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TANK

2014
Sample Printout

Table of contents

Table of contents ......................................................................... 1


Calculation of heat loss of storage tanks ................................................. 2
Properties tank medium* ................................................................... 6
Gas properties* ........................................................................... 7
Outside heat transfer coefficient, roof* .................................................. 8
Inside heat transfer coefficient, bottom* ................................................ 10
Outside heat transfer coefficient, shell* ................................................ 12
Inside heat transfer coefficient, wet shell* ............................................. 14
Inside heat transfer coefficient, dry shell* ............................................. 16
Inside heat transfer coefficient, roof* .................................................. 18
Heat transfer radiation inside, roof* .................................................... 20
Physical properties of heating medium* ................................................... 21
Tube-side heat transfer* ................................................................. 22
Heat transfer coil around tubes* ......................................................... 25
Pressure drop in coil* ................................................................... 27

Layout

Input values: 1.234 or 1.234


Calculated values: 1.234 or 1.234
Critical values: 1.234 or 1.234
Estimated values: 1.234 or 1.234

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 1 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Calculation of heat loss of storage tanks

Global conditions
Product temperature tP 50 C
Inside pressure pi 1 bar
Air temperature tL -20 C
Wind speed Wv 10 m/s
Ground temperature tB -20 C

Geometry of storage tank


Ground plan Round sketch
Diameter DT 12 m
Circumference 37.7 m
Area 113.1 m

Tank height HT 15 m
Filling level HF 14 m

Properties:
Storage medium HFO 180
Density 897.9 kg/m
Specific heat capacity cp 1930 J/(kgK)
Thermal conductivity 0.124 W/(mK)
Dynamic viscosity 171 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000190 m/s
Coefficient of thermal expansion 0.000707 1/K

Gas above storage medium


Medium name air
Density 1.078 kg/m
Specific heat capacity cp 1008 J/(kgK)
Thermal conductivity 0.02808 W/(mK)
Dynamic viscosity 0.01964 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000018 m/s
Coefficient of thermal expansion 0.003101 1/K

Wall thickness and thermal conductivity of the tank and the insulation
Bottom Shell Roof
Tank wall thickness 8 mm 8 mm 8 mm
Thermal conductivity 52 W/(mK) 52 W/(mK) 52 W/(mK)

Insulation thickness 250 mm 100 mm 100 mm


Thermal conductivity 2.5 W/(mK) 0.04 W/(mK) 0.04 W/(mK)

Heat losses
Bottom Shell wet part Shell dry part Roof
23.63 kW 14.32 kW 0.9186 kW 2.881 kW

Total heat loss Qtot 41.75 kW


Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 2 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Bottom
Thickness of the wall siB 8 mm
Thermal conductivity of the wall iB 52 W/(mK)
Thermal resistance of the wall iB 0.000154 mK/W
Thickness of the insulation saB 250 mm
Thermal conductivity of the insulation aB 2.5 W/(mK)
Thermal resistance of the insulation aB 0.1 mK/W
Heat transfer coefficient outside aB 5 W/(mK)
Heat transfer coefficient inside iB 28.67 W/(mK)

Contact surface AB = 113.1 m


Temperature inside tiB = 42.71 C
Temperature (wall-insulation) tgB = 42.68 C
Temperature outside taB = 21.79 C

Heating performance QhB 0 kW


Heat flow from inside QiB = 23.63 kW
Heat flow to outside QaB = 23.63 kW

Shell
Thickness of the wall siM 8 mm
Thermal conductivity of the wall iM 52 W/(mK)
Thermal resistance of the wall iM 0.000154 mK/W
Thickness of the insulation saM 100 mm
Thermal conductivity of the insulation aM 0.04 W/(mK)
Thermal resistance of the insulation aM 2.5 mK/W
Heat transfer coefficient outside aM 41.67 W/(mK)

Wet part
Heat transfer coefficient inside iMb 17.68 W/(mK)

Contact surface AMb = 527.8 m


Temperature inside tiMb = 48.47 C
Temperature (wall-insulation) tgMb = 48.46 C
Temperature outside taMb = -19.35 C

