You are on page 1of 16


1. Write a short note on the three phases of evaluation.

Answer: The main characteristic that set evaluation apart from measurement is that it is a
continuous process. In other words, it is a continuous cycle with a series of temporary ends. Let
us take student evaluation as an example. As a general rule, there are three phases in evaluation.

The first phase of evaluation

In the first phase of evaluation we make plans and take decision regarding the objectives and the
course of action. There are a number of steps involved in this planning phase. They are

Step 1: The first step is situation analysis in which we collect background information and
establish the parameters. In educational evaluation, teachers analyses the cumulative records
and gather information regarding the capabilities, limitations, strengths and weaknesses of their
students. The academic history of students is also analyzed in this step. Such an analysis will
help teachers to set realistic objectives and goals.

Step 2: The second step of planning is to specify the instructional objectives. Here we need to
differentiate between an objective and a goal. The goal is a general statement of purpose while
the objective is a more specific statement of what is to be accomplished. Goals cannot be
measured, but objectives can be. Objectives can be of two types process oriented and product
oriented. Process oriented objectives describe what are the outcomes desired in the duration of a
process. Product oriented objectives describes what are the results and outcomes desired at the
end of the process. Specification of objectives is an important step in planning, since the course
of actions and subsequent activities are dependent on objectives. Moreover, it is the achievement
of objectives that is measured at the end of the process.

Step 3: In the third step of planning phase, we need to specify the prerequisites of objectives. As
a general rule, we specify a set of objectives based on the assumption that students already have
certain skills and knowledge. Let us take a simple example. Suppose an English teacher wants to
introduce the concept of active and passive voice to his/her students. He/she introduces the
concept based on the assumption that the students already have an understanding of certain other
concepts in English grammar such as types of sentences, forms of verbs, etc. If the teacher is
wrong in his/her assumption, then the objective he/she establishes is not appropriate. The
assumptions upon which objectives are formulated are called prerequisites. If instruction and
evaluation have to be effective, it is mandatory that the prerequisites are correctly identified and

Step 4: The next step is to select or develop appropriate measuring instruments. As we have
already seen, evaluation involves measurement and the data obtained is used to determine
whether the objectives are achieved or not. In order to do this, you need to use one or more
instruments; we can either select most appropriate instruments from the available ones or
develop instruments to meet your unique needs.

Step 5: In order to achieve your established objectives, some strategies should be employed.
There are different types of strategies such as instructional strategies, curriculum strategies, and
program strategies. A strategy typically involves a number of activities and requires specific set
of resources. Before choosing a strategy, a teacher should make sure that adequate planning has
gone into it and the necessary resources are available.

Step 6: The sixth and final step of planning is the preparation of time schedule. It is important
that the time schedule you prepare is realistic. A time schedule should include initiation time and
the completion time of all major activities of the evaluation process. It is also important that you
give each activity enough time anticipating any unforeseen delay that might occur during the

2.The second phase of evolution

The second and most important phase of an evaluation involves the actual implementation of the
planned instruction or programme. A teacher should take decisions depending on the events that
occur during the actual implementation. In some cases, pre-tests can be conducted, and the
results of the pre-tests would determine the appropriateness of the predefined objectives. Once
the pre-tests are done, one can go ahead with the strategies and activities planned in the planning
phase. Data are collected during this phase, which is used to provide feedback on the
effectiveness of the strategies and activities. In this phase a teacher can determine if the
evaluation is progressing and being executed as planned.

3. The third phase of evolution

The third phase of evaluation involves making decisions at the end of one cycle of an educational
programme, project or unit of instruction. Decisions are made on the basis of cumulative data.
The chief aim of this phase is to make decisions regarding the overall effectiveness of
instruction, a programme or project. The degree to which the intended objectives are achieved is
determined during this phase. The results of this phase provide feedback and direction to not
only those who are involved in the process of instruction but to outside decision makers as well.
2. Discuss the major functions of evaluation.

