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Space

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1 Gravity

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Knowledge and understanding \\\\\\\

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When you have finished this chapter, you should be able to: \\\\\\\\\

define weight as the force on an object due to a gravitational field analyse information using the expression F mg to determine the

explain that a change in gravitational potential energy is related to weight force for a body on Earth and for the same body on other \\\\\\\\\

work done planets. \\\\\\\\\

define gravitational potential energy as the work done to move \\\\\\\\\

an object from a very large distance away to a point in a gravitational \\\\\\\\\

m1 m2

field, Ep G_____

r \\\\\\\\\

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Module 1

Chapter 1 \\ Gravity 3

Figure 1.1 Gravity is acting on the airborne skier. Figure 1.2 Many forces act on the occupants of a

roller-coaster.

Any object released from the window of a high-rise building will gain Calculating the weight of

speed as it falls. This means two things: first, there must be a force acting objects on other planets,

pages 78, Practical Physics

on the object; second, the object accelerates. for Senior Students, HSC

If you drop a stone and a piece of paper from near the ceiling of a room,

everyone knows that the stone reaches the floor first. But what happens if

you crumple the piece of paper into the shape of a ball? During the first

Moon landing, in 1969, the astronauts carried out a simple experiment by

dropping a hammer and a feather and observing that both reached the

Moons surface at the same time. The rate at which these objects accelerate

towards the surface of the Earth (or the Moon) is called the acceleration due

to gravity. On the Moon, there is no atmosphere and so no air resistance to gravity

interfere with the motion of the feather (in particular). On the Earth, The acceleration that a body

however, wind resistance is quite significant and so a feather and hammer, experiences when placed in a

when dropped, do not reach the ground at the same time. gravitational field. On Earth the

Gravitation itself is a natural phenomenon where objects, simply accepted value is 9.8 m s2,

although it changes slightly with

because they have mass, attract each other. It is one of the fundamental altitude and latitude

forces of physics that keeps the Earth and other planets in orbit around

the Sun. It keeps the Moon in orbit around the Earth and thus gives force mass

to the tides. It is involved in the formation of stars and the heating of their

The amount of matter in an object

centres to very high temperatures. as defined by the product of its

Gravity affects objects that have mass. In popular science, mass and volume and density. It is measured

weight are often confused. We talk of hopping on the scales to measure our in kilograms (kg) and is a scalar

quantity

weight in kilograms, when the kilogram is the unit that is associated with

mass, not weight. Mass and weight are two distinctly different quantities.

The mass of an object is the same regardless of the gravitational field that it

weight

experiences. Mass is a scalar quantity. A 10 kg mass on the Earth still has a

mass of 10 kg when in the gravitational field of the Moon. The product of its The actual force of gravitation

acting on an object at or near the

volume and density remains unchanged. Its weight, however, will be

surface of the Earth or other

different. Weight is a vector quantity. Its weight is a direct result of the force astronomical body. It is measured in

of the gravitational field acting upon it. To find weight, we use the equation: newtons (N) and is a vector quantity

F mg

m mass in kilograms (kg)

g acceleration due to gravity (m s2)

ISBN 9780170177931

Nelson Physics

4 Stage 6 HSC

Figure 1.3 Gravitation keeps the planets in orbit around the Sun (not to scale).

\\ WORKED EXAMPLE

Question 1

An object has a mass of 25 kg.

a Calculate its weight on Earth given that g 9.8 m s2.

b Calculate its weight on Mars given that the acceleration due to gravity on

Mars is 3.7 m s2.

Answer

a F mg

25 9.8

245 N

The weight of the object on Earth is 245 N.

b F mg

25 3.7

92.5 N

The weight of the object on Mars is 92.5 N.

The force of gravity is the most universal of all forces. It acts on our bodies

Determining g using a to ensure that our feet remain planted on the ground. It keeps satellites

simple pendulum, pages 25,

Practical Physics for Senior (including the Moon) in orbit around the Earth and the planets in orbit

Students, HSC around the Sun.

gravitational field A gravitational field is said to exist in any region where there is a

Exists in any region where there is a

gravitational effect, i.e. where there is force on any mass placed in that

gravitational effect. Gravitational area. Because force is a vector, gravitational field strength is also a vector.

field strength is a vector Consider the region near the surface of the Earth. The mass of the Earth

may be considered to be concentrated at its centre.

