, Vf = ? 1
In equilibrium,
1
=
0
0.8
=
1 1
Vs = 0.8 cm3, 1+1
Vf = V - Vs = 1 0.8 = 0.2 cm3
9. Archimedes Principle; The upward thrust acting on a body which is immersed in a 1+1
liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body.
Yes, Archimedes principle can be used for gases and liquid or (fluid). 1
Wi = 10 N, Wf = 8 N, 0 =1000 kgm-3, V= ?, = ?
Wi = V g . 1 1
Wf = ( 0 ) V g . 2 1


=
( 0 ) V g 1
10
=
8 1000
5 5000 = 4
= 5000 kgm-3
From Eq 1, Wi = V g
10 1+1
V= = = 0.2 x 10-3 m3
5000 10

4
10 Pascals Law; When a fluid completely fills a vessel, and a pressure is applied to it 1+1
at any part of the surface, that pressure is transmitted equally throughout the
whole of the enclosed fluid.
Uses; Hydraulic brake, hydraulic press 1+1
m= 30 kg, v=100m3, H=0.09 kgm-3, air=1.3kgm-3, F=? 1
In equilibrium,
F + WH + Wball = Fup( air )
1+1
F + V g + m g = V g
1
F + (0.09x100x10)+(30x10) = 1.3x100x10
F= 910N
10 Pascals law is useful for practical purposes.The construction of hydraulic press and 1+1+1
hydraulic brake are based on Pascals law. Hydraulic lift are also based on this law.
m= 50 kg, V=110m3,air=1.3kgm-3 , T= ? 1
In equilibrium,
1
T + W(gas + ball ) = Fup( air )
1
T+mg = V g
T + ( 50 ) ( 10 ) = ( 1.3 ) ( 110 ) ( 10 ) 1+1

T = 1430 500 = 930 N

CHAPTER 2 ( SET 2)

1 ( i ) density ( ii ) atmospheric ( iii ) hydrometer ( iv ) weight ( v ) atmospheric pressure 1x 5


2 ( i ) True ( ii ) True ( iii ) True ( iv ) False ( v ) True 1x 5
3 When bodies are immersed in a liquid there is loss in weight. This property of liquid is 1+1
called buoyancy.
Two simple applications of atmospheric pressure in our daily life are sucking and syringe. 1+1

4 Ain = 2in2, Aout= 10in2, Fout=500lb, Fin=? 1


Pin = Pout , 1
1
=

500 x 2 1
Fin = = = 100 lb
10
5 The pressure in a liquid depend on the density () and the depth (h) under the liquid. 1+1
A=4m2, P=100KNm-2 =105 Nm-2, F=? 1
P = F/A 1
F = PA = 4 x 105 N
6 At sea level, the height of mercury barometer is 760 mm. 1+1
Mercury barometer is used rather than water because of shorted column (76cm) and high 1+1
density(13600 kgm-3).
7 = 840 kgm-3, = 13600 kgm-3, hm = 5cm, g = 10ms-2, ht = ? 1
Pt = P m 1
5
g ht = g hm 1
13600 x 5 1
ht = = = 80.95 cm = 0.81 m
840
8 0 = 1000 kgm-3, g = 10ms-2 , h=? 1
Pw = Patm 1
g h = Patm 1
1.01 105 1
h= = = 10.1 m
1000 10
9 The thickness of the dam increases downward because the deeper it is, the greater the 1+1
water pressure. A thicker wall is required to withstand the greater pressure.
Although the atmospheric pressure is very high, we are able to withstand the atmospheric 1+1
pressure because the blood pressure is higher than the atmospheric pressure.
= 13.6 0 , hm = 760 mm = 760 x 10-3 m, h0 = ? 1
P0 = P m 1
0 g h0 = g hm 1
13.6 0 x 760 x 103 1
h0 = = = 10.336 m
0 0

10 1+1+1
Pressure in a liquid = P = = = = = = gh

1+1
air = 1.29 kgm-3, h = 1m, P1m = Patm, g = 10 ms-2, Pfloor P1m = ?
1
Pfloor = Patm + g h
1+1
Pfloor = P1m + g h
Pfloor P1m = g h = 1.29 x 10 x 1 = 12.9 Pa

10 If a body floats in a liquid, 1


Upward thrust = weight of liquid displaced 1
vs g = v g = density of body , 0 = density of liquid 1
1
= Vs = volume of immersed portion, V = volume of whole portion
0

Patm = 75 cmHg, Ptrapped air = ? 1


Patm = Ptrapped air + 70 cmHg 1
75 cmHg = Ptrapped air + 70 cmHg 1
Ptrapped air = 70 75 = 5 cmHg 1
Ptrapped air = 5 cmHg

CHAPTER 2 ( SET 3)

1 ( i ) force ( ii ) 2m2 ( iii ) completely ( iv ) mercury ( v ) Archimedes 1x 5


2 ( i ) True ( ii ) False ( iii ) False ( iv ) True ( v ) True 1x 5
3 Upward thrust = F2-F1 = P2A - P1A = A(P2- P1)=A (Patm+g(H+h) - (Patm+gh)) 1+1
Upward thrust = AHg =vg =mg = w
1+1
Upward thrust = weight of liquid displaced
6
4 2 1
0 = 1025 kgm-3, h = 2 km = 2 x 103 m, g = 10 ms-2, =?

1
P2km = Patm + 0 g h
1
P2km = Patm + ( 1025 x 10 x 2 x 103 ) 1
2 205 x 105
=1+ = 1 + 203 = 204
1.01 x 105
5 m=1000kg, = 0.18 kgm-3 ,air = 1.29 kgm-3 , v =? 1
In equilibrium;
Wnet load + WHe = Fup ( air ) 1
1
m g + V g = V g
(1000 ) (10) + (0.18) V (10) = (1.29) V (10)
10000
V = = 901 m3 1
11.1
6 = 11.5 gm-3,Hg = 13.6 gm-3 , (a) Vs =? 1
In equilibrium,

= 1

11.5
=
13.6
Vs = 0.8457 V = 84.57 % V
(b) m = 2 kg, F = ? , 1
In equilibrium,
1
V g = m g + F
2
F = V g m g = g m g = ( 13.6 x 10 x ) ( 2 x 10 ) = 3.652 N
11.5

7 1
( a ) rin = 1 cm, rout = 5 cm, Fout = 10N, Fin = ?,
By the Pascals law,
1
Pin = Pout

=

2 2 1 2 1 2 1
Fin = (

) Fout =( 2 ) Fout = ( ) Fout= (
5
) 10N =(
5
) 10N=
25
x10 N =0.4 N

( b ) hin = 0.1 m, hout = ? 1


Wout = Win
Fout hout = Fin hin

hout =

=
0.4 x 0.1
=
0.04
= 0.004 m 1
10 10

8 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 1.01 bars 1


P = 5 atm = 5 x 760 mmHg = 3800 mmHg 1
P = 5 atm = 5 x 1.01 bars = 5.05 bars 1
9 Nose bleeding occurs at a place of lower atmospheric pressure. 1+1
rin = 1 in, rout = 10 in, Fin = 20 lb, Fout = ?

7
By the Pascals law, 1+1
Pin = Pout

=

2
x 20 x 20 x 102
Fout = = 2 = = 2000 lb
12

10 It is easier to float in the sea because the density of sea water is greater than the water 1+1
of swimming pool.
Patm = 76 cmHg ( at sea level )
Pmount = 70.5 cmHg ( at the mountain )
Pressure fall = 76 70.5 = 5.5 cmHg = 55mmHg
Pressure falls by 1 cmHg per 120 m
5.5 cmHg ..?
120 x 5.5 1+1
hmount= = 660 m
1
10 A body can float in a liquid under the condition of its places in a liquid of a greater density. 1+1
Pascals law uses machines are hydraulic press, hydraulic brake and hydraulic lift.
1
In equilibrium, Vs
, Vs = immersed volume, = density of liquid
() 0
=
()
() 0
=
()
0 1000
() = () = x 6 cm = 5 cm 1+1
1200

CHAPTER 3 ( SET 1)

1 ( i ) energy ( ii ) three ( iii ) insulator ( iv ) heat current ( v ) J(joule) 1x 5


2 ( i ) True ( ii ) True ( iii ) True ( iv ) True ( v ) True 1x 5
3 Heat is defined as the amount of energy transferred from one object to another because of 1
a difference in temperature.
The rate of heat flow is called heat current. 1
1
Heat units: J, kJ, Cal, Kcal, Btu.
1
The unit of heat current is watt(W).
4 A =0.25 m2, l=4mm=4x10-3m, T2 T1= 26 25 = 1C or K, t =1h=3600 s, Q =? 1
By heat conduction,
2 1 1
H=kA
1
2 1
=kA 1

2 1 3600 x 0.6276 x 0.25 x 1
Q = t x kA = = 141210 J
4 x 103

8
5 Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body. 1
The ratio of the temperature difference to the length is called the temperature gradient. 1

The unit of temperature is C , F and K. 1+1

6 A = 1.5 m2, q = 1.7 x 10-3 Wm-2K-1, T2 T1 = 33 29 = 4C or K, H=? 1


By heat convection.
H = q A (T2 T1 ) 1
1+1
= 1. 7 x 10-3 x 1.5 x 4 = 10.2 x 10-3 W
7 An object which can absorb all the electromagnetic radiations falling upon it is called a black 1
body or best absorber.
The ratio of the emissive power of a body to that of a black body is called emissivity of the 1
body.

e= = emissive power of a body, = emissive power of black body 1
0
The emissivity for black body is one. Best absorber is called black body. 1

8 T2 = 306 K, T1 = 302 K, e = 1, A = 1.5 m2-, = 5.685 x 10-8Wm-2K-4, Hloss =? 1


-8
1 = e A 14 = 1 x 1.5 x 5.685 x 10 x (3.02 102 )4 = 709.2 W 1

2 = e A 24 = 1 x 1.5 x 5.685 x 10-8 x (3.06 102 )4 = 747.4 W 1


1
= 2 - 1 = 747.4 709.2 = 38.2 W

9 By wrapping the blanket, air can enter through the blanket and it trapped into the blanket. 1
This air behaves an insulator to prevent heat transfer. Thus our body feels warm. 1

T = 2500 K = 2.5 x 103 K, d = 0.1 mm = 10-4 m, e = 0.35, P = 40 W, L= ? 1+1

H = eAT4 , H =e d L 4
40
L= = 22 = 0.164 m
4 0.35 x x 104 x 5.685 x 108 x (2.5 103 )4
7
10 The weather is fair in coastal regions/mountain range. The reason is that the hot air in those 1+1
regions rises and is replaced by cooler air. This process occurs due to heat convection.

