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BY STEVE BLECHMAN, Publisher and Editor-in-Chief

odybuilding keeps going strong with the arrival of fresh, new

B pros every couple of years. Each new pro brings something

unique to the table that in some cases, we have not seen before
because of their amazing genetics. Other new pros recall a classic era
of bodybuilding with more aesthetic, streamlined physiques.
Being competitive with the very elite in the sport is the mark of a
viable pro, and several newer pros in a premier group of Young Guns
have already tested their mettle and proven their worth. This issue of
Muscular Development hails the newest group of Young Guns who may
be an indication of the shape of things to come.
Regan Grimes isnt one of the larger men in open bodybuilding but
he does have one of the most aesthetic, proportionate physiques. Part
of what earned him a rst callout in all three of his rst pro shows is his
stunning X-frame, which is capped by a pair of boulder shoulders and a
small waist and vacuum pose on stage! In All the Angles: How Regan
Grimes Crafts Superior Delts on page 92, Regan shares his shoulder
training with MD readers. There are denitely some aspects we can all
implement into our own workouts and when it comes to delts, just
about all of us could stand to make some nice new gains.
Young Guns 2017: The Next Generation of Superstars Is Rising on
page 102 looks at a few of todays best including Zane Watson, Cody
Montgomery, Chris Bumstead and Sadik Hadzovic. Dallas McCarver
was originally scheduled to be included in this feature, but tragically he
passed, at only age 26, just before this issue went to press. Dallas was
on his way to a fantastic and illustrious career, and when I heard the
news, I was in utter disbelief. In the last few years, Dallas had become
a growing threat in the IFBB. Dallas had a bright and prosperous future
in bodybuilding ahead of him. He wasnt pretentious, but a down-to-
earth kind of a guy with a big heart of gold and a blue-collar work ethic
instilled in him from his family. He always called me, Mr. Blechman. I
would laugh and say, Dallas, you can call me Steve. Rest in Peace, my
friend. God Bless you. I will miss you.
In an era where newly minted pros often take a year or even two off
to improve before they are ready to compete in the IFBB, its rare indeed
for a man to jump right in so soon the way Derek Lunsford did. With
his superior thickness, X-frame structure and round muscle shapes,
Lunsford looked like a pro among amateurs in 2016. A lot can happen in
one year, as we learn in Youth Rising! How 24-year-old Derek Lunsford
Went From Amateur to Tampa Pro 212 Champ in 1 Week, on page 114.
Fitness model, IFBB Bikini pro champion and Gaspari-sponsored
athlete Dayna Maleton has been piquing the interest of seriously
training athletes as the woman behind the campaign for Gaspari
Nutritions mass builder, Halodrol. Dayna is a woman who walks the

8 MD October 2017





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October 2017 MD 9

How Regan Grimes Crafts Superior Delts
By Ron Harris

102 YOUNG GUNS 2017

The Next Generation of
Superstars Is Rising
By Ron Harris

1114 YOUTH
How 24-year-old Derek Lunsford Went
From Amateur to Tampa Pro 212 Champ
i 1 Week
in eek Byy Ronn Harris


y Maleton:
Sponsored by Ga
The Girl Behind the Box
aspari Nutrition
Eva Simon
i Photo
h ography

12 MD October 2017

By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.
By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, Ed.D. 128 TESTOSTERONE Vino Viagra: Study Says
departments 40 RESEARCH: NUTRITION
By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.
Red Wine Boosts Testosterone
By Daniel Gwartney, M.D.

18 BIG RON 150 BUSTED! LEGAL Q&A By Rick Collins, JD, CSCS
By 8-Time Mr. Olympia, Ronnie Coleman
By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.
By Bev Francis and Steve Weinberger 44 RESEARCH: HEALTH & PERFORMANCE
Old School Labs Vintage Blast By Team MD
22 HOW I SEE IT By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.
By Shawn Ray and Kevin Levrone 66 SUPPLEMENT INDUSTRY NEWS
MD EXCLUSIVE Jeff McCarrell: A Fighter 56 RESEARCH: SEX
26 THE INCREDIBLE LOU and Survivor By J.A. Giresi By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.
By Lou Ferrigno NEW!
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TRAINING 76 SPORTS SUPPLEMENT REVIEW Machine Advantage By Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D.
With Dorian Yates, Jay Cutler, Ronnie Coleman By Team MD INSIDE STACK
and Dexter Jackson
144 TRAINERS OF CHAMPIONS Antioxidants Good for Health, Bad for Muscle
Charles Glass, Master Trainer Growth By Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D. 152 MARKETPLACE By Angela Theresa Frizalone
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By Daniel Gwartney, M.D.

October 2017 MD 13


BIG RON With Big Ronnie

Coleman, Eight-Time
Mr. Olympia

Things My Mother Taught Me

Editors note: On August 11, 2017, Ronnie lost
his mother, Jessie Mae Benton, to pancreatic
cancer. This month, he pays tribute to her
memory by talking about the values she
instilled in him that made him the man he is

My mom grew up in the church, and she
made sure me and my brother and sisters
had a strong foundation of faith. We lived
with my grandmother on Madison Avenue
in my hometown of Bastrop, Louisiana for a
while, and St. John Missionary Baptist Church
was real close it was literally next door,
like a neighbors house! Of course, we went
to service every Sunday, plus Sunday school
when we were kids. We also used to do two
weeks every summer of vacation bible school,
and all types of church events like fundraisers,
Christmas and Easter plays, and we had to
give speeches sometimes too. I know not
everyone has the same religious beliefs, but
its important to believe in a higher power and
to understand what was right and what was
wrong so you could live your life the right way.
Mom made sure we had that.

From as young as I can remember, my
mom made sure I had plenty of respect for
my elders. You answered with yes sir or no
sir, and you didnt talk back. Kids back then
in general had a lot more respect. You got
to understand, when I was in grade school,
teachers could still hit you if you talked back
or got out of line. The bottom line from my
mom was that you have to show respect to get
respect. Treat others the way you want to be

My mom was my biggest fan and supporter. She
We didnt have a lot of money, but my went to all the local shows when I was starting
mom wanted to make sure we all got the best out competing, and a lot of my pro shows later on.

educations we could. There were incentives

and rewards for getting good grades. For Not only was she there to see all eight of my Mr.
example, for every A on our report cards, we Olympia wins, she came up onstage to celebrate
got a dollar. That was a lot of money for us
back then! You also have to gure that a dollar
them with me too! She was the best mom a son
when I was 10 years old in 1974 would be the could have asked for.

18 MD October 2017

I wound up graduating cum
laude with my accounting
degree, all because my mom
had instilled the importance
of education in me at a very
young age.
same as over ve dollars today. So we tried our best
to get As! I went to Grambling State University to
play football for a pretty famous coach named Eddie
Robinson. We spent a lot of time practicing and I was
usually pretty exhausted, but I would stay up all night
sometimes to study. It didnt matter to me that I was
an athlete; I still wanted to get the best grades I could.
I wound up graduating cum laude with my accounting
degree, all because my mom had instilled the
importance of education in me at a very young age.

I never met my father until I was 13 years old, and
he sure wasnt sending my mom any child support
money. She raised all ve of us kids on her own. When
I was real young, I remember she worked in a car
wash. From there she went to work making jeans at
the Jordache factory. She stayed there until she retired.
I saw how hard she worked, and that was something I
carried into my own life. I started working at the corner
store in Bastrop when I was only 10 years old, and had
that job all the way through college. Later I delivered
pizzas, was a full-time police officer, a professional
bodybuilder and now I own my own supplement
company, Ronnie Coleman Signature Series.


Like I said, my mother didnt make a big salary, but
she took care of us kids and made sure we always
had whatever we needed. We never went hungry, and
mom would also get me things I wanted as a kid. If I
ever really wanted a bike, or a certain record, or even
a stereo, I would get it for my birthday or Christmas.
I have eight kids of my own now, and the ages range
from 32 all the way to 2! I always made sure they were
well taken care of. I saw how my mom was able to
do that for ve kids on her own without making much
money, so there was never a question or an excuse for
me. Those were my kids, so I would get them whatever
they needed.

My mom was also my biggest fan and supporter.

She went to all the local shows when I was starting
out competing, and a lot of my pro shows later on. Not
only was she there to see all eight of my Mr. Olympia
wins, she came up onstage to celebrate them with me
too! She was the best mom a son could have asked for.
Thats about all I can say about her.

Check Out Ronnies Websites
Facebook: Ronnie Coleman
Signature Series
Instagram: @RonnieColeman8

October 2017 MD 19

HOW I SEE IT with Shawn Ray and Kevin Levrone

Is Bodybuilding Still the Main Event?

There is no doubt that participation and popularity for all the newer divisions like Figure, Mens Physique, Bikini, Womens Physique
and Classic Physique are growing by the year at the amateur level, while numbers for bodybuilding are stagnant if not dropping. Are
those of us from the old school clinging on too tightly when we insist that bodybuilding should still be the main event in competitions?
If the masses want to see other divisions, eventually, will we just have to accept that even though all of this sprang from bodybuilding, its
time might be fading away?

Shawn Ray
Hardcore bodybuilding fans will show
up to watch bodybuilding, and thefans of
the other divisions will continue to show
up in droves to support their friends and
loved onescompeting in their respective
divisions. However, as it stands today, the
bodybuilding division is losing ground to
these other classes due to the participatory
factor. Many of theathletes competing in
the other divisions can gain IFBB pro cards
intheirrst year of competing. In contrast,
pro bodybuilders take years to develop their Im not of the opinion we have to x anything but Id
physiques and compete in countless contests
on the road to gaining the undervalued IFBB
be remiss if I dont tell you to enjoy pro bodybuilding while
it lasts. Shawn Ray
lightweight competitor and sixheavyweights. see these contests being hosted based on
The teenage bodybuilding classes have Bikini,Physique and Classic Physique at the
beenabandoned for board shorts, and many exclusion of pro bodybuilding. The sport will
IFBB pro mens bodybuilding contests only go on, andbodybuilding as we know it may
have seven to nine competitors for their die, but what wewitness onstage will be a
entire pro lineup.In the 90s, most pro shows reection of the times. The fans will dictate
boasted 20-plus pros onstage at one time! what we pay money to see, and the athletes
Im of the belief that many athletes will evolve and adjust.
competing today would rather have an IFBB Today, the guys are simply too big, blocky
pro card than be a world-class bodybuilder, and smooth for the fans to paymoney to
based on the sacrices of time and size. watch. Most of the pretty bodies are not
Its so much harder to get to the pro stage developed to the max, yet still look pleasing
when competing as abodybuilder due to to the eyes. Thisexplains the growth and
all the other factors you have to consider, support of these other classes gaining in
from contest prep to the enormous amount popularity andparticipation.
pro card. These days, one contest can yield of muscle one must put on their body. In the If bodybuilding as we know it dies,
over 100 pro cards for athletes placing rst or past, there was only one choicefor male Illunderstand the reasons why, and for
second in each weight or height class. athletes, and that was get big or go home. me they have more to do with the freak
Bodybuilding for me peaked in the 90s Now there are several options with respect factor, which has a shelf life anddoesnt
in terms of quality and popularity in relation to how much you wanttodevelop your body, last forever. It will give way to the classic
to how many people followed the sport, and how youd like to promote it, which look, which is never out of style and never
and participated in it. As time goes on, in pilfers the genetic gene pool of future would- grows old. What was once considered old,
the years following Joe and Ben Weider be bodybuilders of tomorrow. will come back and be considered new
(RIP), with the inclusion of Bikini, Physique In conclusion, Im not of theopinion we again, which is why Iembrace the new Jacks
and Classic Physique, the numbers are at have to xanything but Id be remiss coming in showing us ashes of yesteryear,
their highest ever in terms of participation, if Idont tell you to enjoy pro bodybuilding and aglimpse of the future.
while thebodybuilding numbers are while it lasts. Nothing lasts forever, and Change is good.
reaching new lows. Forexample, we no this is abusiness as much as it is a sport.
longer have a womens pro Ms. Olympia Once the promoters no longer are making Facebook: Shawn Ray
or Ms. International contest, and the 2017 money or are able to ll the auditoriums with Twitter: @sugarshawnray
USAWomens bodybuilding only had one bodybuilding being its anchor, we willsoon Instagram: shawnrayifbbpro

22 MD October 2017

with Shawn Ray and Kevin Levrone

Kevin Levrone Bodybuilding is what sells

Is bodybuilding on the decline? Im not the tickets, not the other
so sure about that. On the amateur level,
we are seeing far more entries in the
divisions. Thats what the
other divisions. But once we are talking
about the pro level, bodybuilding is still
fans come to see the lions
the main event, and nothing compares to and tigers, not the peacocks
the Mr. Olympia in terms of popularity
and prestige. The Mr. Olympia contest
and gazelles!
represents history, and you cant do away Kevin Levrone
with that. Think about the names of the
men who have held that title and how much
they inspired and influenced millions of
people, men like Arnold, Sergio, Frank Zane,
Lee Haney, Dorian Yates, Ronnie Coleman
and Jay Cutler. Our whole sport is built
around the Mr. Olympia.
That being said, could I foresee a time
one day, maybe 20 or 30 years from now,
when bodybuilding might finally die out?
Sure. If fewer and fewer people decide
to compete in bodybuilding, there might
indeed come a day when it fades away.
Admittedly, it takes a great deal more time
and effort to look like a bodybuilder than
it does to look like a Bikini competitor, for
example. And people do seem to have
less patience these days, and want to
start competing and turn pro as quickly as
possible. If thats the main thing driving
you, you would look for the easier options.
But for now, bodybuilding is still the
top dog, and the Mr. Olympia is the main
event. It sells out a 10,000-seat arena
every year. People dont come to the
Olympia Weekend in Las Vegas every
September to see Bikini, Mens Physique
or Figure. They come to see history being
made at Joe Weiders Mr. Olympia contest. the country or even across the world to see
Think about it this way. All these other their favorite pro bodybuilders. If youve
divisions sprung from bodybuilding. You ever attended the Mr. Olympia contest,
could consider bodybuilding to be the you know what I mean. There are people
roots of a giant tree. If you separate the who have been coming from as far away
tree from the roots, it dies. as Europe, the Middle East and Asia for
I dont see bodybuilding dying out at the many years to see that show. So for now,
pro level any time soon. At the pro events bodybuilding is still going strong, and its
I have been to, bodybuilding is what sells still the reason most fans come out to the
the tickets, not the other divisions. Thats shows.
what the fans come to see the lions and
tigers, not the peacocks and gazelles! The
amateur shows have a lot more entries in
the divisions that are easier to compete Facebook: Official.Kevin.Levrone
in, so you get their friends and families Twitter: @LevroneKevin
coming to see them. The pro shows tell the Instagram: KEVINLEVRONE
real story, because those audiences are
made up of fans who often travel across

24 MD October 2017


The INCREDIBLE LOU Legacy Talk With Lou Ferrigno

Old School vs. New School

Ive been so blessed throughout my career era. Symmetry and muscular proportion
to train and compete with some of the best was what we all desired most, which made
bodybuilders on the planet, from Arnold IFBB and NPC physiques not only the most
and Franco in the 1970s to Shawn Ray, Flex aesthetically pleasing in the world it
Wheeler and Dorian Yates in the mid-1990s. allowed us to t into a lot more normal-sized
My hard work, genetics and good fortune clothing! Nowadays, bodybuilders with lazy
allowed me to reach great success within training form and distended guts are far too
the sport of bodybuilding. Todays tness commonplace, which has marginalized the
landscape is very different than it was in the modern Olympia-caliber physique. Mass
1970s and even in the 1990s, when I came out monsters, which arose during the late 90s,
of retirement to compete for the Masters and were freakishly huge onstage, but eventually
Mr. Olympia titles. Yet, as times change with became freakishly huge according to societys
every generation, the sport of bodybuilding standards as well.
changes as well, for the better and sometimes Of course, with evolution comes plenty
for the worse. of improvements as well, one being
One thing I miss most about bodybuildings incredible diversity of exercises and exercise
old school is the camaraderie among todays equipment that exist today that were virtually
bodybuilders. I no longer hear the stories of inconceivable 50 years ago. In Brooklyn, New
the brotherhood among todays competitors, York in the early 1970s, all I had to use were
as it was in the time when I competed. free weights, a pull-up bar, cables and a
Bodybuilders used to train, eat and pose Roman chair bench. Improvisation was key, as
together because there were so few dedicating 95 percent of exercises included free-weight
their lives to sharing the same goal: to attain barbell and dumbbells. I would let my pump
the ultimate physique. We needed each
other because mainstream society couldnt
understand what we were trying to achieve.
What I hear far too frequently is the casting of
aspersions among competitors and wannabes
alike within gyms, on the Internet or on
various social media platforms. I adore this
sport and my mentor, Joe Weider, would be
rolling over in his grave right now if he were
to hear the negativity that plagues so many
bodybuilding circles.
In the 1970s, a lot more muscle was on
display during workouts. Wearing nothing
more than tanks and shorts during training
sessions, we would train hard and pose
constantly, coaching and checking each and on the day of the show, the best man
others progress. We viewed our physiques would win. We supported one another. But
as clay sculptures that we would sharpen now it seems to me that if a guy is not in his
daily en route to a potential title. Nowadays, best condition, he will hide his progress in
a lot of lifters will train covered head-to-toe fear of the jealous haters spreading rumors
in sweatshirts and sweatpants, just because among bodybuilding circles.
they feel theyre not in peak shape or because Another one of my biggest pet peeves
they intend to reveal their physiques on the within bodybuildings new school is
day of the contest. With so much sweat and how drastically top-level physiques have
strain building bodies, muscles should be changed in terms of the freakish quantity of
celebrated and revered, not covered up and muscle. Competitors today carry so much
kept in the dark. We would help each other more muscle than ever before, sacricing
with our posing techniques during workouts the smooth, aesthetic lines of the golden

26 MD October 2017

dictate how far I would need to push each
muscle group, to determine completion. Cardio
equipment was primitive and scarce. Bicycles,
jogging and thousands of crunches were all
we really had to shed body fat. I used to wear
three sweatshirts while warming up in the cold
Brooklyn winters, because elliptical machines
and treadmills didnt even exist, except for on
The Jetsons cartoon!
Nowadays, cardio plays such an important
role in cutting fat while also maintaining
muscle mass throughout the year. With
the help of cardio equipment, competitors
today can eat much more food, consequently
retaining more muscle. Tuna sh and water
was my main pre-contest diet, which kept
me shredded but was torture on my mental
acuities as the contest neared.
The immediacy of the contest results and
industry information, like the Ferrigno Legacy
livestream, is something that I envy about
todays bodybuilding landscape. For contest
results when I competed, only magazines
existed that would publish pictures and what I could control, which was my diet and
results three months after the contest! Today training. I was able to keep distractions to a
competitors know immediately when the minimum, which allowed me to put 110 percent
winner is decided, which I actually consider a into the grind of becoming a champion.
blessing and a curse. Since I never knew who Prize money today is much better today
to chase, I kept my head down and focused on as well. I remember for the 1972 and 1973
Mr. Olympia, prize money for rst place was
$1,000. Then in 1974, due to high overhead
and cutting costs, the promoter at the time
actually cut the rst-place purse to $750 for
bodybuildings top prize! Arnold famously
counted the money onstage as he received his
cash. People laughed as if it was a joke, but
due to the injustice of cheating the champions
efforts, it was then that Arnold was fed up and
decided to begin promoting contests with his
legendary partner, Jim Lorimer, and eventually
the Arnold Classic was born. I dreamed of the
same thing, which is why I started the Ferrigno
Legacy, which has a small cash purse of
As much as the 70s for bodybuilding was
an amazing time, I believe today truly is the
new golden era. When I see guys like Sergio

Oliva Jr., Dexter, Danny Hester and Brad Rowe

still grinding away on Joe Golds cutting
edge, hand-forged equipment down at Golds,
I can see things are still pretty damn good.
Especially since Pumping Iron is always
playing on the big Golds Gym TV!

You can hear more of Lous stories by

joining him for Coffee With Lou at the
Ferrigno Legacy Expo on November 18 in Palm
Springs, CA. For more information, visit www.

October 2017 MD 27


MD Online Buzz brings readers the best posts from the
members of the No Bull Forum at musculardevelopment.
com. This is unedited opinion and commentary that originally
appeared online.

Branch Warren Off-season Diet functional strength or how sexy they look .
Posted by Kinic I didnt get into bodybuilding to see cross-t or bikini
(Editors note: no disrespect is meant to Branch; this babes.
was purely satire) Is it really too much to ask to see (mostly)
Eat this way, and you too will be able to look like the bodybuilders now at a contest?
Texas Titan himself. Why am I considered crazy for wanting that?
Forget the big theatres if thats too expensive.
Breakfast Go back to a school gym with the posing light on the
4 Bald eggs b-ball rim if we have to!
Ezekiel Bread straight from the bible I dont care if its bare bones, no frills, as long as its
Large portion of hard-working American cheese bodybuilding.
Large bowl of Grainy-o cereals I dont care if their drug tested or walking pharmacies.
I simply want to buy a ticket, and just see
Lunch bodybuilders compete.
4 cups of Blue collard greens But for some reason, thats become impossible.
Large plate of shredded, gnarly and veiny meat Why is it so crazy to want just bodybuilding?
Bunch of mashed potato (for the inspiration) Dont tell me we cant, because I lived and competed
when we did.
Soup made of a broth of torn tendons
Large piece of Horse meat (thatll teach him)
Mashed up potatoes
Da carb (George Farah secret recipe from Rochester)

One large banana eaten slowly with closed eyes

The Original Mission Statement of

the NPC and IFBB
What Happened?
Posted by Howard
I want to see an IFBB pro or NPC contest that is mostly
I dont mind calling it womans physique and actually
enjoy the new classic BB division.
I wouldnt care if they added a few bikini babes to spice
things up.
What has happened to my beloved IFBB pro and NPC
I was there when they
proudly declared , they were
only promoting BODYBUILDING.
Their mission statement was
to promote bodybuilding as a
feature, stand-alone sport.

