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Stresses in Beams

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Stresses in Beam

Axial

xial stress, shear stress and bending stress.

1. Normal Stress

The simplest form of stress is normal stress/direct stress,, which is the stress perpendicular to

the surface on which it acts.

= force/area = P/A

P = the centric axial load

A = the area of the section

The normal stress is usually expressed in pascals (Pa), where one pascal is equal to one

newton per square metre, that is, 1 Pa = 1 N/m2. A pascal is a very small unit of stress, so

one can usually expect to see stresses expressed in kPa or MPa. In engineering applications,

MPa is usually used.

1

Example 1

A steel bar of rectangular cross-section, 3 cm by 2 cm, carries an axial load of 30 kN.

Estimate the average tensile stress over a normal cross-section of the bar.

Solution

The area of a normal cross-section of the bar is

A = 30*20

= 600 mm2

= P/A

= 30 x 103 / 600

= 50 N/mm2

= 50 MPa

For many materials, the lower end of the stress-strain curve is a straight line. This behaviour

was recognised by Robert Hooke and stated as Hookes Law.

=E

The constant E is called the elastic modulus, modulus of elasticity, or Youngs modulus. E

is equal to the slope of the stress-strain curve.

E = stress/strain = /

2

Figure 2 Relationship between Stress and Strain of an Elastic Material

Since strain is dimensionless, E has the same unit as stress, e.g. Pa, MPa. The value of E for

a given material is a constant.

constant Materials with a high modulus of elasticity have a high

resistance to elastic deformation, and are said to be stiff.

A member carrying a tensile load will stretch. The stretch is usually called deformation, and

the symbol for deformation is . The strain is dimensionless.

=/L

= the normal deformation

L = the original length of the member before deformation

=E

When the stress and strain are caused by axial loads, we have

P/A = E* ( / L )

= PL/AE

3

Figure 4 Deformations of Axially Loaded Bars

The mechanical properties of materials used in engineering are determined by tests performed

on small specimens of the material. The tests are conducted in materials-testing laboratories

equipped with testing machines.A tensile test machine is shown as below:-

4

A stress-strain diagram for a structural steel in tension is shown in the following figure.

There are several points of interest, which can be identified on the curves as follows:

1. Proportional limit

The maximum stress for which stress is proportional to strain. That is, stress at point A.

2. Elastic limit

Maximum stress that can be applied to a material without producing a permanent plastic

deformation or permanent set when the load is removed. That is, stress at point B.

3. Yield point

Stress for which the strain increases without an increase in stress. That is, the horizontal

portion of the curve BC.

4. Ultimate strength

Maximum stress material can support up to failure. That is, the stress at point D. At

this point the test piece begins, visibly, to neck. The material in the test piece in the

region of the neck as almost perfectly plastic at this stage and from thence, onwards to

fracture, there is a reduction in nominal stress.

5. Breaking strength

Stress in the material based on original cross-sectional area at the time it breaks. It is

also called fracture or rupture strength. That is, the stress at point E.

Different materials have different stress-strain curves.The followings are the stress-strain

curves for aluminum alloy and concrete.

5

Figure 7 Stress-Strain Curves of Different Types of Materials

It is a ductile material, which does not have a yield point. A line drawn parallel to the linear

portion of the stress-strain curve from a strain of 0.002 (i.e. 0.2%) intersects the stress-strain

curve. The intersection point is defined as a yield point.

1.4.2 Concrete

It is a brittle material.

When a load is applied along the axis of a bar, axial strain is produced. At the same time, a

lateral (perpendicular to the axis) strain is also produced. If the axial force is in tension, the

length of the bar increases and the cross-section contracts or decreases. That is, a positive

axial stress produces a positive axial strain and a negative lateral strain. For a negative axial

stress, the axial strain is negative and the lateral strain is positive.

The ratio of lateral strain to axial strain is called Poissons ratio. It is constant for a given

material provided that the material is not stressed above the proportional limit, is

homogeneous, and has the same physical properties in all directions.

= |lateral strain / axial strain||

= - lateral strain / axial strain

6

The negative sign ensures that Poissons ratio is a positive number.The value of Poissons

ratio, , varies from 0.25 to 0.35 for different metals. For concrete, it may be as low as =

0.1 and for rubber as high as = 0.5.