02
T1 = 27C = 300K, T2 = 627C = 900K, =? 1+1
01
02 24 24 9004 1
= = = = 81
01 14 14 3004 1
02 = 81 01
The irregular movement of the visible particles (of graphite or smoke) may be explained as 1+1
being due to an uneven bombardment of the particles by the invisible molecules of water
( fluid ) or air ( gas ) is known as Brownian motion.
1+1
Kinetic Theory of gases; The kinetic energy of molecules is directly proportional to the
temperature of the gas.

9
3 3
KE = KT , mv2 = KT
2 2
KE = kinetic energy of molecules, m=mass of gas, v = velocity of molecules, K=constant
10. 2 1
T1 = 27C = 300 K, T2 = 627C = 900 K, =?
1
1
H = A e T4
1+1
2 A e 24 24 9004
= = = = 81,
1 A e 14 14 3004
1
H2 = 81 H1
1
Heat is transmitted from the sun to the earth.
1
Heat radiation is a form of electromagnetic waves. 1
It is needed a medium for propagation.
It can travel through vacuum.

CHAPTER 3 ( SET 2)

1 ( i ) convection ( ii ) radiation ( iii ) degree ( iv ) fourth ( v ) radiation law 1x 5


2 ( i ) True ( ii ) True ( iii ) True ( iv ) True ( v ) True 1x 5
3 Since the silver has a larger thermal conductivity, it is a good conductor of heat. Heat is 1+1
taken our body quickly when we touch the silver spoon. So a silver spoon feels colder
than wooden spoon. 1+1

4 mice = 0.6 kg, mw = 1.3 kg, H = 35.564 J/s , lf = 3.5 x 105 J/kg, t = ? 1
1
H=

1
H=
1
0.6 3.5 105
t= = = 5904 s
35.564
5 Thermal conductivity is the rate of heat flow per unit area divided by the temperature 1+1
gradient. The unit of thermal conductivity is Wm-1k-1. 1+1

The total emissive power is defined as the total radiant energy of different wavelengths
emitted from unit area of a surface of a body in one second.
The unit of emissive power is Wm2.
6 A = 25 m2, l = 0.04 m = 4 x 10-2 m, T2 T1 = 20 (-10) = 30 C or K, 1
-5 -1 -1 -2 -1 -1
k=8.37 x 10 kWm K = 8.37 x 10 W m K , H=? 1
2 1 30 1+1
H=kA = 8.37 x 10-2 x 25 x = 1569 W
4 x 102
7 There are three different modes by which heat may be transferred from one place to 1
another. They are (i) conduction, (ii) convection and (iii) radiation.
Heat conduction is one mode of energy transfer. The individual parts of a medium do not 1
move as a whole in heat conduction.

10
Heat convection is one mode of energy transfer in which heat is carried by the motion of 1
the fluid itself.
Heat radiation is a form of energy transfer by means of electromagnetic radiation. 1

8 H = 0.07 W = 7 x 10-2 W, A = 1.5 m2, l = 0.03 m = 3 x 10-2 m, k = 5 x 10-5 Wm-1K-1 1


T2 T1 = ?
2 1 1
H=kA

7 x 102 x 3 x 102 1+1
T2 T1 = = = 28C or 28K
5 x 105 x 1.5
9 Stephan-Boltzmanns Law or Radiation Law
The total emissive power of a black body is directly proportional to the fourth power of 1+1
absolute temperature.
0 = T4 1
=Stephan-Boltzmanns constant, =absolute temperature, 0 =emissive power of body 1
-2 6 -2 -8 -2 -4
0 = 62.5 MWm = 62.5 x 10 Wm , e = 1, = 5.685 x 10 Wm K , T=? 1
By Stephan-Boltzmanns law,
0 = T4 1
4 0
T =

1+1
4 0 4 62.5 106
T = = = 5758 K
5.685 108
10 By ruffling their feather, air can enter through the feather and it trapped into the feather. 1+1
This air behaves an insulator to prevent heat transfer. Thus the bird feels warm.
1
A = 100 cm2 = 10-2 m2, e = 1, H = 42 W, = 5.685 x 10-8 Wm-2K-4, T =?
By heat radiation,
1
H = A e T4
1
T4 =

4 4 42 1+1
T = = = 521.3 K
102 1 5.685 108

CHAPTER 4 ( SET 1)

1 ( i ) Progressive ( ii ) Waves ( iii ) displacement ( iv ) nodes ( v ) harmonics 1x 5


2 ( i ) True ( ii ) True ( iii ) True ( iv ) False ( v ) True 1x 5
3 A point of zero displacement in a stationary wave is called a node. 1
A point of maximum displacement in a stationary wave is called an antinode. 1

Node does not move. 1

4 L = 1.98 m, v = 130 ms-1, f1, f2, f3 =? 1

For string, fn =

( n = 1, 2, 3, . ) 1
2
1

11
130 1
n = 1, f1 = = = 32.66 Hz
2 2 1.98
2
n = 2, f2 = = 2 f1 = 65.32 Hz
2
3
n = 3, f3 = = 3 f1 = 97.98 Hz
2
5 The number of waves passing a point per second is called frequency. 1
The distance between any consecutive wave crests is called wavelength. 1

Amplitude is the maximum displacement of an oscillation from its means position. 1


1
The unit of frequency is Hz.
The unit of wavelength is m.
The unit of amplitude is m.
6 1
1
1
1

7 The waves which spread out away from sources are called progressive waves. Eg. Sound 1
waves, water waves.
The waves which do not spread out but remain in the region in which they are produced 1
are called stationary waves. Eg. The waves produced in flutes, the waves produced in
violins and mandolins.
1
Nodes and antinodes are not present in progressive wave.
8 l = 0.4 m, v = 340 ms-1, f1,f3,f5 = ? 1
For closed organ pipe,
340 1
f1 = = = 212.5 Hz
4 4 0.4 1
3
f3 = = 3 f1 = 637.5 Hz 1
4
5
f5 = = 5 f1 = 1062.5 Hz
4
9 The longest wave vibrating in one single segment is called the fundamental frequency or 1
the first harmonic.
1 hertz is equivalent to 1 oscillation per second. 1

The waves that are formed on the string are called harmonics.
1
The second and higher harmonics are called overtones.
1
Third harmonic of string is second overtone. 1
L1 = 17.9cm, L2 = 56.7cm, f = 440 Hz , v=?
/2 = L2 L1 = 56.7 - 17.9 = 38.8 cm
12
= 77.6 x 10-2 m
V = f = 440 x 77.6x 10-2 = 341.44 ms-1

10 First four resonances of open organ pipe 1


1st harmonics 3rd harmonics 1
1
1

2nd harmonics 4th harmonics

1
1

The intensity of a wave is the power transported across a unit cross-sectional The intensity
of a wave is directly proportional to the square of the amplitude.
The unit of wave intensity is Wm-2.
1
l = 4.5 m, v = 340 ms-1, f1 =? 1
for open organ pipe,
340
f1 = = = 37.77 Hz
2 2 4.5
for closed organ pipe,
340
f1 = = = 18.89 Hz
4 4 4.5
10 First four resonance of closed organ pipe 1
1st harmonics 5th harmonics 1
1
1

3rd harmonics 7th harmonics

13
1
1
1
1

CHAPTER 4 ( SET 2)

1 ( i ) 120 dB ( ii ) open ( iii ) closed ( iv ) column ( v ) antinode 1x 5


2 ( i ) False ( ii ) True ( iii ) True ( iv ) False ( v ) False 1x 5
3 Since v = ,
4

The velocity of a stationary wave is directly proportional to the square root of tension.
The velocity of a stationary wave is inversely proportional to the square root of mass per
unit length.
4 f1 = 256 Hz, v = 340 ms-1, L = ? 1
for fundamental frequency, 1

f1 = 1
4
340 1
L= = = 0.33 m
4 1 4 256
5 When two sound waves of equal intensity but slightly different frequencies interfere the 1
resultant wave is a pulsed disturbance with a beat frequency.
The number of beats per second equals the difference in frequency between the two 1
1
sources is called beat frequency.
1
Yes, beat frequency can be heard in audible range of two frequencies.
6 f = 440 Hz, fb =2 Hz 1
f = f fb = 440 2 = 438 Hz or 442 Hz 1+1

There are two possibilities. 1

7 The noise exposure limits which can rupture eardrum and permanent hearing loss is 4
140dB to 150 dB.

14
8 Node to Node = 0.4 m, f = 105 Hz, =?, v = ? 1
Node to Node = /2 = 0.4m 1
= 0.8 m 1
-1
v = f = 105 x 0.8 = 84 ms 1
9 First four resonance of vibrating in strings 1
1st harmonics 3rd harmonics 1
1
1

2nd harmonics 4th harmonics


fH = 4186 Hz, fL = 32.8 Hz, LH= 0.051 m, LL 1.98 m, TH=TL ,
=? 1

1
f1 = = 1+1
2 2

=
(2)2
(2 )2 0.051 4186
= x = = = 10.80
(2 )2 1.98 32.8

10 Stationary wave Progressive wave Any two


2+2
(i) It does not spread out. (i) It spreads out.
(ii) It has node and antinode. (ii) It has no node and antinode.
(iii) It produces pipes and string. (iii) It is such as sound wave and wave wave.
1
L = 0.33 m, v = 435 ms-1 ,
1
When node is formed at L/3 , f3 = ?
1