Im proud to be a life time

bodybuilder and meathead fan.
I want to see muscle freaks
posing down on stage.
No, I dont care about their

28 MD October 2017


Social Media Warriors vs.

Actual Pro Bodybuilders? WTF My Wife and
Posted by Howard Planet Fitness
Ill never understand why some social media warriors Post by Daibhi
are more popular and admired than OBuadain
the best pro bodybuilders.
Hi, Im Assclown Abs. I never competed or won anything. I have been trying to
I work out in my garage with bike tire tubes. Watch my talk my wife into getting
tube stretching, muscle ripping workouts and subscribe back into the gym.
to my site. I nally got her to go
Then, they pay $$ to buy his retarded course and out and look at some
products. gyms that she might be
interested in.
Meanwhile, some real pro bodybuilder gets ignored and
told hes all drugs by fans of bike tire tube dude. We went into the one I
Its like thinking some guy running on his gym treadmill work out in.
is faster than No joy.
Ussain Bolt. LOL
I just dont get it. A new Planet Fitness has opened up nearby.
We went into it and looked around.
Response She decided that was the place for her.
by Vin77 After looking around its not hard to gure out why
I blame that Planet Fitness is taking over the gym industry.
Zyzz guy, he It was a very well organized gym.
pioneered the IG Full of new equipment.
aesthetics model It was spotless.
thing. Its open 24 hours a day, four days a week.
Bodybuilders Open until 9pm on Fridays with 7am-7pm hours on
are not weekends.
respected anymore. They put in 100x more work but truth Hours are better than my gym.
be told, the masses would rather see twinks like Devin The memberships are dirt cheap, one dollar down
Physique and other (ll in the name ________________) and ten a month.
175 pound IG tness models. Less expensive than my gym with better facilities
It doesnt help that a lot of the top pros today dont do Granted, unlike my y gy q p
gym the PF equipment was not
any promotion for the sport and only do one show a year, geared in part
they dont have the drive, passion or blood and tears type towards the hard
of training mentality like the guys back in the 90s did. core workout.
Kids today also dont want to put in the work. Why put No power
in 10 years of hardcore training and dieting and competing rack, or hack
in Bodybuilding shows when they can run tren, clen and machines.
var, train for a couple years, get sleeve tats (I have nothing Dumbbells
against tats but its trendy), a bunch of coordinated gym were 80lbs and
outts with matching Jordans and start an IG account under.
posting gym pics in their coordinated clothes and Jordans, Smith
Beats by Dre headphones and post inspirational quotes machines only
about hard work sprinkled with random pics of what I for chest, no at
ate today. or incline chest
Following the above formula gives them a chance benches.
at blowing up quick and it costs next to nothing, only No cross cables.
requires a couple years of working out and light cycles. No power
If they get a following, they get sponsored by a host of lifting platform.
companies throwing their products at them and paying I had never
them to wear things in their IG posts, not to mention that seen one of those PF lunk alarms.
they all offer personal training and charge an arm and Yep, it was there on the wall aligned with an anti-
a leg but use cut and paste programs and diets because bodybuilder statement.
the majority know nothing about proper training and I think that it may drive my gym out of business.
nutrition. Its probably going to pull the membership of my
It all comes down to much more and much faster gym that goes to my gym for cardio and light free
money than trying to grind it out and work your way weight and machine training.
through the ranks as a pro bodybuilder which takes years. Not enough hard core trainers to keep my gym in
Its Instagram and people see it as a chance at Instafame. business and its more economical to be a member
The love for the sport of bodybuilding has faded like an at the PF.
old pair of denim jeans.

30 MD October 2017


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Training CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

New Study

Awful Side Effect of High-Intensity Exercise
High-intensity exercise has been touted for its
immediate and quick results. It seems too good to be true
that a short bout of high-intensity, full-throttle training
can generate quick results, but theres an old saying: if
something is too good to be true, it probably is.
A study recently published in the American Journal
of Medicine shows a potential life-threatening condition
known as rhabdomyolysis or rhabdo can be the result of
pushing yourself too far with high-intensity exercise.
Rhabdo happens when the muscle tissue begins to
break down and leak into the circulatory system. This can
cause someone to become lightheaded, nauseated or have
sore muscle pain in the legs, or tea-colored, brown urine Paused Reps Increase
a classic symptom of rhabdo. Dark-colored urine is the
result of a protein called myoglobin and the destruction
and breakdown of muscle bers and the release of
Training Volume
Paused-rep training involves taking an unloaded rest for about four
compounds that can be harmful to the liver, such as seconds in the middle of a set. For example, when doing a set of 10 reps
myoglobin and other metabolites. If left untreated, rhabdo during a bench press, perform ve reps, unload for four seconds, and then
can be life threatening. This happened to a woman in her complete the last ve reps. Athletes can do more reps and activate more
mid-30s who was in good shape and went to a spin class. motor units during their workout using this technique. A small study led
After the class, she complained of muscle soreness, which by Adam Korak from the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota
is not unusual, but gradually the symptoms escalated into found that paused reps increased the total reps completed during workouts.
dizziness, nausea, dark-colored urine and shortness of Intense muscle contractions require energy from the high-energy chemicals
breath. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP). The maximum
While this is not meant to discourage you from training, capacity of ATP and CP is about three seconds. Theyre used rapidly during
rhabdo can occur if the body is not used to high-intensity intense weight training, which is the main reason the last few reps of an
exercise, which can be benecial if done properly. exercise are so difficult. Pausing for four seconds in the middle of a set allows
Whenever you start any exercise program, start off slowly your muscles to recover rapidly by replenishing ATP and CP in the muscles.
and gradually acclimate yourself to a higher-intensity Paused reps will allow you to lift more total weight, do more reps and work
routine. It takes time to gradually become used to routines harder. (European Journal of Applied Physiology, 117: 1891-1896, 2017)
that require large bursts of energy. Someone who hasnt
exercised in quite some time and does a strenuous workout
could develop symptoms of rhabdo, or just have a very bad
muscle pull. So exercise caution whenever starting a new
exercise program.
Some of the best ways to get the body used to exercise
are to start off with well-paced walks from 15 to 30 minutes
a day, along with maintaining a healthy Mediterranean
Diet rich in sh, nuts, olive oil, fruits and vegetables.
Eating a well-rounded diet and starting off any exercise
program slowly is the best way to go. Once your body is
used to working at a higher intensity, then go full throttle
but always consult a licensed trainer or health care
professional who will recommend what is good for you and
your limits.
The secret is to know your limits and listen to your body.
Your body will let you know something is wrong, and its
best not to ignore it. Remember that pain is a signal to your
body that something is wrong and it is best to get things
checked out if you are experiencing any type of pain or
discomfort no matter how t or unt you may be. (The
New York Times, July 18, 2017; American Medical Journal,
April 2017 Freebie Rhabdomyolysis: A Public Health
Concern. Spin Class-Induced Rhabdomyolysis) J.A. Giresi

32 MD October 2017


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Training CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

Post-Exercise Blood
Flow Occlusion
Promotes Recovery
Eccentric muscle contractions
(lengthening contractions; walking or
running down stairs or steep hills) are
linked to muscle damage and post-
exercise muscle soreness. Severe
soreness can delay recovery and
interfere with training. Will Page and
colleagues from St. Marys University
in the UK found that restricting leg
muscle blood ow during recovery from
a severe bout of eccentric exercise (100
drop jumps off 1.5 foot bench) resulted
in less muscle soreness, reduced
markers of muscle damage (creatine
kinase and swelling) and improved
performance. The method involved
applying a pressure cuff to the leg
in ated to 220 mmHg for three ve-
minute periods during recovery from
exercise. After the box jumps, leg blood
ow was restricted for ve minutes,
released for ve minutes and the cycle
was repeated two more times. The
long-term effectiveness or safety of
this procedure is not known, so we
recommend caution before attempting
this at home. (Journal of Science and
Medicine in Sport, 20: 729-733, 2017)

Supersets and
Tri-Sets Increase
Recovery Time
Athletes often use supersets (i.e.,

FULL RANGE EXERCISE CAUSES MORE MUSCLE two exercises performed consecutively
followed by rest) and tri-sets (i.e., three
DAMAGE THAN RESTRICTED RANGE EXERCISE: exercises performed consecutively
followed by rest) to increase training
Practical Application of the volume, decrease training time and
increase the intensity of the program.
Goldilocks Principle of Training Jonathon Weakley from Leeds Beckett
University in the UK, and co-workers,
Muscles grow in response to micro-injuries created during training. Athletes must use the found that while supersets and tri-sets
Goldilocks principle when causing muscle damage during training: too much damage can reduced training time and increased
delay recovery and cause serious injury (e.g., rhabdomyolysis) but inadequate or minimal training volume compared to traditional
damage causes little or no training response. Like Goldilocks and porridge, training stress training (completion of each exercise
must be just right. Many bodybuilders practice restricted-range exercises because they can in sequence), supersets and tri-sets
use more weight. For example, they only go through 20 or 30 degrees range of motion during delayed recovery as measured by
a curl instead of fully exing and extending the elbow. A study led by Bruno Baroni from the performance on a three-set maximum
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil showed that biceps curls performed through a lifting test and vertical jump test
full range of motion produced greater muscle damage than partial range-of-motion exercises, performed 24 hours after the workout.
even though athletes lifted more weight during the partial movements. What does this mean? Athletes need to adjust recovery times

Athletes must apply the right amount of stress to their muscles, which depends on the when using supersets and tri-sets in
Goldilocks principle and the degree of muscle damage. Training is often more art than science. their programs. (European Journal of
(Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 31: 2223-2230, 2017) Applied Physiology, 117: 1877-1889, 2017)

34 MD October 2017



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Fat Loss CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.


the Hottest Topic Today for
Controlling Weight Loss and Fat Loss
The body has two forms of fat WHITE FAT and
BROWN FAT. Brown fat burns calories. The more brown
fat you have, the more calories you burn. The capability
of harnessing ones own brown fat for fat burning is
revolutionary! The ability to get lean by producing extra
brown fat and enhancing and activating existing brown fat
represents a promising way to burn fat. Several landmark
discoveries and approaches to this are being explored at
major research centers and universities worldwide, with
great excitement!
Most recently, a new study was published in
New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and in Cell
Metabolism, and reported in The New York Times, and
shows the level of circulating follicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH) increases in menopausal women. A recent study
shows that FSH binds to its receptor on white adipocytes
(white fat cells) and results in a relatively low resting
energy expenditure and increased adiposity (body fat).
So, what does this mean? By blocking the FSH hormone,
it can boost metabolism, reduce abdominal fat and slow
bone loss. Most importantly it helps in the conversion of
white fat into beige/brown fat. The more brown fat that we
have, the more calories we will burn, and the more weight
we will lose!
The three most updated reviews on brown fat in 2017
published in Obesity Reviews show the positive effect of
converting white fat to beige/brown fat and enhancing
thermogenesis through pharmacological and nutritional
modalities. Factors involved in the conversion of white
to beige/brown fat can include certain drugs, but a safer
approach can be nutrition, exercise, certain dietary FAT-LOSS GUIDELINES:
supplements and spices such as capsaicin, the hot spice
found in chili peppers. the Street News Versus
The NEJM showed that abdominal fat was reduced
signicantly, but we already know that cold-induced
thermogenesis can enhance conversion of white fat into
the Street Noise
More than 66 percent of Americans are overweight or obese, but
brown fat. Of course, cold is not a practical approach and we hear so much conicting information regarding weight loss that its
it may not be pleasant, but if you have a high tolerance difficult to know what to do. The International Society of Sports Nutrition
for cold keep the air conditioning at high levels in the tried to clear things up by summarizing our knowledge of diet and body
summer, wear as little clothing as possible and take cold composition. No single dietary strategy is best for losing body fat and
showers!! You may also want to try swimming in a cold preserving lean mass (muscle and other non-fat tissues). In the long
pool, the ocean or live a brown fat-activating lifestyle and run, diets low or high in fat are equally effective for weight loss provided
become a fat-burning machine! (New England Journal of you create a caloric decit. Successful losers establish a caloric
Medicine, July 20, 2017; Cell Metabolism, published online decit by eating less and exercising more. Recent studies found that
July 18, 2017; published in print August 1, 2017; The New the combination of intense weight training, caloric restriction and high
York Times, August 7, 2018; Obesity Reviews, May 25, 2017; protein intake (2.3 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight) can
Obesity Reviews July 14, 2017; Obesity Reviews, February preserve or increase lean body mass during periods of weight and fat
10, 2017) loss. Consistency is the key to long-term weight control. (Journal of the
For more information about brown fat, go to International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14: 16, 2017)

36 MD October 2017




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By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

Exercise Reduces
Bone Fat
Long bones are critical for movement and body structure. Bone
marrow inside the long bones produces red blood cells (transport oxygen
and carbon dioxide), platelets (involved in blood clotting) and white blood
cells (promote immunity). Bone marrow also includes cells that build
and break down bone as well as other cells that store fat. Excessive fat
storage interferes with bone health and impairs metabolism. A study on
mice from the University of North Carolina School
of Medicine, led by May Styner, found that
only a few weeks of exercise reduced bone
marrow fat and improved bone health.
Exercise worked by speeding the
rate of fat breakdown in the bone
marrow. This is more evidence that
exercise is medicine. (Journal of
Bone and Mineral Research, 32:
1692-1702, 2017)

Metformin is a widely used drug to treat type 2 diabetes. The drug is derived
from a French lilac plant and has been a tool in herbal medicine since the Middle
Ages. Although used by more than 100 million people per day, its mechanism of
action is poorly understood. Indian researchers, led by Kunal Maniar, speculated
that metformin works by altering the microbes in the gut, which reduces insulin
resistance and improves blood sugar control. In obese people, metformin prevents
fat accumulation in the liver, which improves blood sugar control. The drug prevents
the formation of new blood sugar in the liver, a process called gluconeogenesis.
(Medical Hypotheses, 104: 117-120, 2017)


Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid (sometimes required in the
diet) that stimulates growth hormone and nitric oxide production. Growth hormone
promotes muscle hypertrophy and fuels metabolism, while nitric oxide enhances
blood ow control. Arginine might also increase endurance by enhancing blood ow
control. An Iranian study on soccer players found that feeding a supplement containing
arginine (2.0 grams of arginine for 45 days) increased maximal oxygen consumption
(important measure of cardiovascular capacity) by approximately 8 percent, compared
to a placebo (fake supplement). The supplement might work by enhancing muscle
blood ow control, increasing growth hormone release and enhancing endothelial
function (cells lining the blood vessels). Arginine supplements had no effect on lean
mass or body fat. (European Journal Clinical Nutrition, 71: 544-548, 2017)

38 MD October 2017


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Nutrition CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

Weight loss is key to
bodybuilders, athletes and non-
athletes alike. Either way, it can be
a daunting challenge. While some
seem to have an easy time with
weight loss, others can have a real
challenge maintaining a healthy
weight. Research at the San Diego
School of Medicine shows that the key
to maintaining weight loss may be as
simple as a handful of walnuts. Gut Microbes Linked to
Walnuts? Are you nuts? Nope.
Its true. A recent study published in
Destructive Effects of
the Journal of the American Heart
Association says that a handful of
Stress in Athletes
walnuts eaten each day can help to omega-3 fatty acid typically found in Athletes live on stress. The physical and
maintain your weight. Researchers certain vegetables such as axseed. psychological effects of training and competition are
surveyed 245 overweight and obese Walnuts, though, were shown to have draining, and can lead to suppression of the immune
subjects between the ages of 22 and these omega-3 polyunsaturated system and severe mental stress. French and Spanish
72, and put them into one-year program fats, providing the same benets as researchers speculated that athletic stress could
to study their weight loss. The groups omega-3 from sh, such as improved alter the microbe characteristics of the gut, which can
were each given random diets from cardiovascular function and weight negatively affect metabolism. Cold exposure (a stress
a higher fat diet to a lower fat diet, loss! to the body), for example, alters the composition of gut
or diets consisting of high carbs and Before you head out to the store microbes, which affects insulin sensitivity and fat cell
low carbs, and lastly, a diet consisting and buy a weeks worth of walnuts, regulation. The activity of these gut microbes might
of walnut-rich, higher fat and lower keep in mind that this study was explain why the physical and emotional stress of sport
carbohydrate diet. The group that ate focused primarily on women. Also, affects metabolism and bodyweight control. Viruses
walnuts was given a handful each per the study didnt measure how the and bacteria affect food absorption and inuence gut
day. After six months, the subjects who participants stuck to the diet, but hormones that regulate appetite and metabolic rate
ate the walnuts lost the most weight. from the data provided, it appears (the rate you burn calories). Animals infected with
Those same study participants had that compliance was quite good. a common human cold virus put on much more fat
an improved cholesterol levels when Still, this is more good news about than uninfected animals. These same viruses were
compared to the other two groups. Bad walnuts, as increasing research more common in overweight people, so there might
cholesterol took a sharp dive while the supports their value for weight loss be a link. Stress-induced alterations in gut microbes
good cholesterol or HDL cholesterol and as a nutritional powerhouse. can also cause stomach and intestinal distress,
increased! Nuts in general have been touted for anxiety, depression and poor performance. (Journal
Whats the secret to the science? their many benets from peanuts, International Society of Sports Nutrition, 13: 13, 2016)
When evaluating the data, the cashews, pistachios and many
researchers believe that the group that others. Also, nuts are a terric source
ate the low-carb, high-fat diet ate foods of healthy, monounsaturated fat,
that were higher in monounsaturated and snacking on a few a day can be
fats, or good fats found in foods like benecial.
avocados, olive oil and walnuts. Foods Walnuts are very bodybuilder
rich in monounsaturated fats, like those friendly food that can easily be
found in the Mediterranean Diet, can incorporated into your diet, in
signicantly decrease the risk of heart moderation and are terric to use
disease and improve blood cholesterol. for almost any type of recipe. Try
Heres the kicker: the walnut-rich diet topping a Mediterranean salad with
provided more polyunsaturated fats. walnuts, along with a glass of red
What does that mean? Why should wine for additional benets. Not to
I care? mention, desserts containing avocados
Heres whats special about walnuts. provide many benets for a good, well-
Walnuts are high in polyunsaturated rounded diet. (Journal of the American
fats, including a signicant amount of Heart Association 2016;5:e002771)
alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). ALA is an J.A. Giresi

40 MD October 2017



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Nutrition CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

KUDOS TO Protein Plus Weight Training Increases

Sports supplements come and
Muscle Mass and Strength
go, but creatine monohydrate has Protein supplements, up to 1.6 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight a day,
passed the Pepsi Challenge. A improved muscle mass and strength more than weight training alone according to a
position statement by the International meta-analysis combining the results of 49 studies involving 1,863 test subjects. Protein
Society of Sports Nutrition concluded supplements plus weight training enhanced gains in strength by 9 percent and muscle mass
that creatine increases high-intensity by 27 percent compared to weight training alone. Protein supplements worked best in trained
exercise capacity, boosts muscle mass athletes but were less effective in older people. Protein intakes above 1.6 grams per kilogram of
and strength during training, enhances bodyweight per day provided no further benets. Note that this nding differs from the protein
glycogen storage, speeds recovery recommendations of the International Society of Sports Nutrition discussed below. (British
and improves training tolerance. Journal of Sports Medicine, published online July 2017)
Medical studies found that creatine
supplements prevent injury, improve
body temperature control, speed injury
Nutrition Group Recommends
rehabilitation and protect against
concussion, spinal cord injuries and
The recommended protein intake by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is 0.8 grams of
heart rhythm disturbances. More than protein per kilogram of bodyweight. The recommendations of the International Society of Sports
1,000 studies have shown that creatine Nutrition are considerably higher. They concluded that protein and weight training promote muscle
monohydrate is a safe and effective protein synthesis, and combining the two triggers even greater changes. Weight-trained athletes
supplement for adults, adolescents need 1.4 to 2.0 grams per kilogram of bodyweight per day and might benet from even higher
and children. They also concluded that intakes. Athletes on low-calorie diets might need 2.3 to 3.1 grams per kilogram of bodyweight per
athletic organizations and government day. Leucine, an amino acid found in most proteins, is an important trigger for muscle growth, and
entities that discourage creatine use athletes might benet from protein and leucine supplements. If possible, the diet should include
might be increasing the risk of head food sources containing all of the essential amino acids. Endurance athletes should consume
and nerve injuries in sport. (Journal adequate carbohydrates because carbs are the main fuel during exercise at intensities above 65
International Society of Sports percent of maximum effort. Consuming 30 to 40 grams of casein (e.g., milk) before bed might build
Nutrition, 14: 18, 2017) muscle and increase metabolic rate. (Journal International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14: 20, 2017)