Heating performance QhMb 0 kW


Heat flow from inside QiMb = 14.32 kW
Heat flow to outside QaMb = 14.32 kW

Dry part
Heat transfer coefficient inside iMt 2.868 W/(mK)

Contact surface AMt = 37.7 m


Temperature inside tiMt = 41.5 C
Temperature (wall-insulation) tgMt = 41.5 C
Temperature outside taMt = -19.42 C

Heating performance QhMt 0 kW


Heat flow from inside QiMt = 0.9186 kW
Heat flow to outside QaMt = 0.9186 kW

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 3 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Roof
Thickness of the wall siD 8 mm
Thermal conductivity of the wall iD 52 W/(mK)
Thermal resistance of the wall iD 0.000154 mK/W
Thickness of the insulation saD 100 mm
Thermal conductivity of the insulation aD 0.04 W/(mK)
Thermal resistance of the insulation aD 2.5 mK/W
Emissivity of the roof D 0.8 -
Emissivity of the product P 0.9 -
Heat transfer coefficient outside aD 19.77 W/(mK)
Heat transfer coefficient inside (total) iD 5.067 W/(mK)

Contact surface AD = 113.1 m


Temperature inside tiD = 44.97 C
Temperature (wall-insulation) tgD = 44.97 C
Temperature outside taD = -18.71 C

Heating performance QhD 0 kW


Heat flow from inside QiD = 2.881 kW
Heat flow to outside QaD = 2.881 kW

Balance
Heating performance Qh_ges = 0 kW
Heat flow from inside Qi_ges = 41.75 kW
Heat flow to outside Qa_ges = 41.75 kW

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 4 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Calculation of the heating coil


Heating medium Transcal LT
Mass flow m 7963 kg/h
Volume flow V 10 m/h
Pressure (abs.) P 3 bar
Inlet temperature e 140 C
Outlet temperature a 131.9 C
Mean temperature m 136 C

Tube outside diameter da 60.3 mm


Tube wall thickness s 2.9 mm
Tube inside diameter di 54.5 mm
Thermal conductivity of tube material R 52 W/(mK)
Fouling inside fi 0 mK/W
Fouling outside fa 0 mK/W

Properties of the heating medium


Density 796.9 kg/m
Specific heat capacity cp 2342 J/(kgK)
Thermal conductivity 0.125 W/(mK)
Dynamic viscosity 1.183 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 1.484 mm/s

Properties of the storage medium at 87.85 C


Density 874.3 kg/m
Specific heat capacity cp 2062 J/(kgK)
Thermal conductivity 0.1214 W/(mK)
Dynamic viscosity 33.19 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000038 m/s
Coefficient of thermal expansion 0.00072 1/K

Result
Tube-side velocity u 1.191 m/s
Heat transfer coefficient inside i 1076 W/(mK)
Heat transfer coefficient outside a 124.9 W/(mK)
Overall heat transfer coefficient k 110 W/(mK)
Pressure drop (straight tube without bends) P 5736 Pa
Tube length L 23.33 m
Area A 4.419 m

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 5 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Properties tank medium*

Properties of Heavy Fuel Oils (HFO)

Selected oil: HFO 180

Oil selection: 7

State 1: State 2:

Temperature 50 C 87.86 C

Density 897.9 kg/m 874.1 kg/m


Specific heat capacity cp 1930 J/(kgK) cp 2062 J/(kgK)
Dynamic viscosity 171 mPas 33.19 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000190 m/s 0.000038 m/s
Thermal conductivity 0.124 W/(mK) 0.1213 W/(mK)
Coef. of thermal expansion 0.000707 1/K 0.000720 1/K
Prandtl number Pr 2661 - Pr 564 -
Thermal diffusivity a 7.155E-8 m/s a 6.731E-8 m/s

Pr = /a = cp/
a = /( cp)

*
Properties of heavy fuel oils

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 6 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Gas properties*
Properties of air