For string, fn = , n=1,2,3 1
2
3 3 435
n = 3 , f3 = = = 1977.27 Hz
2 2 0.33
10 One complete to-and-fro motion of a vibrating object is called oscillation. 1
The frequency at which the natural frequency equal the frequency of the driving force is 1+1
called the resonant frequency.
1+1

15
A stationary wave is obtained when two waves having equal amplitudes and velocities
travelling in opposite directions are superposed on each other. 1

f1= 512 Hz, f2 =516 Hz , fb =? 1+1

fb = f2 f1 = 516 512 = 4 Hz

CHAPTER 5 ( SET 1)

1 ( i ) energy ( ii ) electromagnetic ( iii ) less ( iv ) refraction ( v ) 3 x 108 ms-1 1x 5


2 ( i ) TRUE ( ii ) FALSE ( iii ) FALSE ( iv ) TRUE ( v ) TRUE 1x 5
3 Light is a form of energy which stimulates our sense of vision. Light has wave and particle 1+1
nature. A particle of light is called photon.
The wavelength of visible light is between 400 nm and 700 nm. 1
Two theories concerning the nature of light are Newtons corpuscular theories and 1
Huygens wave theories of light.
4 i = 30, r = 19 28, i' = 35, r = ? 1
sin sin 30 1
nx = = = 1.5
sin sin 1928
sin
nx = 1
sin
sin sin 35 1
sin r = = = sin 2224
1.5
r=2224
5 Refractive index by Snells law 1+1+1
For a particular wavelength of light and for a given pair of media, the ratio of the sine of
the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant. 1
It has no unit.
6 = 5 x 10-7 m, =?, = 1, = 2.42, = ? 1

= 1

3 108 1
= = = 1.24 x 108 ms-1
2.42
= 1
1 5 107
= = = 2.066 x 10-7 m
2.42
7 ( i ) nature of light ; Light has waves and particles nature. 2
( ii ) photon ; A particle of light is called photon. 2

8 = 4.42 x 10-7m, = 1.3, = 1.5, = ? 1


= 1
1.3 4.42 107
=

= =3.83 x 10-7 m 1+1
1.5
9 Newton's Corpuscular Theory ; Newton suggested that light was made up of a stream of 1+1
tiny particles known as corpuscles. Newtons corpuscular theory could explain the
phenomena of reflection and refraction of light.

16
Huygens' Wave Theory ; Huygens suggested that like water waves and sound waves, 1+1
light has also wave nature. Huygens wave theory could explain the phenomena of
interference, diffraction and polarization.
= 1.32, = 1.5, i = 30, r = ? 1
From liquid to glass, 1
sin 1
Lng =
sin
sin 1

=
sin
sin sin 30 1.32
sin r= = = sin 26 6 , r=266
1.5
10 i = 30, = 1.5, = ? 1
By Law of reflection , i = r1 = 30 1
By Snell Law, 1
sin 1+1
=
sin 2
sin 1
sin 30
sin r2 = = 1.5 = sin 1928

r2 = 1928 1
r1 + r2 + = 180 1
30+ 1928 + = 180
= 180 - 30 - 1928
= 130 32
10 Reflection and refraction can be take place at the same time. 2
Yes, the wavelength of yellow light is shorter than orange light. 2
2
ng= =

2

CHAPTER 5 ( SET 2)

1 ( i ) two ( ii ) most ( iii ) spectrum ( iv ) complementary ( v ) different 1x 5


2 ( i ) True ( ii ) True ( iii ) True ( iv ) False ( v ) True 1x 5
3 Refraction of light 1+1
When light passes through two media of different optical densities, the direction of light
changes in passing from the first to the second medium. This phenomenon is called
refraction of light.
Law of refraction
The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal all lie in the same plane. 1+1
17
For a particular wavelength of light and for a given pair of media, the ratio of the sine of
angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant.
4 ( a ) A = 60, Dm = 39, ng = ? 1
+ 60+39
sin( ) sin( ) sin 4930 1
2 2
ng = = 60 = = 1.51
sin( ) sin( ) sin 30
2 2
5 90- 45- 45 prism can be used as a total internal reflection. 1+1
ng = 1.32, ic = ?
1 1+1
ng =
sin
1 1
sin ic =
= = sin 2415
1.32
ic = 2415
6 Real depth = 6 cm, Apparent depth = 6 1.67 = 4.33 cm, ng = ? 1+1
6 1+1
ng= = =1.385
4.33
7 The refractive index by velocity of light 1+1
The ratio of the velocity of light in air to the velocity of light in a particular medium is
called the refractive index of the medium.
v = 2.3 x 108 ms-1, c = 3 x 108 ms-1, n=? 1+1
3 x 108
n= = = 1.304
2.3 x 108
8 Light pipe 1+1
A transparent rod which successive total internal reflection can occurs is called light pipe.
Light pipes are used to examine the object which normally difficult to see. 1+1
9 Critical angle 1+1
The angle of incidence corresponding to the angle of refraction 90 is called the critical
angle. 90 Less (x)

more(y)

Total internal reflection


1+1
The light in one medium does not enter the optically less dense medium and is reflected
back into the first medium for all angles of incidence greater than the critical angle. This
phenomenon is called total internal reflection.
Two conditions for TIR
Less (x)
1. From more dense to less dense
more(y) 2. i >

10 Spectrum
When a narrow pencil of white light passes through a prism it is split into bands of 1+1
different colors. Such a band of different colors is called spectrum.
(i) Red color s deviated least. 1+1
(ii) Violet color is deviated most.
18
ng = 1.66, A = 60, Dm = ?
+
sin(
2
) 1+1
ng =
sin( )
2
+
ng x sin ( 2 )= sin ( )
2 1
60 60+
1.66 x sin = sin ( )
2 2
60+
sin 56 6 = sin ( ) 1
2
Dm = 5212

10 The bending of light not be seen although the bending of water waves can be seen 1+1
because the wavelength of light is very much shorter than that of water wave.

1+1

CHAPTER 5 ( SET 3)

1 ( i ) reflecting ( ii ) least ( iii ) CMYK ( iv ) wave-particle ( v ) light 1x 5


2 ( i ) False ( ii ) True ( iii ) True (iv ) True ( v ) True 1x 5
3 A=60, ng=1.5 , i = ? 1
1 1
ng =
sin
1 1
sin ic = = = sin 4149
1.5
ic = 4149 1
ic+r = 60
r = 60 - 4149 =1811 1
sin
=
sin
sin i = x sir i = 1.5 x sin 1811 = sin 2754
i = 2754
19
4 Deviation by prism Dispersion by prism 1+1

Red
Sun light 1+1
Dm

paper prism

5 v = 330 ms-1, t = 5s, s=? (neglect the time to reach the light in eye) 1+1
Violet
v = s/t 1+1
s = vt = 330 x 5 =1650 m

6 Thin prism 1+1


A prism whose angle is very small is called a thin prism. 1+1
Totally reflecting prism
(i) 90 deviation (ii) 180 deviation
(hypotenuse surface) ( side surface )

7 sin
By Snells law, ynx =
sin
sin 1
When i= ic , r = 90, ynx =
sin 90 1
ynx = sin ic
1 1
xny = =sin

xny = refractive index from x to y, ic = critical angle


Refractive index of diamond is 2.42, nd = =42 ,

The velocity of light in air is 2.42 times that of diamond. Or
1
The ratio of the velocity of light in air to diamond is 2.42.
1
8 Two uses of total internal reflection 1+1
(i) Cutting the facets of diamond for its brightness. 1+1
(ii) Using the light pipe

Two conditions of total internal reflection are


( i ) light must travel from more dense to less dense medium.
( ii ) the angle of incidence must be greater than critical angle.

20
9 Angle of deviation 1+1
The angle of between the direction of incident ray and that of emergence ray. 1+1
Dispersion by a prism
Splitting of white light into different color bands is called dispersion of light.
t = 4cm = 4x10-2 m, i = 60, ng = 1.5, d = ?
sin 1+1
ng =

sin sin 60
1+1
sin r = = = sin 3516 , r=3516
1.5
sin( ) 4 x 102 x sin 2444
d=t = = 2.04x 10-2m
cos cos 3516

10 Refractive index in term real depth and apparent depth 1+1


From less(x) to more(y), 1+1


xny = =

Reflection of light
When the light is incident on the surface of an object, some of the light is sent back. This
phenomenon is called reflection of light.
Law of reflection
(1)The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal all lie in the same plane.
(2)The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.
nice = 1.31, ng = 1.6, i = 35, enter the ice = ? 1+1
1
iceng = 1+1
sin
1

=
sin
1.31
sin ic = =
1.6
ic = 5458
Since i < ic. Refraction will occurs, the ray will enter the ice.