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Health CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

Research Update

Painkillers Harm the Kidneys, Muscle
Growth and Recovery
Weve all been there. Youre exercising 8 (TRPM8). This centers in on sensory nerves
your heart out, pushing the weights, training and the blood vessels by creating a cooling
to failure and ouch! a pulled muscle. sensation on the skin. When the injury occurs,
Whats the rst thing that you do? Youve got the topical treatment would be able to go right
it! You reach for the bottle of painkillers, but to the source of the injury, helping to induce
lately, thanks to research being conducted blood ow immediately without stomach upset
on NSAID pain relievers, topical agents and because of NSAIDs. Be very cautious about
acetaminophen, it appears that the adage No taking the pain reliever acetaminophen, found
Pain! No Gain! could in fact be true. in Tylenol, and ingesting alcohol. When you
In the new study, a team of researchers take acetaminophen and then have alcohol, you
conducted an intense investigation of marathon can be damaging your liver, or worse even
runners and found that some painkillers, causing yourself to go into liver failure and
namely NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-in ammatory possibly be a candidate for a liver transplant.
drugs) like ibuprofen, could lead to acute If the pain is severe, then you should
kidney disease if used to treat injury related to go see a health care professional who will
exercise. Some athletes and gym rats have a recommend the best course of action. To be
little inside joke that ibuprofen could sometimes proactive, and try to avoid injury altogether,
be referred to as vitamin 1 because they rely it is also recommended that you eat an anti-
on it so much. But according to a new study in ammatory Mediterranean diet rich in sh
published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ), (sh oil), olive oil, nuts, fruits and vegetables.
painkillers may do more harm than good. This all-natural diet approach may be helpful
In the study, researchers surveyed a group of for relieving pain and in ammation when injury
marathon runners. They found that in 75 percent does occur. Also, ingesting certain spices like
of marathon runners who use NSAIDs like the Indian herb turmeric (curcumin) may help
ibuprofen, the NSAIDs could contribute or cause to relieve in ammation, but use with caution,
acute kidney injury and even slow the growth of especially if you are using any blood thinners
muscle tissue related to an injury. such as Coumadin. (The New York
NSAID pain relievers, like ibuprofen, work by Times, July 11, 2017; Scandinavian
slowing down the bodys process for a specied Journal of Medicine & Health,
group of hormone-like compounds called published online August 4, 2017; British
prostaglandins that go right to the source of the Medical Journal, Published online 5
injury. Prostaglandins also make blood vessels July 2017; Microvascular Research,
become wider, which increases blood ow to the Volume 107, September 2016, Pages 39-
injured area. When people take NSAIDs, this 45) J.A. Giresi
results in a smaller number of prostaglandins
and consequently, it brings down in ammation
and the blood vessels wont become as dilated.
Recent research also has shown that NSAIDs
may increase the risk of cardiovascular Exercise Slows
accidents such as heart attacks and strokes.
This is another reason why you should avoid
the Aging Process
excessive use of NSAIDs. Physically t people have healthier, more resilient genes. Exercise preserves gene
Given the new research, what should we structures called telomeres, which form the ends of the DNA strands and holds them
use to treat muscle injury? Some of the best together. Over time the telomeres shorten, reducing their effectiveness, which triggers
remedies can include immediately applying illness and death. Exercise prevents telomere shortening. A study of nearly 6,000 adults
ice to help alleviate the swelling, but another from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, led by Larry Tucker from
way is to use topical menthol creams. Recent Brigham Young University in Utah, showed that people who exercised more had longer
studies have shown that topical agents that telomeres. Researchers compared people with high, moderate, low and sedentary physical

contain menthol, which have a cooling effect, activity levels. Cellular aging, as measured by telomere length, was nine years greater in
may be helpful. Menthol, the active ingredient the low and sedentary groups than in the high exercise group, and seven years greater in
found in many topical analgesics, activates the moderate than high exercise groups. Exercise improves cell health and longevity in U.S.
whats called the transient receptor melastatin adults by preserving gene telomere length. (Preventive Medicine, 100: 145-151, 2017)

44 MD October 2017

Health CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

Exercise Promotes
Kidney Health
Chronic kidney disease is a gradual loss of kidney
function often linked to high blood pressure, diabetes
and heart disease. It can have severe effects on
metabolism and results in loss of energy, reduced
sexual performance, and swollen limbs and joints.
A study led by Dave Edwards from the University of
Delaware found that exercise improved blood vessel
health and physical tness in people with chronic
kidney disease. Exercise also improved quality of life
and reduced blood pressure and body fat. Extreme
exercise levels can impair kidney function. Muscle cell
destruction from excessive exercise causes the cell
contents, such as calcium, myoglobin, lactic acid, uric
acid, creatine kinase and amino acids, to empty into
the bloodstream a condition called rhabdomyolysis.
These chemicals disturb the pumps that regulate uid
balances in the cells and can trigger abnormal heart
rhythms, blood clots, kidney failure and lactic acidosis.
Intense exercise, particularly in the heat, can cause
muscle cell destruction. This condition is rare but
potentially fatal. (ScienceDaily, June 28, 2017)

Resistance Training Is an
Effective Treatment for
Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is a nervous system disease
that attacks the myelin the fatty nerve covering that
promotes communication between nerve cells. The
disease causes physical, mental and psychological
deterioration. Resistance training reduces symptoms of
the disease and appears to protect the nervous system
against further deterioration. Danish researchers
found that patients with multiple sclerosis who trained
with weights twice a week for six months showed
a reduction in lost brain tissue compared to people Functional High-Intensity Training Improves
who didnt lift weights. Weight training protected the
nerves and might have promoted new nerve growth, Blood Sugar Regulation
suggesting that it is an effective treatment for the High-intensity interval training (HIIT), involving repeated bouts of maximal intensity
disease. Resistance exercise benets other kinds of sprints on a stationary bike or elliptical trainer, triggers rapid improvements in maximal
chronic disease. It can reduce cardiovascular disease oxygen consumption (cardiovascular capacity), endurance, glycogen storage (stored
risk factors, improve quality of life in cancer patients, carbs) and mitochondrial capacity (mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cells).
enhance lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary Functional high-intensity training (e.g., CrossFit) has similar effects on blood sugar
disease, improve blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes, control according to a study led by Stephan Nieuwoudt from Case Western Reserve
increase functional capacity in Parkinsons disease University in Cleveland, Ohio. Middle-aged men with high blood sugar performed
and multiple sclerosis, decrease muscle pain in CrossFit workouts involving functional high-intensity training exercises three days per
bromyalgia and improve physical function in HIV/ week for six weeks. The program resulted in marked changes in blood sugar regulation.
AIDS. The intensity of weight training in people with High-intensity training involving aerobics or functional exercises triggers rapid
chronic disease must be matched with their physical improvements in physical tness and metabolic health. (American Journal Physiology
capacities. (Multiple Sclerosis Journal, published online Endocrinology Metabolism, published online May 16, 2017)
July 28, 2017)

46 MD October 2017

Supplements CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

New Study:

400 MG OF CAFFEINE Boosting

Best Dose for
Is Safe and Harmless
Caffeine is a stimulant that tness-minded argued that evidence proves the drug is safe
caffeine users may become habituated to its
people know well as a quick pre-workout despite the bad rap it gets in the media. She effects and one cup in the morning turns to
that will give your training a buzz. Taken told MailOnline: Unfortunately, there is an three cups by the end of the day athletes
an hour before exercise, caffeine increases enormous amount of myth and misinformation have typically been advised to stop drinking
alertness, which can make exercise feel less surrounding caffeine. The reality is that people coffee or anything containing caffeine for about
strenuous and enables most athletes to who cut out tea and coffee may miss out on a week before competition. But Bruno Gualano,
perform better. Its also a double-edged sword, the potential health benets of the compounds a professor of physiology and nutrition at the
as its often blamed for sleeplessness, anxiety they contain. University of So Paulo in Brazil, found that
and frequent trips to the bathroom. It turns Ruxtons review examined at least 15 regardless of habitual caffeine intake in ones
out that those who have ridiculed caffeine or different trials that documented the benets diet, caffeine can enhance your training.
caffeine has on the In Gualanos study, competitive male cyclists
brain, including consumed 400 milligrams of caffeine one hour
improving reaction before a ride, which is equivalent to the amount
times, accuracy in of caffeine in four cups of coffee. The subjects
tests and alertness. also received a placebo before another ride.
Such studies Almost all of the riders were able to pedal
also hinted that it harder and faster after swallowing the caffeine
inuences the release pill 3.3 percent faster on average compared
of dopamine, which to when they had no pill, and 2.2 percent
is thought to enhance faster than when they took a placebo. Cyclists
mood and prevent who usually drank large amounts of coffee or
the blues. Another 29 caffeine drinks every day received the same
randomized, controlled boost from caffeine as light coffee drinkers.
trials that were Gualanos study refutes previous advice from
assessed conrmed some scientists and coaches that in order
caffeine enhances to gain any performance boost from taking
sports performance. caffeine before a workout, you have to abstain
think its harmful have beans in their head. A The researchers estimate thatthree out of from coffee or caffeine for a few days or weeks.
new study shows that caffeine is safe even four elite athletes use caffeine supplements to You can get your caffeine x of 400
for pregnant women and young children, and boost their performance. milligrams per day (maximum) in four cups
it boosts physical and mental performance. The review published in Complete Nutrition of coffee, eight cups of tea, ve cans of the
When taken at the recommended daily amount supports another study recently published in energy drink Red Bull or one serving of AML
of 400 milligrams about four cups of coffee The Journal of Applied Physiology that found Preworkout from Advanced Molecular Labs.
or eight cups of tea caffeine has no lasting acute caffeine supplementation can improve (, July 28, 2017; Journal of
damage on the body. performance. Because there are concerns that Applied Physiology, 123: 213-220, 2017)
A review of 44 trials, published in the journal
Complete Nutrition and conducted by Dr. Carrie
Ruxton, Ph.D., RD, a leading British dietitian
who has advised the European Food Safety Capsaicin Promotes Metabolic Health
Authority, threw a monkey wrench into the Capsaicin is a chemical found in red chili pepper used to make paprika, which is an
mixed research that has warned consumers ingredient in chili and Mexican food. It reduces appetite and calorie intake and helps
about the potential dangers of caffeine promote weight loss by releasing serotonin, a hunger-suppressing hormone. Brazilian
consumption. A separate review conducted by researcher Marcelo de Freitas and colleagues found that supplementing capsaicin 45
the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) minutes before a weight workout increased total weight lifted by 25 percent and made
found that 400 milligrams of caffeine is safe on the workout seem easier. Capsaicin is also an effective supplement for promoting weight
a daily basis. Researchers at the ILSI examined control and it also might reduce atherosclerosis, inammation, metabolic syndrome,
over 740 studies about the effects of caffeine on diabetes, fatty liver disease, heart enlargement, high blood pressure, and the risk of
humans to make the claim. stroke and cancer. It also has favorable effects on the endothelium the inner lining of
Ruxton, who was the driving force behind the blood vessels. Capsaicin is a heart-healthy supplement that promotes metabolic
the myth-busting review in Complete Nutrition, health and improves workout quality. (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,
described caffeine as one of the most publish online July 3, 2017)
polarizing dietary substances around, and

48 MD October 2017

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

Promote Recovery
Leucine, isoleucine and valine
are called branched-chain
amino acids (BCAA). They are
essential amino acids, which Bitter Orange Extract Is Safe
means they must be consumed
in the diet. BCAAs are involved in and Effective for Weight
protein synthesis, tissue repair,
signaling a biochemical pathway
Control and Fighting Fatigue
essential for muscle protein Bitter orange (citrus aurantium) is a nervous
synthesis (i.e., mTOR) and blood system stimulator included in many weight-loss
sugar control. A meta-analysis and energy-boosting supplements. A chemical
that combined the results of called p-synephrine is responsible for its effects.
seven studies showed that BCAA The supplement increases fat breakdown at rest and
supplements are best taken oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, and speeds
after exercise, not before! When fat oxidation. The energy-boosting effects of these
BCAAs are taken after exercise, supplements promote fat loss, reduce the perception of
they reduce post-exercise fatigue during exercise and make workouts seem easier.
muscle soreness and creatine Bitter orange improves performance by increasing
kinase a marker of muscle training adherence (i.e., showing up at the gym).
damage better than rest alone. Bitter orange extract is safe when taken as directed
BCAAs promote recovery by according to a literature review of 30 human studies
stimulating the mTOR pathway by Sidney Stohs from Creighton University Medical
to increase protein synthesis to Center in Frisco, Texas. Thirteen years ago, the U.S. Food
repair injured tissue. Leucine, and Drug Administration (FDA) banned ephedra, an
one of the BCAAs, is the most effective and popular weight loss and athletic training
important chemical that turns supplement in response to health concerns. The FDA
on the mTOR pathway, so it is and the National Institutes of Health are scrutinizing
likely that consuming leucine the safety of bitter orange extract (https://ods.od.nih.
after exercise would be just as gov/factsheets/WeightLoss-HealthProfessional/), so
effective (and cheaper) than this study is important to bodybuilders seeking effective
consuming BCAAs. (Nutrition, supplements. (Phytotherapy Research, published online
42: 30-36, 2017) July 28, 2017)


Exercise is important for brain health, particularly in older people. Consuming
beetroot juice before exercise boosts the benets of physical activity to the brain
according to a study led by Jonathan Burdette and Meredith Petrie from Wake Forest
University. Older adults who consumed a beetroot supplement called Beet It Sport
Shot (560 mg of nitrate) 50 minutes before exercise (50-minute treadmill walk) for six
weeks showed brain blood ow changes that were similar to young people. Nitrates and
nitrites, found in beetroot juice and supplements, increase nitric oxide (NO)secretion.
The capacity of theblood vesselsto secrete nitric oxide is an important measure of
cardiovascular health and performance. NOis secreted by the inner lining of blood
vessels and is critical for controlling blood ow throughout the body.Increased nitrate
intake improves running speed and efficiency in recreational distance runners.Good
sources of dietary nitrates include lettuce and spinach, with contributions from various
vegetables, potatoes and fruit. Beets are an excellent source of nitrates and the focus of

most studies on nitrates, health and performance. Everyone, particularly older adults,
should exercise and eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and consider purchasing a juicer
to increase beet intake. (The Journals of Gerontology: 72 (Series A): 1284-1289, 2017)

50 MD October 2017

Drugs CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

Intense training hurts. Drugs like ibuprofen and
naproxen help take the pain away. Many bodybuilders
take nonsteroidal anti-inammatory drugs after almost
every workout. That could be a mistake. A review of
literature by Australian researchers, led by Michael
Stokes, concluded that regular NSAIDs use increases
the risk of heart attack and heart-related sudden death.
Cannabis or marijuana is a Schedule I drug in the United States, which Some NSAIDs were more dangerous than others.
means that the federal government has determined that it has a high potential Ibuprofen, naproxen, celecoxib, diclofenac and rofecoxib
for abuse, it has no accepted medical use and its dangerous. Most states and increased the risk by 20 to 200 percent. The researchers
U.S. territories, however, allow recreational or medical use of the drug. The drug advised avoiding these drugs or taking high doses.
is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency for use in Olympic sports. It is not (Heart, Lung and Circulation, 26: 753-756, 2017)
surprising that we dont know much about the effects of the drug on athletic
performance. A review of 15 published studies by Michael Kennedy from St.
Vincents Hospital Medical School in Sydney, Australia concluded that marijuana
decreases performance in endurance and anaerobic sports. It triggered chest
pain during exercise in heart patients, which might make it dangerous for older
athletes. It also reduced muscle strength. Its only positive effect on exercise was
that it reduced the risk of exercise-induced asthma. Serious athletes should avoid
marijuana because it decreases performance. Recent research has shown that
marijuana lowers dopamine in the brain. Dopamine makes people feel good and
psyches them up. Increased dopamine enhances exercise performance. (Journal
Science and Medicine in Sport, 20: 825-829, 2017)

NEW STUDY: Growth Hormone Does Not

Boost Exercise Performance
Some bodybuilders use growth hormone (GH) to
gain a competitive edge, but what are the real benets?
A study recently published in Growth Hormone & IGF
Research found that GH administration elicits signicant
changes in body composition, but does not boost exercise
The new study, titled Impact of GH administration
on athletic performance in healthy young adults: A
systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-
controlled trials, looked at published studies on the
effect of GH administration on body composition,
substrate metabolism and athletic performance in
healthy, young subjects. While the illicit use of growth
hormone (GH) for performance enhancement among
athletes is prevalent, there is not a lot of evidence of GHs
benets in younger and t individuals. The researchers
found that GH elicits signicant changes in body
composition and lipolysis, but does not signicantly
improve either muscle strength or exercise capacity.
The researchers concluded that administration of GH
signicantly increased lean body mass and decreased fat
mass. GH also increased the exercising levels of glycerol
and free fatty acids, but did not alter the respiratory
quotient during exercise. GH signicantly increased
anaerobic exercise capacity in the only study that

investigated this, but did not improve muscle strength

or maximum oxygen uptake over weeks to months.
(Growth Hormone & IGF Research, June 2017; volume 34,

52 MD October 2017

Drugs CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.


CLOUD JUDGEMENT? Recovery From Spinal Cord Injury
Testosterone prescriptions have nearly doubled from 1.3 million Growth hormone and
to 2.3 million in the last four years. Television ads convince men resistive exercise are
that fatigue, decreased sex drive and agging physical capacity are potent promoters of protein
symptoms of low T. Therese Huston, a reporter for The New York synthesis in muscle and
Times, concluded that half the men taking testosterone supplements nerve tissue. A study led by
dont have a deciency and that treating them with testosterone makes Guillem Cuatrecasas from
them more impulsive and clouds their judgment. This article is typical Hospital Quirn Teknon in
of anti-testosterone and anti-anabolic steroid diatribes published Barcelona, Spain showed that
since the 1930s short on data and rife with prejudice and half-truths. spinal cord-injured patients
For example, Huston cites a study in the JAMA Internal Medicine treated with growth hormone
(2016;176(12):1743-1744) claiming that half the men taking prescription and two hours of physical
testosterone dont have a deciency. Her source wasnt a study but therapy per day experienced
rather an opinion article that casually mentioned that many patients greater improvements in
dont have a testosterone deciency. The article presented no data. sensory capacity below the
Huston then implied that testosterone makes men more impulsive and spinal injury than a placebo
overcondent and that testosterone supplemented middle-aged males group that received fake
were bogged down by hubris, overcondence and impaired judgment. growth hormone. Growth
In fact, several recent studies found that testosterone supplements had hormone is not a magic bullet
no effect on mental function but improved learning between practice that will restore function in
sessions (Psychopharmacology (2012) 224:451-457). Testosterone is a spinal cord-injured patients,
powerful hormone that inuences aggression and sex drive, but its but it will improve their quality
a stretch to say that it will interfere with cooperation and judgment in of life. The study also presents
the workplace. We have good evidence that testosterone supplements the possibility that growth
reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke and all-cause mortality in men hormone plus exercise can
with low testosterone, so the therapy is benecial for many patients. help people with other types
When faced with such idle speculation, always ask: wheres your data? of injuries. (Science Daily,
(The New York Times, June 24, 2017) published online May 22, 2017)


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Sex CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

Hap-penis Is a Hard Thing to Find:

You cannot say happiness without
saying penis, so it is a personal
tragedy when you break it. The
penis is not a bone, so it cant
be fractured. The injury refers
to the rupture of the corpus
cavernosum the sponge-like
tissue in the penis that collects
blood during an erection. A study
from the University of Campinas
in Brazil found that penile injuries
occurred most frequently with the
woman on top, having sex doggy
style, missionary position and
Shockwave Therapy Improves vigorous masturbation. Other
studies found that falling out of
Erection Strength bed during sleep on an erect penis
or blunt trauma accounted for
about 40 percent of penile injuries.
Erection-promoting drugs like Viagra and Cialis have added
years of sexual activity to aging Romeos. Unfortunately, Vigorous sexual intercourse
the drugs dont work in everyone and can have annoying accounted for only 5 percent. The
side effects like headache and sinus congestion. injury is a medical emergency that
Shockwave therapy is an effective alternative treatment can lead to abscess, permanent
that improves blood ow through the penis and improves curvature of the penis, pain
erection quality according to a meta-analysis led during erection and sex, erectile
by Raul I. Clavijo from the University of California, Los dysfunction and hardening of the
Angeles that combined the results of seven studies penile arteries. Surgery is the
involving 602 men. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy preferred method of treatment for
involves high sound waves generated by an electromagnetic serious penile ruptures because it
coil to stimulate blood ow. It has been used to break up kidney results in fewer complications than
stones and help heal injured muscle and tendons, and may conservative management such as
promote blood vessel and nerve growth. In most of the studies, cold compresses, pressure wraps,
patients received two treatments per week for six weeks. While splinting and anti-in ammatory
relatively expensive, these devices are available on the Internet medications. (Advances in Urology,
without a prescription. (Journal of Sexual Medicine, 14: 27-35, 2017) published online, 2014)


The porn supersite caters to even the most
kinky tastes, and they are tracking your viewing habits. The
site gives you instant access to nude cheerleaders, gangbangs,
interracial sex, pee and scat sex, young girls, grannies, dirty
old men, enema sex, masturbation, nude gymnastics, sex with
redheads, blondes, shaved and pubic hair models, sex with
gays, straights and transsexuals, and even animal sex. People
cant get enough of it. The site gets 75 million hits per day, and
it gets more popular every year. While you might be watching
videos in the privacy of your bedroom, Pornhub keeps track of
your viewing habits. They know the most intimate details of your
kinky, degenerate sexual desires, so dont think youre fooling
anybody. (New York Post, June 11, 2017)

56 MD October 2017

Good and frequent sex is critical for good
health, happiness and self-esteem, but
one in ve American adults arent getting
any. This leads to depression, anxiety,
relationship problems and poor quality
of life. Yet, physicians seldom discuss
sexual relationships or biological sexual
problems with their patients. Women often
avoid sex because of previous sexual
abuse, shame, low sex drive, poor health,
age and psychological inhibition. Men
avoid sex because of lack of opportunity,
embarrassment over erection problems
and premature ejaculation, age, anxiety
over penis size, low energy levels,
and medications. Lack of sex triggers
loneliness and isolation and bad health.
Physicians rarely speak to their patients
about sex because it takes too much time,
embarrassment, and lack of knowledge
about sexuality. Improving sexual health
should be a national health priority. (www. July 21, 2017)

Getting laid is easier than ever, but Americans
are having less sex than they did in the 90s.
We are inundated with sex ranging from free
porn on demand to hookup apps like Tinder.
Check Backpage or Craigslist if you want
anonymous sex with women, men, couples or
transsexuals. Jean Twenge from San Diego
State University and colleagues found that
Americans are having substantially less sex
than they did in 1990. Millennials at the
peak of their sexuality have experienced
the greatest decrease. A Dartmouth College
study showed the frequency of sex was the
most important marker of happiness. Whats
causing the great American sex drought?
Possible reasons include sex overload from
porn, physical inactivity producing poor
metabolic health, or environmental pollutants
that alter sex hormones. America is the richest
country in the world but we are only 15th on
the World Happiness Index. The American
sexual drought is a serious public health issue
that is linked to other health problems such
as obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes.
(Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11:9, 2017)

October 2017 MD 57




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58 MD October 2017

FAT attack By Daniel Gwartney, M.D.