State 1 State 2

Temperature 1 50 C 2 C
Pressure p1 1 bar p2 Pa

Density 1.078 kg/m kg/m


Specific heat capacity cp 1008 J/(kgK) cp J/(kgK)
Thermal conductivity 0.02808 W/(mK) W/(mK)
Dynamic viscosity 0.01964 mPas mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000018 m/s m/s
Prandtl number Pr 0.7046 - Pr -
Thermal diffusivity a 0.000026 m/s a m/s
Compressibility factor Z 0.9999 - Z -
Specific enthalpy h 25180 J/kg h J/kg
Specific entropy s 84.9 J/(kgK) s J/(kgK)
Thermal expansion 0.003101 1/K 1/K
Velocity of sound w 360.5 m/s w m/s

Molar mass M 28.96 g/mol


Gas constant R 287.1 J/(kgK)
Standard density S 1.293 kg/m

Critical data
Critical temperature Tc -140.6 C
Critical pressure pc 3786000 Pa
Critical density c 342.6 kg/m

Validity range:
-150 C 1000 C
1 bar p 1000 bar

Composition of the air:


Mol-% Wt-%
N2 : 78.12 75.570
O2 : 20.96 23.161
Ar: 0.92 1.269

Normalization of Enthalpy and Entropy:

h = 0 kJ/kg, s = 0 kJ/(kgK) at T = 298.15 K = 25C, p = 1.01325 bar


for the pure components

*
Properties of air

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 7 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Outside heat transfer coefficient, roof*

Geometry:

Heated plate length l 12000 mm


Flow velocity w 10 m/s

Properties:

Mean pressure p 100000 Pa


Mean temperature -20 C
Density 1.078 kg/m
Specific heat capacity Cp 1008 J/(kgK)
Specific thermal conductivity 0.02808 W/(mK)
Dynamic viscosity 0.01964 mPas
Kinematic viscosity = 0.000018 m/s
Prandtl number Pr = 0.7046 -

Mean wall temperature W 44.97 C


Prandtl number at wall temperature PrW 0.7046 -

Phase (liquid = 1 / gas = 2) 2


Exponent for liquids nF 0.25 -
Exponent for gases nG 0 -

Heat transfer:

Reynolds number Re = 6587625 -


Nusselt-number laminar Nulam = 1517 - (1)
Nusselt-number turbulent Nuturb = 8312 - (2)
Nusselt number average Nul,0 = 8449 - (5)
Nusselt number with wall correction Nu = 8449 - (6)

Heat transfer coefficient = 19.77 W/(mK)

*
Heat transfer in single-phase flow

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 8 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Equations:

l 19.77 12
Nu = 8449 =
0.02808

w l 10 12
Re = 6587625 =
0.000018

Nu = Nu0 K 8449 = 8449 1 (6)

2 2
Nul,0 = Nulam + Nuturb (5)

2 2
8449 = 1517 + 8312

3
Nulam = 0.664 Re Pr (1)

3
1517 = 0.664 6587625 0.7046

0.037 Re0.8 Pr
Nuturb = (2)
1 + 2.443 Re-0.1 (Pr2/3 - 1)

0.8
0.037 6587625 0.7046
8312 =
-0.1 2/3
1 + 2.443 6587625 ( 0.7046 - 1 )

Influence of the dependence of the properties on the temperature:

Liquids:
nF 0.25
KF = (Pr / PrW ) 1 = ( 0.7046 / 0.7046 )

Gases:
nG 0
KG = (T / TW ) 1 = ( 253.2 / 318.1 )

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 9 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Inside heat transfer coefficient, bottom*


4. Horizontal plane surfaces
Heat emission at upper side (lower surface cooled)

Boundary conditions:

Area of the body flown-around A 113.1 m


Perimeter of the projection surface U 37699 mm

Characteristic length l 3000 mm (11)


Acceleration due to gravity g 9.81 m/s

Temperature on the surface 0 42.71 C


Temp. of fluid outside the boundary layer 50 C
Temperature difference (0 - ) 7.287 K

Properties:

Mean temperature (0 + ) / 2 m 46.36 C


Density 897.9 kg/m
Specific heat capacity cp 1930 J/(kgK)
Dynamic viscosity 171 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000190 m/s
Thermal conductivity 0.124 W/(mK)
Coefficient of thermal expansion 0.000707 1/K

Chararcteristic values:

Prandtl number Pr 2661 -


Grashof number Gr 3.765E+7 - (3)
Rayleigh number Ra 1.00E+11 - (4)