CHAPTER 6 ( SET 1)
100
1 (i) negative (ii) P = (in cm) (iii) focal length (iv) dioptre (v) a lens 1x5

2 (i) True (ii) True (iii) False (iv) True (v) True 1x5
3 The object is at infinity. 1+1
The image is ( i ) at F 1+1

( ii ) real
( iii ) invrted
( iv ) smaller than the object

21
4 same side virtual , erect 1
u = +30 cm, v = -10 cm ( a ) f = ?, type of lens = ?
1 1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1 1 1 13 2 1
= + = + = =- =- 1
30 10 30 30 15
f = - 15 cm
1
Since, f is ( - ) sign, the lens is concave.
(b) P = ?
100 100
P= = = - 6.67 D
16
5 1 dioptre 1+1
If a lens has focal length of 1 m, it has one unit power or 1 dioptre (D).
The power of convex lens is positive. 1
1
The focus of concave lens is virtual.
6 same side virtual, erect
m = + 5, P = +2 D, u =? 1
100
P = ( in cm )
1
100
f = = +50 cm
2

m =-


5 =- 1

v = - 5u
1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1
+ =
5 50
51 1
=
5 50
4 1
=
5 50
200
u= = + 40 cm, The object is placed 40 cm from the lens.
5 1
7 Focal length 1
The distance between center of the lens and the focus is called focal length of a lens.
Power of a lens 1

The power of a lens is inversely proportional to the focal length of the lens.
The unit of focal length is cm.
1
The unit of power of a lens is dioptre (D) 1
8 concave virtual, erect
1
22
f = -10 cm, v = -4cm, u = ? 1
1 1 1 1
+ =
1
1 1 1 1 1 2+5 3
= = = =
10 4 20 20
20
u= = 6.67 cm
3
The object is placed 6.67 cm from the lens.
9 The image formed by a concave lens is ( i ) between F and P 1
( ii ) virtual 1

( iii ) erect 1
1
( iv ) smaller than the object
Magnifying glass convex, erect, virtual
f = + 9 cm, m = + 3, u = ? 1

m= -

1
+3= -

v= - 3u 1
1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1
- = 1
3 9
31 1
=
3 9
18=3u
u=6 cm, The magnifying glass is placed 6 cm from the object.
10 Lens 1+1
A transparent material which can diverge or converge rays of light is called a lens. A lens
has at least one carved surface.
1+1
Two types of lens are concave lens and convex lens.
screen real, inverted, convex
u + v = 18 cm, f =+ 4 cm 1
u + v = 18 1
v = 18 - u
1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1
+ =
18
18 1
=
(18) 4
u2 18 u + 72 =0
1
23
( u 12 ) ( u 6 )=0
u 12 = 0 (or) u 6 = 0
u = 12 cm (or) u = 6 cm 1

The lens is placed 12 cm or 6 cm from the object.


10 Uses of lens are magnifying glass, projector, microscopes and spectacles and so on. 1+1
When a lens is immersed in water, it focal length will be (change) increase. 1+1

u = +30cm, f=+10 cm (convex), v=? , m=?


1 1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1 1 1 31 2 1
= = = =
10 30 30 30
30
v= = 15 cm ( real ) 1
2
15 1
m=- =- = -0.5 ( inverted )
30

CHAPTER 6 ( SET 2 )

1 (i) magnifying (ii) two (iii) thicker (iv) converging meniscus (v) real 1x5
2 (i) False (ii) True (iii) True (iv) False (v) True 1x5
3 Real image by convex lens Virtual image by convex lens 1+1

1+1

4 Wall convex, real, inverted 1


m = -10, f= +10cm, (a) u= ? 1

m=-


-10 = - , v=10u

1 1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1
+ =
10 10
11 1
=
10 10
u = 11 cm, the object is placed 11 cm from the lens. 1

v=10u = 10 x 11 = 110 cm, The wall is 110 cm from the lens.

24
5 v > f convex, virtual, inverted 1
v= - 24 cm, f = +8cm (a) u =?
1 1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1 1 1 3+1 4
= = = =
8 24 24 24
1
u = 6 cm, The distance between the object and the lens is 6cm,
(b) u = ? to be real and same size image as before
24
m=- = 6 = 4 (before)

to be real and same size image, m = -4

m=-


-4 = - , v = 4u

1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1
+ =
4 8
5 1
=
4 8 1
4u = 40
u = 10 cm, The object must be placed 10 cm from lens to obtain real image.
6 Sign convection for lens
(i) The distance of real object, real image and real focus is positive. The distance of virtual 1
object, virtual image and virtual focus is negative. 1
(ii) The focal length of convex lens is positive. The focal length of concave lens is negative. 1
(iii)The perpendicular distance measured above principal axis is positive and that below 1
the principal axis is negative.
(iv)All distance are measured from center of the lens.
7 OO=+3 cm, u=+30 cm, f=+20cm (convex) 1
(a) II,v=? 1
1 1 1 1
+ =
1
1 1 1 1 1 1
= = =
20 30 60
v = 60 cm, The image distance is 60 cm.

=-

60
II = - x oo =- x3 = -6 cm(inverted)
30
The size of image is 6cm.
(b) If the object is moved 5 cm closer to lens, u=30-5=25cm
1 1 1
+ =

25
1 1 1 1 1 1
= = =
20 25 100
v = 100 cm
The image moved = 100-60= 40cm away from lens.
8 An object is placed beyond 2F (u > 2F).
The image is (i) between F and 2F.
(ii) real
(iii) inverted
(iv) smaller than the object
9 Real image can be formed by convex lens. Real image cannot be formed by concave lens.

u=+12 cm, m = -3 (real)



m=-


-3 = -

v= 3u = 3 x12 = 36 cm
1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1 1 1 3+1 4 1
= + = + = = =
12 36 36 36 9
f = 9 cm
If a real image which is four times the size of the object, m= -4

m=-


-4 = - , v= 4u

1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1
+ =
4 9
5 1
=
4 9
u = 11.25cm
The object moved = 12-11.25= 0.75 cm near from lens.

26
10 An object is placed at between F and 2F.
The image is (i) beyond 2F.
(ii) real
(iii) inverted
(iv) larger than the object

screen convex, real, inverted


u + v = 60cm, f= +15cm
v = 60 u
1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1
+ =
60 15
60 1
=
(60) 15
2
u -60u+900 = 0
u = 30 cm
v = 60 u = 60-30=30cm
30
m= = -1
30
It is possible to obtain a sharp image larger than the size of an object on the screen.
No changes can occurs.

CHAPTER 6 ( SET 3 )

1 (i) concave lens (ii) one (iii) thinner (iv) lens (v) virtual 1x5
2 (i) True (ii) True (iii) False (iv) True (v) False 1x5
3 II = - OO ( be real and same size ) 1
1
= -
"
v = u
1 1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1
+ =

2 1
=

u = 2f
1

4 Concave lens 1
A transparent material which can diverge rays of light is called a convex lens. A concave
lens is thinner at the middle than at the edge.

27
Principal Focus of concave lens
The rays parallel to the principal axis are divergent after passing through a concave lens. 1+1
Those divergent rays appear to come from a point on the principal axis. This point is
called the principal focus of the concave lens.

F = focus

PF = focal length 1
F P F

Fig * Principle focus of concave lens


5 An object is placed at F (u = F). 1+1
The image is at infinity.
1+1

6 Principal Focus of convex lens 1+1


The rays parallel to the principal axis converge at a point on the principal axis after
passing through a convex lens. This point is called the principal focus of the convex
lens. 1+1

Fig * convex lens with principal focus, center of a lens and radius of curvature.
7 Same size virtual, erect 1
u = + 10 cm, v = - (10+10) = -20cm, f=? 1
1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1
+ = 1
10 20
1 1
=
20 1
f = 20 cm
8 Linear magnification 1+1
The linear magnification is the ratio of the height of the image to the height of the
object.

28
Major difference between real and virtual images
Real image is actual intersection of refracted ray. It is inverted. It can be formed on 1+1
screen.
Virtual image is virtual intersection of refracted ray. It is erect. It cannot be formed on
screen.
9 To be the real images of same size as the object, the convex lens must be placed at the 1+1
radius of curvature (2F).
OO = +10 cm, u = +100 cm, f = +50 cm, v =?, II=? 1
1 1 1 1
+ =
1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= - = - =
50 100 100
v = 100 cm

=-

100 1
II = - x OO = - x 10 = 10 cm
100 1
10 Convex lens 1
A transparent material which can converge rays of light is called a convex lens. A convex
lens is thicker at the middle than at the edge.
1
Two uses of convex lens are spectacles and microscopes.
Differentiate between the convex lens and concave lens
The convex lens is thicker in the middle than at the edges. It can be formed real and
virtual image. It is real focus. It is positive focal length.
The concave lens is thinner in the middle than at the edges. It can be formed only virtual
image. It is virtual focus. It is negative focal length.
1 1 1 1
screen convex, real, inverted + =

OO=+ 1.05 cm, u+v = 80 cm, II= - 0.35 cm, u=? , f =?
1 1 1 1
v = 80 u + =
60 20

=- 4 1
=
0.35 80 60
=-
1.05
f = 15 cm
u = 240 - 3u
u = 60 cm
The lens must be placed 60 cm from the object.
v = 80 u = 80 - 60 = 20 cm
10 Thin lens 1+1
A lens whose thickness is negligible compared to the distance to the principal focus and
any object or image distance.

29
Lens-makers equation
1 1 1 1
= (n-1) [ ]
1 2 1
f = focal length of the lens, n = the refractive index of the lens material,
R1, R2 = the radii of curvature of the two surfaces of the lens
u = +30cm, f=+10 cm, v=? , m=? 1
1 1 1 1
+ =

1 1 1 1 1 31 2
= = = = 1
10 30 30 30
30
v= = 15 cm ( real )
2 1
15
m =- =- = -0.5 ( inverted )
30