There is an ageless lm from the spaghetti
westerns genre called The Good, the Bad and
the Ugly starring Clint Eastwood. In the quest
to be ageless, many have turned to human

growth hormone (hGH) due to the known
decline in hGH production as one ages, and
the youthful benets incurred when properly
used including improved soft tissue repair,
greater skin elasticity and body composition
Body composition enhancement was once
called repartitioning, as the net effect was
an increase in lean mass (e.g., muscle) with a
loss in fat mass; the appeal to bodybuilders is
obvious. The early days of hGH use for treating
aging adults, and its misuse by bodybuilders,
was a tragic example of the risks involved with
being an early adapter. The error made during
the early days was following dosing schemes
used to treat children suffering from pituitary
dwarsm.1 Children who are decient in hGH,
which is naturally produced in the pituitary
gland in the brain, require very high doses of
hGH to restore linear growth (height) and other
effects seen in the developing body of children
and adolescents. Older adults, even healthy
young adults, have a lower requirement for
hGH, as affecting tissue function rather than
structure is the goal.
The good of hGH is that it is an essential
metabolic hormone that was unfortunately
named. Its role in the obvious growth of
children and adolescents, particularly how tall
one gets, caused this hormone to be named
growth hormone. Even medical journals
commonly refer to this name rather than the
more appropriate but less sexy somatotropin.
While it is true that humans can live with very
low, even non-detectable levels of hGH, they
certainly do not thrive and are subjected to an
increased risk of numerous disease states.2 So,
there is an accepted deciency state, usually
associated with a vascular malformation MANY ATHLETES AND BODYBUILDERS FAIL TO RECOGNIZE
craniopharyngioma, or a slow-growing tumor THEIR UNIQUE LIMITATIONS, AND RECKLESSLY ATTEMPT
of the pituitary gland adenoma, when the TO PHARMACEUTICALLY COERCE THE BODY TO PERFORM AT
cause is known. Often, the cause is unknown
idiopathic; pituitary hormone deciencies A HIGHER LEVEL OR PROLONG A CAREER WELL PAST THE
following head trauma are becoming POINT OF RETIREMENT.

60 MD October 2017

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FAT attack
increasingly common as awareness of this 2 diabetes in persons not otherwise at risk,
potential consequence grows. There are also accelerated cancer growth, cosmetic effects
mutations that can arise in the hGH-receptor, and injection-related abscesses.5
resulting in similar effects.
The bad of hGH refers to consequences THE UGLY ROLE OF hGH
of its excess, which can arise naturally or due The immediate reaction of the ugly
to prolonged treatment that is in excess of the is to visualize a Frankenstein-like hulking
bodys physiologic need. Some people develop bodybuilder with GH belly. However, not all
an adenoma (a benign tumor) in the pituitary examples of hGHs ugly side can be found
that actually produces hGH. If this happens in the realm of bodybuilding. Someone who
during childhood, they develop gigantism as comes to mind Google her if the name
their bones are able to lengthen prior to the doesnt ring a bell is the late supermodel
end of puberty; cases of such people reaching Anna Nicole Smith. A former model for Guess
jeans and 1993 Playboy Playmate of the
Year, Smith was known later in her career
THANKFULLY, PHYSIQUES for extremely dramatic weight gain, followed
by equally extreme weight loss. Prior to her
HAVE TRENDED BACK demise from a tragic addiction to prescription
TOWARD A MORE medications, she served as a spokesperson
AESTHETIC FORM AS for a weight-loss product. According to autopsy
ndings, in addition to numerous other drugs,
COMPETITORS HAVE two were present that were likely used to
GAINED A GREATER promote or maintain her recent weight loss
UNDERSTANDING OF HGHS hGH and topiramate.6 The presumed injection
sites for the hGH (and vitamin B-12) were
EFFECTS AND PROPER riddled with abscesses and areas of necrotic
DOSING THROUGH THE (dead) tissue. Topiramate is a drug used to
COSTLY PRACTICE OF TRIAL treat epilepsy that is also approved as part of
AND ERROR. a combination drug for weight loss. Smith, with
no known history of epilepsy, was using the
drug in 2007. The ugly role of hGH was not
its effectiveness or presence in the autopsy
heights over eight feet tall have been reported. report, but rather its use by an undisciplined
If it happens after they become adults, they person (as demonstrated by the drug addiction
develop a condition known as acromegaly; the and multiple abscesses) to promote an image
person does not grow taller as the growth not supported by her lifestyle, and used to
plates in the bones are fused. Both conditions persuade consumers of the effectiveness of an
are associated with shorter life spans; herbal supplement.
deformities of the facial bones, hands and feet; Bodybuilding has seen ugly too. During
organ growth and dysfunction; and metabolic the mid-1980s, the appearance of professional
consequences.3 and top amateur bodybuilders began to
The ugly of hGH is when the hormone change. The size obtained by the men became
is used illicitly or to pursue a vain goal, and even more distorted from the aesthetic
causes one or more harmful side effects. proportions that hallmarked the prior decades;
Combating the effects of aging is not a vain the V-taper of the abdomen disappeared to be
pursuit, but many people attempt to overcome replaced by a distended belly with absolutely
consequences of their lifestyle to present minimal subcutaneous fat; hands, feet and
a healthier or more youthful appearance. facial features were becoming elongated and
Further, many athletes and bodybuilders misshapen. For the mainstream audience,
fail to recognize their unique limitations, and acceptance of professional bodybuilding
recklessly attempt to pharmaceutically coerce plummeted as they perceived physiques
the body to perform at a higher level or prolong warping from godlike to grotesque. Thankfully,
a career well past the point of retirement. physiques have trended back toward a more
Though it has not been documented, in aesthetic form as competitors have gained a
part due to a lack of a doping test for hGH greater understanding of hGHs effects and
misuse, one might follow the change in shoe proper dosing through the costly practice of
size reported by certain athletes during their trial and error.
pro careers. This should be documented in
team records. Imaging scanners could look HEALTH CONCERNS AND THE
for changes in facial features arising over ANYTHING GOES MENTALITY
the course of time.4 The consequences from Given the polypharmacy (multiple drugs
such misuse/abuse are far-ranging. In the used) practices of professional bodybuilding,
most extreme cases, there may be increased it is impossible to isolate any particular drug,
cardiovascular damage, earlier deaths, type diet or training program to a specic harm.

62 MD October 2017

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However, it has been noted that bodybuilders
have seen an increase in heart attacks and
deaths during the last 20 years, according STIMULATE THE EXAGGERATED
to anecdotal reports and autopsy series. It MUSCULAR BULK OF SOME
is likely that hGH played a role in those who BODYBUILDERS HOLDS A
used that hormone as part of their physique-
enhancement pharmacopeia. GREAT POTENTIAL TO CAUSE
Many past athletes and bodybuilders, HARM.
such as Dennis Newman, Mike Matarazzo
and Lyle Alzado, have attributed hGH as a
factor in debilitating or deadly conditions. Few and high blood pressure, among other effects.7,8
athletes and bodybuilders disclose their drug This becomes a grave concern when combining
protocols, but the culture promotes risk-taking the two classes of drug at extremely high dose
and discourages allowing the competition any range. The distended GH belly is not a result
advantage. This anything goes mentality of water retention, but the growth of internal
nearly guarantees that more cases will be organs (e.g., liver, intestines, kidneys). Although
revealed. It is clear that a growing trend is the organs may in time decrease in size toward
present in premature deaths and heart attacks normal after hGH use is discontinued, the bony
among bodybuilders in their 30s and 40s. growths that result in the characteristic and
How does hGH promote harm or death? In not generally considered attractive facial
physiological doses, it is a reasonably safe changes, elongated hands and feet, are
therapy. Long-term treatment of hGH-decient permanent.
adults has shown no increase in cardiovascular
disease or cancer, though pre-existing TRADING HEALTH FOR MOMENTARY
cancers can arise more frequently.2 However, FAME
recall that hGH has two body composition- Much like testosterone, hGH and its
related properties that make it attractive to secondary hormone IGF-1 display distinct
bodybuilders and athletes. hGH is capable negative effects when the dose is either too
of promoting fat loss and increasing lean low or too high. However, as the anabolic
mass; the two effects occur at different dose and fat-loss effects are related to the dose,
ranges. While it is possible to utilize hGH to reckless bodybuilders will pursue the gains
attain a leaner physique without signicantly until negative side effects arise that are
increasing the risk of heart attacks, cancer or intolerable. Sadly, they typically monitor
an early death, the doses used to stimulate weight-room performance or cosmetic changes,
the exaggerated muscular bulk of some missing the internal damage to both organ
bodybuilders holds a great potential to cause structure and metabolic function. hGH is an
harm. essential treatment for many people, but the
consequences of abusing the hormone beyond
DOSING AND MONITORING its sweet spot has resulted in disgurement,
How is hGH dosed and monitored? hGH contributed to impaired health and likely
is protein-based hormone, and thus is only played a factor in the early death of several
effective when administered via injection. bodybuilders and powerlifters who willingly
Dosing begins weight-based, but in general traded away their health for momentary fame.
results in the administration of 1-3 IU of hGH
daily after individual titration. Some clinicians
recommend an every-other-day schedule, References:
or hGH-free weekends. The response is 1. Mukherjee A, Shalet SM. The value of IGF-1 estimation
in adults with GH deciency. Eur J Endocrinol 2009;161 Suppl
monitored via the IGF-1 response, which should 1:S33-9.
not exceed the normal range or a Z-score 2. van Bunderen CC, van Varsseveld NC, et al. Efficacy
and safety of growth hormone treatment in adults with
above 1.96. At this dosing, hGH can promote growth hormone deciency: a systematic review of studies on
fat release from fat cells, and increase the morbidity. Clin Endocrinol 2014;81:1-14.
3. Hennessey JV, Jackson IM. Clinical features and
metabolism and healing slightly. Muscle mass differential diagnosis of pituitary tumours with emphasis on
will not be enhanced solely through the drugs acromegaly. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;9:271-314.
4. Trp JC, Lnsch H, et al. Interdental spacing and
effect. Unless one was hGH-decient prior orthodontic treatment in competitive athletes: clues to doping
to treatment, the greater ability to recover, with growth hormones? J Orofac Orthop 2010;71:373-82.
5. Holt RI, Snksen PH. Growth hormone, IGF-I and insulin
response to training and improved body and their abuse in sport. Br J Pharmacol 2008;154:542-56.
6. Officials: Smiths death caused by overdose.
composition are generally viewed as signicant March 27, 2007.
and favorable. TV/03/26/smith.autopsy/index.html, accessed August 1, 2014.
7. Karila TA, Karjalainen JE, et al. Anabolic androgenic
A physiologic hGH supplementation should steroids produce dose-dependent increase in left ventricular
avoid the adverse effects of impaired glucose mass in power atheletes, and this effect is potentiated
by concomitant use of growth hormone. Int J Sports Med
tolerance, edema, carpal tunnel syndrome 2003;24:337-43.
and organ growth. Anabolic steroid users who 8. Cohn L, Feller AG, et al. Carpal tunnel syndrome and
gynaecomastia during growth hormone treatment of elderly
combine hGH in their stacks face a greater men with low circulating IGF-I concentrations. Clin Endocrinol
risk of enlarged heart, prostate, gynecomastia 1993;39:417-25.

64 MD October 2017




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A Fighter and Survivor
Doesnt everyone want to Look Good Naked? Thats what
Jeff McCarrell thought when he founded his new company, Look
Good Naked, through his parent company, McCarrell Fitness
Companies. Along with Jeff are his 26-year-old son Zach and
his daughter, Megan making Jeff McCarrells newest venture
a family-run enterprise. During an interview conducted with
MDs publisher and Editor-in-Chief, Steve Blechman, I spoke with
Jeff McCarrell and learned about his business process and
personal, courageous ght with cancer.
Sitting down with Jeff McCarrell, my rst question to him was,
Where did you get LookGoodNaked from?
Jeff chuckled and answered, Because everyone wants
to look good naked! When you step out of the shower or get
dressed, you want to look good!
I grinned and thought to myself, why, yes. Of course, thats
In speaking with Jeff McCarrell, I found him to be a man of
enormous strength, both in physical terms and in the shape of
his character. In fact, he is not only a shrewd entrepreneur, but
he also served in the U.S. Army Rangers 75th Regiment out of
Fort Benning, Georgia for ve years. While in the military, he
entered and won the All-Armed Forces bodybuilding competition.
Jeff won the overall in 1994, and competed for two more years,
ending his bodybuilding career in 1996.
Jeff worked hard to get where he is in life. He started his
career in sports nutrition in 1989. Soon, he was working for such
distinguished names as EAS, MET-Rx and Pinnacle. He currently
holds a bachelor of science degree in exercise science, as well In speak-
as several training and nutritional certications. Jeff s education ing with Jeff
propelled him far to become the president of Biotest from 1999 McCarrell,
to September 11, 2001 and VPX. But then, Jeff decided it was, I found him
time for him to do his own thing. In 2002, he became co-founder to be a man
and CEO of Nutrex. While at Nutrex, he helped to develop of enormous
several products, among them, the very popular Lipo-6 liquid gel strength, both
in physical
terms, and in
Jeff McCarrell had it all: health, strength, wealth and family, the strength of
but sometimes, even with these attributes, fate can deal a cruel his character.
hand when you least expect it. In 2007, Jeff was diagnosed with large T-cell non-
Hodgkin lymphoma, a vicious form of cancer. Despite the diagnosis, Jeff fought
hard, enduring chemotherapy and surgery. He took a leave of absence from
Nutrex from 2008 to 2009 to help ght the cancer. Fighting a brave battle, Jeff
watched his once-powerful physique of 270 pounds become 170 pounds. Yet, he
continued to ght for his life and beat the cancer even after having to endure
removal of two lymph nodes.
After the cancer went into remission in 2009, Jeff thought he could get back
to his life. But just when he thought he had one enemy beaten, on July 6, 2012,
Jeff s oldest son, Jeff Jr., passed away. In August 2012, Jeff decided to sell off his
share of Nutrex.
While grieving over the devastating loss of his son, the cancer resurfaced
two more times. Jeff, strong with spirit, and aided by his family and friends,
continued to push on. Currently, the cancer is in remission but through it all,

66 MD October 2017

timed and designed system.
Jeff s son Zach came onboard to become
the director of business development. As
a graduate from the prestigious Syracuse
University, Zach currently holds a bachelor of
arts in business communications and business
management. His daughter, Megan, is the
director of human relations, and holds a degree
from the University of Central Florida.
As the interview ended, it became clear
that there is much to be gained from speaking
to a man with a strong vision who adheres to
strong family values. It is said that the heart of
an entrepreneur is driven by ones family, and
that is true here too. With Zach, Megan and
his amazing assistant, Taylor, Jeff has a strong
foundation for success.
More so, the most important message I
received today is that if we have a dream, there
are no limits to what we can accomplish. Even
with the loss of family or the devastation of
cancer if we believe, we can achieve and win.

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Even with the losss of family or the
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lieve, we can achie
eve and win.
Jeff kept his spirit and his momentum
m going. Some
would think when faced witth a devastating g disease
and the loss of a child, sommeone may y just
j want
to concentrate only on thatt, or shy y away y from life
altogether. Not Jeff.
In 2017, he formed McCa arrell Fitness Companies.
The rst launch from this endeavor
e dea o was as
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October 2017 MD 67

NUTRITION performance By Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D.
Senior Science Editor


Out of all the molecules in the human body In the above study, researchers found that CREATINE
that directly inuence muscle size, myostatin myostatin levels decreased by approximately Creatine is a well-characterized compound
is certainly one of the more powerful ones, 37 percent after all 10 male subjects performed that has been clearly shown to enhance muscle
based on its potent ability to prevent muscle cardiovascular training at a pretty low intensity size and strength. Although creatines exact
growth. Myostatin is a member of the level that only burned approximately 1,200 mechanism of action is unknown, research
transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) calories per week. Interestingly, this study scientists have heavily examined it and some
super family of growth factors where, despite also showed that when myostatin levels of its functional details have been elucidated.
being a growth factor, it actually reduces decreased there was a substantial increase In addition to creatines obvious function
muscle growth by initiating several pathways in insulin sensitivity. Because insulin is an as a primary energy storage molecule used
that inhibit muscle hypertrophy while extremely anabolic hormone that has the to regenerate muscle ATP, thus prolonging
stimulating muscle atrophy. More specically, ability to drastically increase muscle protein muscle contraction, creatine has also been
myostatin inhibits muscle growth by inhibiting synthesis, enhancing muscle growth, this shown to stimulate muscle cell formation5 and
the formation of new muscle bers, a process nding represents an additional mechanism by muscle growth by stimulating the production
known as myogenesis1, while decreasing which myostatin reduction, due to low-intensity of muscle proteins such as myosin.6 A study
mTOR-driven protein synthesis in muscle aerobic training, could enhance muscle growth. by Saremi et al.7 demonstrated that creatine
In addition to myostatins ability to stop
muscle growth, additional scientic evidence
highlights myostatins capacity to increase
body fat, primarily by decreasing sensitivity
to the hormone leptin.3 Given that leptin is a
signal to the brain that decreases appetite
while simultaneously stimulating the rate of
fatty acid oxidation, a decreased sensitivity to
leptin brought on by myostatin increases food
consumption while decreasing fat burning
causing the unwanted accumulation of body fat.
The fat increasing characteristic of
myostatin represents one more bona de
reason to want to decrease myostatin function,
especially for anyone trying to build a more
lean and muscular physique. Interestingly,
a number of innovative ways have been
discovered that inhibit myostatin activity,
conceivably enhancing muscle growth and fat
loss in remarkable ways.

As expected, lifting weights has been shown
to decrease myostatin levels, representing one
of the many ways that intense weightlifting CREATINE, VITAMIN D AND EAAS IN COMBINATION
triggers muscle growth. However, a study by
Hittel et al.4 unexpectedly showed that low-
intensity aerobic exercise can also considerably SHOULD POTENTLY INHIBIT MYOSTATINS

decrease the amount of myostatin PHYSIQUE-DESTROYING CAPACITY, WHILE

establishing a unique way to manipulate MAXIMIZING MUSCLE GROWTH AND FAT LOSS.
myostatin, supporting muscle growth.

70 MD October 2017

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NUTRITION performance
consumption causes a decrease in myostatin interesting inuence that vitamin D has on myostatin expression by approximately 50
levels in muscle cells, leading to signicant muscle growth. Researchers showed that percent.
muscle growth. vitamin D exposure decreases the amount Interestingly, another study by Callis et
In a double-blind study, 27 healthy males of myostatin found in isolated muscle cells, al.13 also showed that myostatin was the
performed resistance training or resistance generating greater muscle growth. In addition target of micro-RNA regulation where the
training supplemented with creatine (0.3 grams to the decrease in myostatin, this study micro-RNA molecule called miR-208a boosted
of creatine for every kilogram of the subjects showed that vitamin D triggers an increase muscle hypertrophy by suppressing myostatin
bodyweight per day for the rst week loading in follistatin, which is a powerful inhibitor of expression.
Although further work is needed to elucidate
the precise role that micro-RNA has in the
regulation of myostatin and muscle mass
following EAA consumption, taken together,
these two investigations represent a completely
novel and forceful way to decrease myostatin
conceivably initiating new approaches to trigger
tremendous muscle size.