A gravitational field exists and its direction is towards the centre of the

Earth. We define the strength of the field (from Newtons Second Law) as

the gravitational force per unit mass, i.e.

F

g __

m

The unit of g is newtons per kilogram, which is written as N kg1.

ISBN 9780170177931

Module 1

Chapter 1 \\ Gravity 5

On a larger scale, the gravitational field for an isolated point mass would

be as shown in Figure 1.5.

Note that in each case, the lines, called lines of force, indicate the

direction of force on a mass placed at that point. The strength of the field

decreases with the square of the distance, as shown graphically in

Figure 1.6.

Earth

For the isolated mass, the magnitude of the gravitational field strength,

g, is given by: Figure 1.4 The gravitational field at the surface of the

Earth is downwards and perpendicular to the surface.

GM

g ____

r2

where M mass involved (e.g. mass of a planet)

r distance from the centre of that mass m

G a constant W

Earth

The constant G is called the universal gravitational constant. In the SI

system, the value of this constant is 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2.

This can be used to calculate the gravitational field at any distance r

from a mass; so it can be used to calculate the gravity on the surface of the

Earth.

Figure 1.5 The gravitational field for an isolated point

mass m.

\\ WORKED EXAMPLE g

Question 2 g = GM

r2

Given that the radius at a particular location on the Earth is 6365.0 km, calculate

the gravity there. Consider the mass of the Earth to be 5.974 1024 kg.

GM Earths surface centre of the

g ___ Earth

r2

(6.67 1011) (5.974 1024) Figure 1.6 Graph of gravitational field strength

_________________________ against distance.

(6.365 106)2

9.84 N kg1

The gravitational field strength at a distance from the centre of the Earth

GM

is g ___r2

, which means that the gravitational field strength is inversely

proportional to the square of the distance from the centre of the Earth, i.e.

1

g __

r2

.

Let us consider what happens to the gravitational field strength when

the distance from the centre of the Earth is doubled. Let the radius of the

Earth be R, then twice the distance from the centre of the Earth is 2R.

Hence:

1 becomes

g __

r2

1

g _____

(2R)2

1

g ____

4R 2

to one-quarter that on the Earths surface. This means that the weight of

an object will be one-quarter of what it is at the Earths surface, even

though its mass will not have changed.

ISBN 9780170177931

Nelson Physics

6 Stage 6 HSC

\\ WORKED EXAMPLE

Question 3

What is the gravitational field strength at a distance of 2000 km above the

Earths surface? The mass of the Earth is 6.0 1024 kg. The radius of the

Earth is 6.4 106 m. The distance from the centre of the Earth is thus

(6.4 106 2.0 106) m.

Answer

From GM

g ___

r2

6.67 1011 6.0 1024

g _____________________

(6.4 106 2.0 106)2

5.7 N kg1

Note that this means that the acceleration of a body such as a satellite at this

height is 5.7 m s2.

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The physics of the gravity of \\ DID YOU KNOW?

different planets, page 6,

Practical Physics for Senior

Students, HSC Variations in gravity

Although the accepted value for gravity on the Earths surface is 9.8 N kg1,

the actual value for g will depend on both geographical location and altitude.

Minor variations in the acceleration due to gravity occur because:

the Earth is not a perfect sphere (it is attened at the poles) the value

for g at the poles is greater than at the Equator as the poles are closer

to the centre of the Earth

of variations in the thickness of the Earths crust and the minerals

found there the density of mineral deposits and positioning of tectonic

plate boundaries affects the local value for g

the spin of the Earth reduces the value of g this effect is greatest at

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the Equator and least at the poles and is due to a centrifugal effect that

reduces the value of g

of the altitude above the Earths surface: at higher altitudes, gravity is less.

The result of these effects is that the gravitational eld at the poles is

9.832 m s2, at the Equator is 9.789 m s2 and on Mount Everest is 9.77 m s2.