CHAPTER 7 ( SET 1 )
1 2
1 (i) unlike (ii) F = k 2
(iii) newton per coulomb (NC-1) (iv) imaginary (v) inverse 1x5
square law
2 (i) False (ii) True (iii) False (iv) True (v) False 1x5
3 Coulombs Law 1+1
The electric forces between two charges are inversely proportional to the product of
charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
1 2
F=k
2
F = electric force between charges, Q = two charges, r = distance between two charges
k = constant (9x109 Nm2C-2) 1
Q = Q1 = Q2 = 1 C, r = 1 m, F = ?
1 2
F=k
2
1 2 1
9
F= = 9 x 10 N
40 2
4 The electric fields due to the individual charges on the surface of the charged conductor 1+1
all cancel out inside a conductor. Therefore, the electric field intensity is zero everywhere
inside a charged conductor.
r = 0.4 m = 4 x 10-1 m, Q = + 7 x 105 C, E =? 1
1 7x105
E= = 9 x 109 x = 3.93 x 1016 NC-1
40 2 (4x101 )2
1
-11 -19
5 r = 5.3 x 10 m, Q1 = Q2 = 1.6 x 10 C, F = ? 1+1
1 2 1 (1.6 x 1019 )2 1+1
F=k = = 9 x 109 x = 0.85 x 10-7 N
2 40 2 (5.3x1011 )2
6 There are four types of fundamental forces. They are 1+1
( 1 ) Gravitational force
( 2 ) Weak interaction
( 3 ) Electromagnetic force
30
( 4 ) Nuclear force.
Gravitational force and electromagnetic force are long range forces. 1
Electromagnetic force is greater. 1
-1 -1
7 F = 0.1 N = 1 x 10 N, r=50 cm =5x10 m, Q = Q1 = Q2 =? 1
1 2 1 2
F=k =
2 40 2
2
Q2 = 1
9 109
101 (5 101 )2
Q= = 1.66 x 10-6 C
9 109 1
-6
Q = Q1 = Q2 = 1.66 x 10 C
8 Electric line of force 1+1
An electric line of force is a path such that the tangent drawn at any point on it, indicates
the direction of electric field at that point.
No, the electric lines of force do not intersect each other. 1
The electric lines of force are imaginary lines. 1
9 Electric field 1
A region where electrical force act is called electric field.
Electric field intensity 1+1
The electric field intensity at a point in an electric field is the electric force acting upon a
unit positive charge placed at that point.
The unit of electric field intensity is NC-1. 1
-1
Q = Q1 = Q2 =?, F = 1 N, r = 50 cm = 5 x 10 m
= 10 0 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 2
F=k = = = 9 x 108 x
2 4 2 4(100 ) 2 2
1
2 2
Q =
9 108
1 (5 101 )2
Q= = 1.67 x 10-5 C
9 108 1
-5
Q = Q1 = Q2 = 1.67 x 10 C

10 Uniform electric field 1+1


If in a certain region of space, the electric field intensity at every point is the same in
magnitude and direction, the electric field in that region of space is called a uniform field.
1+1
Non-uniform electric field
If the electric field intensity varies from point to point, such an electric field is called non-
uniform electric field. 1
Q1 = +2x10-5C, Q2 = -1x10-5C, r = 10cm = 10-1m (a) F =?
1 2 1 1 2 2 x 105 x 1 x 105 1
F=k = = 9 x 108 x = 180 N ( attractive force )
2 40 2 (101 )2
1
(b) In contact, Total charges = Q1+Q2 = (+2x10-5) + (-1x10-5) = +1x10-5C
1

31
+ 1 105
Then separated, Q1=Q2= = +0.5 x 10-5C
2
r = 10 cm = 10-1 m, F =?
1 2 1 1 2 0.5 x 105 x 0.5 x 105
F=k = = 9 x 108 x = 22.5 N ( repulsive force )
2 40 2 (101 )2
10 Similarities 1+1
(i) Both are inverse-square law.
(ii) Both are universal law.
Differences 1+1
(i) Newtons law deal with attractive force, Coulombs law deal with attractive and
repulsive force.
(ii) Newtons law gives the force between two masses while Coulombs law give the force
between two charges. 1+1
-19 -31 8 -2
For e, qe = 1.6 x 10 C, me = 9.1 x 10 kg, a = 10 ms , E=? 1+1
9.1 x 1031 x 108
E= = = = 5.6875 x 10-4 NC-1
1.6 x 1019
The direction of the electric field is opposite direction (force) of the electron.

CHAPTER 7 ( SET 2 )

1 (i) like (ii) repulsive (iii) vector (iv) tangent (v) electric field 1x5
2 (i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) True (v) True 1x5
3 qe = 1.6 x 10-19 C, me = 9.1 x 10-31 kg, G = 6.6 x 10-11 Nm-2 kg-2, K = 9 x 109 Nm-2C-2 1

=?

1
2
Fg = G =G (d=r)
2 2
1 2 2
Fe = k =k
2 2
2 2 2 6.6 1011 (9.1 1031 )2 1+1
= = = = 23.72 x 10-44
2 2 2 9 109 (1.6 1019 )2
4 The electric line of force never intersect because the electric field intensity at any point 1+1
can have only one direction, only one electric line of force can pass through that point.
The electric field is a vector because it has both magnitude and direction. 1
Yes, the earth is a good conductor of electricity. 1
-19 -31 -2
5 For e, qe = 1.6 x 10 C, me = 9.1 x 10 kg, g = 10 ms , r =? 1
If the force each exerts on the other is equal to the weight of an electron,
F=w 1
1 2
= me g
40 2
2
9 x 109 = me g
2 1
2 9 x 109 x 2 9 x 109 x (1.6 1019 )2
r = = 1
9.1 x 1031 x 10
r = 2.56 10938+30 = 5.03 m

32
6 Coulombs law is also called inverse square law because the force F is inversely 1+1
proportional to r2.
Coulombs law is reminds me of Newtons gravitational law. 1+1
7 Lightning conductor 1+1
A lightning conductor is metallic rod (usually copper) that protects a building from
lightning damage by intercepting flashes and guiding their current into the ground.
Q1 =+2C =+2x10-6C, r1=3m, Q2 =-5 C =-5x10-6C , r2=3m , = ?
1 at P due to Q1,

1 1 2 x 106
E1 = = 9 x 109 x
40 12 32
1 = 2 x103 NC-1 (toward Q2)

2 at P due to Q,

1 2 5x106
2 =
= 9 x 109 x
40 22 32
3 -1
2 = 5 x 10 NC (toward Q2)

=
1 +
2
E = E1 + E2 (same direction )
= ( 2 x 103 ) + ( 5 x 103 )
= 7 x 103 NC-1 (toward Q2)
8 for e, qe = 1.6 x 10-19 C, me = 9.1 x 10-31 kg, E = 1000 NC-1 = 103 NC-1 , F = ? 1
1
E=

1
F = Eqe = 103 x 1.6 x 10-19 = 1.6 x 10-16 N
1
The direction of motion of electron is toward the electric field intensity.
9 In uniform field, the directions of are the same magnitude, same spacing and same 1

directions.
In non-uniform field, the directions of are different position. 1
Coulombs law depends on the charges and the distance between the charges and the 1+1
nature of medium in which the charges are located.
for e, qe = 1.6 x 10-19 C, me = 9.1 x 10-31 kg, E = 1.2 x 103 NC-1 , (a)F = ?

E= 1

F = Eqe = 1.2 x 103 x 1.6 x 10-19 = 1.92 x 10-14 N
(b) a = ? 1
F = ma
1.92 1014
a= = = 2.10 x 1016 ms-2
9.1 1031 1
(c) t =?, s = 20 mm = 2 x 10-2 m, v0 = 0 ( rest )
s = v0t + at2
s = at2
2
t2 =

2 2 102 2 101 1
t= = = 1.380 x 10-9 s
2.10 1016 1.444 108

33
10 Electric lines of forces

m=10-6 kg, q = +10-6C, g = 9.8 m s-2, E =?


If the body is suspended in equilibrium,
F=w
Eq = m g
106 9.8
E = = = 9.8 NC-1
106
10 Copper rods are used as a lightning conductor. 1+1
( i ) Copper is a better conductor than iron.
( ii ) Copper is more longer than iron without rusting.
Q =+6x10-5 C, Q1=+1x10-4 C, r1 =20cm =2 x 10-1m, Q2 = -1x10-4C, r2=2 x 10-1m, = ? 1
1 exerted on Q by Q1, 1
1 1 6 105 1 104 1
F1 = = 9 x 109 x = 13.5 x 102 N
40 12 (2 101 )2
1
1 = 1350 N (toward Q2)
2 exerted on Q by Q2,

1 2 6 105 1 104
F2 = = 9 x 109 x = 13.5 x 102 N
40 22 (2 101 )2
2 = 1350 N (toward Q2)
1
= 1 +
2
F = F1 + F2 (same direction)
= 1350 + 1350
= 2700 N (toward Q2)
1

CHAPTER 8 ( SET 1 )

1 (i) scalar (ii) Negative (iii) J(joule) (iv) workdone (v) path 1x5
2 (i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) True (v) True 1x5
3 Electric potential 1+1
The electric potential at a point in an electric field is the work done in bringing a unit
positive charge against the electric force from infinity to that point.
V = W/q V=electric potential, W= work done , q= electric charge

34
Electrical potential is measured the amount of work done. Work done is a scalar .So 1+1
electric potential is a scalar.
4 At equipotential surface, 1
VB = VA = 200 V, VAB = 0 1
W = qVAB = 1.6 x 10-19 x 0 = 0J 1+1
-19 -19 -10
5 Q = + 6e = +6 x 1.6 x 10 C = +9.6 x 10 C, r =10 m, E=?, V = ? 1
9.6 x 1019 1
E=k = 9 x 109 x = 86.4 x 1010 NC-1 (away from the nucleus.)
2 (1010 )2
1
9.6 x 1019
V=k = 9 x 109 x = + 86.4 V 1
1010
6 Equipotential surface
A surface drawn through the point at the same potential is called equipotential surface. 1+1
Electrons can be moved from lower potential to a place of higher potential. 1+1
7

(a) Q= +5 106C , rA = 0.5m, rB = 1m, VAB = ? 1

1 1 1
VAB = VA VB = k -k = 9 x 109 x (+5 106 ) [ ] = +45000 V 1
0.5 1
-6
(b) q = +2.0 x 10 C, V = 45000 V, W = ? 1
-6
W = q VBA = 2.0 x 10 x 45000 = 0.09 J
8 V = 6 V, E = 300 Vm-1,
(a) d = ?
1
E=

6 1
d= = = 0.02 m
300 1
(b) W = ? qe=1.6 x 10-19
1
W = qeV = 1.6 x 10-19 x 6 = 9.6 x 10-19 J

9 Electric potential difference 1


The electric potential difference between two points in an electric field is the work done
in bringing a unit positive charge from one point to another against electric forces.
Vab = Va - Vb
Electric potential energy
The electric potential energy of a positive charge q at a point in an electric field is the 1
work done in bringing that charge against the electric force from infinity to that point.
The unit of electric potential difference is V(volt) and electric potential energy is J(joule). 1
V = 300 V, E = 100 NC-1
1
E = 4 2 . 1
0
1
V= 40
. 2
r = V/E = 300/100 = 3 m
( b ) Substituting in 2,