In summary, myostatin is an unbelievably
responsive target where even the slightest
reduction in its activity produces remarkable
muscle growth while radically decreasing
body fat. Moreover, scientic insight has
shed light on a number of diverse ways to
decrease myostatin activity potentially
transforming the capacity to pack on muscle
while simultaneously reducing body fat. More
precisely, a diet supplemented with creatine,
vitamin D and EAAs in combination with
low-intensity cardiovascular exercise at the
end of your workout should potently inhibit
phase, followed by 0.05 grams of creatine for myostatin which increases muscle mass by myostatins physique-destroying capacity,
every kilogram of the subjects bodyweight inhibiting myostatin.9 while maximizing muscle growth and fat loss.
for the rest of the study) for a total of eight Ultimately, this study indicates that the
weeks. Both groups showed decreased levels decrease in myostatin level and activity References:
of myostatin, but the group that performed caused by vitamin D signicantly increased 1. Allen DL, Hittel DS, et al. Expression and function of
resistance training and consumed creatine had muscle ber size demonstrating vitamin Ds myostatin in obesity, diabetes, and exercise adaptation. Med
Sci Sports Exerc 1997;43(10): p. 1828-35.
a considerably larger decrease in myostatin substantial ability to increase muscle mass. 2. Amirouche A, et al. Down-regulation of Akt/mammalian
target of rapamycin signaling pathway in response to
levels along with greater gains in muscle mass myostatin overexpression in skeletal muscle. Endocrinology
and strength. ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS (EAAS) 2009;150(1): p. 286-94.
3. Choi SJ, et al. Increased energy expenditure and leptin
Although the precise molecular interactions Many different studies have previously sensitivity account for low fat mass in myostatin-decient
between creatine and myostatin are still reported that EAAs potently activate mTOR- mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2010;300(6): p. E1031-7.
4. Hittel D.S, et al. Myostatin decreases with aerobic
unknown, this study clearly demonstrates stimulated muscle protein synthesis, leading exercise and associates with insulin resistance. Med Sci
creatine as an ergogenic aid that regulates to greater muscle size.10,11 However, a study by Sports Exerc 2010;42(11): p. 2023-9.
5. Willoughby DS and Rosene JM. Effects of oral creatine
myostatin levels improving muscle growth Drummond et al.12 demonstrated that EAAs and resistance training on myogenic regulatory factor
and strength. possess the uniquely powerful ability to also expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(6): p. 923-9.
6. Willoughby DS and Rosene J. Effects of oral creatine and
decrease genetic expression of myostatin in resistance training on myosin heavy chain expression. Med
VITAMIN D muscle cells. Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33(10): p. 1674-81.
7. Saremi A, et al. Effects of oral creatine and resistance
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid-like EAAs decrease myostatin levels by training on serum myostatin and GASP-1. Mol Cell Endocrinol
vitamin that functions as a prohormone, stimulating the production of a class of 2009;317(1-2): p. 25-30.
8. Garcia LA, et al. 1,25(OH)2vitamin D3 stimulates
aiding many different processes such as molecules known as micro-RNA that have the myogenic differentiation by inhibiting cell proliferation and
modulating the expression of promyogenic growth factors
the absorption and metabolism of calcium ability to strongly decrease the expression and myostatin in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Endocrinology
and phosphorous promoting bone health. level of specic genes. The unique nding 2011;152(8): p. 2976-86.
9. Cash JN, et al. Structure of myostatinfollistatin-like
Vitamin D also has several muscle-promoting in this study was that several micro-RNA 3: N-terminal domains of follistatin-type molecules exhibit
properties associated with the ability to boost molecules were produced in human skeletal alternate modes of binding. J Biol Chem 2012;287(2): p. 1043-53.
10. Fujita, S, et al. Nutrient signalling in the regulation of
testosterone levels. muscle following the ingestion of 10 grams human muscle protein synthesis. J Physiol 2007;582(Pt 2): p.
A study by Garcia et al.8 uncovered another of EAAs, which subsequently decreased 813-23.
11. Drummond MJ and Rasmussen BB. Leucine-enriched
nutrients and the regulation of mammalian target of
For most of Michael Rudolphs career he has been engrossed in the exercise world as either an athlete (he played college rapamycin signalling and human skeletal muscle protein
football at Hofstra University), personal trainer or as a Research Scientist (he earned a B.Sc. in Exercise Science at Hofstra synthesis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2008;11(3): p. 222-6.
University and a Ph.D. in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from Stony Brook University). After earning his Ph.D., Michael 12. Drummond MJ, et al. Essential amino acids increase
microRNA-499, -208b, and -23a and downregulate myostatin
investigated the molecular biology of exercise as a fellow at Harvard Medical School and Columbia University for over eight and myocyte enhancer factor 2C mRNA expression in human
years. That research contributed seminally to understanding the function of the incredibly important cellular energy sensor skeletal muscle. J Nutr 2009;139(12): p. 2279-84.
AMPK leading to numerous publications in peer-reviewed journals including the journal Nature. Michael is currently a 13. Callis TE, et al. MicroRNA-208a is a regulator of cardiac
scientist working at the New York Structural Biology Center doing contract work for the Department of Defense on a project hypertrophy and conduction in mice. J Clin Invest 2009;119(9):
involving national security. p. 2772-86.

72 MD October 2017


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76 MD October 2017

SUPPLEMENT performance By Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D.
Senior Science Editor

Antioxidants Good for Health,

Normal cellular function involves metabolic
processes, such as the production of energy,
that generate all sorts of stress on the cell
including the production of very reactive
compounds known as reactive oxygen
species (ROS). These ROS can wreak havoc
on the cells molecular machinery, causing
irreparable oxidative damage. Moreover,
during strenuous exercise the rate of ROS
production increases tremendously, primarily
due to greater energy demands put on the
muscle cell during exercise.
In order to mitigate oxidative damage
caused by ROS, various antioxidants are
utilized that can chemically react with the
ROS and prevent them from damaging
biomolecules within the body. For instance,
the well-known antioxidant vitamin C
mitigates many negative effects associated
with oxidative damage from ROS by
chemically reacting with and inactivating
the ROS. Yet beyond the well-documented
health benets associated with antioxidant
use, recent evidence shows that consuming
antioxidants weakens muscular growth and
performance because ROS have also been
shown, within certain concentrations, to be
useful signaling molecules that enhance
muscle function and size.


subsequently promoting the expression of ROS PRODUCTION, SHOULD BE THE MOST BENEFICIAL
specic proteins within the cell that are able
to deal with these highly reactive compounds ENVIRONMENT FOR MUSCLE GROWTH.
and their associated oxidative stress. As a
result, antioxidant consumption prevents aerobically produces cellular energy. During cells ability to produce energy, which leads
the activation of these important protein exercise, an increased energy demand to greater muscular performance and growth.
molecules, which promote useful adaptations somewhat overwhelms the mitochondrial Therefore, antioxidant depletion of ROS will
in the body. For instance, antioxidant energy-producing system, causing an prevent this increase in energy production
consumption has been shown to diminish the increased production and leakage of ROS from within the muscle cell, reducing optimal
upregulation of powerful antioxidant enzymes the mitochondria into the cell. These greater muscle function during exercise.
such as the superoxide dismutase, which ROS levels stimulate the cell to increase the
directly consumes ROS and diminishes the number of mitochondria in the muscle cell1,2 by NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF
damage associated with ROS. causing the amplication of the protein PGC1- VITAMINS C AND E
In addition, other proteins that enhance the alpha. Consequently, PGC1-alpha directly Many scientic reports support the
cells ability to diminish ROS-related stress, upregulates mitochondrial production. concept that exercise-induced ROS production
in alternative ways, are also upregulated by The increase in mitochondrial number contributes to exercise-associated muscle
the presence of ROS. These proteins initiate allows the mitochondrial system to match the adaptations. A common approach in many

the production of the cellular organelle known increased energy demands on the cell, which of these scientic studies is to get rid of
as the mitochondrion. The mitochondrion, diminishes the further production of ROS. the effects from exercise-induced ROS
the well-known powerhouse of the cell, More mitochondria also increases the muscle production in muscle by giving the test

78 MD October 2017

SUPPLEMENT performance By Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D.
Senior Science Editor

subjects antioxidants. For example, a scientic instead of vitamin C and E protecting against length of recovery necessary to completely
investigation by Gomez-Cabrera et al.3 insulin resistance, they demonstrated that recuperate from downhill running. During
concluded that antioxidant supplementation the antioxidant consumption decreased the study, some of the subjects received one
can slow down important training adaptations ROS levels, subsequently decreasing gram of vitamin C for 14 days post-downhill
in human muscle. Specically, Gomez-Cabrera mitochondrial levels. Since mitochondria are running, while the control group received a
et al. reported that the administration of the the place in the cell where fat is burned, the placebo. The exercise regimen resulted in
antioxidant vitamin C prevented exercise- lower mitochondrial levels repressed the delayed onset muscle soreness associated
induced expression of PGC-1 alpha in muscle bodys ability to burn body fat, generating with downhill running and impaired muscle
cells, which also disrupted mitochondrial greater body fat. Because more body fat function in both groups, although a delayed
production in muscle. Furthermore, the leads to insulin insensitivity, the test subjects recovery was noted in the group supplemented
administration of vitamin C also prevented actually showed a decreased level of insulin with vitamin C. Because vitamin C has been
exercise-induced expression of several signaling. shown to attenuate ROS production following
antioxidant enzymes in muscle. Collectively, these results conclude that exercise, the authors concluded that vitamin
In another study by Ristow et al.4, 40 ROS production enhances the muscle cells C supplementation inhibited the recovery of
people performed a dened exercise regimen ability to produce energy and that antioxidant muscle function.
for four weeks. All test subjects went to the consumption negatively inuences this
gym ve days a week, where they did 40 augmented capability. ANTIOXIDANTS CAN INHIBIT MUSCLE
minutes of circuit training and 20 minutes PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
of biking. Twenty subjects received 1,000 VITAMIN C DELAYS MUSCLE IGF-1 is known to promote protein synthesis
milligrams of vitamin C and 400 units of RECOVERY FROM EXERCISE within the muscle cell, promoting muscle
vitamin E while the other half received a Intense weightlifting or exercise stresses hypertrophy.6 Low levels of ROS have been
placebo. The study ultimately demonstrates the muscle cell, producing muscle damage show to positively inuence IGF-1 signaling.7
that high doses of vitamin C and vitamin that requires a substantial recovery period This positive inuence on IGF-1 signaling by
E alleviate the ability of ROS to generate to reestablish muscle function. There is ROS mainly occurs because ROS can directly
the production of PGC1-alpha and new emerging evidence proposing that ROS assist inhibit the action of a class of enzymes known
mitochondria. in the recovery process, however all of the as phosphatases that typically reverse the
As many previous studies have shown details have not been fully established. In natural activation of many different signaling
that ROS can trigger insulin resistance, order to further the understanding that ROS cascades, such as the IGF-1-driven protein
Ristow et al. also wanted to investigate play in muscle recovery, a study by Close synthesis pathway. Therefore, ROS inactivation
whether vitamin C and E consumption could et al.5 investigated the effects of vitamin C of the phosphatase that turns off IGF-1-driven
prevent ROS-initiated insulin resistance. Yet supplementation on ROS production and the protein synthesis ultimately generates greater
muscle protein synthesis and muscle growth.
CORRECT AMOUNTS OF ROS PRESENT IN THE CELL Interestingly, this study also shows that higher
ROS levels inhibit IGF-1 signaling. These
APPEAR TO POSITIVELY CONTRIBUTE TO MUSCLE results suggest that antioxidant use, leading
GROWTH AND PERFORMANCE AND JUST LIKE MANY to a lower level of ROS production, should be
OTHER THINGS IN LIFE, TOO MUCH OF A GOOD THING the most benecial environment for muscle
In conclusion, correct amounts of ROS
present in the cell appear to positively
contribute to muscle growth and
performance and just like many other
things in life, too much of a good thing can be
detrimental. Therefore, a precise antioxidant
regimen should produce the optimal amount of
ROS within the muscle cell, facilitating muscle
size and strength.

1. Irrcher I, Ljubicic V, et al. Interactions between ROS
and AMP kinase activity in the regulation of PGC-1alpha
transcription in skeletal muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell
Physiol 2009;296(1): p. C116-23.
2. Jackson MJ. Skeletal muscle aging: role of reactive
oxygen species. Crit Care Med 2009;37(10 Suppl): p. S368-71.
3. Gomez-Cabrera MC, et al. Oral administration of
vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis
and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance
performance. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(1): p. 142-9.
4. Ristow M, et al. Antioxidants prevent health-promoting
effects of physical exercise in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S
A, 2009;106(21): p. 8665-70.
5. Close GL, et al. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not
attenuate post-exercise muscle soreness following muscle-
damaging exercise but may delay the recovery process. Br J
Nutr 2006;95(5): p. 976-81.

6. Louis M, et al. Creatine increases IGF-1 and myogenic

regulatory factor mRNA in C(2)C(12) cells. FEBS Lett,
2004;557(1-3): p. 243-7.
7. Papaconstantinou J. Insulin/IGF-1 and ROS signaling
pathway cross-talk in aging and longevity determination. Mol
Cell Endocrinol 2009;299(1): p. 89-100.

80 MD October 2017


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82 MD October 2017

MUSCLE GROWTH update By Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D.
Senior Science Editor

The ability to sculpt a larger, more reality is that over time, the repetitive use high among top-level bodybuilders, the
muscular physique can provide a unique of these drugs will break your body down truth is the vast majority of PED users are
sense of euphoria unlike anything else on the causing a plethora of diseases that will most not elite bodybuilders or athletes, but rather
planet. Because of the incredible feeling of denitely result in premature death. individuals focused on simply wanting to
satisfaction and achievement associated with look leaner and more muscular.
getting huge, many individuals will do almost THE PERILS OF ANABOLIC The reason for the widespread
anything to get bigger, including the use of STEROID USE consumption of anabolic steroids is that they
performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs). And The most heavily consumed PED is the do, indeed, potently stimulate muscle growth
theyll use PEDs despite the fact that many of anabolic steroid. Elite bodybuilders have and strength. The primary anabolic effect
these drugs can have an extremely negative been using this form of PED to build muscle from anabolic steroids is caused by cranking
impact on overall health, including premature mass and strength for quite some time up the synthesis of certain protein molecules
death. In fact, one might even say that many now.3 In fact, the use of anabolic steroids within the muscle cell that trigger muscle
who use PEDs are quite literally DYING TO has likely increased over time, as one study growth and strength. For instance, one of
GET BIG! investigating the use of PEDs by competitive the target proteins synthesized in response
A primary cause for the increased health bodybuilders showed that 77 percent of to anabolic steroid use is the muscle
risks associated with the contemporary use of the respondents reported using anabolic protein follistatin, which directly blocks the
PEDs has to do with the simultaneous use of steroids. While anabolic steroid use is very negative effects of the muscle-depleting
many different types of PEDs that will wreak molecule myostatin, ultimately generating a
havoc on the body, producing poor health, thus substantial amount of muscle growth.4
increasing the odds for premature death. THE USE OF INSULIN AS Of course, the positive inuence on
The standard cocktail of PEDs consumed A PED CAN KILL YOU, muscle growth from anabolic steroid use

today usually includes heavy doses of does not come without negative side
different kinds of anabolic steroids in
AND KILL YOU QUICKLY effects, as anabolic steroids also trigger
combination with other powerful anabolic UNLIKE ANABOLIC protein synthesis in non-muscle cells,
agents, such as human growth hormone STEROIDS OR GH, such as the prostate which promotes the
(GH) and insulin.1,2 While this mix of PEDs unwanted enlargement of the prostate gland,
may improve your physique in the short term
WHICH TEND TO CAUSE increasing the chance for prostate cancer.
without manifesting disease, making you PREMATURE DEATH MORE Anabolic steroids have also been shown
believe that they are harmless, the harsh GRADUALLY. to dramatically impair cardiac function by

86 MD October 2017

pathologically increasing cardiac muscle GH use would deter, if not completely protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.12 Insulin
hypertrophy, which decreases the capacity stop, the use of this drug just to get bigger activation of this pathway could cause
of the heart to pump blood throughout the muscles. Regrettably, that has not been excessive cell division, promoting the
body.5,6 the case. In fact, the shocking reality is progression of certain types of cancers.
In addition to the undesirable effects of that instead of discouraging the use of GH, In closing, the simultaneous use of hefty
anabolic steroids on the function of cardiac this knowledge has actually led to the use doses of many types of available PEDs to
tissue, they also (especially the 17 alpha- of additional drugs, such as metformin, to boost muscle size and strength will most
alkylated anabolic steroids like anadrol7) mitigate some of the ailments associated denitely produce long-term health problems
reduce the levels of high-density lipoprotein with GH use such as insulin resistance and that have been identied by modern
cholesterol (the good cholesterol) while diabetes. Metformin is able to minimize medicine, yet will predictably reduce the
increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol the increase in blood sugar due to insulin average life span of most, if not all, users of
levels (the bad cholesterol), which is a resistance by suppressing the production of these drugs. Understanding this information
well-established prole for developing glucose by the liver, while also restoring the should certainly bring up a rather simple, yet
cardiovascular disease.8,9 insulin-signaling response to some degree. straightforward question: Is it really worth
As if the aforementioned side effects Naturally, trying to prevent an adverse side dying to get big?
are not enough, a few additional, yet less effect from the use of one drug by consuming
severe, adverse health effects also seen another drug without the advice of a
in anabolic steroid users include infertility, physician is extraordinarily dangerous, and References:
gynecomastia, sexual dysfunction, acne and should be completely avoided. 1. Brennan BP, et al. Human growth hormone abuse in
testicular atrophy, which altogether further male weightlifters. Am J Addict 2011;20(1): p. 9-13.
2. Ip EJ, et al. Weightliftings risky new trend: a case
stress the considerable danger associated series of 41 insulin users. Curr Sports Med Rep 2012;11(4):
with the use of these incredibly powerful p. 176-9.
3. Hartgens F and Kuipers H. Effects of androgenic-
drugs. anabolic steroids in athletes. Sports Med 2004;34(8): p.
4. Braga M, et al. Testosterone inhibits transforming
GH INDUCES INSULIN RESISTANCE, growth factor-beta signaling during myogenic
RESULTING IN THE USE OF MORE differentiation and proliferation of mouse satellite cells:
DRUGS potential role of follistatin in mediating testosterone action.
Mol Cell Endocrinol 2012;350(1): p. 39-52.
The second most common PED that has 5. Krieg A, et al. Cardiac tissue Doppler in steroid users.
also been used for an extensive period of Int J Sports Med 2007;28(8): p. 638-43.
6. Montisci R, et al. Early myocardial dysfunction after
time by those dying to get big is human chronic use of anabolic androgenic steroids: combined
growth hormone (GH). Human growth pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging and ultrasonic
integrated backscatter cyclic variations analysis. J Am Soc
hormone is a protein molecule secreted by Echocardiogr 2010;23(5): p. 516-22.
the anterior pituitary gland that functions by 7. Thompson PD, et al. Contrasting effects of
binding to the growth hormone receptor found testosterone and stanozolol on serum lipoprotein levels.
Jama 1989;261(8): p. 1165-8.
on the cell surface of many different organs 8. Hartgens F, et al. Effects of androgenic-anabolic
and tissues within the body. The binding steroids on apolipoproteins and lipoprotein (a). Br J Sports
Med 2004;38(3): p. 253-9.
of GH to the receptor triggers biochemical- 9. Grundy SM, et al. Implications of recent clinical
signaling cascades that powerfully stimulate trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult
Treatment Panel III guidelines. Circulation 2004;110(2): p.
an anabolic environment that supports INSULIN AND CANCER 227-39.
greater muscle growth while also promoting So, its pretty clear that using anabolic 10. Schiaffino S and Mammucari C. Regulation of
fat loss. One of the primary ways that GH steroids and/or GH comes with some skeletal muscle growth by the IGF-1-Akt/PKB pathway:
insights from genetic models. Skelet Muscle 2002;1(1): p. 4.
triggers muscle growth is by binding to considerable health risks. Well, those risks 11.Wass J, Trainer P and Korbonits M. Oxford Textbook
growth hormone receptors on liver cells, are nothing compared to the potential on endocrinology and diabetes. 1994 (2nd ed.): p. 197-209.
12. Kayali AG, Austin DA and Webster NJ. Stimulation
stimulating the production of the insulin- adverse effects triggered from insulin use. In of MAPK cascades by insulin and osmotic shock: lack of
like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which stimulates short, the use of insulin as a PED can kill you, an involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase
in glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetes
muscle growth by increasing muscle cell and kill you quickly unlike anabolic steroids 2000;49(11): p. 1783-93.
protein synthesis levels and therefore muscle or GH, which tend to cause premature
growth.10 death more gradually. This is because one
To date, there have been no systematic of insulins primary functions is to shuttle For most of Michael Rudolphs career he has
studies of the adverse effects of GH use. sugar from the blood into the cell, effectively been engrossed in the exercise world as either
So, much of the information about the lowering blood sugar levels. Overstimulating an athlete (he played college football at Hofstra
University), personal trainer or as a Research
potential adverse effects from GH use in the this function by using exogenous insulin can Scientist (he earned a B.Sc. in Exercise Science at
supraphysiologic range has been deduced rapidly cause the uptake of too much glucose Hofstra University and a Ph.D. in Biochemistry and
from studies of patients with acromegaly, a from the blood dangerously lowering blood Molecular Biology from Stony Brook University).
disease caused by excessive GH production sugar, which can cause many health issues After earning his Ph.D., Michael investigated the
molecular biology of exercise as a fellow at Harvard
resulting in abnormal growth of the hands, including death. Medical School and Columbia University for over
feet and face. The high GH levels in these Insulin also strongly stimulates muscle eight years. That research contributed seminally
patients also typically leads to hypertension, growth by binding to the insulin receptor, to understanding the function of the incredibly
congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, which increases the level of muscle cell important cellular energy sensor AMPK leading
to numerous publications in peer-reviewed journals
increased insulin resistance, diabetes and protein synthesis and therefore muscle including the journal Nature. Michael is currently a
even increased mortality.11 growth. However, insulin also stimulates scientist working at the New York Structural Biology
So, one might conclude that all of these cell division by activating another signaling Center doing contract work for the Department of
negative health effects associated with pathway known as the mitogen-activating Defense on a project involving national security.

