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Definition: If b > 0 and b * l, then the exponential function with base 6 is the function f
defined by .y = f (x) = br .
Observe that the base b of the exponential function is greater than zero but not equal to one.
Thus, the base b belongs to the interval (0,1) u (1,+*).

Definition: Equations involving exponential functions are referred to as exponential

equations. A solution of an exponential equation is a value of the variable that's satisfies the
equation. The solution set (SS) of the equation is the collection of all solutions. If no such value
exists, the solution set is the empty set.

Illustration 1:

a. 2'' =z b.41-3'=16 c.32' -3'= 2 d. -,

Illustration 2:

a. A solution to the equation 2* = 4 is 2 since 22 = 4 is true.

b. Asolutiontotheequation 4t-3t -16 is -f rirr." 4 =4'*'=42 =l6istrue.

Ways of Solving Exponential Equations:

1. If the left-hand side or the right-hand side of the equation can be written in exponential form,
then the value of the variable in the equation can be determined.
a. By using the one-to-one property of exponentials. that is, a' = av if and only if x= ! .

This requires that both sides of the given exponential equation have the same base.
b. By converting the equation to its logarithmic form, that is a' = ! if and only if
x =logo y .

2. If the equation can be transformed into an equation of quadratic form, solve the resulting
quadratic equation either by factoring or by means of the quadratic formula.
3. IfM andN are exponential functions and M:N, then logo M :logt N, where b > A, b * 1.


Definition: The logarithmic functian with hase b, defined by y = "f (x):log, x is the
inverse function ofthe exponential function withbase b ie, y = log, x e bv - x.

1. The function defined by the equation y = loga x is not defined when x is non-positive
(i.e, x < 0).
2. If b is not indicated, it is understood to be 10, and the function ! =lo5tx is referred to
as the common logarithmic function
Two Important results from the definition of the logarithm:

' L The logarithm of 1 to any base b is equal to zero, i.e., logr 1 = 0.

2. Thelogarithmofanumberbtobasebis f .i.e., log, b=0-


1. The logarithm of a product of two or more positive numbers to base b is equal to the sum of
the logarithms of the numbers, each to the same base b. That is,

logo(pq)=logu p+logoq p,q>0

Caution: loeu(pq)* (log, p)(loeu il and logu p + logu p * logu@ + q)

2. The logarithm of the quotient of two positive numbers is equal to the logarithm of the
dividend minus the logarithm of the divisor. That is,

]lrrgh L: log, p -logt q p,q > o

Caution: logu L *logo and lo'o p- logr q * logu@ * q)
"" q logo q
3. The logarithm of a power of a positive number is equal to the logarithm of the number
multiplied by the exponent of the power. The exponent of the power acts as a coeffrcient of
the logarithm of the base of the power. That is,

logr(P") =nlogo P P>oandnefr

Caution: lagu(p") * (logu p)'

4. To change the base of the logarithm logu p from its base b to the base m, divide the
logarithm of b base m with the logarithm of p base m. That is,
,LoEn = log- p


Equations involving logarithms are called logarithmic equations. The solution set of a
logarithmic equation consists of value(s) of the variable that satisfies (satisfu) the original equation.
Any value obtained that would make the logarithmic expression undefined or not defined is to be


Many naturally occurring phenomena are modeled using an exponential function with base e
. Logarithms to base eare called natural logarithms and have their own notation. The natural
logarithm of x, written lnx, is defined to be the inverse function of e' .

lnx = log, x = c means e' = x (so lnx is the power of eneeded to get x)

The rules for manipulating natural logarithms are similar io those for logarithms with base
10, and lnr is not defined when x negative or 10 is.