Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

Soy sauce

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


(Redirected from Shoyu)
Soy sauce
Soy sauce 2.jpg
A bowl of soy sauce
Mandarin Chinese name
Traditional Chinese ??
Simplified Chinese ??
Literal meaning sauce oil
[show]Transcriptions
CantoneseTaiwanese name
Chinese ??
Literal meaning fermented bean oil
[show]Transcriptions
Burmese name
Burmese ??????????
IPA [p? ?? bj j]
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese x d?u or nu?c tuong
Thai name
Thai ?????? (rtgs si-iw)
Korean name
Hangul ??
Literal meaning seasoning sauce
[show]Transcriptions
Japanese name
Kanji ??
Kana ????
[show]Transcriptions
Malay name
Malay kicap
Indonesian name
Indonesian kecap
Filipino name
Tagalog toyo
Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English)[1][2] is a condiment made
from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or
Aspergillus sojae molds.[3] Soy sauce in its current form was created about 2,200
years ago during the Western Han dynasty of ancient China[4][5][6][7] and spread
throughout East and Southeast Asia where it is used in cooking and as a condiment.
[8]

Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 China
1.2 Korea
1.3 Japan
1.4 Europe
2 Production
2.1 Traditional
2.2 Acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein
3 Variations by country
3.1 Burmese
3.2 Chinese
3.2.1 Brewed
3.2.2 Blended
3.3 Filipino
3.4 Hawaiian
3.5 Indonesian
3.6 Japanese
3.6.1 Varieties
3.7 Korean
3.7.1 Hansik ganjang
3.7.2 Gaeryang ganjang
3.7.3 Other
3.8 Malaysian and Singaporean
3.9 Taiwanese
3.10 Thai
3.11 Vietnamese
4 Nutrition
4.1 Carcinogens
4.2 Allergies
5 See also
6 References
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
History[edit]
China[edit]
Soy sauce (??) is considered almost as old as soy paste a type of fermented paste
(Jiang, ?) obtained from soybeans which had appeared during the Western Han
dynasty and was listed in the bamboo slips found in the archaeological site
Mawangdui.[6][5] There are several precursors of soy sauce that are associated
products with soy paste. Among them the earliest one is Qing Jiang (??) that had
appeared in AD 40 and was listed in Si Min Yue Ling (????).[7] Others are Jiang
Qing (??), Chi Zhi (??) and Chi Qing (??) which are recorded in Qi Min Yao Shu
(????) in AD 540.[7] By the time of the Song dynasty, the term soy sauce (??) had
become the accepted name for the liquid condiment,[7] which are documented in two
books Shan Jia Qing Gong (????)[9] and Pu Jiang Wu Shi Zhong Kui Lu (???????)[10]
during the Song dynasty.

Like many salty condiments, soy sauce was originally a way to stretch salt,
historically an expensive commodity. During the Zhou dynasty of ancient China,
fermented fish with salt was used as a condiment in which soybeans were included
during the fermentation process.[5][11] By the time of the Han dynasty, this had
been replaced with the recipe for soy paste and its by-product soy sauce, by using
soybeans as the principal ingredient,[6][7] with fermented fish-based sauces
developing separately into fish sauce.[12]

The 19th century Sinologist Samuel Wells Williams wrote that in China, the best soy
sauce is made by boiling beans soft, adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley,
and leaving the mass to ferment; a portion of salt and three times as much water
are afterwards put in, and the whole compound left for two or three months when the
liquid is pressed and strained.[13]

Korea[edit]
Further information Soup soy sauce
The earliest soy sauce brewing in Korea seem to have begun prior to the era of the
Three Kingdoms.[14] The Records of the Three Kingdoms, a Chinese historical text
written and published in the 3rd century, mentions that Goguryeo people are good at
brewing fermented soy beans. in the section named Dongyi (Eastern foreigners), in
the Book of Wei.[15][16] Jangdoks used for soy sauce brewing are found in the mural
paintings of Anak Tomb No.3 from the 4th century Goguryeo.[17]

In Samguk Sagi, a historical record of the Three Kingdoms era, it is written that
ganjang (soy sauce) and doenjang (soybean paste) along with meju (soybean block)
and jeotgal (salted seafood) were prepared for the wedding ceremony of the King
Sinmun in February 683.[18] Sikhwaji, a section from Goryeosa (History of Goryeo),
recorded that ganjang and doenjang were included in the relief supplies in 1018,
after a Khitan invasion, and in 1052, when a famine occurred.[19] Joseon texts such
as Guhwangchwaryo and Jeungbo sallim gyeongje contain the detailed procedures on
how to brew good quality ganjang and doenjang.[14] Gyuhap chongseo explains how to
pick a date for brewing, what to forbear, and how to keep and preserve ganjang and
doenjang.[18]

Japan[edit]
Buddhist monks from China introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century,[20]
where it is known as shoyu (?? shoyu).[21][22]

Europe[edit]
Records of the Dutch East India Company list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737, when
seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima, Japan, to Batavia (present-day
Jakarta) on the island of Java. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were then
shipped to the Netherlands.[23][citation needed] In the 18th century, diplomat and
scholar Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce. Although earlier
descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West, his was among the
earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version.[24] By the
mid-19th century, Japanese soy sauce gradually disappeared from the European
market, and the condiment became synonymous with the Chinese product.[25] Europeans
were unable to make soy sauce because they did not understand the function of
Aspergillus oryzae, the fungus used in its brewing.[25] Soy sauce made from
ingredients such as Portobello mushrooms were disseminated in European cookbooks
during the late 18th century. A Swedish recipe for Soija was published in the 1770
edition of Cajsa Warg's Hjelpreda i Hushllningen fr Unga Fruentimber and was
flavored with allspice and mace.[26]

Production[edit]

Soy sauce is made from soybeans


Soy sauce is made either by fermentation or by hydrolysis. Some commercial sauces
have both fermented and chemical sauces.

Flavor, color, and aroma developments during production are attributed to non-
enzymatic Maillard browning.[27]

Variation is usually achieved as the result of different methods and durations of


fermentation, different ratios of water, salt, and fermented soy, or through the
addition of other ingredients.