Example 2

An aluminum alloy sample is tested in tension. When the stress is 150 MPa the normal

strain is 2.1 x 10-3 m/m. Calculate the modulus of elasticity for this alloy.

Solution

The modulus of elasticity:

E =/

= 150 x 106/2.1 x 10-3

= 71.429 x 109 Pa

= 71.429 GPa

Example 3

A 2m long round bar of polystyrene plastic with a diameter of 25 mm carries a 5 kN tensile

load. If the modulus of elasticity of the polystyrene is 3.1 GPa, calculate the longitudinal

deformation in the bar.

7

Solution

The deformation,

= L

= L/E

= PL/AE

= 5000*2/[(*252 /4) x 10-6 *3.0 x 109)

= 6.79 x 10-3 m

= 6.79 mm

Example 4

Accurate experimental measurements in a compression test of a 200 mm long square sample

with a 50 by 50 mm cross section give a longitudinal deformation of 0.1 mm and a

transverse deformation of 0.008 mm. Determine Poissons ratio for the material.

Solution

To calculate Poissons ratio, it is necessary to first determine both the longitudinal and

transverse strains:

l = l/ L

= -0.1/200

= -0.0005 m/m

t = t / L

= 0.008/50

= 0.00016 m/m

= t /l

=0.00016/0.0005

=0.32

Example 5

A steel bar has the dimensions shown in the following figure. If an axial force of P = 80 kN is

applied to the bar, determine the change in its length and the change in the dimensions of its

cross section after applying the load. Take Est = 200 GPa and st = 0.3. The material behaves

elastically.

8

Solution

The normal stress in the bar is, Z = 80 x 103 / (0.1*0.05)

= 16 x 106 Pa

= 16 MPa

= 16 / 200 x 103

= 80 x 10-6

LZ = Z LZ

= 80 x 10-6*1500

= 120 x 10-6 m

= 120 m

The contraction strains in both x and y directions are,

x = y = -st Z

= -0.3* 80 x 10-6

= -24 m/m

Lx = x Lx= -24 x 10-6 *0.1

= -2.4 m

=-1.2 m

9

Example 6

A steel rod is loaded as shown in the following figure. Determine the deformation of the

steel rod.

Solution

We divide the rod into the three-component parts as indicated in the following figures.

To find the internal forces P1, P2and P3, we must cut sections through each of the component

parts, drawing each time the free-body diagram of the portion of rod located to the right of the

section. Expressing that each of the free bodies is en equilibrium, we obtain successively.

P1 = 400 kN

P2= -100 kN

P3 = 200 kN

= Pi Li A E

i i i

+ (-100 x 103*0.3 /(600 x 10-6* 200 x 109)

+200 x 103*0.4 /(200 x 10-6* 200 x 109)

= 2.75x 10-3 m

= 2.75 mm

10

1.6 ALLOWABLE STRESS

The allowable stress is the maximum stress that is considered safe for a material to support

under certain loading conditions. The stress may be used to design load-supporting

members of structures and machines. Allowable stress values are determined by tests and

from experience gained from the performance of previous designs under service conditions.

Allowable stress is also sometimes called the working or design stress.

The factor of safety is defined as the ratio of some load that represents the strength for the

member to the allowable load for the member. That is,

Factor of safety,

F .S . =

allowable load for the member

For tension member, where the load is equal to stress multiplied by area, the ratio of the loads

is identical to the ratio of stresses. Accordingly, for a tension member a factor of safety that

is based on the ultimate stress is equal to the ratio of the ultimate stress to the allowable stress.

Thus,

F.S. = u / a

Values of the factor of safety used to design members depend on many factors. Among

these are the nature of the loads, variation in material properties, types of failures, uncertainly

in analysis and the environment to which the member is exposed. Factors of safety range in

value from over 1 to 20 with values between 3 and 15 common.

Example 7

A hollow cylinder is to be designed to support a compressive load of 650 kN. The allowable

compressive stress a = 69.2 MPa. Compute the outer diameter of the cylinder if the wall

thickness is 50 mm.