Prandtl function f2(Pr) 0.9874 - (20)


Nusselt number laminar Nu_l 121.1 - (18)
Nusselt number turbulent Nu_t 693.7 - (19)
Nusselt number Nu 693.7 -

Heat transfer:

Heat transfer coefficient a 28.67 W/(mK) (2)


Exchange surface A 113.1 m
Convective heat flux Q -23.63 kW

*
Heat transfer by natural convection around immersed bodies

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 10 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Equations:

a = Nu / l (2)

= 693.7 0.124 / 3 = 28.67 W/(mK)


3
g l
Gr = (3)
2

3
9.81 3
= 0.000707 7.287 = 3.765E+7 -
2
0.000190

Ra = Gr Pr = 3.765E+7 2661 = 1.00E+11 - (4)

l = A / U = 113.1 / 37.7 = 3000 mm (11)

1/5
Nul = 0.766 Ra f2 (Pr) (18)

1/5
= 0.766 1.00E+11 0.9874 = 121.1 -

1/3
Nut = 0.15 Ra f2 (Pr) (19)

1/3
= 0.15 1.00E+11 0.9874 = 693.7 -

11/20 -20/11
f2 (Pr) = 1 + 0.322 / Pr (20)

11/20 -20/11
= 1 + 0.322 / 2661 = 0.9874 -

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 11 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Outside heat transfer coefficient, shell*

Heat loss in insulated pipelines (exposed)

Parameters:

Temperature medium inside i 50 C


Air temperature a -20 C
Inside diameter of the pipe d1 12000 mm
Inside heat transfer coefficient i 17.68 W/(mK)
Wind velocity w 10 m/s

Heat transfer:

Wall thickness Thermal conductivity

Tube s0 8 mm 0 52 W/(mK)
Insulation 1 s1 100 mm 1 0.04 W/(mK)
Insulation 2 s2 0 mm 2 1 W/(mK)

Calculation:

Outside diameter of the pipe d2 12016 mm


Outside diameter of the insulation 1 d3 12216 mm
Outside diameter of the insulation 2 d4 12216 mm
Temperature difference i -a 70 C
Auxiliary variable D 2.578 mK/W

Outside heat transfer coefficient a 41.67 W/(mK)

Heat loss per unit of length Q/l -1032 W/m


Pipe length l mm
Heat loss absolute Q kW

Temperatures:
Temperature medium inside i 50 C
Wall temperature inside Wi 48.45 C
Wall temperature outside Wa 48.45 C
Insulation Iso -19.35 C
Surface temperature O -19.35 C
Air temperature a -20 C

*
Heat loss of walls and pipeworks

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 12 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Equations:

1 1 d2 1 d3 1 d4
D = d4 + ln + ln + ln
i d1 2 1 d1 2 2 d2 2 3 d3

1 1 12.02
= 12.22 + ln +
17.68 12 2 52 12

1 12.22 1 12.22
+ ln + ln = 2.578 mK/W
2 0.04 12.02 2 1 12.22

For static air (w=0) is valid:

a = 8 + 0.04 O - a

= 8 + 0.04 -19.35 - -20 = 8.026 W/(mK)

For wind follows: 1/a = 0.024 = f( 10 ; 12.22 )

d4 ( i - a )
Q/l =
D + 1 / a

12.22 ( 50 - -20 )
= = -1032 W/m
2.578 + 1 / 41.67

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 13 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Inside heat transfer coefficient, wet shell*


2. Vertical areas (cylinders)

Boundary conditions:

Height of the cylinder h 14000 mm


Diameter of the cylinder D 12000 mm

Characteristic length l 14000 mm


Acceleration due to gravity g 9.81 m/s

Temperature on the surface 0 48.47 C


Temp. of fluid outside the boundary layer 50 C
Temperature difference (0 - ) 1.534 K

Properties:

Mean temperature (0 + ) / 2 m 49.23 C


Density 897.9 kg/m
Specific heat capacity cp 1930 J/(kgK)
Dynamic viscosity 171 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000190 m/s
Thermal conductivity 0.124 W/(mK)
Coefficient of thermal expansion 0.000707 1/K

