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Current transformer

The Current Transformer ( C.T. ), is a type of instrument transformer that is designed to produce
an alternating current in its secondary winding which is proportional to the current being measured
in its primary.

Current Transformer

1. The secondary of a C.T can not be open circuited on any circumstance when it is
under service.
2. A CT may be considered as a series transformer.
3. The primary current in a C.T is independent of the secondary circuit conditions
(burden).
4. The primary winding of the CT is connected in series with the line carring the current
to be measured. Hence it carries of the full line current.
5. With the help of CT, a 5A ammeter can be used measure a high current like 200A.
Potential transformer

1. The secondary of a P.T can be open circuited without any damage being caused
either to the operator or the transformer.
2. P.T may be considered as a parallel transformer.
3. The primary current of a P.T depends upon the secondary circuit conditions (burden).
4. The primary winding P.T is connected across the line of voltage to be measured.
Hence the full line voltage is impressed across its terminal.
5. With the help of P.T, a 120V voltmeter can be used to measure very high voltages like
11KV.
6. A Current Transformer (CT) is used to obtain reduced current signals for purpose of
measurement , control and protection.They reduce the heavy current to lower values
which are suitable for operation of Relays and other instruments connected to their
secondary winding.
7. While a potential transformer(PT) used to reduce the voltage to lower values and to
provide isolation between high voltage power network and the relays and the other
instruments that are connected to their secondaries.
8. CT is used for current measurement and PT is used for voltage measurement.
9. CT is connected with primaries connected in series with the power system. CT has a
large number of turns on its secondary winding whereas fewer number of turns on
primary winding.( since primary is connected in series, so it carries Full Load current
and hence fewer turns)
10. While a PT has large number of turns on primary and fewer turns in secondary
winding. the reason is obvious(i. e to get reduced voltage in secondary and V is
proportional to Number of turns).And here primary winding is connected across the
supply.
11. Secondary of CT should not be opened.If happens, there won't be any secondary
mmf to oppose the mmf produced due to current flowing in primary and hence
all the primary mmf acts on the core as magnetizing quantity. This produces a
very high flux density in the core which produces a very high induced emf in
secondary. this very high voltage is severe to the operator as well as to the other
instruments connected to secondary.

To start with, both are instrument transformers basically used for measurement and protection
purpose in power systems. Below are few differences.

Current Transformers (CT):

1. The Primary winding of a C.T have smaller number of turns than secondary.
2. The secondary of a C.T can not be open circuited on any circumstance when it is
under service.
3. A CT may be considered as a series transformer.
4. The primary current in a C.T is independent of the secondary circuit conditions
(burden/load).
5. The primary winding of the CT is connected in series with the line carrying the
current to be measured. Hence it carries of the full line current.
6. With the help of CT, a 5A ammeter can be used measure a high current like 200A.

Potential/Voltage Transformers (PT/VT):


1. The Primary winding of a P.T have larger number of turns than secondary.
2. The secondary of a P.T can be open circuited without any damage being caused
either to the operator or the transformer.
3. P.T may be considered as a parallel transformer.
4. The primary current of a P.T depends upon the secondary circuit conditions
(burden/load).
5. The primary winding P.T is connected across the line of voltage to be measured.
Hence the full line voltage is impressed across its terminal.
6. With the help of P.T, a 120V voltmeter can be used to measure very high voltages like
11KV.
A CT may be considered as a series transformer.

P.T may be considered as a parallel transformer.

The primary current in a C.T is independent of the secondary circuit conditions (burden).

The primary current of a P.T depends upon the secondary circuit conditions (burden).

The primary winding of the CT is connected in series with the line carring the current to be
measured. Hence it carries of the full line current.

The primary winding P.T is connected across the line of voltage to be measured. Hence the
full line voltage is impressed across its terminal.

With the help of CT, a 5A ammeter can be used measure a high current like 200A.

With the help of P.T, a 120V voltmeter can be used to measure very high voltages like 11KV.

The current transformers usually have more copper and bigger than voltage transformers. So current
transformers are more dangerous than voltage transformers. The function of the current
transformer is to measure the current in the circuit. The primary of current transformer, with very
low resistance and reactance, in series, is induced by the many strong magnetic fluxs from the
current going through the cable or circuit of one of the three phases, for the three phase system. On
the other hand, the main function of the potential transformer is to show the level of voltage in the
primary equipment. The potential transformer is a parallel transformer to the cable. The primary
cable, with a big resistance and reactance, of the potential transformer just taps a minute amount or
very small amount of current from one the three cables, for three phase system, maybe 1/10,000 of
the actual current in the cable parallelly to the primary transformer winding and finally connected to
the ground, for the three phase system. The primary winding will induce the relatively a small core
and the core will induce the secondary winding connected to the ground. Thus, when the secondary
circuit of the potential transformer is opened, the voltage does not increase much across the open
circuit of the secondary. It maybe only 1/5,000 of the current of the wire or cable in three phase
system. But it is dangerous to open the secondary side of the current transformer due to a very very
large induction on the big current transformer. the open voltage can be more than one kilovolt. The
current transformer is a series transformer, therefore it is more dangerous.

Current transformer: Secondary current is proportional to Primary current. Secondary voltage


depends upon the current as well as load resistance
Potential transformer: Secondary current is proportional to Primary current. Secondary current
depends upon the voltage as well as load resistance.

Current transformer: Secondary can be short circuited. Open secondary may result in failure of the
transformer.
Potential transformer: Secondary can be open circuted. Short secondary may result in failure of the
transformer.
Current transformer: Primary of current transformer should be connected in series of the circuit of
which current needs to be measured.
Potential transformer: Primary of voltage transformer should be connected in parallel of the circuit
of which voltage needs to be measured.

Current transformer: Used for measurements and operating protective relays. Never used as
power source.
Potential transformer: Used as power source as well as for measurements and operating protective
relays.

Current transformer: Primary impedance is very low as compared to impedance of the circuit of
which current needs to be measured.
Potential transformer: Primary impedance is very high.

Use:

Current transformers enable us to measure very large currents by producing a relatively


small current in a transformer.

Voltage transformers enable us to measure large potential differences by producing a


relatively small potential difference.

Secondary Coil:

Current transformers need to have a large number of windings in its secondary coil.

Voltage transformers need to have a small number of windings in the secondary coil.

Series vs Parallel:

Current transformers are series transformers.

Voltage transformers are parallel transformers.

Step-up vs Step-down:

Current transformers are step-up transformers.

Voltage transformers are step-down transformers.

A current transformer is a donut (toroidal) shaped transformer. You use it to measure current
(expressed in amperes). You run your wire to be measured through the transformer and it
produces a variable output based on the current.
A potential transformer is basically a high ratio transformer that is used to measure voltage
on high-voltage lines. For example: They will use a 10:1 ratio potential transformer to
convert 4160v to 416v. Then they can measure this lower voltage with a meter. The meter
then applies a user programmed multiplier (10) to this number to calculate the voltage.

This is not a universal classification, used depending on the situation.

The basic working principle of a transformer is the same. Sometimes we it for current
amplification hence called as current transformer, for example in step down transformer
volatge is low current is high you call this as current transformer .

A setup transform has large voltage and less current you call it as voltage or potential
transformer

CT-

Current Transformer

measure current value from the High current side

connected in series with the line

PT-

Potential(Voltage) Transformer

measure voltage only from the High voltage side

connected in parallel with the line