Answer: Educational evaluation has a number of functions and applications. Some of the major
functions of evaluation are as follows:

Diagnosis: Educational evaluation, when used in learning contexts, is an excellent way to

diagnose the factors affecting the learning process. If a teacher is able to diagnose the problems
adversely affecting the learning process, such problems can be eliminated. Moreover, it helps
teachers understand how far their students have advanced in their journey towards the objectives
of instruction. This makes the process of instruction more effective.

Quality of teaching: Educational evaluation enhances the quality of teaching. As mentioned

earlier, the process of evaluation begins with establishing a set of objectives which are expected
to be achieved at the end of instruction or an academic program. Evaluation helps teachers to
assess whether those objectives were successfully implemented or not. This in turn will help
them assess how far they have been successful in their teaching. Based on evaluation and value
judgment, educators can implement new strategies and employ new techniques. As the set of
predetermined instructional objectives are achieved, the quality of teaching is increased.

Syllabus revision: Educational programs are carried out in accordance with an established
syllabus. Educational evaluation helps educators understand the pitfalls in the syllabus and acts
as a powerful tool in designing and revising syllabus.

Clarification of objectives: Since evaluation is based on objectives, it provides teachers with

deeper insights into the various topics to be taught. Thus in the process of evaluation,
instructional objectives become clearer and transparent.

Comparison: In order to ensure the successful functioning of an educational system, comparison

of different teaching methods, managements, syllabus, etc. are mandatory. Educational
evaluation helps to do such a comparison.

Motivation of students: This is an extremely important function of evaluation. Properly planned

and conducted evaluation motivates students to aim for better growth and development. It serves
as a stimulus for students to put in greater effort. Tests and other tools used in evaluation are
based on the syllabus; since students know that they are being evaluated continuously, they make
more efforts to study the topics in the syllabus.

Guidance: Guidance and counselling are integral parts of teaching and education. In order to
provide guidance, a teacher should first be able to identify specific difficulties faced by students.
Evaluation is an excellent way to identify such difficulties and understand the individual
differences between students. This helps an instructor take decisions on the kind of guidance
each student requires. Moreover, the abilities of students are measured in the process of
evaluation. Educational and vocational guidance can be provided to students based on the data
obtained through measurement.

Curriculum restructuring: A comprehensive evaluation programme helps educators

understand the strengths and weaknesses of a curriculum. Moreover, education is a rapidly
changing field. New studies and researches are being conducted on the system of education; they
become instrumental to changing the curriculum, teaching materials, principles and strategies,

Educational policies and reforms: If you look at the history of education, you can see that
introduction of new policies and educational reforms are crucial to the success of any
educational system. Evaluation becomes the foundation on which future policies and reforms are
carried out.

In addition to the above stated functions, evaluation provides the authorities of an educational
institution with a better system for reporting to the parents regarding the progress of their
children. This strengthens the relationship between teachers and parents, and school and
community. Authorities can also test the efficiency of teachers and their work as evaluation gives
an index of the success of teaching methods and classroom activities. Moreover, evaluation is
important in the overall appraisal of the total school programmes.
3. Discuss the major categories and sub-categories of the affective domain.

Answer: There was a time when emotionalism was never encouraged in education. Educational
experts of the earlier period held the belief that education has nothing to do with a learners
interests, emotions or impulses. This view has been changed tremendously in the past few years.
Today, educationists believe that the learners feelings and emotions are equally important in
education. The instructional objectives of the affective domain involve outcomes that are
intangible and more difficult to measure. They include feelings, emotions, attitudes, values,
interests, dispositions, and moral as well as aesthetic sensibilities, etc. The instructional
objectives of the affective domain are classified into 5 categories. They are

1. Receiving
2. Responding
3. Valuing
4. Organization
5. Characterization by value

As in the case of cognitive domain, here also the categories are organized in a hierarchical order
starting from the simplest to the most complex.