Solution

Solving for the required area, we have

Areq = P/a

= 650 x 103/69.2

= 9393 mm2

Areq = * (do2 di2) /4

11

where do = outer diameter of the hollow cylinder

di = inner diameter of the hollow cylinder

Therefore,

do di = 100 mm (2)

do = 109.5 mm

2. Bending Stress

The effect of a bending moment applied to a cross-section of a beam is to induce a state of

stress across that section. These stresses are known as bending stresses and they act

normally to the plane of the cross-section.

If a simply supported beam carries two point loads of 10 kN as shown in the following figure,

pure bending occurs at segment BC.

12

10 kN 10 kN

A

B C D

L L

Shear force

10 kN

C

B

Bending 10 kN

moment

B PL

C

Figure 10 Pure Bending

The above beam segment BC is subject to a pure sagging moment. The beam

segment will bend into the shape shown in the following figures in which the

upper surface is concave and the lower convex. It can be seen that the upper

longitudinal fibres of the beam are compressed while the lower fibres are

stretched. It follows that between these two extremes there is a fibre that

remains unchanged in length. Thus the direct stress varies through the depth of

the beam from compression in the upper fibres to tension in the lower. Clearly

the direct stress is zero at the fibre which does not change in length. The

surface, which contains this fibre and runs through the length of the beam, is

known as the NEUTRAL SURFACEor NEUTRAL PLANE; the line of

intersection of the neutral surface and any cross-section of the beam is termed

the NEUTRAL AXIS. (It is the axis of the cross-section of a beam at which

both bending strain and bending stress are zero. The neutral axis passes

through the centroid of the cross-section).

13

Figure 11 - Deformation Geometry for a symmetrical beam in pure bending

Assumptions:

1. Beams are initially straight.

2. The material is homogenous and isotropic (i.e. its mechanical properties are the same in

all directions.)

3. Stress-strain relationship is linear and elastic.

4. Youngs modulus is the same in tension as in compression.

5. Sections are symmetrical about the plane of bending.

6. Sections which are plane before bending remain plane after bending.

1. Each section rotates during bending about a neutral axis.

2. The distribution of strain across the section is linear, with zero strain at the neutral axis.

3. The section is divided into tensile and compressive zones separated by a neutral surface.

The theory gives very accurate results for stresses and deformations for most practical beams

provided that deformations are small.

14

2.3 Bending Stresses in Beams

Basic Assumption:

Plane sections through a beam taken normal to its axis remain plane after the beam is

subject to bending.

15

Result 1: The normal strain varies along the beam depth linearly with the distance y

(measured from the centroidal axis).

The normal stress varies along the beam depth linearly with the distance

y(measured from the centroidal axis).

Result 3 : For the top and bottom edges of the section, one would be in tension while the

other would be in compression. A plane of zero deformation and zero

bending stresses (Neutral Axis plane) exists between the two.

Result 4 : From considerations of equilibrium, it can be shown that: The Neutral Axis

passes through the Centroid of the section.

Result 5 : The stress and strain varies linearly from zero at the Neutral Axis to their

absolute maximum values at the largest value of y.

16

Consider the moment induced by a small element of area dA as shown in Figure 15.

M = y dA

My = y ydA

My = y2dA

My = y2dA

My = I

= My / I

The bending stress x at a distance y from the Neutral Axis is given by:

x = -My/I

I = Moment of inertia of the section (about its centroidal axis)

and the Maximum normal stress maxis given by:

max = -Mc/I

where c = |y|max

The method of solving any beam stress problem involves the following steps:

1. Determine the maximum bending moment on the beam by drawing the shear and bending

moment diagrams.

2. Locate the centroid of the cross section of the beam.

3. Compute the moment of inertia of the cross section with respect to its centroidal axis.

4. Compute the distance c from the centroid axis to the top or bottom of the beam, whichever

is greater.

5. Compute stress from the flexural formula,

max = -Mc/I

17

Example 8

A simply supported beam is subject a point load of 1500 N at the mid-span of the beam as

shown in the following figure. The cross section of the beam is a rectangular 100 mm high and

25 mm wide. Calculate the maximum stresses due to bending.

Solution

1500 N

1.7 m 1.7 m

Step 1 The maximum bending moment occurs at the mid-span of the beam.

