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Chapter 1
Presented by Group 1

Bernardo, Iana Patricia C.

School of Electrical, Electronics, and Computer Engineering
Mapa Institute of Technology
Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila 1002 Philippines

Abstract This paper discusses obligations. It II. REFERENCE ARTICLES

covers its essential Requisites, its kind in accordance Article 1159
to subject matter, its sources, the difference of the Obligations arising from contracts have the
legal and contractual obligations, the kind of quasi- force of law between the contracting parties and
contracts, and as well as the compliance of good should be complied with in good faith.
faith. A contract is a meeting of minds between two
Keywords Obligations, Quasi-contract, persons whereby one binds himself, with respect to the
Compliance in good faith, wrong, solute indebiti. other, to give something or to render some service. It
is the formal expression by the parties of their rights
I. INTRODUCTION and obligations they have agreed upon with respect to
Obligations comes from the Latin word each other.
obligatio meaning tying or binding. This is the act of Article 1160
performance that will be enforced by the Law. Article 1160 treats of obligations arising from
(1) It is a tie of law or a juridical bond by quasi-contracts or contracts implied in law.
virtue of which one is bound in favor of another to A quasi-contract is that juridical relation
render something and this may consist in giving a resulting from certain lawful, voluntary and unilateral
thing, doing a certain act, or not doing a certain act. acts by virtue of which the parties become bound to
(2) Manresa defines the term as a legal each other to the end that no one will be unjustly
relation established between one party and another, enriched or benefited at the expense of another.
whereby the latter is bound to the fulfillment of a
prestation which the former may demand of him. (8 III. PROBLEMS
Manresa 13.) Problem 1
(3) Article 1156 gives the Civil Code X saw at about one (1:00 p.m.) in the
definition of obligation, in its passive aspect. Our law afternoon a child alone in a shopping mall. The child
merely stresses the duty of the debtor or obligor (he who strayed from Y, his mother, was in tears and
who has the duty of giving, doing, or not doing) when appeared very hungry. Out of pity, X took him to a
it speaks of obligation as a juridical necessity. restaurant to eat for which he spent P150. Y did not
give her consent to the good deed of X. Furthermore,
they were on their way home before the child got lost.
Is X entitled to be reimbursed by Y for the amount of
Problem 4
D (debtor) borrowed P10,000 from C
(creditor). On the due date of the loan, D could not pay
C because he lost to a robber the P10,000 intended for
C. In addition, he suffered financial reverses, and he
was short of cash even for his current familys needs.
Is D legally justified to refuse to pay C?

(1) Yes, because on the principle of quasi-contract, Y
is liable to X even if she did not give her consent. X
fed Ys child and incurred expenses and this should be
reimbursed by X to prevent anyone being unjustly
enriched or benefited at the others expense.

(4) No, because when D loaned from C, he entered a

voluntary agreement and he was willing and the
contract is valid. Thus, D should comply with their
agreement in good faith and does not have a legal
justification to refuse payment to C.

De Leon, H. (2014 ed.) Laws on Obligations and