1. Receiving

This category is the lowest level in the affective domain and a prerequisite to other levels. It
means paying attention. It includes a learners willingness to attend to a particular stimulus; it
also includes the state of being sensitized to the existence of a given condition, event or situation.
Receiving has three sub-levels.

Awareness This means the learners conscious recognition of the existence of certain
problems, conditions, situations, events, phenomena, etc.
Willingness This means the learners ability to acknowledge existence of the object,
event, or problem instead of ignoring it.
Selected or controlled attention This means the leaner choose to pay attention to the
situation, problem, event or phenomenon.
Appropriate action word/verbs: Some of the action verbs that relate to this function are ask,
choose, describe, follow, give, hold, identify, locate, names, select, reply, sit, erect, use, etc.

2. Responding

Here, the student not only attends to a stimulus, but actively participates in the learning process
by reacting to a particular phenomenon or event. The category of responding too has three sub-

Acquiescence in responding This involves simple obedience or compliance.

Willingness to respond - This involves voluntary responses to a given situation.
Satisfaction in response This means the learner enjoys reacting to the type of situation.

Appropriate action word/verbs: Some of the action verbs that relate to this function are
answer, assist, aid, comply, conform, discuss, greet, help, label, perform, practice, present, read,
recite, report, select, tell, write, etc.

3. Valuing

This category is related to the worth a learner attaches to a particular object, phenomenon,
behavior or situation. Valuing includes different levels, ranging from simple acceptance to the
more complex state of commitment. The learner associates some values to the knowledge he/she
has already acquired. There are three sub-levels of valuing.

Acceptance of a value This refers to the first stage where a proposition, doctrine, or
condition is tentatively accepted by the learner.
Preference for a value This refers to the second stage where the learner believes in the
desirability of a condition, doctrine, proposition, etc. Additionally, the learner rejects the
other options he/she has and starts looking for the views of other people in an attempt to
form his/her own opinion.
Commitment to a value - This is the final stage where the learner is totally convinced of a
principle or doctrine. As a result, the learner commits himself/herself to that principle or
doctrine, which leads to the internalization of a set of specific values. These internalized
values are identifiable since they manifest in the learners behavior and attitude.
Appropriate action word/verbs: Some of the action verbs that relate to this function are
complete, demonstrate, differentiate, explain, follow, form, initiate, invite, join, justify, propose,
read, report, select, share, study, work, etc.

4. Organization

At this level the student begins to contrast different values, resolves conflicts between them, and
creates an organized value system. By comparing, relating, and synthesizing values, the learner
is able to establish the order of priority for the values. Organization has two sub-levels.

Conceptualization of a value The learner understands the relationship between the

abstract elements of a value and the already possessed or a new set of values.
Organization of value system This refers to the development of a complex value system
which leads the learner to develop a particular philosophy or view of life.

Appropriate action word/verbs: Some of the action verbs that relate to this function are adhere,
alter, arrange, combine, compare, complete, defend, explain, formulate, generalize, identify,
integrate, modify, order, organize, prepare, relate, synthesize, etc.

5. Characterization by a value or value complex

At this level the learner begins to develop a lifestyle that reflects the beliefs and philosophy
he/she has developed. The learner acts in line with the values, beliefs or ideals that constitute
his/her view or philosophy of life. The value system held by the learner influences his/her
behavior so much so that it becomes a characteristic. Hence it is possible to predict responses
and behaviors of such individuals or group of individuals who are controlled by definite value
systems. There are two categories of value complex.