Characteristic values:

Prandtl number Pr 2661 -


Grashof number Gr 8.056E+8 - (3)
Rayleigh number Ra 2.14E+12 - (4)

Prandtl function f1 (Pr) 0.986 - (13)


Nusselt number for plate Nu_P 1995 - (12)
Nusselt number Nu 1996 - (14)

Heat transfer:

Heat transfer coefficient 17.68 W/(mK) (2)


Exchange surface A 527.8 m
Convective heat flux Q -14.32 kW

*
Heat transfer by natural convection around immersed bodies

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 14 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Equations:

= Nu / l (2)

= 1996 0.124 / 14 = 17.68 W/(mK)


3
g l
Gr = (3)
2

3
9.81 14
= 0.000707 1.534 = 8.056E+8 -
2
0.000190

Ra = Gr Pr = = 8.056E+8 2661 = 2.14E+12 - (4)

1/6 2
Nu_P = 0.825 + 0.387 Ra f1 (Pr) (12)

1/6 2
= 0.825 + 0.387 2.14E+12 0.986 = 1995 -

9/16 -16/9
f1 (Pr) = 1 + 0.492 / Pr (13)

9/16 -16/9
= 1 + 0.492 / 2661 = 0.986 -

Nu = Nu_P + 0.87 h / D (14)

= 1995 + 0.87 14 / 12 = 1996 -

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 15 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Inside heat transfer coefficient, dry shell*


2. Vertical areas (cylinders)

Boundary conditions:

Height of the cylinder h 1000 mm


Diameter of the cylinder D 12000 mm

Characteristic length l 1000 mm


Acceleration due to gravity g 9.81 m/s

Temperature on the surface 0 41.5 C


Temp. of fluid outside the boundary layer 50 C
Temperature difference (0 - ) 8.496 K

Properties:

Mean temperature (0 + ) / 2 m 45.75 C


Density 1.078 kg/m
Specific heat capacity cp 1008 J/(kgK)
Dynamic viscosity 0.01964 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000018 m/s
Thermal conductivity 0.02808 W/(mK)
Coefficient of thermal expansion 0.003101 1/K

Characteristic values:

Prandtl number Pr 0.7046 -


Grashof number Gr 7.789E+8 - (3)
Rayleigh number Ra 5.488E+8 - (4)

Prandtl function f1 (Pr) 0.3459 - (13)


Nusselt number for plate Nu_P 102.1 - (12)
Nusselt number Nu 102.1 - (14)

Heat transfer:

Heat transfer coefficient 2.868 W/(mK) (2)


Exchange surface A 37.7 m
Convective heat flux Q -0.9186 kW

*
Heat transfer by natural convection around immersed bodies

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 16 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Equations:

= Nu / l (2)

= 102.1 0.02808 / 1 = 2.868 W/(mK)


3
g l
Gr = (3)
2

3
9.81 1
= 0.003101 8.496 = 7.789E+8 -
2
0.000018

Ra = Gr Pr = = 7.789E+8 0.7046 = 5.488E+8 - (4)

1/6 2
Nu_P = 0.825 + 0.387 Ra f1 (Pr) (12)

1/6 2
= 0.825 + 0.387 5.488E+8 0.3459 = 102.1 -

9/16 -16/9
f1 (Pr) = 1 + 0.492 / Pr (13)

9/16 -16/9
= 1 + 0.492 / 0.7046 = 0.3459 -

Nu = Nu_P + 0.87 h / D (14)

= 102.1 + 0.87 1 / 12 = 102.1 -

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 17 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Inside heat transfer coefficient, roof*


4. Horizontal plane surfaces
Heat emission at lower surface (upper surface cooled)

Boundary conditions:

Area of the body flown-around A 113.1 m


Perimeter of the projection surface U 37699 mm

Characteristic length l 3000 mm (11)


Acceleration due to gravity g 9.81 m/s

Temperature on the surface 0 44.97 C


Temp. of fluid outside the boundary layer 50 C
Temperature difference (0 - ) 5.027 K

Properties:

Mean temperature (0 + ) / 2 m 47.49 C


Density 1.078 kg/m
Specific heat capacity cp 1008 J/(kgK)
Dynamic viscosity 0.01964 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000018 m/s
Thermal conductivity 0.02808 W/(mK)
Coefficient of thermal expansion 0.003101 1/K

Characteristic values:

Prandtl number Pr 0.7046 -


Grashof number Gr 1.24E+10 - (3)
Rayleigh number Ra 8.768E+9 - (4)

Prandtl function f1 (Pr) 0.3459 - (13)


Nusselt number Nu 47.26 - (21)

Heat transfer:

Heat transfer coefficient a 0.4424 W/(mK) (2)


Exchange surface A 113.1 m
Convective heat flux Q -0.2515 kW

*
Heat transfer by natural convection around immersed bodies

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 18 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Equations:

a = Nu / l (2)

= 47.26 0.02808 / 3 0.4424 W/(mK)


3
g l
Gr = (3)
2
3
9.81 3
= 0.003101 5.027 = 1.24E+10 -
2
0.000018

Ra = Gr Pr = 1.24E+10 0.7046 = 8.768E+9 - (4)

l = A / U = 113.1 / 37.7 = 3000 mm (11)

9/16 -16/9
f1 (Pr) = 1 + 0.492 / Pr (13)

9/16 -16/9
= 1 + 0.492 / 0.7046 = 0.3459 -

1/5
Nu = 0.6 Ra f1 (Pr) (21)

1/5
= 0.6 8.768E+9 0.3459 = 47.26 -

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 19 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Heat transfer radiation inside, roof*

Calculation of the heat flux by radiation

Area Emissivity Temperature


A1 113.1 m 1 0.9 - T1 50 C (= 50 C )
A2 113.1 m 2 0.8 - T2 44.97 C (= 44.97 C )

View factors:

12 0.8466
21 0.8466 21 = A1 /A2 12

Calculation of the emitted energy:


4
Ei = i Ti ; = 5.6704 10-8 W/(m2 K4 )

E1 = 556.5 W/m E2 = 464.6 W/m

Calculation of heat flux:

. 1 2 A1 12 4 4
Q12 = (T1 - T2 )
1 - (1 - 1 )(1 - 2 ) 12 21

.
Q12 = 2.629 kW Q21 = 2.629 kW

Equivalent heat transfer coefficient


.
Q
=
A (T1 - T2 )

12 = 4.624 W/(mK)

*
Surface radiation

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 20 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Physical properties of heating medium*

Name of the oil Transcal LT


Material structure naphthene base
Manufacturer BP
Former product/Comment
Range of application

State 1 State 2
Temperature 136 C 126.3 C

Density 796.9 kg/m 803.1 kg/m


Specific heat capacity cp 2342 J/(kgK) 2309 J/(kgK)
Dynamic viscosity 1.183 mPas 1.358 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000001 m/s 0.000002 m/s
Thermal conductivity 0.125 W/(mK) 0.1255 W/(mK)
Coef. of thermal expansion 0.000775 1/K 0.000781 1/K
Thermal diffusivity a 6.694E-8 m/s 6.766E-8 m/s
Prandtl number Pr 22.18 - 24.97 -
Specific enthalpy h 0 kJ/kg 0 kJ/kg
Vapour pressure pD 604.7 Pa 427.1 Pa

Pour point -54 C


Initial boiling point 290 C
Minimum operating temperature -20 C
Maximum operating temperature 260 C

Minimum temperature filling -20 C


Minimum temperature startup 71 C
Maximum film temperature 280 C
Flash point 155 C
Ignition temperature 240 C
Neutralization number 0.01 mgKOH/g
Coke residue 0.01 %
Explosion limit Vol-%
Molecular weight kg/kmol

Temperature min max

Density 900 kg/m 732 kg/m


Specific heat capacity cp 1800 J/(kgK) 2770 J/(kgK)
Dynamic viscosity 730 mPas 0.35 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.0003 m/s 4.9E-07 m/s
Thermal conductivity 0.136 W/(mK) 0.118 W/(mK)
Vapour pressure pD Pa 28000 Pa

*
Properties of heat transfer oils

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 21 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Tube-side heat transfer*