M = 750 * 1.7

= 1275 Nm

Step 2 The centroid of the rectangular section is at the intersection of its two axes of

symmetry.

I = 25(100)3/12

= 2.08 x 106 mm4

Step 4 c = 50 mm

Step 5 The maximum tensile and compressive stresses due to bending are:

max, = -Mc/I

= 1275 x 103 (50)/ 2.08 x 106

= 30.6 N/mm2 or 30.6 MPa

18

Example 9

A simply supported I-beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 5 kN/m over the entire span

of 6 m. The cross section of the beam is shown in the following figure. Determine the

bending stresses that act at points B and D, located at the mid-span of the beam.

115 mm 115 mm

20 mm

B

20 mm

300 mm

20 mm

D

Solution

Step 1 The supported reaction = 5 * 6 / 2 = 15 kN

5 kN/m H

X

M

X

15 kN V

3m X

M = 15 * 3 5 * 3 * 1.5

= 22.5 kNm

Step 2 The centroid of the I-section is at the intersection of its two axes of symmetry.

Moment of inertia, I

= 250(340)3/12 2*115(300)3/12

= 3.01 x 108 mm4

19

Step 4 At point B, yb = 150 mm

At point D, yd = 170 mm

b, = -Myb /I

= 22.5 x 106 * 150 / 3.01 x 108

= 11.2 N/mm2 or 11.2 MPa

d, = -Myd /I

= 22.5 x 106 * 170 / 3.01 x 108

= 12.7 N/mm2 or 12.7 MPa

The critical difference between the non-symmetrical section and symmetrical section under

bending is that in a non-symmetrical section, such as a T beam or triangular shape beam, the

location of the centroid is no longer obvious and is usually never at the mid-height of the

section.

In the T beam, the centroid is located near the top flange of the member. Deformations and

bending stresses in the member still vary linearly in the member and are proportional to the

distance from the neutral axis of the member. This implies that the stress levels at the top

and bottom of the beam are no longer equal as they typically are in symmetrical sections.

The stresses are greater at the bottom of the beam than they are at the top because of the larger

y distance.The two and three dimensional views of bending stress distribution in a T beam are

shown in the following figures.

20

Section Modulus

The maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the beam occur at points located farthest

from the neutral axis. Let us denote by c1 and c2 the distances from the neutral axis to the

extreme elements in the positive and negative y directions, respectively. Then the maximum

normal stresses:

1 = M c1/I = M/ Z1

2 = -M c2 /I = M/ Z2

in which,

Z1 = I / c1

Z2 = I / c2

The quantities Z1andZ2are known as the section moduli of the cross sectional area. We see

that a section modulus has dimensions of length to the third power.

If the cross section is symmetric with respect to the z axis, then c1 = c2 = c, and

the maximum tensile and compressive stresses are equal numerically:

1 = -

2 = M c /I = M/ Z

in which

Z=I/c

is the section modulus.

For a beam of rectangular cross section with width b and height h, the moment of inertia and

section modulus are

I = bh3/12 Z = bh2/6

21

Figure 18 Stress Distribution of a Symmetrical Section

Example 10

A simply supported beam of span length of 8 m is subject to a uniformly distributed load of 2

kN/m over the entire span and a point load of 8 kN at 5m from the left support of the beam as

shown in the following figure. Determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in

the beam due to bending

8 kN

2 kN/m

A C

B

HA

VA VC

5m 3m

700 mm

220 mm

22

Solution

The shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam are shown in the following figures.

Section modulus of the cross-sectional area,

Z = bh2/6

= 220*7002/6

=1.8 x 107 mm3

Moment inertia of the cross-sectional area,

I = bh3/12

= 220*7003/12

=6.29 x 109 mm4

Maximum bending tensile and compressive stresses,

= Mmax c/ I

= 30 x 106* 350/6.29 x 109

= 1.67 N/mm2

= Mmax / Z

= 30 x 106/1.8 x 107

= 1.67 N/mm2

23

8 kN

2 kN/m

A C

B

11 kN 13 kN

5m 3m

+ve

11

9 7 5 Shear Force (kN)

3

1B

A C

-7

-9

-11

-13

A B

C

0 0

10 12

+ve 18

24 22

28 30

Bending Moment (kNm)

24

Example 11

A simply supported T-beam shown in the following figure carries a uniformly distributed load

of 1 kN/m over the entire span of 6 m. Calculate the maximum bending stresses induced in

the beam.