ISBN 9780170177931

Module 1

Chapter 1 \\ Gravity 7

Problem set 1A

For the problems in this section assume:

g (on the Earths surface) 9.8 m s2

gm (gravity on the Moon) 1.6 m s2

G (the universal constant of gravitation) 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2

ME (the mass of the Earth) 6.0 1024 kg

m (the mass of the Moon) 7.34 1022 kg

r (the radius of the Moons orbit around the Earth) 3.84 108 m

rE (the radius of the Earth) 6.38 106 m

rm (the radius of the Moon) 1.74 106 m

MS (the mass of the Sun) 2.0 1030 kg

Question 1

An astronaut of mass 60 kg travels from the Earth to the Moon.

a Calculate his weight on the Earth.

b Calculate his weight on the Moon.

Question 2

Explain why mass and weight are often confused with each other.

Question 3

where the gravitational field strength is 9.8 N kg1?

b How far from the centre of the Earth is the mass when its

weight is 4.9 N?

Question 4

Gravitational potential

Find the gravitational field strength at a point whose distance from energy, kinetic energy and

conservation of energy

the Earths surface is equal to the radius of the Earth.

Question 5

In terms of G, ME and rE, find the gravitational field strength, g, at

the surface of the Earth.

Question 6

Moon due to the Moons gravitational field.

b Calculate the acceleration due to the Moons gravity on the

surface of the Moon.

Question 7

At what distance from the Earth would a spacecraft experience zero

net gravitational force due to the opposing pulls of the Earth and the

Moon?

energy The energy that a body has due to

its position or configuration;

Potential energy is the energy that a body has due to its position or stored energy

configuration. Gravitational potential energy (Ep) is the energy that a

body has due to its position within a gravitational field. At the Earths gravitational potential energy (Ep)

surface, the gravitational potential energy is equal to the work done in The energy of a mass due to its

moving a mass to a distance h above the ground. From Preliminary position within a gravitational field

ISBN 9780170177931

Nelson Physics

8 Stage 6 HSC

Physics, you will recall that work is the product of force and distance, so

mathematically:

W Fs

(mg) h

mgh

where m mass (kg)

g force of gravity (m s2)

h distance above Earths surface (m)

So in this case, Ep mgh.

In this unit we are dealing with the gravitational potential energy

associated with systems of large masses, where the distances between the

masses are also very large. When dealing with small masses near the surface

of the Earth, it is satisfactory to think of objects at the Earths surface as

having Ep 0. For larger distances, we need a different approach.

Work is done in moving an object away from the source of a gravitational

field. The further the object is from the source of the field, the less work has

to be done to it to move it away from the field as the gravitational field itself

becomes less strong. To describe a universal relationship, gravitational

potential energy is defined as being zero at a distance of infinity from the

gravitational source. As a consequence of this, work is always done to move

an object against the field so that it gains potential energy, Ep. So the

potential energy at point x is less than at point infinity because work has to

Ep be done to move it to point infinity (where Ep 0). This means that Ep at

r, distance from point x is negative!

Earths centre Mathematically, we find that gravitational potential energy is as

r0

follows:

Ep 0

Gm1 m2

Ep _______

r

G M

E m E

r where Ep gravitational potential energy (J)

Figure 1.8 Gravitational potential energy in the m1 mass of planet (kg)

Earths field. Note that in this case the mass of the m2 mass of object (kg)

planet (Earth) ME. r distance separating objects (m)

\\ WORKED EXAMPLE

Question 4

Calculate the energy required to move a satellite of mass 3500 kg from the

Earths surface to a position beyond the Earths gravitational field (mass of the

Earth 6.0 1024 kg, radius of Earth 6.4 106 m).

Answer

First, find the gravitational energy of the satellite on the Earths surface.

Gm1 m2

Ep ______

r

6.67 1011 6.0 1024 3500

____________________________

6.4 106

2.2 1011 J

Since the gravitational energy at a point outside the Earths gravitational field is

zero, the energy needed to go from the Earths surface to beyond that point

(infinity) is 2.2 1011 J.