Generalized set: This refers to a situation where the learner is able to put a complex
environment into order and act effectively in it. When new and valid evidence becomes
available, the learner revises his/her judgment which in turn changes his/her behavior.
Characterization: The internalization of values enables the learner to act in harmony with
it consistently. The leaners personal and civil life is regulated by the ethical principles
and values he/she internalized.
Appropriate action word/verbs: Some of the action verbs that relate to this function are act,
discriminate, display, influence, listen, modify, perform, practice, propose, qualify, question,
revise, serve, solve, verify, etc.
4. Write a short note on the major categories of psycho-motor domain as developed by

Answer: The psychomotor domain pertains to physical movement, coordination, and use of the
motor-skills. In addition to physical functions and muscular activities, it refers to natural and
automatic responses and reflex actions. These skills are developed with repeated practice and
they are measured in terms of speed, precision, procedures, or techniques used in the execution
of skills. The original taxonomy developed by Bloom and his team didnt elaborate on the
psychomotor domain and its sub-categories. It was developed later by a number of educational
experts; hence there are different versions of psycho-motor objectives. The most popular
versions were developed by R.H. Dave (1967-70), E.J. Simpson (1966-72), and A.J Harrow
(1972). In this unit we will be analyzing Simpsons version in detail; we will briefly touch upon
the other versions as well.

Simpson classified psycho-motor objectives into seven categories, starting from the simplest
behavior to the most complex.

1. Perception
2. Set
3. Guided response
4. Mechanism
5. Complex overt response
6. Adaptation
7. Origination

1. Perception

This category involves awareness. In other words, it pertains to the ability to use sensory cues to
guide physical and motor activities.

Appropriate action word/verbs: Some of the action verbs that relate to this function are
choose, describe, detect, differentiate, distinguish, identify, isolate, relate, select, etc.

2. Set
The second category in Simpsons psycho-motor objectives is called set. This refers to the
readiness on the part of learner to act. It includes three different sets mental, physical, and
emotional sets. These three sets are specific dispositions and they predetermine how the learner
reacts and responds to different situations. They are sometimes referred to as mindsets.

Appropriate action word/verbs: Some of the action verbs that relate to this function are
arrange, begin, display, explain, get set, move, prepare, proceed, react, show, state, volunteer,
respond, start, etc.

3. Guided response

This refers to the first attempts made by a learner to master a complex skill in the early stages of
learning. Better performance is attained through trial and error as well as practice.

Appropriate action word/verbs: Some of the action verbs that relate to this function are copy,
trace, follow, react, reproduce, respond, etc.

4. Mechanism

This is referred to as the intermediary stage a learner undergoes while learning a complex
physical skill. Learned responses are habitual and the movements can be performed with medium
level of confidence and proficiency.

Appropriate action word/verbs: Some of the action verbs that relate to this function are
assemble, calibrate, construct, dismantle, display, fasten, fix, grind, manipulate, measure, mend,
mix, organize, sketch, etc.

5. Complex overt response

This refers to the skillful performance of motor activities where complex movements can be
performed with minimum effort and energy. Quick, accurate, and highly coordinated
performance is an indication of proficiency. Performance without hesitation and automatic
performance are included in this category.

Appropriate action word/verbs: Some of the action verbs that relate to this function are
assemble, build, calibrate, construct, dismantle, display, fasten, fix, grind, manipulate, measure,
mend, mix, organize, sketch, etc. You can notice that the action words used for mechanism and
complex overt response are the same. But these action words will be differentiated by using
adjectives or adverbs to indicate that the performance is better, more accurate, quicker, etc.

6. Adaptation

This refers to the adaptable proficiency of a learner. That is, the learner is able to modify motor
skills for special situations and requirements, and to meet varying challenges. The skills are well
developed too.

Appropriate action word/verbs: Some of the action verbs that relate to this function are adapt,
adjusts, alter, change, integrate, rearrange, reorganize, revise, solve, vary, etc.

7. Origination

This involves the creative proficiency of a learner. In other words the learner is able to create
new movement patterns in order to fit a particular situation or specific problem.

Appropriate action word/verbs: Arranges, builds, combines, composes, constructs, creates,

designs, initiate, makes, originates, etc.
5. Discuss the classification of tests on the basis of standardization.