Solution

The maximum bending moment,

Mmax = 1*62/8

= 4.5 kNm

I = 120(40)3/12 + 120*40*(140-100)2 + 40(120)3/12

+ 40*120*(100-60)2

= 2.18 x 107 mm4

120 mm

40 mm

Centroidal Axis

120 mm

100 mm

= M c2 /I

= 4.5 x 106*100/2.18 x 107

= 20.64 N/mm2

= M c1 /I

= 4.5 x 106*60/2.18 x 107

= 12.4 N/mm2

10 kN 20 kN

4 kN/m

A B C D E

HB

VB VD

2m 2m 4m 2m

25

Example 12

A T-beam is loaded as shown in the following figure. Calculate the maximum bending

stresses induced in the beam

120 mm

40 mm

Centroidal Axis

120 mm

100 mm

Solution

The shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam are shown in the following

figures.

26

3. Shear Stress

Shear stress is stress parallel to the surface on which it acts.

V = is the shear force acting parallel to the surface

A = the area on which the shear stress acts

It is assumed that the shear stress is uniformly distributed over the surface.

27

Figure 19b Shear Stress

28

Example 13

Two pieces of plastic are jointed by gluing overlapping areas of 50 by 70 mm as shown in the

following figure. If a tensile force of 780 N applied parallel to the glued surfaces causes the

glue to fail, at what shear stress did the glue fail.

Solution

The shear stress acting on the glued surface:

= force/area = V/A

=780/(50*70*10-6)

= 222860 Pa

= 222.86 kPa

29

Example 14

A boiler plate steel has an ultimate shear strength of 290 MPa. Compute the force required

to punch a 25 mm in diameter hole if the steel plate thickness is 13 mm. Assume the shear

stress is uniformly distributed.

Solution

The resisting shear area is the circumference of the punch multiplied by the thickness of the

plate:

A = dt

= *25*13

= 1021 mm2

We solve for P, the required applied force that will induce an ultimate shear stress of 290 MPa,

by substituting the ultimate shear stress:

P = Ault

= 1021 x10-6 * 290 x 106

= 296090 N = 296 kN

30

3.1 Shear Stress in Beam

Consider a simply supported beam with a concentrated load at mid-span. If we cut the beam

at any transverse cross-section, a shear force V exists at the section to maintain equilibrium.

The shear force V is distributed in the form of vertical shear stresses acting over the face of

the section.

An important feature of the vertical shear stresses is that they give rise to complementary

horizontal shear stresses. At any point in a beam, the horizontal and vertical shear stresses

are always numerically equal in magnitude.

31

Figure 21 Complementary Shear Stresses

32

Figure 22 Distribution of Horizontal Shear Stress and hence the Vertical Shear

Stress

33

3.2 Shear Stress Formula for Beams

The general formula for calculating the shear stress in a beam section which is subject to a

shear force if given by

S Ap y S Q VQ

= = =

It It It

Sor V = Shear force acting at the section

Ap =The cross-sectional area above the imaginary cut (the shaded area

fghi in the diagram)

y = Distance from N.A axis to centroid of the shaded area Ap

I = Moment of inertia of the entire cross-section

t = Width of the section (at the imaginary cut)

Q = Statical moment (Ap* y )

Notes:

1. The vertical shear stress at a point is equal to the horizontal shear stress.

2. Using the area below the imaginary cut for Ap should give the same result.

34

3.3 Shear Stress Distribution across a Beam Section

The vertical shear stresses are not uniform in magnitude over the face of the section. It can

be shown that the shear stresses:

are zero at the free surface (i.e. the top and bottom surfaces of the beam), and

varies with the distance from the neutral axis.

The maximum shear stress in a section calculated by the use of the above formula occurs at

the level of the neutral axis. In rectangular, T-shaped and I-shaped beams and other

commonly occurring sections the shear stress varies parabolically throughout the depth of the

section, with abrupt changes of stress where the geometry of the section changes suddenly,

such as where the web and flanges of an I section meet.