88 MD October 2017



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October 2017 MD 91

All the

How Regan Grimes Crafts Superior Delts At 6 feet tall and 240 pounds onstage, Regan isnt one of the
A NEW YOUNG GUN RISES larger men in open bodybuilding but he does have one of the most
Just a few months ago, Regan Grimes was a 24-year-old rookie aesthetic, proportionate physiques. Part of what earned him a rst
who had yet to prove himself on a pro stage. Before the summer of callout in all three of his rst pro shows is his stunning X-frame: wide
2017 was even over, the young Canadian had placed second, fth and shoulders and upper back, a waist you would expect to see on a
sixth in three IFBB events, rmly establishing himself as a young man Mens Physique pro, and aring quads. Photographer Jason Breeze
who genuinely belonged up there with the established veterans. I caught up with Regan at the gym he owns, FlexPlex Muscle and
really wanted to qualify for the Olympia, he says. And if there had Fitness in London, Ontario as he demonstrated what he does for his
been another show to get points at, I would have done it. sensational shoulders.

B Y R O N H A R R I S , P H O T O G R A P H Y B Y JA S O N B R E E Z E

92 MD October 2017

October 2017 MD 93
Unlike far too many bodybuilders, Regan
makes his posterior deltoids a priority. Not
only does he train them rst on shoulder day,
but he also devotes a full three exercises to
them. He sits on a at bench with his torso
leaning forward about 70 degrees, and thinks
about driving the resistance back with his
elbows rather than his hands. With any
exercise, Im always looking for that sweet
spot where I feel the target muscle being
recruited fully, he explains.


In addition to dumbbells, Grimes also
includes the machine version of lateral raises
for the rear delts in nearly all his workouts.
Note that he does not grip the handles as most
do. Instead, he has his hands rotated inward
and is pushing the movement arms away using
the heels of his hands as lever points. I tried
these one day a while back, and immediately
felt greater tension on my rear delts than I did
using a standard grip, he notes.

Regan isnt one of the larger men in open bodybuilding but he does have one of
the most aesthetic, proportionate physiques. Part of what earned him a rst
callout in all three of his rst pro shows is his stunning X-frame.
94 MD October 2017
Rope pulls for rear delts are nothing
terribly novel, but Regan has created a spin-
off on the standard performance technique
that you will all want to try out. He does REGANS TOP 3
them in three stages of six reps each: six TIPS FOR YOUR
reps pulled to shoulder level, six reps to BEST DELTS
nose level, and six reps over his head. The 1. FORM AND FEEL
lowest pulls hit my rear delts and traps, the ARE KEY
middle ones get the rear and side delts, You need to make sure your
and I feel the highest pulls in the entire form is always good enough
shoulder. These make the perfect follow-up to squeeze and contract the
to rear laterals, as they allow the biceps and muscles. That and keeping
traps to step in and assist in driving the rear tension on the delts is what
delts into total exhaustion. makes them grow.
Compound movements
TRAINING SPLIT like presses are meant to be
Day 1: Chest, front and medial deltoids and triceps trained heavy, and obviously
Day 2: Back, rear deltoids and biceps you cant focus as much on
Day 3: Legs contractions with those. When
Day 4: Chest, front and medial deltoids and triceps it comes to various lateral
Day 5: Back, rear deltoids and biceps raises, use a bit less weight
Day 6 OFF and focus more on quality
contractions on every rep.
SHOULDER ROUTINE The rear delts need to be
Bent Dumbbell Laterals 4 x 12-15 maximally developed to get
Rear Delt Machine 4 x 12-15 that round, 3-D look from every
Rope Face Pulls 4 x 6, 6, 6 angle. Like a lot of guys, I used
Seated or standing Dumbbell Lateral Raises 4 x 12-15 to neglect mine, and it showed.
Barbell Upright Rows 4 x 12-15 I started making them a priority,
Barbell Front Raises 4 x 12-15 and training them rst on
Seated Barbell Military Press 4 x 12-15 shoulder day. I saw immediate

October 2017 MD 95

This is yet another shoulder-training staple
that Regan has added his own unique twist to.
Though on paper, it looks as if he merely does
a standard four sets of 12-15 reps, in reality, its
a two-stage set with two distinct movements.
The rst six to eight reps are done as typical
lateral raises. He begins with the bells at
the sides of his thighs, raising them up by
leading with his elbows, and emphasizing the
contraction by tipping his hands down toward
his body as if pouring water out of pitchers.
Close to failure at that point, he moves the
dumbbells in front of his thighs, palms facing
his body, and performs a motion somewhere
between an upright row and a lateral raise. I
saw someone doing that hybrid upright row/
lateral raise years ago on YouTube, and found
it really nailed my side delts, he explains.
Ive been doing them ever since.


Though he did a sort of upright row with dumbbells, Regan also likes to
perform barbell upright rows. Once more, he breaks the exercise down into
two variations, and does two sets of each. For the rst two, he uses a grip
just outside of shoulder width, which targets his medial delts. For the nal
two sets, he brings his grip in closer to include the traps, which he also
considers part of the shoulder complex. For both styles, he keeps the bar
close to his body and his elbows high at all times.


Its rare that I make note of any particular brand of machine,
but in this case, its appropriate to do so. Regan handpicked
each piece of equipment in his gym, and intentionally sought
out this standing lateral raise machine by Icarian, out of
production for roughly 20 years to the best of my knowledge.
Ive personally trained at certain out-of-the-way gyms on
shoulder day specically because they had this machine, and
Regan is also a fan. It just has a great feel, very different from
all the seated lateral raise pieces Ive ever used, he says. I
can also face sideways and use it for lateral raises, too.

96 MD October 2017

Because the front delts get thrashed
whenever we do any type of press for the
shoulders or chest, there is a school of
thought that says there is no need to do any
direct work for them. Regan doesnt subscribe
to that theory. If you really want them to
pop, and see nice, clean separation between
your front and side delts, you have to train
them, he explains. His exercise of choice is
the barbell front raise. You will note that he
doesnt just bring the bar up to chest level
as most do. Grimes goes up to his forehead,
I want to be able to train hard and keep as he feels this represents a more complete
range of motion. Im also careful to control
improving for as long as possible, so I try to be the negative, instead of just letting it drop
down and bounce out of the bottom, he tells
smart about it. I go as heavy as I can, but always us. Doing it that way puts very little tension
on the front delts. Dont worry about going
with good form and never for low reps. heavy unless you can maintain that tension.


2012 UFE Championships Winner, Fitness Model, Mens Middleweight; Second, Junior Men
2014 CBBF Mississauga Luchka OBrien Classic Junior Winner, Mens Heavyweight and Overall
2014 CBBF Ontario Provincials Second, Junior Heavyweight; Second, Mens Heavyweight
2015 CBBF Canadian Championships Second, Junior Men; Sixth, Mens Heavyweight
2016 IFBB Arnold Amateur (Ohio) Second, Super Heavyweight
2016 IFBB Arnold Amateur Brasil Super Heayyweight and Overall
2017 IFBB Chicago Pro Fifth Place
2017 IFBB Vancouver Pro Second Place
2017 IFBB Tampa Pro Sixth Place

October 2017 MD 97

He used a machine for this photo shoot, but usually
Regan likes to do his seated military presses with a barbell,
lowering the bar to chin level and pressing until just before
full lockout. I avoid locking out because once again, that
takes tension off the delts, and tension is always what Im
after. Doing presses last in the workout means less weight
is possible, but it also means less weight is needed. I know
Im young, but Im already conscious of trying to preserve
my joints and tendons as much as I can, he tells us. I want
to be able to train hard and keep improving for as long as
possible, so I try to be smart about it. I go as heavy as I can,
but always with good form and never for low reps.


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Regan Grimes seems wise beyond his years in some ways, but
its only because hes already made the usual beginner mistakes.
I used to worry way too much about going as heavy as I could on
everything, he says. Luckily, I realized I was headed down a path
where I would get hurt sooner or later. I watched a lot of training
videos on YouTube and saw that controlling the movement, doing
more reps and going for a great feeling and pump in the muscle
would give me much better results than heaving a ton of weights
around. Hes also experimented and adapted several exercises to be
more effective, as we saw.
Whether youre a young man like Regan, or old enough to be his
father like me, there are denitely aspects of his shoulder training we
For more information on BPI supplements, can all implement into our own workouts. And when it comes to the
please visit delts, just about all of us could stand to make some nice new gains!

98 MD October 2017


Muscle tissue is made of protein, muscle growth by directly stimulating
and protein is made up of amino muscle protein synthesis. Leucine
acids. Therefore, it should come acts almost like a key that signals the
as no surprise that muscle growth body to begin stringing amino acids
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combining amino acids. However, Therefore, supplementing with BCAAs
BCAAs take their role in muscle can help boost your eorts in the
building one step further. gym and help you see results. If your
Research has shown that BCAAs, goal is to build muscle, take BCAAs

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As the building blocks of muscle, BCAAs are critical for the
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Taking them before your workout allows your
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The Next Generation

of Superstars Is Rising
here were a few years where the future of our sport seemed to be in

T jeopardy, as the athletes were aging. The top pros were getting older on
average year by year, as was the average age men were earning their
pro cards. Its always held true that the youth is the future. Without an
infusion of fresh young blood, bodybuilding was destined to go the way of the
Dodo birds and the dinosaurs, something that later generations would note as a
curious pastime of their ancestors. Then, hallelujah, the trend began to reverse
itself. Whereas men had been turning pro at 35 or even 40 for some time, all of
a sudden, we were witnessing young bucks of 25, 24, even 21 years old earning
pro status and swelling the IFBB ranks. Simply being a pro means very little, of
course. Being competitive with the very elite in the sport is the mark of a viable
pro, and several of this new group of Young Guns have already tested their
mettle and proven their worth. Lets look at a few of todays best.

By Ron Harris

102 MD October 2017


October 2017


MD 103

Zane Watson
28-year-old Canadian Zane Watson was hardly a blip
on my radar before this spring, even though the 212 pro
had scored a win at the 2015 Toronto Pro. Going into the
Arnold Classic, the three men I was expecting to make
major impacts in the 212 portion of the competition were
veterans Jose Raymond and David Henry, and the new
sensation from Kuwait, Ahmad Ashkanani. But when
that division took the stage, I and much of the audience
realized we had been ignoring a serious talent. His overall
shape, balance and symmetry were breathtaking, as was
his classic posing style. Further, he had perhaps the best
legs in the class as well as condition that rivaled eventual
rst- and second-place men Ahmad and David. Arnold
Schwarzenegger himself only got up once from his seat
to take a Snapchat during the 212, and it was of Zanes
posing routine.
Even being one of the taller 212s at just under 58, and
bearing in mind that Watson still needs better arms and
improvements in his back before advancing to the next
level, its clear to see that his future in the sport is bright.
Showing wisdom and maturity, he opted to shut it down
after Columbus rather than keep pushing to qualify for
the Olympia. I know if I do more shows and qualify for
the Olympia, my body will be exhausted and I wont have
made any improvements, he explained. Im not going
to the Olympia to place eighth. I would have to be at 140
percent of my best, and the top guys would all have to be
at 80 percent of theirs, for me to win and they wont be!


104 MD October 2017


Arnold Schwarzenegger
himself only got up once from
his seat to take a Snapchat
during the Arnold Classic, and
it was of Zanes posing routine.

October 2017 MD 105

Cody will forever go down in the
record books as the only young man to
have won the NPC Teenage Nationals
three times, and its highly unlikely
anyone will break that record. They
would have to win it the rst time at
age 16 to do so! Many wrote Cody off
as one of many teen sensations who
would never amount to much beyond
that, but they were all proven wrong
at the 2015 USA Championships. Once
again, Montgomery made history by
becoming the youngest man to ever win
the overall at an IFBB pro qualier in
America, achieving that feat while still
20, days away from turning 21. Having
competed every year for the ve years
prior, Cody jumped right into the mix
in 2016 by entering the Arnold Classic,
widely regarded as the second-toughest
event after the Mr. Olympia. It was a
bold move, and Cody could manage
only a 10th place in a stacked lineup
that included Kai Greene in his third
win, Cedric McMillan, Josh Lenartowicz,
Justin Compton and Branch Warren,
among other formidable adversaries.
The verdict was that Cody had excellent
shape, balance and condition, but still
needed additional mass to compete
against the larger men of the IFBB.
Now living in Florida with his girlfriend
Lindsay, the Blackstone Labs athlete
has been hard at work packing on size
since then. Hes also started a family,
as he became a father to son Brax on
July 5 of this year. Congratulations to
Cody, and we cant wait to see him on
stage again, bigger and better!

106 MD October 2017


Many wrote Cody

off as one of many
teen sensations
who would never
amount to much
beyond that, but
they were all
proven wrong
at the 2015 USA

October 2017 MD 107


Chris Bumstead
While many looked at the introduction
of the Classic Physique division last year
as a boon to the sport, the fact that its rst
Olympia champion, Danny Hester, was
47 years old, didnt exactly jibe with the
concept of a fresh new addition. Canadas
Chris Bumstead and MHP athlete turned
pro at the end of last summer at the IFBB
North American Championships at the
age of 21. Knowing he would need to gain
substantially more mass to be competitive
as an open bodybuilder at 6 feet (as in
30 pounds minimum), and unwilling to
risk blowing out his tiny midsection that
allowed for an extreme vacuum even in
front double biceps and front lat spread
poses, Chris decided to pursue the new
Classic Physique division and see how he
did. Was it a wise choice? Considering that
he has won both contests hes entered
thus far, the Pittsburgh and Toronto Pro
shows, I would say yes! Chris has the type
of structure and shape Classic was created
to showcase: wide clavicles, narrow hips
and waist, sweeping quads and graceful
yet rugged presentation. We will watch
him grow, improve and mature just as the
Classic Physique division will over the
coming years.

Chris has the type of structure

and shape Classic was created
to showcase: wide clavicles,
narrow hips and waist,
sweeping quads and graceful

yet rugged presentation.

108 MD October 2017


October 2017 MD 109


Sadik Hadzovic
Last but not least is the man who
went from a two-time runner-up
in Mens Physique at the Olympia
directly into a top-three spot in Vegas
at the premiere Classic Physique
Olympia, Sadik Hadzovic. Wed seen
the Long Islander by way of Bosnia
and Herzegovina in board shorts
for three seasons as a pro, and
there was no doubt he possessed
one of the most dramatic V-tapers
in the game, wide melon delts and
wingspan back tapering down to
a waist that should be much too
small for a man whos 200 pounds
shredded. Little did we know he also
had some wheels hidden under the
long shorts, because he always
included intense weight training for
his legs year-round in his training.
What most people dont
understand is just how powerfully leg
training stimulates your metabolism
and burns fat, he tells us. If you
neglect leg training regardless of
your physique goals, you will be
hindering your fat-burning efforts.
Once Sadik decided to try out the
new division, he stepped up his leg
training to build the necessary mass.
Hes just as natural hitting poses
in Classic as he was doing quarter-
turns, and came out of the box with a
roar by placing third at the Olympia
behind champion Danny Hester
and runner-up Arash Rahbar. Sadik,
a Team GAT athlete, has nearly 2
million followers on Instagram, and
another 1.7 million on Facebook. On
his social media, hes been sharing
his quest since then to improve his
overall mass and proportions with
the goal of taking that Olympia
Classic Physique title this year, and
photos and videos made it quite
clear that he was bringing a totally
different physique for 2017.

Wed seen the

Long Islander by
way of Bosnia and
Herzegovina in board
shorts for three
seasons as a pro,
and there was no
doubt he possessed
one of the most
dramatic V-tapers in
the game.

110 MD October 2017


October 2017 MD 111


114 MD October 2017

How 24-year-old Derek Lunsford Went From
Amateur to Tampa Pro 212 Champ in 1 Week

I wouldnt eexactly
ctly sa
say Derek Lunsford was an unknown
unknow head
heading g into the 2017 NPC
Champi hips. In 2015,
USA Championships. 15, he had w
won the N
NPC Junior Nationals
tional welterweight class.
Last year, he moved up to middleweight and won the overall at the Junior Nationals
before taking runner-up at the USA. I certainly had only a vague idea of who Derek was
until the light heavyweights took the stage in the Artemus W. Ham Hall on the University
of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) campus. Immediately, he stood out from the rest. With
his superior thickness, X-frame structure and round muscle shapes, Lunsford looked
like a pro among amateurs. All he had to do to get that IFBB pro card was win his class,
but he also swept the overall. Seven days later, I found myself covering the Tampa Pro,
and once again watched Dereks hand held high in victory only this time, as the last
man standing in the 16-man lineup of 212 pros. At 24, Lunsford was the youngest, and
obviously the least experienced. Neither fact mattered. In the end, he was just that good.


Growing up in Indiana, Derek was always the hardest-working kid on the baseball,
soccer and basketball teams, but he lacked the natural athletic talent to excel in any
of those. It wasnt until he discovered wrestling in high school that he found something
where his efforts paid off. Its not so different from bodybuilding, he explains. Its an
individual sport, and the harder you work and the more consistent you are, the better
you will be. Lunsford made it to national-level competition in high school, and earned an
athletic scholarship to college. But it soon became clear to him that he had reached the
pinnacle. I knew I wasnt good enough to go to the Olympics; those guys were just on
another level.

October 2017 MD 115

At 150 pounds, Derek decided he might as well at
least continue weight training, which he had come to
enjoy. Though a couple of people had pointed out his
potential for bodybuilding, it didnt register to him that
exing was in his future That all changed one day when
he was sitting in his car before heading into the gym on
a leg day, and feeling more like starting the car back up
and heading home. I looked up Bodybuilding Motivation
for one of those videos, and the one I watched had Flex
Lewis in it, he tells us. I really had no idea who he was,
but right then and there I said, I want to look like that, and
Im going to look like that. Derek, bursting with newfound
purpose, marched into the gym and announced to the
group of older, larger men that he was going to be a


That day was just over four years ago as you read
this, but it turned out that bodybuilding was the sport
Derek was meant for all along. Everything happens
for a reason, he says. When I quit wrestling, I felt like
a failure, but this was the path for me. One champion
he has drawn tremendous inspiration from, and has
tried to model himself after, is four-time Mr. Olympia
Jay Cutler. I watched all his DVDs and studied how he
trained, the motion and the time under tension, he says.
But I also focused on how he carried himself, how he
communicated, just how every aspect was handled like a
Jose Raymond was another role model, and when
we spoke just before the Tampa Pro, Derek hoped to
one day share the stage with him. That will already
have happened at the Olympia by the time you read
this. Derek is one of the mentally toughest young
bodybuilders Ive come across in years, as was evidenced
by his post-USA binge. I was at the restaurant Saturday
night, and thinking about what I wanted to eat, he told
me. I didnt want dessert. I wound up having three
chicken sandwiches. Even in the off-season, I eat clean. I
genuinely love clean food.
As if his jumping two weight classes and winning
a pro show a week after nabbing the USA title werent
impressive enough, Derek did it all less than seven
months after a hernia surgery. I had the surgery on
January 18, and won the USA July 31, he explains. The
funny thing is that if I hadnt lost the training time that I
did, it was very likely I would have entered the USA as a
heavyweight rather than a light-heavy.