ISBN 9780170177931

Module 1

Chapter 1 \\ Gravity 9

Summary of gravity

Mass is the amount of matter of which an object is composed and is a scalar quantity. It is

the product of density and volume and is measured in kilograms (kg).

Weight is the force on an object due to a gravitational field. It is a vector quantity.

The acceleration due to gravity at the Earths surface is taken to be 9.8 m s2.

Weight is found by the formula F mg.

Weight is measured in newtons (N).

The universal law of gravitation for an isolated mass can be used to find its gravitational

GM

field: g ___

r2

.

The universal gravitational constant, G, is 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2.

Gravitational potential energy is the energy of a mass due to its position within a

gravitational field.

The gravitation potential energy of a mass at a particular point within a gravitational field is

equivalent to the work done in moving the mass from that point to a point of infinite

Gm1 m2

distance: Ep _____

r .

Review questions

For the questions in this section assume:

g (on the Earths surface) 9.8 m s2

gm (gravity on the Moon) 1.6 m s2

gM (gravity on Mars) 3.7 m s2

G (the universal constant of gravitation) 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2

ME (the mass of the Earth) 6.0 1024 kg

m (the mass of the Moon) 7.34 1022 kg

r (the radius of the Moons orbit around the Earth) 3.84 108 m

rE (the radius of the Earth) 6.38 106 m

rm (the radius of the Moon) 1.74 106 m

MS (the mass of the Sun) 2.0 1030 kg

Question 1

Calculate the weight of a 625 kg lunar module on the Moon.

Question 2

A vehicle has a weight of 2127.5 N on Mars.

a Calculate its mass.

b Explain why its mass is the same both on Earth and on Mars.

Question 3

The gravitational field at the Earths surface has an average accepted value of

9.8 m s2 or N kg1. Show that these two sets of units are equivalent.

Question 4

The acceleration due to gravity on Earth is 9.8 m s2 and on Mercury is 3.8 m s2. If

a person has a weight of 450 N on Earth, what would be the persons weight on the

surface of Mercury?

Question 5

The weight of an astronaut on the Moon is one-sixth of his weight on Earth. Calculate

the acceleration due to gravity on the Moon.

ISBN 9780170177931

Nelson Physics

10 Stage 6 HSC

Question 6

a Calculate the gravitational field on Venus, given that it has a mass of 4.9 1024 kg

and a radius of 6052 km.

b Find the weight of an 80 kg person on the surface of Venus.

Question 7

A satellite is in orbit at a distance of 350 km above the Earths surface. Calculate the

gravitational field strength at this distance.

Question 8

The gravitational field strength experienced by a satellite orbiting Earth is 4.5 N kg1.

Calculate how high above the Earths surface the satellite is in orbit.

Question 9

A satellite of mass 200 kg is launched into a uniform circular orbit of radius 6.5 106 m

around the Earth.

a Calculate the magnitude of the gravitational potential energy, Ep, of the satellite.

b From this circular orbit, the satellite can escape the Earths gravitational field when

its kinetic energy is equal to the magnitude of the gravitational potential energy.

Use this relationship to calculate the escape velocity of the satellite.

Question 10

Determine the energy required to move a rocket of mass 25 000 kg from the Earths

surface to a position beyond the Earths gravitational field.

Question 11

Calculate the amount of work done in moving a mass of 3000 kg from the surface of

the Earth to a height 32 km above the Earths surface.

Question 12

A satellite is gradually increasing the size of its orbit around the Earth. Explain whether

this is an increase or decrease in potential energy.

Question 13

To place a satellite of mass 10 000 kg in orbit around the Earth, 5.73 1011 J of

work is done. Calculate how far from the Earths surface the satellite is placed in its

orbital path.

ISBN 9780170177931

- 8608304Hochgeladen vonJeffrey Yao
- Oldmanriver - From Keith Jarrett (Tokyo Solo) - PianoHochgeladen vonAurélien Fournier
- Ac Science Yr9 Qcat 12 Student BookletHochgeladen vonJeffrey Yao
- ayy lmaoHochgeladen vonJeffrey Yao
- AMEB formsdsdffsdfdsHochgeladen vonJeffrey Yao
- Angles (Sunday)Hochgeladen vonJeffrey Yao