35

Example 15

A rectangular beam 400 mm by 800 mm supports a shear force of 5 kN. Draw the shear

stress distribution across the depth of the beam section.

Solution

The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the neutral axis is given by the formula.

I = bh3/12

= 400(800)3/12

= 17.07 x 109 mm4

S = 5 x 103 N

t = 400 mm

36

Level Ap y S/I t

(106 mm2) (mm) (10-9 N/mm5) (10-3 N/mm2)

1 0.16 200 0.7323 23.43

2 0.12 250 0.7323 21.97

3 0.08 300 0.7323 17.58

4 0.04 350 0.7323 10.25

5 0 - 0.7323 0

37

3.4 Methods for Calculating the Statical Moment Q

3.4.1 For a rectangular beam section,

1. Locate the neutral axis for the entire cross section by computing the location

of the centroid.

2. Draw in the axis where the shear stress is to be calculated.

3. Identify the partial area Ap away from the axis of interest the shade it for

emphasis.

4. Compute the magnitude of Ap.

5. Locate the centroid of the partial area.

6. Compute Q = Ap y .

t

h

N.A.

y A1 y

Ap 1

Centroidal y

2

axis of Ap

A2

b

38

t

h

N.A.

y A1 y

Ap 1

Centroidal y

2

axis of Ap

A2

b

1. Locate the neutral axis for the entire cross section by computing the location of the

centroid.

2. Draw in the axis where the shear stress is to be calculated.

3. Divided Ap into component parts, which are simple areas and label them A1, A2, and so on.

Compute their values.

4. Locate the centroid of each component area.

5. Determine the distances from the neutral axis to the centroid of each component area,

calling them y1, y2, and so on.

6. Note that, by the definition of the centroid.

Ap y = A1y1 + A2y2 +

Q = A1y1 + A2y2 +

39

Example 16

Find the maximum shear stress induced in the following beam.

4.5 kN 9.0 kN

A D

B C

5.625 kN 7.875 kN

1.5m 3m 1.5m

25 mm

200 mm

N.A.

y A1 y

Ap 1

Centroidal y

2

axis of Ap

25 mm

A2

150 mm

Solution

Determine the shear force diagram

40

Example 17

A simply supported beam AB is subject to a uniformly distributed load of 28 kN/m as shown

in the following figure. The cross section of the beam is rectangular with width 25 mm and

height 100 mm. Calculate the shear stress acting at the point C (200 mm from the support B)

in the beam AB.

28 kN/m 25 mm

100 mm

A B C

C

200 mm

25 mm

1m

Solution

Shear force at point C, V = -28*1/2 + 28*0.2

= -8.4 kN

= 2083*103 mm4

Shear stress at point C, = 8400*23440/(2083*103*25)

= 3.8 N/mm2

= 3.8 MPa

41

Example 18

An I-shaped beam is subject to a shear force of 100 kN. Plot a curve to show the variation of

shear stress across the section of the beam and hence determine the ratio of the maximum shear

stress to the mean shear stress.

44 mm

12 mm

12 mm

126 mm

12 mm

100 mm

Solution

Moment of inertia of the section,

I = 100*1503/12 2*44*1263/12

= 13.46*106 mm4

= 100*103 *A y /(13.46*106 * t)

= 7.43*10-3 A y /tN/mm2

Section A y t

(mm2) (mm) (mm) (N/mm2)

0 0 - - -

1 100*6=600 72 100 3.2

2 100*12=1200 69 100 6.2

2 1200 69 12 51.3

3 1320 68 12 55.6

4 1440 66.3 12 59.1

5 1680 61.6 12 64.1

6 1956 54.5 12 66.0

It should be noted that two values of shear stresses are required at section 2 to take account of

the change in breadth at this section. The values of A and Y for sections 3,4,5 and 6 are

those of an I-section beam.

42

44 mm

0

12 mm 1

2

3

4

43 mm53 mm 5

126 mm 6

23 mm

12 mm

= 100*103 /3.912*103

= 25.6 N/mm2

References

1. R.C. Hibbeler (2005), Mechanics of Materials, SI 2nd edition, Prentice Hall

2. R.C. Hibbeler (2005), Structural Analysis, SI edition, Prentice Hall

43

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