35

300 = 9 x 109 x 3
Q = 10-7 C

10 Since the earth is very large compared to the size of the other conductor, it can receive 1+1
as well as give out quite a number of electrons. When compared to the size of the earth, 1+1
the number of electrons gained or lost by it very small so that the net charge of the earth
does not change. Therefore, the earth can be regarded as a body having zero electric
potential.
d = 0.5 cm = 0.5 x 10-2 m, V = 0.5 x 103 V, qe = - 1.6 x 10-19 C, F = ? 1
1
E=

0.5 103
1+1
F=Eq= xq= x 1.6 x 10-19 = 1.6 x 10-14 N (opposite with electric field)
0.5 102

10

1
1
1+1
V = 6 V, d = 0.5 cm = 5 x 10-3 m, E = ?
V=Ed
6
E== = 1200 Vm-1 (NC-1)
5 x 103

CHAPTER 8 ( SET 2 )

1 (i) NC-1 (ii) zero (iii) volt (V) (iv)good (v) zero 1x5
2 (i) False (ii) True (iii) True (iv) False (v) TRUE 1x5
-6
3 V = 30 V, Q = +1.5 x 10 C, r = ? 1
1
V=k

1.5 x 109 1
30 = 9 x 109 x
1
r = 450 m
4 The work done in an electric field does not depend on the path taken by the charge. 1
-9
Q = -3.0 x 10 C, r = 6 m 1
3.0 x 109 1+1
V=k
= 9 x 109 x = - 4.5 V
6

5 For e, me=9.1 x 10-31 Kg, qe=1.6 x 10-19C, W = 9.6 x 10-19 J, 1


KE = W
mev2 = W 1
-31 2 -19
x 9.1 x 10 x v = 9.6 x 10 1
6 -1
v = 1.45 x 10 ms 1

36
6 d = 4 cm = 4 x 10-2 m, qe = -1.6 x 10-19 C, F = 1.0 x 10-14 N, V = ? 1
V = Ed 1
1.0 x 1014 1+1
= d= x 4 x 10-2 = 2500 V
1.6 x 1019

7 1 volt
If the work done in bring +1C from infinity to a point in an electric field is 1J, the electric 1+1
potential at that point is 1V.

8 v0 = 0, v = 106 ms-1, s = 0.2 m, qe = -1.6 x 10-19 C, me = 9.1 x 10-31 kg, E = ? 1


2 1012 1
V2 = Vo2 + 2as , a = = = 2.5 x 1012 ms-2
2 2 x 0.2
1
F = ma = 9.1 x 10-31 x 2.5 x 1012 = 22.75 x 10-19 N
1
22.75 x 1019 -1
E = F/ qe = = 14.21 NC
1.6 x 1019
9 If the electric field intensity at a point in an electric field is zero, the electrical potential at 1+1
that point is not necessarily zero.

Q1 =+4.0 x 108 C, Q2 =3 x 108 C, r1=r2=0.5m 1


(a)V=? 1
108
V1 = k
1
= 9 x 109 x
+4.0
= + 720 V 1
1 0.5
2 3.0 108 1
V2 = k 2
= 9 x 109 x 0.5
= - 540 V
1
V = V1 + V2 = (+720) + ( -540 ) = + 180 V
1
(b) W =?
W = q V = 3.0 x 10-9 x 180 = 540 x 10-9 J
10 1
1

Let V=0 at A and B.


For point A,
V = V1+V2 1
V1 = - V2 1
1 2
k =- k
1 2
+ 1 x 106 3 x 106
1
9 9
9 x 10 x = - (+ 9 x 10 x ) 1
1
a = 0.25 m (inside near Q1)
37
For the point B,
V = V1+V2
V1 = - V2
1 2
k =- k
1 2
+ 1 x 106 3 x 106
1
9 x 109 x = -(+ 9 x 109 x ) 1
1+
b = 0.5 m (outside near Q1)
10 The electric potential at an infinite from a charge of +Q, we assume v=0. 1
q1 = q2 = q3 = q = 5.0 x 10-9 C 1
r1 = r3 = 10 cm = 0.1 m 1
r2 = 2 x 10 cm = 14.14 cm = 0.14 m 1
V=? 1
The electric potential at P = V 1
V = V 1 + V 2 + V3 1
1 2 2
=k +k +k 1
1 2 2
+5.0 109 +5.0 109 +5.0 109
= (9 x 109 x ) + (9 x 109 x ) + ( 9 x 109 x )
0.1 0.1414 0.1
= 450 + 318.2 + 450= +1218.2 V
CHAPTER 9 ( SET 1 )

1 (i) Capacitor (ii) farad (F) (iii) W= QV (iv) k>1 (v) F 1x5
2 (i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) True (v) False 1x5
3 Capacitance
The capacitance of a capacitor is the ratio of the charge to the potential difference 1+1
between the two conductors of that capacitor.
1
C = , C= capacitance, Q= electric charges, V=potential difference

1
The unit of capacitance is farad(F).
4 The practical unit of capacitance is F. 1
V=50V, Q=0.002 C = 2x10-3C, C=? 1
2x103 1+1
C = = = 40 F
50
5 One farad
A capacitance that requires a charge of 1 C when a potential difference of 1 V is applied 1+1
across it.
The dielectric constant is the ratio of the C to C0. 1+1
C= capacitance with insulating material, C0= capacitance with air or vacuum.
It has no unit.
6 C1 = 4F, C2 = 12F , C=? , V2=? 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
= + = +
1 2 4 12
1
C = 3F
1
Q = CV = 3 x 10-6 x 200 = 600 x 10-6 = 600 C

38
Q = Q1 = Q2 = 600 C 1
600 1
V2 = = = 50 V
2 12
1+1
7 C1 = 2F, Q1 = 2000C , C2 = 8F , Q2 = 1600C 1
(a) Before connection,
1 2000 x 106
V1 = = = 1000 V
1 2 x 106
2 1600 x 106
V2 = = = 200 V 1
2 8 x 106
(b) After connection, V = V1 + V2 = 1000 + 200 = 1200 V
1 1 1 1 1 5
= + = + =
1 2 2 8 8
C = 1.6 F
1
Q = CV = 1.6 x 10-6 x 1200 = 1920 x 10-6 C = Q1=Q2
1 1920 x 106
V1 = = = 960 V
1 2 x 106
2 1920 x 106 1
V2 = = = 240 V
2 8 x 106
8 Capacitor
A capacitor is an electrical device that stores electrical energy in the form of an electric 1+1
field.
Parallel plate capacitor
A parallel plate capacitor consists of two parallel metal plates separated by air or other 1
insulating material.
Capacitors are used in radio, television and other electrical appliances. 1
Co = 8F, C=50F, k = ?
k = C/Co = 50/8 = 6.25
9 When three capacitors are in parallel, 1
V = V1= V2= V3 1
Q = Q 1 + Q2 + Q3 1
CV = C1V1+C2V2+C3V3 1
C = C1 + C2 + C3
The capacitance of capacitor depends on the area of plates (A), the distance between the 1
plates (d) and the dielectric material. 1
2 -4 2 -3 2 -3
A = 50 cm = 50 x 10 m = 5 x 10 m , d = 1 mm = 10 m, V = 45 V, C = ? , Q = ? ,
W=? 1
5 103
(a) C = k0 = 1 x 8.85 x 10-12 x = 44.25 x 10-12 F
103
1
(b) Q = CV = 44.25 x 10-12 x 45 = 1991 x 10-12 C
(c) W = CV2 = x 44.25 x 10-12 x 452 = 4.48 x 10-8 J
10 C1 = C2 = C3 = 10 F 1
(i) All parallel
C = C1+C2+C3 = 10+10+10 = 30 F 1

39
(ii) All series
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
= + + = + + =
1 2 3 10 10 10 10
1
C = 10/3 = 3.33 F
(iii)Two series and one with parallel,
C12 = C1 + C2 = 10 + 10 = 20 F
1 1 1 1 1 3 1
= + = + =
12 3 20 10 20
C = 20/3 = 6.67 F 1
(iv) Two parallel and one with series, 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
= + = + = 1
12 1 2 10 10 5
C12 = 5 F 1

C = C12 + C3 = 5 + 10 = 15 F

When three capacitors are in series.


Q = Q 1= Q 2= Q 3
V = V 1 + V2 + V 3
1 2 3
= + +
1 2 3
1 1 1 1
= + +
1 2 3

CHAPTER 9 ( SET 2 )

1 (i) surface charge density (ii) increase (iii) potential difference (iv) equivalent capacitor 1x5
(v) metal
2 (i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) True (v)True 1x5
3 n=number of identical capacitors 1
In parallel, CP = nC 1 1
In series, Cs = C/n 2 1

Eq1 Eq 2, = n C x n/C


n2 =

n = 5 capacitors 1
4 When insulating material is inserted between the conductors of capacitor in vacuum, k 4
will be greater than 1, So its capacitance increases.
5 Required capacitance = 35 F 4
= 10+10+10+5
10
= 10+10+10+
2
Minimum number of capacitors = 5 capacitors
6 d' = 2d , C = ? 1

C = k0 1

40
1
C = k0 = k0 =
2 2
1
The new capacitance will be decreased by 50%.
7 Since V =E d, the distance between two parallel plates having the charged of equal 1+1
magnitude and opposite signs is reduced, the potential difference between the plates also
decreased.
C = 10F, W = 1J, V=? 1
2
W= CV

V2 = 2

1
V = 2 x = 447 V 1
10 x 106

8 C1 = 3F, C2 = 10F, C3 = 15F 1


1
1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10+3+2 15 1 1
= + + = + + = = =
1 2 3 3 10 15 30 30 2
C = 2F
Q = CV = 2 x 10-6 x 100 = 200 x 10-6 F
Q = Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = 200 F (series)
200 x 106
V1 = = = 66.67 V
1 3 x 106
200 x 106
V2 = = = 20 V
2 10 x 106
200 x 106
V3 = = = 13.33 V
3 15 x 106