Answer: Any form of test that maintains uniformity in its administering and scoring can be
called a standardized test. It has three defining features. Firstly, all students are required to
answer the same questions in the same way. Secondly, it is scored in a standard or consistent
manner; hence it is possible to compare the performance of students based on the scores they
obtained. Thirdly, personal judgment is absent in the process of scoring. Many types of tests
usually conducted in schools that can be called standardized based on these three features.
However, the term standardized test usually refers to the large-scale tests administered to large
number of students. For example, if a test is administered to all 10th grade students who study
CBSE syllabus across all the districts in Kerala, then that test can be called a standardized test.
TOEFL (Test of English as Foreign Language), IELTS (International English Language Testing
System), GMAT(Graduate Management Admission System), etc. are also examples of
standardized tests.

The questions included in a standardized test can be of different formats such as multiple-choice
questions, true-false questions, short-answer questions, essay questions, or a mix of question
types. Standardized tests are typically written tests presented on a paper and students are required
to write their responses using a pen/pencil; in many countries such tests are also being
administered on computers.Multiple-choice and true-false formats are best suited for
standardized tests since a large number of responses can be scored quickly, consistently and
inexpensively using computers. Open-ended questions such as short answer type and essay type
are also asked in standardized tests. These responses are scored by humans with the help of
specific guidelines across the district/state/region where the test is administered. This helps
promote consistent evaluations. Standardized tests are considered as an economical, reliable, and
valid method of evaluation. They also help educational authorities to determine whether students
could enter, continue or exit institutions such as schools and universities.


Test of English as Foreign Language or TOEFLis a standardized test of English language

proficiency. It is for non-native English language speakers who wish to enroll in universities in
the US.

International English Language Testing System or IELTS is an international standardized test of

English language proficiency. It is managed jointly by Cambridge English Language
Assessment, the British Council and IDP Education Private Limited for non-native English
language speakers. IELTS is one of the two major English-language tests in the world. The other
one is TOEFL.


Graduate Management Admission System or GMAT is a computer adaptive test. This test
assesses the analytical, writing, quantitative, verbal, and reading skills of a person in standard
written English. This is conducted for persons who are seeking admission in a graduate
management program, such as an MBA
6. Prepare a chart listing out the major differences between standardized and teacher-
made tests.


The primary difference between a standardized and teacher-made test is that the former is
constructed by trained and competent experts who know the principles of test construction while
the latter is developed by individual instructors. Few other important differences between the two

Standardized tests are administered to large numbers of student population across a

geographical region. But the administration of teacher-made tests is limited to a small
group of students handled by the teacherwho develops the test.
Compared to teacher-made tests, standardized tests have a wider use. A teacher-made test
is used to measure whether theobjectives a teacher has set prior to the commencement of
classroom instruction are realized or not. Standardized tests, on the other hand, measure
whether the objectives of a common academic program, curriculum, etc. are realized.
The questions included in a teacher-made test are usually chosen based on the teachers
judgment. But the test items included in a standardized test are analyzed and selected by
applying statistical techniques. Usually a pre-test is administered on a selected sample
prior to the actual test. The responses and scores are analyzed by a group of experts; it is
ensured that only questions that have satisfactory discriminating power and difficulty
value are included in the test. Similarly, the validity and reliability of standardized tests
are determined by means of statistical techniques.
A standardized test is more valid and reliable compared to a teacher-made test. This is
mainly because the designing and construction of the former involve higher degrees of
expertise.Teacher-made tests are not usually prepared using scientific and statistical
The duration, frequency and format of standardized tests are fixed for all students who
participate in the test, regardless of the differences in their locations. The duration, format
and frequency of teacher-made tests are more flexible and may change from one test to
Teacher-made tests can be administered without restrictions; but standardized tests are
restricted to academic purposes only. Moreover, not everybody can administer a
standardized test as and when they please.
The results of standardized tests can be used to make comparisons. For example, the
head of an educational institute can compare the performance of the students of his/her
school using the results of a standardized test. Likewise, the educational officer in charge
of a district can use this data to compare the standards and performance of two or more
schools in his district. But the results of a teacher-made test cannot be used to make such
comparisons; they, on the other hand, are primarily used for value judgment and


Student of Trends and Development in Modern Educational Practices