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# Mechanics of Materials I Laboratory

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

QUIZ 10%
Practice Experimental stress PRESENTATION 5%
analysis elements
3
PARTICIPATION 5%
subject to twisting
ANNOTATIONS 10%
CALCULATIONS 10%
NAME RESULTS 25%
ID STUDENT DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 10%
LAB GROUP QUESTIONS 15%
TEACHER CONCLUSIONS 10%
INSTRUCTOR TOTAL 100%

OBJECTIVE

The students experimentally determine the shear stress induced in a circular bar
subjected to torsion. He also compared the strain to that obtained previously
analytically. Finally, students will determine the reliability of the experimental
technique

FUNDAMENTS

Pure state court rarely found in isolation in structural elements, yet one of the most obvious
examples of this state represents the torque wrenches " and wrenches to tighten nuts, bolts , etc.
In these elements due to its circular geometry and form of application of torque, it can demonstrate
the presence of pure shear conditions in each of the sections along its length, as shown in Figure 1
As mentioned at the beginning of this practice , your goal is to experimentally determine the shear
stress , however through the strain gauges cannot measure the shear using Hooke's law cutting (
= G ) directly
This is due to the fact that gauges cannot measure directly " unitary angular deformation only
measure unitary longitudinal deformation. However if properly orient gauges, parallel to the
directions of maximum normal strain on the region that we know is under a state of pure shear , it
can relate to the angular deflection measured deformation

Figure 1 United pure structural elements present in court, the arrows represent the element shear,
.

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Mechanics of Materials I Laboratory
Department of Mechanical Engineering

How to relate the strain measured by the gauge along the principal axes and angular deformation is
performed as follows:
Mohr's circle for a state of pure shear stress shown in Figure 2. From this figure you can see that
the main axes of the elements subjected to pure shear are oriented at 45 degrees to the axis of the
bar, one of tension and one compression, plus the magnitudes of both are numerically equal to ,
as it is shown in Figure 3 .

## Figure 3. - Orientation of the principal stresses (axial strain)

For the experimental analysis we apply Hooke's Law for angle strain:
=G

## Where stiffness modulus (G) is related to the modulus of elasticity as follows:

G = 0.5 E / ( 1 + )

## Aluminum bar of circular section

E = 0.71E6 kgf / cm2, = 0.33, mx. Allowable = 131 MPa
Meter Vernier
Strain meter
Extensometer gauge

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Mechanics of Materials I Laboratory
Department of Mechanical Engineering

ANNOTATIONS

CALCULATIONS

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Mechanics of Materials I Laboratory
Department of Mechanical Engineering

RESULTS

1. Fill in the table for each of the experiments in which the theoretical and experimental
results are observed and the error between both methods

## Material: Aluminum Connection: bridge

Kg cm/cm Kg/cm2 Kg/cm2 %

## Material: Aluminum Connection: 1/2 bridge

Kg cm/cm Kg/cm2 Kg/cm2 %

## Material: Aluminum Connection: 1/1 bridge

Kg cm/cm Kg/cm2 Kg/cm2 %

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Mechanics of Materials I Laboratory
Department of Mechanical Engineering

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

QUESTIONS

1. Why change the percentage of error for the different connections? (1/4 bridge, puente, full
bridge)

2. What would the a deformations, by c if subject to torsion bar out of steel? (more, less ,
equal) Why?

## 3. Calculate the safety factor to 2kg in each type of connection.

FS = mx . allowable / work

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Mechanics of Materials I Laboratory
Department of Mechanical Engineering

4. According to the experimental technique in practice there is it possible to measure the strain