In an era where newly minted pros often take a year or
even two off to improve before they are ready to compete
in the IFBB, its rare indeed for a man to jump right in
so soon the way Derek did. Men like Dallas McCarver
and Justin Compton bided their time as discussed,
qualied for the Mr. Olympia, but then once more sank
back into off-season mode for another year before they
felt ready for the biggest stage in the game. Not young
Mr. Lunsford. There was only one contest remaining to
qualify for the Olympia by the time he won the USA, and
it would take nothing less than a win there to punch his
ticket to Las Vegas. Lunsford pulled it off, and was not
going to let that opportunity pass him by. The Olympia
is such a prestigious show, and it will be such an honor to
be part of it, he stated. How could I not do it?
It might seem futile for a raw rookie to even dream of

116 MD October 2017

being anything other than happy to be there among
the 212 legends he will be going pose for pose with,
including Flex Lewis, David Henry, Jose Raymond and
Eduardo Correa. But lets not forget the story of Kuwaits
Ahmad Ashkanani. Last year, he turned pro at the Arnold
Amateur show in Australia, won his IFBB debut at the
Tampa Pro, and then went on to beat everyone at the 212
Olympia except Flex Lewis. Could Derek Lunsford make OFTEN TAKE A YEAR OR EVEN TWO OFF
a similarly spectacular impact? You will know by the
time you read these words, but I for one would not be TO IMPROVE BEFORE THEY ARE READY TO
surprised in the least if he continues to do what he does
best work hard in silence and then shock us all! COMPETE IN THE IFBB, ITS RARE INDEED
2015 Indianapolis Championships
2015 Junior Nationals
Welterweight Winner and Novice Overall
Welterweight winner
2016 Midwest Battle of Champions Middleweight and Overall Champion
2016 Junior Nationals Middleweight and Overall Champion
2016 USA Championships Second, Middleweights
2017 USA Championships Light Heavyweight and Overall Champion
2017 IFBB Tampa Pro 212 Winner

October 2017 MD 117



The Girl
Behind the Box

Fitness model, IFBB Bikini pro champion and Gaspari-

sponsored athlete Dayna Maleton has been piquing the interest
of serious training athletes as the woman behind the campaign for
Gaspari Nutritions mass builder, Halodrol. Dayna is a woman
who walks the walk when it comes to being in peak condition
and training seriously, as you will see from the photographs on
the following pages that showcase her t and well-proportioned
physique. Shes also been heating up the competitive stages for
the last few years. Dayna became an IFBB pro in 2009 at the NPC
Team Universe after only two amateur shows and she won
them both. In 2015, she won her rst pro title at the IFBB Toronto
Supershow. Take a closer look at the girl behind the box, and youll
agree that Dayna Maleton is a champion on and off the stage.


120 MD October 2017

October 2017 MD 121
122 MD October 2017
October 2017 MD 123
124 MD October 2017
October 2017 MD 125

126 MD October 2017

TESTOSTERONE By Daniel Gwartney, M.D.

Study Says Red Wine Boosts
Mention romance to an average American
male, and thoughts ash toward an imaginary
all-access invitation to the Playboy Mansion
or the nearest VIP room at a gentlemens
lounge. However, for most women, and men
who have actually emerged from adolescence
to obediently follow the imagery indoctrinated
by hours of Cialis commercials, romance
involves anticipation and atmosphere,
ultimately resulting in a mutual surrender
to the primal demands of hormones and
excitatory neurotransmitters.
The atmosphere of romance and the
mood can be created with a single red rose,
a glass of red wine and a decadent chocolate
dessert. Beware of excess, as drunkenness
and indigestion can quickly kill passion.
The role of red wine is traditional, harking
back to the days of the Roman Empire and
beyond. Wine is associated with a number of
benets that can enhance and aid in producing
and acting upon a romantic moment. Some
of these effects are a function of the alcohol A LITTLE RED MIGHT AID IN PROMOTING CLEAN
content, while others are made possible by ARTERIES, WHICH IS KEY TO KEEPING THE
bioactive components found in red wine (not
white wine, but that will be addressed) called
polyphenols, procyanidins and antioxidants
(and likely others).
Every budding Cyrano (a romantic gure with alcohol dependency face pronounced often suffer from erectile dysfunction. The main
based upon a French dramatist who ironically consequences and typically need to avoid problem (relative to erections) is not so much
or suitably died of/with syphilis, immortalized alcohol intake entirely. With wine, in addition plaque buildup in the big arteries, like the
in the play Cyrano de Bergerac) knows that a to the alcohol content, there is a fair amount aorta. Instead, it is narrowing of the small blood
little alcohol reduces inhibitions.1 Perhaps the of sugar calories that must be accounted for vessels that feed the spongy tissue of the
most common offer to a potential paramour if weight management is an issue. However, penis. The simplest comparison that explains
is, May I buy you a drink? Sadly, some fail moderate wine consumption (one-half to one how an erection forms and is maintained would
to acknowledge limitations or attempt to ply glass per day for women; one to two glasses be a balloon. To keep a balloon inated, one
an unsuspecting lady into submission. Excess per day for men) is associated with a number needs to blow in more air than escapes. When
alcohol in the short term does not promote of positive health benets especially the amount of blood that can ow into the penis
romance, libido or sexual performance. cardiovascular benets. The processes is restricted, then it cannot keep the penis erect,
Instead, nausea vomiting and anger can involved in these cardiovascular benets or inated. People have tried penis rings,
ensue. Intoxication can interfere with erectile include raising HDL (good) cholesterol, and some of the early drug therapies involved
function, and over the long term is associated reducing free radical damage and promoting injecting vasodilating drugs into the penis.
with pronounced erectile dysfunction and vasodilation (opening the arteries and The advent of cholesterol-lowering drugs is
hypogonadism (low testosterone). improving blood ow).2,3 presumed to delay or prevent plaque buildup in
Erectile dysfunction can arise due to nerve the arteries, so one might assume that would
CARDIOVASCULAR BENEFITS trauma, psychological challenges and other reduce the need for erectile dysfunction drugs.
Excess alcohol consumption needs to be conditions. However, the most common cause [Ignore for the moment the testosterone-lowering
avoided, especially as a chronic habit those is vascular.4 Men with severe atherosclerosis effect of statins.] Red wines ability to reduce

128 MD October 2017

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plaque by increasing HDL (good) cholesterol chemical compounds. When this fraction was on the sex hormones of premenopausal
could be advantageous. given to mice that were genetically modied women.11 Most aromatase research has been
The biggest-selling category in to express a lot of aromatase activity, it related to women, due to the serious nature
pharmaceuticals has been phosphodiesterase prevented E2 overproduction.9,12 of breast cancer. The question to be answered
type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i). These drugs act by Using specialized assays (measuring is, Will moderate red wine consumption
keeping blood vessels dilated, maintaining an devices), the researchers found that the anti- replicate these ndings in men? Until such
increased ow under physiologic stimulation aromatase fraction was rich in procyanidin a study is actually performed, under the
(e.g., physical touching, fantasizing).5 Red wine dimmers, the most potent being one called same conditions, the possibility remains
increases nitric oxide (NO) availability (the procyanidin B.13 Other candidate components that it might not. Men have a circulating T
same NO that certain supplements purport were identied, including chrysin, familiar concentration 10 times that of women, or more.
to support, increasing pumps).3 Grape to bodybuilders as it has been marketed as This means there is a lot more T to compete
skin extract has also been shown to inhibit a supplement, though with limited effect.14 with for the active components of red wine
PDE5, possibly accounting for some of the The procyanidin B inhibitors were shown to when trying to block the aromatase complex.
vasodilation-related benets.6 compete with T binding with the aromatase However, there should be less aromatase
One very relevant concept is the complex, meaning it would have to be present, at least in lean men reducing the
relationship between red wine and aromatase. consumed regularly. number of places where red wine would be
Aromatase is the enzyme cluster that converts One component of interest is resveratrol, competing with T. Interestingly, treating low T
testosterone (T), the male sex steroid hormone the same component recently found to might be one potential mechanism by which
into estradiol (E2), the female sex steroid red wine improves cardiovascular health.
hormone or estrogen. The initial interest Low T is associated with a greater risk of
in aromatase inhibition arose in treating cardiovascular-related death in men.16
women with breast cancer. Blocking the The promise is there, whether it be in a
production of estrogen in these women is a glass of Pinot Noir or a Mason jar of grape
matter of survival. Of course, in time (probably juice. A little red might aid in promoting
days), bodybuilders realized that aromatase clean arteries, which is key to keeping the
inhibition could reduce the estrogenic side equipment working. Boosting T, especially
effects seen with anabolic steroid use.7 Later free T, will add to the erectile function and
studies showed that young men and older increase libido. Will an athlete see huge gains
men would generate a higher concentration of in muscle or prevent the estrogen-related side
natural T production when given an aromatase effects of anabolic steroid abuse? No, but it is
inhibitor, as E2 is a potent off-signal to the be a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and likely he, and his signicant other, will enjoy
hypothalamus and pituitary gland which are associated with activating a pathway called the other benets.
regulatory centers in the brain that control T SIRT1 that is associated with healthier
production.8 aging. When scientists put resveratrol
and T in a test tube with cells that have
CHEMISTRY OF RED WINE aromatase, resveratrol was able to suppress References:
1. Leigh BC. The relationship of sex-related alcohol
Over a decade ago, it was conrmed E2 production signicantly.15 The amount expectancies to alcohol consumption and sexual behavior. Br J
Addict 1990;85:919-28.
that red wine contains active chemical of resveratrol was greater than would be 2. Hansen AS, Marckmann P, et al. Effect of red wine and
components that inhibit aromatase.9 This was consumed through wine consumption, red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and
other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Eur J Clin Nutr
a clouded issue for years, as it was known reducing the power of this nding somewhat. 2005;59:449-55.
3. Lippi G, Franchini M, et al. Moderate red wine
that increased alcohol consumption, including Further, a later study reported that when red consumption and cardiovascular disease risk: beyond the
wine consumption, increased aromatase wine, or alcohol, was provided as the sole French Paradox. Semin Thromb Hemost 2010;36:59-70.
4. Billups KL. Erectile dysfunction as an early sign of
activity.10 In fact, this is true alcohol induces drinking uid for eight weeks to rats, they cardiovascular disease. Int J Impot Res 2005;17 Suppl 1:S19-24.
5. Setter SM, Iltz JL, et al. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors
aromatase, increasing the conversion of became fatter and had higher aromatase for erectile dysfunction. Ann Pharmacother 2005;39:1286-95.
testosterone into estradiol. When comparing activity in their fat cells.10 Clearly, exceeding 6. DellAgli M, Galli GV, et al. In vitro inhibition of human
cGMP-specic phosphodiesterase-5 by polyphenols from red
red wine to white wine (produced in the same a healthy consumption of wine produces grapes. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:1960-5.
7. Mareck U, Geyer H, et al. Identication of the aromatase
way, but with a greatly reduced exposure unintended and unhealthy effects. This inhibitors anastrozole and exemestane in human urine using
to the grape skin), red wine was shown to should further support the commitment to liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid
Commun Mass Spectrom 2006;20:1954-62.
increase free testosterone in premenopausal NOT EXCEED THE RECOMMENDED INTAKE! 8. Leder BZ, Rohrer JL, et al. Effects of aromatase inhibition
in elderly men with low or borderline-low serum testosterone
women and reduce sex hormone-binding Again, that is one-half to one glass or wine levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:1174-80.
globulin (SHBG), a carrier protein that protects per day for women, and one to two glasses of 9. Eng ET, Williams D, et al. Anti-aromatase chemicals in
red wine. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002;963:239-46.
testosterone from being metabolized while wine per day for men. 10. Monteiro R, Soares R, et al. Red wine increases adipose
tissue aromatase expression and regulates body weight and
in the bloodstream SHBG increases as the adipocyte size. Nutrition 2009;25:699-705.
blood concentration of estrogen increases).11 BE SAFE AND HEALTHY 11. Shufelt C, Merz CN, et al. Red Versus White Wine as a
Nutritional Aromatase Inhibitor in Premenopausal Women:
E2 concentrations were lower in the red wine Many people are battling with an A Pilot Study. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2011 Dec 7. [E-pub,
ahead of print]
drinkers, but the small number of test subjects alcohol addiction, either personally or with 12. Eng ET, Williams D, et al. Suppression of aromatase
did not allow for statistical signicance to be a loved one. For that reason, many people (estrogen synthetase) by red wine phytochemicals. Breast
Cancer Res Treat 2001;67:133-46.
reached. consciously avoid alcoholic drinks, including 13. Eng ET, Ye J, et al. Suppression of estrogen biosynthesis
by procyanidin dimers in red wine and grape seeds. Cancer
The exact chemical, or chemicals, in red wine. Fortunately, much of the aromatase- Res 2003;63:8516-22.
wine that inhibit aromatase are not yet known. inhibiting power of red wine is also found in 14. Monteiro R, Azevedo I, et al. Modulation of aromatase
activity by diet polyphenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem
Separation studies have shown that much of grape juice and grape peel extracts that can 2006;54:3535-40.
15. Wang Y, Lee KW, et al. The red wine polyphenol
the anti-aromatase activity exists in a fraction be purchased in capsule form.9,15 resveratrol displays bilevel inhibition on aromatase in breast
called ACN20, which identies how the wine The most relevant study noted showed cancer cells. Toxicol Sci 2006;92:71-7.
16. Traish AM, Saad F, et al. The dark side of testosterone
was treated to exclude certain classes of the effect of just one glass of red wine daily deciency: III. Cardiovascular disease. J Androl 2009;30:477-94.

130 MD October 2017

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132 MD October 2017


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BODYBUILDING science By Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D.
Senior Science Editor


The Smith machine gets a bad rap. In some
instances the bad reputation might be justied,
Strength Benets Under
Specic Conditions
strength has been heavily scrutinized by
the bodybuilding, athletic and scientic
12 repetition range preferentially stimulates
muscle hypertrophy. Nevertheless, it is still
as several scientic studies have shown communities producing a few indisputable unclear how many sets are necessary to
inferior muscle activation while performing the principles. For example, training with weights maximize muscle strength or growth. While
squat or bench press with the Smith machine at approximately 80 to 100 percent of your several studies demonstrate that multiple sets
as compared to the free barbell.1,2 However, an 1RM, typically performed within the two to produce optimal strength gains1,4, others show
investigation by Arandjelovic et al.3 highlights ve repetition range, appears to be ideal for that single-set workouts are just as effective.5
certain applications of the Smith machine that increasing muscle strength while using 75 Therefore, the precise number of sets
appear to be favorable relative to free weights. to 85 percent of your 1RM within the four to producing the greatest gains is still unclear.
In the above study, researchers
computationally analyzed different
combinations of varying training intensity with
modied versions of the Smith machine, and
how these permutations might be benecial
for two different types of weightlifting. The
rst type of lifting had a sticking point at
the beginning of the movement, and the
second type had a sticking point at the end
of the movement yet both lifters had an
identical one-rep max (1RM). Both weightlifters
performed better using considerably different
exercise protocols, thus elucidating optimal
combinations between the type of lifting and
Smith machine variant.
In summary, at high intensity (90-100%
of 1RM) which is primarily used to build
strength the optimal prescription depended
signicantly on the type of weightlifting. Under
high-intensity conditions, only the rst type of
weightlifting beneted from using the Smith
machine where more specically, the Smith
machine with an attached counterweight
offered the greatest benet and the Smith
machine containing viscous resistance
conferred a smaller advantage over free
weights. At medium-level intensity (75-85%
of 1RM), which preferentially induces muscle
hypertrophy, the Smith machine with attached
counterweight offered the best choice for force
production and muscle tension for both types
of weightlifting.
Typically, one of the most difficult
yet seemingly simple questions asked
when assessing your workout is: How THE SMITH MACHINE GETS A BAD RAP. HOWEVER,
many repetitions and sets should I do? RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS CERTAIN APPLICATIONS OF
Applying the most advantageous repetition
and set range within your workout in
order to increase muscle growth and RELATIVE TO FREE WEIGHTS.

134 MD October 2017

suggesting that heavy squats may diminish
muscle power. This unwelcome result may
lead to the misinterpretation that squats
decrease muscle power and speed, even
though many studies have shown a strong
correlation between squat strength and
muscle power.8
A potential explanation for this unforeseen
discrepancy between squat strength and leg
muscle power uncovered by Marshall et al.
may have to do with the type of muscle ber
immediately produced in response to heavy
squats. Before I explain this phenomenon,
lets quickly establish the characteristics of
the different muscle ber types in humans.
There are three different varieties of muscle
bers, designated type I, type IIa and type IIx.
Type I bers are also known as slow-twitch
bers, while type IIa and IIx are referred to
as fast-twitch bers. The contraction velocity
of the type I ber is approximately one-tenth
that of a type IIx ber, while the velocity of
type IIa bers is somewhere between type I
and type IIx.
A study by Andersen et al.9 illustrated
that muscle bers exposed to weight training
initially decrease the number of fast IIx bers,
converting them to fast IIa bers. However,
when the same subjects were exposed to long
periods of rest, the same bers that originally
converted from type IIa to IIx then converted
back to IIx but at an even higher percentage
than before. This delayed response could
explain the measured decrease in muscle
power in the study by Marshall et al., as the
subjects may not have experienced the full

8 SETS FOR MAXIMUM conversion of the slower type IIa bers back to
the more powerful type IIx bers producing
an apparent decrease in muscle power due to

SQUAT STRENGTH In summary, training at high intensity with

multiple sets of squats has an extremely
positive impact on strength with a
signicantly greater improvement for the
Multiple Sets Best for Quadriceps Size
Up to this point, there has been a lack of greatest increase in strength of almost
group performing eight sets of squats
compared to one set of squats. Therefore, a
careful and progressive increase in squats,
scientic inquiry investigating the effects of 25 percent. Whereas the group doing ultimately reaching eight sets, ought to
multiple sets on strength beyond the three- only one set showed an increase of only produce a sizeable increase in quadriceps size
set range. In order to clear up this ambiguity, 10 percent, and the group doing four sets and strength.
an analysis by Marshall et al.6 examined the increased quadriceps strength by 14 percent.
effect that performing multiple sets of squats Interestingly, all three groups showed a
had on quadriceps strength, ranging from one decrease in body fat percentage of 1 to 2 References:
to eight sets. In this study, the researchers percent, but only the eight-set group showed 1. Schwanbeck S, Chilibeck PD, et al. J Strength Cond Res
2009;23(9), 2588-2591.
assigned 43 resistance-trained males to a an increase in bodyweight of approximately 2. Schick EE, Coburn JW, et al. J Strength Cond Res
six-week training program consisting of one, 6 pounds indicating muscle growth. Most 2010;24(3), 779-784.
3. Arandjelovic O. J Strength Cond Res 2012;26(2), 350-
four or eight sets of squats at 80 percent of likely, some of this muscle growth was 363.
their 1RM, performed until failure was reached. produced by the considerable increase in 4. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess N, et al. Am J Sports Med
2000;28(5), 626-633.
Subsequently, each subject was tested for testosterone and growth hormone levels 5. Hass CJ, Garzarella L, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc
2000;32(1), 235-242.
quadriceps strength and the rate at which the stimulated by the large volume of squats 6. Marshall PW, McEwen M, et al. Eur J Appl Physiol
quadriceps produced force which measures performed, as several studies have linked 2011;111(12), 3007-3016.
7. Ronnestad BR, Nygaard H, et al. Eur J Appl Physiol
muscle power. squats to increased testosterone and growth 2011;111(9), 2249-2259.
All subjects showed an increase in hormone levels.7 8. Wisloff U, Castagna C, et al. Br J Sports Med
2004;38(3), 285-288.
quadriceps strength, with the group Finally, all three groups showed a decrease 9. Andersen JL, Schjerling P, et al. Sci Am 2000;283(3),
completing eight sets demonstrating the in the quadriceps rate of force production 48-55.

October 2017 MD 135

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136 MD October 2017


The muscle-building breakthrough of the than standard testosterone. It cannot be
21st century is here, and the results being converted to estrogen via aromatase, nor
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October 2017 MD 137

My legs get sore at least half the time I train them, but
they havent really grown much in the last two or three
years. They are a decent size, but I really want my legs
to be good enough where people are pretty impressed by
them. I do both heavy weights for low reps and lighter
weights (not super light, just lighter) in every workout.
At certain times of the year, I focus more on just using
free weights and do mostly squats, front squats, stiff-leg
deadlifts and a few sets of leg curls. The rest of the time
its a mix of free weights and machines. I have always
trained legs twice a week, just like everything else.
Its worked pretty well for my upper body and I have
continued to make progress there, just not as fast as it
used to be. Ive been training very seriously for five years
now and I hate to think this is as big as my legs are ever
going to get! So any help would be appreciated. I figure
that if anyone knows about building freaky wheels, its
As I try to stress all the time, its not how much you lift or
even the exercises you do, its how you do it. Getting sore isnt
really a reliable indication that youre stimulating growth. I
havent been sore very often in years and years. And when
I say its not about the weight, I mean it. Ive seen guys who
squat 600 pounds, yet their legs arent anything special at all.
I havent gone over 405 on squats since I was 19 years old.
Any time I went to 500 pounds, I would pull something. I used
to see the late Paul Quadzilla DeMayo training legs back in
the 90s. This guy had quads just as freaky as Platz or Branch,
and I never saw him go heavier than 315 on squats.
You should be aiming for the best possible pump in your
ITS NOT HOW MUCH YOU LIFT OR EVEN THE legs when you train them. So first off, I dont like to train legs
EXERCISES YOU DO, ITS HOW YOU DO IT. GETTING without four meals in me that day beforehand to fill up the
SORE ISNT REALLY A RELIABLE INDICATION THAT glycogen stores. Then, I never start with squats. If I do, I dont
YOURE STIMULATING GROWTH. JAY CUTLER feel a pump from them. I will always do either leg extensions,
leg presses or both first in the workout. Sometimes I will even
do those two, plus hacks first. On all those exercises, I keep
my reps around 15-20 to get as much blood in the legs as I
can. The only exercise I will do 10 reps with is squats. By that
point in the workout, sets of 10 with 405 hits every last fiber in
my quads perfectly.
More tips? You have to train to failure. You can have a set
number of reps in mind, but if you get to 10 and you can do
another couple, do them! Flexing and stretching the legs
between sets helps with the blood flow and pump, and deep-
tissue massage is also beneficial. These will all help open up
the fascia to allow for more growth.
I cant emphasize enough that you shouldnt start with very
heavy leg presses or squats. When you do that, you always
end up using other muscle groups like the hips and the glutes
because subconsciously, youre afraid of the weight. There
is no reason to load up the leg press and then stack extra
weight on top of it. You never see me do that. Those machines
are built to certain specifications, and nobody needs to put

1,500 pounds on them. If you do that, or squat crazy amounts

of weight for a few reps, I guarantee you will never see the
gains in your legs that you should and could.