Constant wall temperature

Circular pipes
Inlet temperature e 140 C
Outlet temperature a 131.9 C
Mean temperature m 136 C
Density of the fluid 796.9 kg/m
Specific heat capacity of the fluid cp 2342 J/(kgK)
Thermal conductivity of the fluid 0.125 W/(mK)
Dynamic viscosity of the fluid 1.183 mPas
Kinematic viscosity of the fluid 0.000001 m/s
Prandtl number Pr 22.18 -
Prandtl number at wall temperature PrW 24.97 -

Fluid: liquid <0> or gas <1> < 0 >


0 = Circular pipes, 1 = Non-circular pipes < 0

Pipe length l 23326 mm


Inside diameter of the pipe di 54.5 mm
Cross sectional area of the pipe f 0.002333 m
Perimeter of the pipe u 171.2 mm
Hydraulic diameter dh = 54.5 mm

Total mass flow Mg 7963 kg/h


Total volume flow Vg 9.992 m/h
Number of pipes with parallel flow Z 1 -
Mass flow per pipe M = 7963 kg/h
Velocity w = 1.19 m/s
Reynolds number Re = 43683 -

Balance: Q = Mg cp (a - e ) = -41.75 kW

Results: Constant wall temperature

Nu 469.5 0.125
= = = 1076 W/(mK)
dh 0.0545

w dh 1.19 0.0545 796.9


Re = = = 43683
/ 1000 1.183 / 1000

Nu_m_ = (laminar non-disturbed flow Re < 2300) [6]


Nu_m_ = (laminar entrance flow Re < 2300) [12]
Nu_m_T = 475.7 (turbulent flow Re > 10000) [26]
Nu_m = (transition zone 2300 Re 10000) [29]

Factor K:
0.11
Liquids: K = (Pr/PrW ) = 0.987
n
Gases: K = (T/TW ) = for n = 0

Nu = Nu_m(_,T) K = 469.5 [40,41]

Heat transfer: Q = A log

-41746 = 1076 3.994 -9.711

Wall temperature W = 125.7 C


*
Heat transfer in pipe flow

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 22 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Calculations:

Laminar flow: Re < 2300

Laminar non-disturbed flow:

HW = Re Pr dh/l = 2263

1/3
Nu_m__2 = 1.615 HW = [5]

3 3 3 1/3
Nu_m_ = 3.66 + 0.7 + Nu_m__2 - 0.7 =
[6]
3 3 3 1/3
= 3.66 + 0.7 + - 0.7 =

Laminar entrance flow:

1/6
2
Nu_m__3 = HW =
1 + 22 Pr

1/6
2
= 2263 = [11]
1 + 22 22.18

3 3 3 3 1/3
Nu_m_ = 3.66 + 0.7 + Nu_m__2 - 0.7 + Nu_m__3 =
[12]
3 3 3 3 1/3
= 3.66 + 0.7 + - 0.7 + =

Turbulent flow: Re > 10000

-2 -2
= [1.8 log Re - 1.5] = [ 1.8 log 43683 - 1.5 ] = 0.0213 [27]

2/3
/8 Re Pr dh
Nu_m_T = 1 + =
2/3 l
1 + 12.7 /8 (Pr -1) [26]

2/3
0.0213 /8 43683 22.18 0.0545
= 1 +
2/3 23.33
1 + 12.7 0.0213 /8 ( 22.18 -1)

Nu_m_T = 475.7

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 23 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Transition zone: 2300 Re 10000


1/3
Nu_m__2_2300 = 1.615 (2300 Pr dh/l) = 7.948 [32]

1/6
2
Nu_m__3_2300 = 2300 Pr dh/l = 4.366 [33]
1 + 22 Pr

3 3 1/3
Nu_m_L_2300 = 49.371 + Nu_m__2_2300 - 0.7 + Nu_m__3_2300

Nu_m_L_2300 = 8.007 [31]

2/3
(0.0308/8) 10000 Pr dh
Nu_m_T_10000 = 1 +
2/3 l
1 + 12.7 0.0308/8 (Pr -1)

[37]
Nu_m_T_10000 = 135

Re - 2300 43683 - 2300


= = = [30]
10000 - 2300 10000 - 2300

Nu_m = (1 - ) Nu_m_L_2300 + Nu_m_T_10000 = [29]