9 When the charge on a capacitor is increased, its capacitance remains constant. 1+1
C1 = 5F, C2 = 10F, C3 = 15F 1
(i) All parallel, 1
C = C1 + C2 + C3 = 5 + 10 + 15 = 30 F 1
(ii) All series, 1
1 1 1 1 6+3+2 11 1
= + + = =
1 2 3 30 30
1
C = 2.73 F

10 d' = 2d 1
1
C = 0 = C

1
C = 0 = 0 =C
2 1
Q remains unchanged.
2
W=

2 2 2
W = = 1 =

2

41
2 2 2
Required work = W W = =

C1 = 2F, C2 = 3F, C3 = 7F, V = 240 V


Cp = C1 + C2 + C3 = 2 + 3 + 7 = 12 F
1 1 1 1 1
= + = +
4 12 4
C = 3 F
Q = CV = 3 x 10-6 x 240 = 720 x 10-6 C
Q = Qp = Q4 = 720 x 10-6 C 1
4 720 x 106 1
V4 = = = 180 V
4 4 x 106
1
720 x 106
Vp = = = 60 V
12 x 106
Vp = V1 = V2 = V3 = 60 V 1
Q1 = C1V1 = 2 x 10-6 x 60 = 120 x10-6 C
Q2 = C2V2 = 3 x 10-6 x 60 = 180 x10-6 C
Q3 = C3V3 = 7 x 10-6 x 60 = 420 x10-6 C
10 For series connection of capacitors, each capacitor has the same charge. 1+1
C1 = 4F, C2 = 12F, C3 = 8F, V = 200 V 1
C12 = C1 + C2 = 4 + 12 = 16 F 1
1 1 1 1 1 3 1
= + = + =
3 16 8 16
16
C= = 5.33F
3
Q = CV = 5.33 x 10-6 x 200 = 1066 x 10-6 C 1
Q = Qp = Q3 = 1066 C (series)
1066 106
Vp = = = 66.6 V 1
16 106
3 1066 106
V3 = = = 133.3 V
3 8 106
Vp = V1 = V2 = 66.6 V (parallel)
Q1 = C1V1 = 4 x 10-6 x 66.6 = 266.4 x 10-6 C = 266.4 x 10-6 C
Q2 = C2V2 = 12 x 10-6 x 66.6 = 799.2 x 10-6 C = 799.2 x 10-6 C 1

CHAPTER 10 ( SET 1 )

1 (i) ampere (A) (ii) ohm () (iii) ammeter (iv) V= IR (v) m 1x5
2 (i) True (ii) False (iii) True (iv) True (v) True 1x5
3 Electric current 1+1
The amount of charge passing through a cross sectional area of a conductor in one second
is called an electric current.
I = Q/t , I=electric current ,Q=amount of charges, t=time taken 1
The unit of electric current is ampere (A). 1

42
4 I = 4A, R = 20, t = 5 min = 300 s 1
(a) Q = ? 1
Q = It = 4 x 300 = 1200 C 1
-19
(b) n = ?, e = 1.6 x10 C, t = 1s 1

I= =

4x1
n= = = 2.5 x 1019 electrons
1.6 x 1019

5 When V = 12V, I = 2A 1
V = 3V, current drop =? 1
By Ohms law, 1
V = IR ( R = constant ) 1

R=
=
2
I = V x
= 3x 12
= 0.5 A
The current drop = I I = 2 0.5 = 1.5A
6 Electric current is a scalar quantity. It is the ratio of charge to time and both are scalar. 1+1
So the current is a scalar.
Direction of current 1+1
The direction of current is conventionally defined as the direction of the flow of positive
charges.
7 R0 = 10, Rt = 100, = 0.0036 C-1 = 36 x 10-4 C-1, t = ? 1
Rt = R0 ( 1 + t ) 1
-4
100 = 10 ( 1 + 36 x 10 t ) 1
10 = 1 + 36 x 10-4 t
9 1
t= = 2500
36 104
8 1
100 6
= ,=? 1
150 7
Rt = R0 ( 1 + t )
At t = 100C, R100 = R0 ( 1 + 100 ) 1

t = 150C, R150 = R0 ( 1 + 150 )


100 0 ( 1+100 )
=
150 0 ( 1+100 )
6 1+100
=
7 1+150
6 + 900 = 7 + 700 1
-3 -1
= 5 x 10 C
9 Ohms law 1+1
If a conductor is kept at a constant temperature, the current flowing through it is directly
proportional to the potential difference between its ends.
V = IR I = current, R= resistance, V= potential difference (V)
Resistance of conductor by Ohms law 1+1

43
The resistance of a conductor is the ratio of the potential difference between its ends to
the current through it.

R= I = current, R= resistance, V= potential difference (V) 1

-4
Dimension = 1cmx1cmx100cm, A= 1cmx1cm=10 m, L=100cm =1m 1
= 1.62 x 10-8 m, R = ? 1+1
1.62 x 108 x 1
R= = = 1.62 x 10-4
104

10 The e-m-f of a battery connected to an external circuit is the work done in moving 1+1
a unit positive charge round the complete circuit.
The potential difference across the terminal of a battery connected to an external 1+1
circuit is the available voltage.
They are the same when the internal resistance of the battery is negligible.
1
L=100m, d=2mm =2x10-3m, =4.8x10-8m, R= ?
1
4.8 x 108 x 100 1
R= = 2
= 4x 106
= 1.528

4
3.14 x
4 1

10 Resistance of a conductor 1
At a given temperature, the resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length 1
and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area.

Since R = and Rt = R0 ( 1 + t ) , the resistance of a conductor depend on the cross- 1

sectional area (A), length (l) and temperature of the conductor. 1
st
In 1 circuit, 1
E1 = E2 = 6V, R = 5, I = 2A, r1 = r2 = r 1
1 +2 5 1
I=
+1 +2
6+6 1
2=
5+2
r = 0.5
2A E1 ,r1 E2 ,r2
In 2nd circuit, R
1 0.5
E = E1 = E2 = 6V, I = 1.5 A, r = = = 0.25V E1 ,r1
2 2

I=
+
6
1.5 = 1.5A
+0.25
R = 4 0.25 = 3.75 E2 ,r2

CHAPTER 10 ( SET 2 )

1 (i) three (ii)current (iii)electromotive force (iv) rheostat (v) voltage 1x5
2 (i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) True (V) True 1x5
3 1x4

44
Fig* A circuit consisting a resistor, ammeter, battery
Temperature coefficient of R

4 Electric current 1
Flow of electron from a place of lower potential to a place of higher potential is called
electric current. 1
R=10, L=2L, R=? 1
Since resistivity and density do not change,
V = V (volume)
AL = AL 1
A2L= AL

A =

2
R = = = 4R = 4x10= 40
/2
5 E = 1.5V, r= 1, R1=2, R2=3, I=?,V1=?,V2=? 1
R = R1+R2 = 2+3 = 5 1
1.5
I = = = 0.25A
+ 5+1 1
V1= IR1= 0.25 x 2 = 0.5 V 1
V2= IR2= 0.25 x 3 = 0.75 V
6 In 1st circuit, E=12V, r=0, I=3A 1

I =
+
12 1
3 =

R = 4
In 2nd circuit, E1=12V, E2 = 6V, I=3A, r1=0, r2=?
1
E = E1 + E2 =12+6 = 18 V , r = r1 +r2 =r2

I = 1
+
18
3=
4+2
r2 = 2
7 In 1st circuit, 1
R=2, I=0.6A,
1
I =
+
E = 0.6 (2+r)(i)
In 2nd circuit,

45
R=7, I=0.2A 1

I =
+
E = 0.2 (7+r)(i)
1
0.6 (2+r) =0.2 (7+r)
r = 0.5
E = 0.6 (2+r) = 0.6 (2+0.5) = 1.5 V
8 The electromotive force of a source is the work done in moving a unit positive charge 1
from its negative terminal to the positive one.
Batteries and generators are sources of electromotive force. 1
In batteries, the chemical energy can be converted into electrical energy. 1
In generator, the mechanical energy can be converted into electrical energy. 1
9 Resistance of a conductor depends on the conductors dimensions. 1+1
Resistivity of a conductor is independent of the conductors dimensions.
So resistivity is more fundamental than resistance.

When three resistors are in series,


I = I1= I2= I3
V = V1+ V2+ V3
1+1
IR = I1R1+I2R2+I3I3
R = R1 + R2 + R3

1
L=2m, R=0.5, =1.62 x 10-8 m, d=?

R= = 2 1

4
1
4 4x 1.62x108 x2 -4
d= = =2.25x10 m 1
3.14 x 0.5
10 When an electric current is passed through substances, it can produce three main effect. 1+1
(i) The heating effect is used in electric stove, electric iron and immersion heater.
(ii) The chemical effect is used in charging batteries, purifying metals.
(iii)The magnetic effect is used in electric bell, telephone and electric motor.
1+1+1

Fig*Heating effect Fig*Chemical effect Fig*Magnetic effect


st
In 1 circuit, 1
I=0.1A, V=3.5V, 1
V=IR 1
3.5
R= = = 35
I 0.1
In 2nd circuit,
46
I=0.2A, V=3.15V, R1= 35 , R2=?
V =IR
1 2
3.15 = 0.2( )
1 +2
R2= 28.64
10

Fig* I-V graph Fig* Rt- t graph



Lc= Ls, Vc= Vs, Ic=Is, c=1.72x10-8m,s=1.62x10-8m, =?