138 MD October 2017


Dorian, I know early in your
bodybuilding career that your chest
was a lagging body part. I heard you
say that the decline bench is the best
movement to add mass to your chest.
My gym does not have a decline bench,
so I do flat instead, and then the incline
bench for my pressing movements. I
am building my foundation. Do you
think this is the right way to go? Thank
you for your time.
How about finding a gym with a
decline bench, for starters? When I was
starting out in bodybuilding, I read a lot
of books. One writer who had a lasting
influence on me was Nautilus inventor
Arthur Jones, because he came at training
from a scientific point of view rather
than just passing on anecdotal evidence
about what was and wasnt effective.
The function of the pectoral muscles is
to bring the arm away from the body
and across the body. The decline press
allows for a greater range of motion, thus
activating more of the muscle fibers.
The reason decline presses have
never been overly popular is that
a misconception exists that they
specifically target the lower region of
the pecs. Since most people have fair to
good development there and tend to have
weaker development in the upper pecs, it
was surmised that decline presses were
a waste of time and effort. I found this to
be patently false. Decline presses in fact
work the entire chest.
Personally, I found that flat bench
presses put too much stress on the front
delts and the tendons connecting the
chest to the front delts. Ponder for one
moment that any time you have ever
heard of a bodybuilder tearing his pec,
it was while doing the flat bench press.
I can honestly say that the majority of
the size and thickness of my chest was
achieved through heavy decline presses.
Now if you cant get to a gym with a
decline press, your next best option is
weighted dips with your torso leaning
ONE WRITER WHO HAD A LASTING INFLUENCE ON ME WAS forward and your elbows flared out. This
NAUTILUS INVENTOR ARTHUR JONES, BECAUSE HE CAME AT position is important, because the more
TRAINING FROM A SCIENTIFIC POINT OF VIEW RATHER THAN upright your torso and the less of an

JUST PASSING ON ANECDOTAL EVIDENCE ABOUT WHAT WAS AND angle your elbows have, youll work more
triceps and less chest.

October 2017 MD 139

I know a lot of pros talk about how they wanted
to be bodybuilders from the time they were kids,
or how they grew up watching Arnold or Stallone
in the movies and wanted to have muscles. Not me.
I grew up in Bastrop, Lousiana a town of 15,000
people five hours away from New Orleans. I got on the
football team when I started eighth grade at Bassett
Junior High, and I figured it would be a good idea to
start lifting weights to get stronger. I was about 59
and maybe 155 pounds, but always very lean and
muscular-looking even at that size. They had a tiny
weight room there, and I really just messed around
some. I had no idea what to do. The next year, I started
high school and I kept playing football, and I also
joined the school powerlifting team. I didnt care about
getting big, but I did want to get strong. I learned the
basic lifts, but I wasnt too good. By the time I started
entering meets, I was in the 181-pound class, but I
wasnt very good at all. I think the best I ever did
in high school was sixth place. When I graduated, I
could squat 500 and deadlift around that too, but my
bench press was only 280. My arms had already gotten
pretty big, and thats because of my genetics. Those
definitely came from my mom. Mama Jessie had big,
strong arms! My dad wasnt around growing up, but
THE WEIRD THING ABOUT BEING ON THE FOOTBALL Ive seen him a bunch of times. Hes just built like a
After high school, I went off to Grambling State
University in Louisiana, where I played football and
majored in accounting. The weird thing about being
on the football team was that they always fed us really
well, but the weight room sucked. Somehow they
had the money to feed us all the steak and potatoes
we wanted, but the weight room wasnt much bigger
than my dorm room, and we could only get in there
from 5:00 a.m. to 7:00 a.m. to use it! All they had was a
bench, a pair of stands to put a bar on to squat, and a
couple of machines crowded together. And only a few
of us on the team even bothered to use the place. Most
of the guys were just big and fat, and didnt want to do

anything on top of the practices out on the field. They

sure didnt want to get up that early to lift weights. I did
bench presses, squats, deadlifts, some power cleans
and some curls when I felt like it. My arms still got real
big, though. I remember some professor betting me
that they were at least 20 inches and I said, no way,
thats ridiculous. One day he brought a tape measure
to class and what do you know, there were 21 inches.
And I was only weighing about 220 or 225 back then.

140 MD October 2017


I have pretty severe pain in my right
shoulder that I suspect might be a torn
rotator cuff. I just started a new job and I
wont have medical insurance for another
couple of months. At that point I will get an
MRI. In the meantime, I cant do any type of
heavy pressing for chest or shoulders. What
I am doing at the moment is completing all
my lateral movements before presses on
shoulder day, and hitting the pec deck and
cable crossovers before any chest pressing.
The pumps are intense and my shoulders and
chest are getting sore, but I really wonder
if I am stimulating any muscle growth
because my pressing weights are so low. For
example, I used to put three plates on each
side of the Hammer Strength shoulder press
machine, but these days its only a 45 and a
25. What do you think?
If someone is starting out or just training with
no limitations like an injury, I would say they
should train as heavy as they can in good form
YOUR FORM AND YOUR MIND-MUSCLE CONNECTION MIGHT to add mass. But thats not your reality at the
ACTUALLY BE BETTER NOW THAN THEY WERE BEFORE. moment. You cant go heavy. Does that mean
OFTEN, GUYS SACRIFICE BOTH OF THOSE TO BE ABLE TO USE you should quit training? Of course not. You are
HEAVIER WEIGHTS, AND DONT EVEN REALIZE IT. doing the best you can and finding ways to keep
DEXTER JACKSON your training intensity high without using heavy
weights. From what youre telling me, you seem
to be doing just fine with the pre-exhaust style
of training for your chest and shoulders. The
fact that you are getting pumps and getting sore
tells me that your pecs and delts are receiving a
whole new type of stimulation.
Another thing to consider is that your form
and your mind-muscle connection might
actually be better now than they were before.
Often, guys sacrifice both of those to be able
to use heavier weights, and dont even realize
it. This should make you feel better to hear. A
couple of years back, my knees were giving me
a lot of trouble and were in almost constant pain.
There was no way I could train my quads heavy.
Charles Glass had me use lighter weights and
pre-exhaust my quads with extensions, along
with doing higher reps on my leg presses, hacks
and machine squats. Do you think my quads
shrunk from that? I thought they would, but they
grew! In fact, people were telling me my quad

sweep was finally improved after it having been

unimpressive for most of my career. So this
injury of yours could actually be a blessing in

142 MD October 2017


IFBB PRO GURU By George Farah

Back in the 80s, people used to train for volume with a lot of
sets six per exercise. Guys were in the gym for two or three hours,
two sessions a day. A lot of todays pros train for 50-60 minutes,
maximum, or an hour and 15 minutes. Whats your opinion on this?
Do you agree with going to the gym and busting your butt for just
one hour, maximum, and going home regardless if abs or calves
must be done? Do you suggest your clients (pros) train just one
muscle group per week?
Back in those days, people used to think the more time you spend in
the gym, the bigger you are going to get. Not anymore many studies
have shown that you only need to get enough blood to the area so
that its trained, and you will grow while resting with the appropriate
nutrition intake. So, follow the modern-day workout and you should
be on the right track for growth. One body part a week is more than
enough, but it will all depend on your individual needs. Remember, I
said it many times before what works for Dexter or Johnnie will not
necessarily work for me and you, or anyone else. Each and every one of
us responds differently. Hope this helps.

People used to think the more time you spend in the

gym, the bigger you are going to get. Not anymore
many studies have shown that you only need to get
enough blood to the area so that its trained, and you
will grow while resting with the appropriate nutrition
intake. George Farah
How does one obtain striated glutes? Aside from the obvious
dieting and hard pre-contest training, what should one be doing in
the off-season? HEAVY deadlifts and squats in order to build bigger/
fuller muscles to have something to actually striate, pre-contest or
is that genetic?
Striated glutes come from dieting, and of course some genetics play
a big part. In order to have striated glutes, you will need to be at the
lowest fat percentage that a person can achieve or at least thats
what always worked for me. Your workouts can also play a signicant
part of that look. Make sure to squat and lunge deep in the off-season
so you will have the muscles in that area so when youre dieted down,
you will also be able to achieve that look. Good luck.

George Farah is presenting his opinions and he does not, in any way,
shape or form, encourage or condone the use of any illegal or controlled
Nothing contained herein is to be construed as medical advice. Use of
any drugs and exercise regimen should only be done under the directions
and auspices of a licensed physician. The writer does not claim to be a
medical doctor nor does he purport to issue medical advice.

Follow me on Twitter @gvfarah Facebook: georgefarahdietguru

Instagram @georgefarah_guru

144 MD October 2017



I am a 37-year-old male in fairly good shape.
I have been lifting weights and doing cardio for
and fat loss come
over 20 years on and off. Right now I am about down to your de-
6 foot, 235 pounds and around 15 percent body
fat. I would like to start taking weightlifting
termination. If you
more seriously, but many people are telling me are determined to
because of my age, there is no point since all my
muscle I have will atrophy soon. I would like to reach your goals
reach a goal of 8 percent at 250 pounds is this and refuse to let
reasonable and possible? Additionally, when is a
good time for cardio? I normally train in the early the negaholics
mornings, and then do a run or bike in the mid-
affect your atti-
Its very sad that by nature, many people tude, nothing can
are negative, jealous and insecure. They are so
unhappy with their own lives that they hate to see
stop you!
anyone else achieve anything, and will jump at Charles Glass
the chance to discourage anyone else from going
after their dreams. Dont listen to those wretched
souls! Either stay away from them entirely (best
strategy), or ignore their negative comments. Take
it from a man who is over 60 at 37, you are still
relatively young! Furthermore, the fact that you
have been inconsistent in your training and eating
up until now and are prepared to be more serious
is a denite indication that you still have a large
amount of untapped potential.
Can you get to a pretty lean 250 pounds? Ive
seen plenty of men make similar transformations.
It all comes down to your mental attitude. Do you
believe you can make it happen? If so, you will
train as hard and eat as clean as it takes to reach
that goal. But if you listen to those people and let
doubt and uncertainty ll your mind, youll never
get there.
As for cardio, the best time to burn fat is when
you have no glycogen (stored carbohydrates) in
your system. Thats why most bodybuilders either
do cardio rst thing in the morning on an empty
stomach, or immediately following their weight-
training workout. In both cases, the glycogen
gas tank is empty, and your body will turn to fat
for energy. What you should do is switch your
schedule around and do your cardio early in the
morning before breakfast, then get a couple of
meals in you, and do your weights in the afternoon.
If you really want to attack that body fat and burn it
off, you could add a second, shorter cardio session
after the weights.
But again, I have to stress that both muscle gain
and fat loss come down to your determination. If

you are determined to reach your goals and refuse

to let the negaholics affect your attitude, nothing
can stop you!

October 2017 MD 145




I am 19 years old and have been lifting for ve
years now, and am natural. I am 510 and have been
stuck at 190 pounds for a couple of years, uctuating
from 185 to 195 depending how much I eat and how
much cardio I do. Not only have I not gained any
weight, none of my lifts have gone up in a long time,
either. This is the worst plateau that I have ever
hit. I have tried mixing up the number of sets, reps,
exercises, adding more carbs in the morning, adding
more protein, even adding cheat foods back in.
Nothing seems to work. I have been incorporating the
7s at the end of my workouts and those give me great
pumps, but an hour later my pump is gone. I feel like
I follow a strict diet and for a while I was getting up
to 300 grams of protein a day, and that didnt work. I
also feel like I have a good mind-muscle connection,
so I dont think that I have an intensity issue. I have
no idea where to go with my training and nutrition,
and really could use some advice and direction.
Thanks for your time.
I was in a very similar situation at your age, so I can
relate to your frustration. At the age of 15-16, I was able
to handle 225 in the bench press and fully expected the
rapid progression in size and strength I had witnessed
in my initial period of training to continue at that same
pace. It didnt. For a couple of years I was stuck, then
in my late teens I started making gains once again,
seemingly out of nowhere. Often it can simply be a case
of muscle maturity, and you could be just on the verge
of a rapid growth phase. But in the meantime, lets make
sure you arent doing anything to further prolong this
You mentioned adding more carbs in the morning.
It sounds like you may only be eating carbs in the
morning, out of the fear that eating them any later will
lead to getting fat. Try eating clean, complex carbs
with every meal and see how that affects you. You
may indeed gain unwanted body fat, or this could be
what your body needs to start growing. Be sure to
stay adequately hydrated at all times and to consume
enough sodium.
As for your pump going away within an hour, thats
normal. A pump is merely a temporary increase in Try eating clean, complex carbs with every meal
blood volume inside a muscle. Muscle fullness is
something different, and its related to how much water
and see how that affects you. You may indeed
and glycogen are inside the muscle cells. Often when a gain unwanted body fat, or this could be what
bodybuilder isnt eating enough carbs, he appears at,
meaning his muscles are no longer full and round as
your body needs to start growing. Hany Rambod
they should be.
One last contributor to both lackluster pumps and (hinders optimal blood ow), it has the
lack of muscle fullness are pre-workout products loaded very undesirable effect of preventing a Instagram: hanyrambod
with caffeine. Most of these products are, because pump and also takes away from muscle Twitter: hanyrambod

caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and will fullness. Thats why I was very careful Facebook: Hany Rambod (fan page)
make you feel as if youre training harder. But because to make sure the pre-workout formula I Website:
caffeine is also a powerful diuretic and vasoconstrictor designed, EVP, did not contain caffeine.

146 MD October 2017



If you plan
ahead and give
yourself plenty
of time, you can
avoid almost
any problems.
The last thing
any high-level
athlete needs
is stress about
not being able
to travel to the
place he will be
competing in.
Ahmad Askar

THE CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL will not allow you to bring any food through customs, including the USA,
COMPETITION AND HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM the UK, Australia and Spain. I started researching online to nd the nearest
Team Oxygen Gym head coach Ahmad Askar has taken supermarkets, so usually one of the rst things we do when we arrive is to
his team of athletes all around the world to compete. I asked go shop for all the food we will need. There are also meal-prep services in
him how he handles the various complications of traveling many cities that are a huge help. Pretty soon, I learned which hotels to stay
internationally for his competitors, and how he handles them. at that were close to supermarkets and gyms, since we are often in that city
for almost a week. Now, I know where to get whatever is needed whether
WATER RETENTION AND JET LAG I am in Hong Kong, Ohio or Barcelona. For instance, we have stayed at the
Both of these are common with air travel. The simplest same hotel in Columbus for a few years in a row now because its centrally
solution is to arrive earlier. How many days earlier always located to those things as well as the venue. Google is very useful.
depends on the length of the ight. For example, if we are
traveling to Europe from Kuwait, four days is enough time to PROPER DOCUMENTATION
stabilize everything. For trips to the USA, we found it best to I make sure everyone has their passports, visas and whatever the host
get there six days prior to the event. I dont have my athletes country requires for entry a month before the contest. If you plan ahead and
consume any extra water beyond their normal intake on the give yourself plenty of time, you can avoid almost any problems. The last
airplane. Once we get to our hotel, I look at everyone and decide thing any high-level athlete needs is stress about not being able to travel to
what they need to do, based on if they are retaining uid and the place he will be competing in. This was another learning process that I
how much. Very often I will have them do an hour of cardio at the had to become procient in fast, because different countries have their own
hotel gym or tness center. I may also have them reduce carbs requirements for forms and such.
for a few meals. It all depends on the individual. Jet lag is just
dealing with time changes, and you adjust to that after a couple Next month, more about Oxygen Gym and some of the top champions
of days. who train there.

BRINGING FOOD Instagram:ahmad_askar_1

When I became head coach for the Kuwait team in 2014, I Facebook:Oxygen Gym Jabriya
didnt know how to handle this aspect perfectly. Many countries Instagram:o2_gyms

148 MD October 2017


Americans tend to be a litigious own negligence).2 Refer to an allied health professional when

A: group: when somebody gets hurt,

a lawsuit gets led. Some personal
trainers think a liability waiver
In another case, the client complained to his
trainer about dizziness and vision problems.
The trainer insisted that he continue exercising.
necessary to obtain medical clearance and
program recommendations;
Keep records and documentation, including
protects them from being sued. Wrong. Anyone The client left the gym and went to the hospital intake forms, program records, workout notes,
can be sued. A signed release only protects where he was diagnosed with a right internal and client medical records;
against certain claims, and some states heavily artery dissection and suffered a stroke. The Get certied and maintain certication
scrutinize releases or wont enforce them at all lawsuit alleged that the trainer: 1) failed to through continuing education;
as a matter of public policy. Other trainers think monitor the client adequately; 2) instructed him Design programs that are appropriate, not
they dont need liability insurance if they have a excessive, for the clients individual capabilities
signed release. Wrong again. To avoid digging and limitations;
into your own pocket for legal defense or settle- Working out assumes Inspect the facility and/or equipment to
ment costs, having insurance is essential.
Working out assumes certain risks; e.g.,
certain risks, but it wont ensure proper working order (e.g., if a cable
snaps, the question will be whether the trainer
you can tear a muscle, tendon or ligament. protect a trainer who injures checked it to see if it was frayed);
Assumption of the risk is a legal defense that Instruct clients thoroughly on proper
can protect trainers from lawsuits resulting
a client by a negligent, equipment use and exercise performance;
from those kinds of foreseeable injuries reckless or intentional act. Supervise clients closely, especially those
that are inherently involved in exercise. But who are unfamiliar with the equipment (one
it wont protect a trainer who injures a client lawsuit ensued when a trainer put a sedentary
by a negligent, reckless or intentional act woman on a treadmill at 3.5 mph; she drifted
(negligence is failing to exercise the care that backward and fell off the end of the treadmill,
a reasonable or prudent person would exercise fracturing her ankle);
under the circumstances). Carefully monitor for signs of medical
News headlines report examples of lawsuits distress, such as stroke or heart attack, and call
against personal trainers for negligent conduct. 911 when warranted (stay off your cell phone
For example, when a trainer lifted his client and pay attention!).
onto a BOSU balance ball and walked away, At a time when so many Americans are
the client fell, fracturing her hip and wrist, sedentary, overweight or obese, personal
requiring surgery. She sued, and the court cited trainers can play an important role in improving
several ways in which the trainer was negligent, to continue exercising even after he complained peoples health and vitality. Being mindful of the
including: 1) he failed to ask about the womans that he was not feeling well; 3) failed to warn key points above can benet clients and save
medical history before training (she had a him of the dangers of continuing to exercise trainers from very costly mistakes.
surgically fused ankle); 2) given her medical in that condition; and 4) failed to call for
history, she should not have been instructed emergency medical assistance. Jury verdict: a References:
to use a BOSU ball; and 3) the trainer failed to whopping $14.5 million for the plaintiff (less 25% 1.
instruct her properly on the equipment. The for plaintiffs negligence).3 article_64502d0a-cff9-11e4-bd80-633a9e981c15.html
case reportedly settled for $750,000.1 Ive recently spoken at two conferences 2.
In another case, a trainer instructed the of the National Strength and Conditioning illustrates-the-need-for-risk-management-training-2/;
client to perform an intense workout consisting Association ( on the topic of risk
of burpees, jumping jacks and deadlifts after management what trainers can do to safely 3.
being informed of the clients prior back surgery. train their clients while protecting themselves 14-5-million-jury-verdict-in-connecticut/
The client severely damaged spinal disks, against lawsuits. Besides liability waivers and
requiring two further surgeries. It was noted insurance, trainers should:
Rick Collins, JD, CSCS [] is the lawyer

that the trainer: 1) lacked a current certication; Conduct a thorough pre-training interview, that members of the bodybuilding community and nutritional
2) failed to keep program records; and 3) had no including assessments for past surgeries, supplement industry turn to when they need legal help or
recent continuing education courses. She sued, coronary risk factors, diagnosed diseases, and representation. [ Rick Collins, 2017. All rights reserved. For
informational purposes only, not to be construed as legal or
and was awarded $1.4 million (less 30% for her lifestyle; medical advice.]

150 MD October 2017


152 MD October 2017


October 2017 MD 153