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 24 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Heat transfer coil around tubes*


5. Horizontal curved areas (Cylinder)

Cylinder:
Outside diameter do 60.3 mm
Wall thickness s 2.9 mm
Inside diameter di 54.5 mm
Thermal conductivity 52 W/(mK)
Characteristic length l 94.72 mm
Acceleration due to gravity g 9.81 m/s

Temperatures and properties:


Temperature on the surface 0 125.7 C
Temp. of fluid outside the boundary layer 50 C
Temperature difference (0 - ) 75.7 K

Mean temperature (0 + ) / 2 m 87.85 C


Density 874.3 kg/m
Specific heat capacity cp 2062 J/(kgK)
Dynamic viscosity 33.19 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000038 m/s
Thermal conductivity 0.1214 W/(mK)
Coefficient of thermal expansion 0.00072 1/K

Characteristic values:
Prandtl number Pr 563.8 -
Grashof number Gr 315094 - (3)
Rayleigh number Ra 1.777E+8 - (4)

Prandtl function f3 (Pr) 0.9647 - (24)


Nusselt number Nu 97.47 - (22)

Heat transfer:
Heat transfer coefficient (free convection) o 124.9 W/(mK) (2)
Convective heat flux Q 41.75 kW

Balance for the calculation of the surface temperature:


Heating medium
Specific heat capacity cp 2342 J/(kgK)
Density 796.9 kg/m
Mass flow m 7963 kg/h
Volume flow V 9.992 m/h
Inlet temperature in 140 C
Outlet temperature out 131.9 C
Mean temperature m 136 C

Duty QH -41.75 kW

Tube-side velocity u 1.19 m/s

Heat transfer coefficient inside i 1076 W/(mK)


Fouling inside fi 0 mK/W
Fouling outside fo 0 mK/W
Overall heat transfer coefficient k 110 W/(mK)

Length of the cylinder L 23326 mm


Area of the cylinder A 4.419 m


*
Heat transfer by natural convection around immersed bodies

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 25 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Equations:

a = Nu / l (2)

= 97.47 0.1214 / 0.09472 = 124.9 W/(mK)


3
g l
Gr = (3)
2

3
9.81 0.09472
= 0.00072 75.7 = 315094 -
2
0.000038

Ra = Gr Pr = 315094 563.8 = 1.777E+8 - (4)

1/6 2
Nu = 0.752 + 0.387 Ra f3 (Pr) (22)

1/6 2
= 0.752 + 0.387 1.777E+8 0.9647 = 97.47 -

9/16 -16/9
f3 (Pr) = 1 + 0.559 / Pr (24)

9/16 -16/9
= 1 + 0.559 / 563.8 = 0.9647 -

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 26 2014


TANK
2014
Sample Printout

Pressure drop in coil*

Straight pipes

Parameters of the pipe:


Length of pipe l 23326 mm
Inside diameter of pipe di 54.5 mm
Absolute roughness K 0.04 mm
Number of pipes with parallel flow NR 1 -

Properties:
Density 796.9 kg/m
Dynamic viscosity 1.183 mPas
Kinematic viscosity 0.000001 m/s

Total mass flow mg 7963 kg/h


Mass flow per pipe mR 7963 kg/h
Volume flow per pipe VR 9.992 m/h
Velocity of the fluid wi 1.19 m/s

Result:
Flow pattern turbulent (Re > 2320)
Pressure drop p 5736 Pa
Reynolds-Number Rei 43683 -
Drag coefficient 0.02376 -

Equations:

wi di 1.19 796.9 0.0545


Rei = = = 43683 -
0.001 1.183 0.001

Rei = 43683 > 2320 turbulent flow

1 2.51 K / di
= -2 lg +

Rei 3.71

1 2.51 0.00004 / 0.0545


= -2 lg +

0.02376 43683 0.02376 3.71

2 2
l wi 23.33 796.9 1.19
p = = 0.02376
di 2 0.0545 2

p = 5736 Pa

*
Pressure drop in flow through pipes

Lauterbach Verfahrenstechnik GmbH 27 2014