Vc = V s
IcRc = IsRs
Rc = Rs

=
2 2
1.72 108
= =1.03
1.62 108

CHAPTER 11 ( SET 1 )

1 (i) watt(W) (ii)W=JH (iii)3.6x106J (iv) mechanical (v) one unit of electricity 1x5
2 (i) False (ii) True (iii) False (iv) True (V) True 1x5
3 Electrical energy 1
The electrical energy is the work done in bringing the amount of a charge from one place
to another. 1
The unit of electrical energy is Wh.
V = 240 V, I = 3A , P max =? 1
P max = VI = 240 x 3 = 720 W 1

4 Electrical power 1+1


The rate of transfer of electrical energy is defined as electrical power.
The unit of electrical power is watt(W). 1+1
5 R1= 5, R2= 10, R3= 15, P= 0.5W, Vmax=? 1
To be Vmax , Rmin is used. 1
Rmin = R1 = 5
2
max 1
P=

V = x = 0.5x 5 = 1.58 V

47
1.58 1
I1 = = = 0.32 A
1 5
1.58
I2 = = = 0.16 A
2 10
1.58
I3 = = = 0.11 A
3 15
6 I = 2A, R = 50 , t = 30min = h, W=? 1
W= P t = I2R t = 22 x 50 x = 100 Wh =0.1 kWh 1+1+1
7 Joules law of electricity and heat 1+1
The amount of heat produced in a resistordue to a current flowing through it is directly
proportional to the square of the current, the value of the resistance and the time taken
by the current to pass through the resistor. 1
2
H= , H = heat produced in resistor, I =electric current, R = resistance 1

t = time taken, J = constant (4.2 Jcal-1)
8 R = 60, V = 240V, t = 45min = h, (i) W=? (ii) Cost of using =? 1
2 (240)2 3 1
(i) W = P t = t= x = 720 Wh = 0.72 kWh
60 4
1
(ii) 1 kWh = One unit of electricity
0.72 kWh = 0.72 unit of electricity
Cost per unit = 25 kyats
1
The cost of using = 25 x 0.72 = 18 kyats

9 The practical unit of electrical energy is KWh. 1


1KWh is the one unit of electricity. 1
The danger of electricity can be traced to three possible causes are damage insulation, 1+1
overheating cables and damp condition.
5 1
P = 1200W, t = 50 min = h, W =?
6
5 1
W = Pt = 1200 x = 1000 Wh = 1 kWh
6 1
1 kWh = One unit of electricity
Cost per unit = 10 kyats
1
The payment = 1 x 10 = 10 kyats

10 1kWh = 1000 x J/s x3600s 1+1


= 3.6 x 106J
Fuses 1+1
Fuses are the wire usually made of tin-lead alloy. It used in electric circuit to prevent the
electrical appliances from serious damage. 1
I = 3 A, V = 240 V, t = 1 min = 60 s, J = 4.2 cal-1, H =? 1+1+1
2 240 x 3 x 60
H= = = = 10.29 x 103 cal = 10.29 kcal
4.2
10 The large current flow through the human body when the skin is wet because its contact
resistance is lower drastically.
R = 10 , t = 10 min = 600 s, H = ?

48
E = E1 + E2 + E3 = 6 + 12 + 6 = 24 V
r = r1 + r2 + r3 = 0.5 + 1 + 0.5 = 2
24
I= = =2A
+ 10+2
2 2 x 2 x 10 x 600
H= = = 5714.2 cal = 5.714 kcal
4.2

CHAPTER 11 ( SET 2 )

1 (i) Heat (ii) workdone (iii)watt(W) (iv) W=JH (v) heat 1x5
2 (i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) True (v)True 1x5
3 Two wires are live wire and neutral wire. 1+1
Live wire is dangerous wire because it carries very high voltage. 1+1
4 V = 240 V, I = 6A, t = 15 min = 900 s = h (a) H =? (b) cost = ? 1
2 240 x 6 x 900 1
(a) H = = = = 308571.43 cal = 3.08 x 105 cal
4.2
1
(b) W = Pt = VIt = 240 x 6 x = 360 Wh = 0.36 kWh
1
1 kWh = One unit of electricity
1
0.36 kWh = 0.36 unit of electricity
Cost per unit = 10 kyats
Cost of using = 0.36 x 10 = 3.6 kyats
5 1x4

Fig* A circuit diagram conversion of electrical into heat energy


6 I = 10A, V = 230V
Pmax = VI = 230 x 10 = 2300 W
Maximum number of 60W lamps = 2300/60 = 38.33 = 38 lamps
7 R1=1, R2=1, R3=1.5, E=12V, r=2, H/t=? 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
= + = +
1 2 1 1
Rp = 0.5
1
R = Rp + R3 = 0.5 + 1.5 = 2
12 1
I= = =4A
+ 2+1
2
H=

2 4x4x2
= = = 3.81 cals-1
4.2

8 I = 5A, V = 230 V 1
Pmax = VI = 230 x 5 = 1150 W 1
Plamps = 20 x 60 = 1200 W 1+1
49
Since Plamps > Pmax, twenty 60 W electric lamps cannot be used at the same time.
9 In electrical wiring system, light bulbs are connected in parallel. These parallel connection 1+1
glows brighter the bulbs and works still even one failure.
P = 1200 W, V = 240V, (a) R = ?, (b) I = ? 1
2
(a) P =

2 240 x 240
1
R= = = 48 1
1200
(b) P = VI 1
1200
I= = = 5A
240
(c) t = 1s, H = ? 1
2 1200 x 1
H= = = = 285.71 cal
4.2 1
(d) V = 200V, P = ?
2 2002
P = = = 833.3 W
48
10 The electrical energy is transformed into heat energy when a current flows through a 1
resistor. This is because the electrons collide with the atoms in the resistor when they
pass through it. Hence the atom acquire additional energy are therefore that heat energy
is produced. 1

R1 = 2, R2 = 3, R3 = 6 E = 12V, r = 1, =?

1 1 1 1 1 1
= + = +
2 3 3 6 1
Rp = 2 1
R = R1 + Rp = 2 + 2 = 4
12
I= = = 2.4 A 1
+ 4+1
I = I1 = Ip = 2.4 A
Vp = Ip x Rp = 2.4 x 2 = 4.8 V 1
Vp = V2 = V3 = 4.8 V
2 4.8 1
I2 = = = 1.6 A
2 3
3 4.8
I3 = = = 0.8 A
3 6
2 2
H= ,
=

1 1 2 1 2.4x 2.4 x 2
= = = 2.743 cals-1
4.2
2
2 2 2 1.6 x 1.6 x 3
= = = 1.829 cals-1
4.2
2
3 3 3 0.8 x 0.8 x 6
= = = 0.9143 cals-1
4.2

CHAPTER 12 ( SET 1 )

50
1 (i)current (ii) high (iii) Solenoid (iv) two (v) temporary magnet 1x5
2 (i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) True (v) True 1x5
3 Bar magnet 1+1
A bar magnet has two poles. The one at the north-seeking end is called the north pole,
and the other at the south seeking end is called the south pole.
Three devices of electromagnet are electric ball, telephone and loudspeaker. 1+1
-3
4 RG = 2, i = 1mA = 1 x 10 A, 1
(a) For an ammeter, I =10 A, r=? 1
1.0 x 103 1
r= RG = x 2 = 2.0 x 10-4
10(1.0 x 103 )
1
A shunt of 2 x 10-4 must be connected in parallel to the galvanometer.
5 Electromagnet
If a soft iron bar is placed inside the solenoid of insulated wire and current flows through 1+1
it. The bar becomes magnetized. Such a magnet is called electromagnet.

There is a magnetic field in the neighbourhood of the current carrying wire. Thus the
1+1
deflection of needle is due to magnetic force acting on it.
6 RG = 20 , i = 5 mA = 5 x 10-3 A
(a) For an ammeter, I = 1A, r=? 1
5 x 103 1
r= RG = x 20 = 0.1
1(5 x 103 )
A shunt of 0.1 must be connected in parallel to the galvanometer.
1
(b) For a voltmeter, V = 100 V, R=?
1
100
R= RG = 20 = 19980
5 x 103
A resistor of 19980 must be connected in series to the galvanometer.

7 Ammeter Voltmeter x2
(i) It measures current. (i) It measures voltage.
(ii) It is connected in series to the load. (ii) It is connected in parallel with load. x2
(iii)It is constructed by using a small shunt (iii) It is constructed by using a large
resistor with galvanometer. multiplier resistor with galvanometer.
8 RG = 25 , i = 0.02A = 2 x 10-2 A 1
(a) For an ammeter, I = 5A, r=?
2 x 102 1
r= RG = x 25 = 0.1
5(2 x 102 )
A shunt of 0.1 must be connected in parallel to the galvanometer.
1
(b) For a voltmeter, V = 150 V, R=?
150
R= RG = 25 = 7475 1
2 x 102
A resistor of 7475 must be connected in series to the galvanometer.
9 When viewing one end of the solenoid, that end will be a south pole if the current is seen 2
flowing in a clockwise direction.

51
A north pole if the current is seen flowing in an anticlockwise direction.
1st circuit, V = 5 r
2nd circuit, V = 3.5 ( r+10 ) 6
For parallel combination,
5r = 3.5 (r+10)
5r = 3.5 r + 35
1.5r = 35
r = 23.33
From eq 1, V = 5 r = 5 x 23.33 = 116.67 V
10 A moving coil galvanometer functions as a voltmeter when a wire of high resistance is 2
connected in series with the galvanometer. 2
For voltmeter,
Rv = 20000, Vv = 5V 2
5 -4
I= = = 2.5 x 10 A
2 x 104
For resistor,
VR = 120 5 = 115 V
115 2
R= = = 46 x 104
2 x 104
10 Moving-coil galvanometer 2
A moving-coil galvanometer consists of wire placed in between the two pole pieces of a
magnet. A spring is attached to the coil.
When current flows through the coil, the magnetic forces set up a torque and cause the 2
coil to rotate till it is balanced by the restoring torque produce by the spring. The angle 2
of rotation is proportional to the current and is indicated by the pointer.

The shunt has to be low resistance wire so that greater part of the current being measured 2
will pass through it while only a small fraction of the current will flow
through the coil.

52