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Operating System the computers control program; 4 most common forms of contra-security behavior:

allows users and their applications to share and access 1.Forgetting passwords and being locked out of the
common computer resources, such as processors, main system.
memory, databases and printer. 2.Failing to change passwords on a frequent basis.
3.The Post-it syndrome.
3 Main tasks of OS
4.Simplistic passwords that a computer criminal easily
1.First, to translate high-level languages such as COBOL,
C++, BASIC, and SQL into the machine level language
that the computer can execute. Reusable passwords most common method of
2.Second, the OS allocates computer resources to users, password control; it defines the password to the system
workgroups and applications. once and reuses it to gain future access.
3.Third, the OS manages the tasks of job scheduling and One-time passwords designed to overcome the
multiprogramming. aforementioned problem; users password changes
3 ways of submitting jobs to the system continuously.
1.directly by the system operator System audit trails are logs that record activity at the
2.from various batch-job queues system, application and user level.
3.through telecommunications links from remote 2 types of audit logs
workstations 1.Keystroke monitoring involves recording both the
5 fundamental control objectives of OS users keystroke and the systems responses.
1.The OS must protect itself from users. 2.Event monitoring summarizes key activities related
2. The OS must protect users from each other. to system resources.
3.The OS must protect users itself from themselves. 3 security audit trail objectives
4. The OS must be protected from itself. 1.Detecting unauthorized access
5. The OS must be protected from its environment. 2.Recontructuring events
OS security involves policies, procedures and controls 3.Personal Accountability
that determine who can access the OS, which resources Intranets consist of small LANs and large WANs that
(files,programs,printers) they can use, and what actions may contain thousands of individual nodes.
they can take. 3 internet risks
4 security components found to secure OS 1.IP spoofing a form of masquerading to gain
1.Log-on procedure OS first line of defense against unauthorized access to a Web server and to perpetrate
unauthorized access; requesting user ID & password an unlawful act without revealing ones identity.
2.Access token contains the key info. about the user, 2.Denial of service attacks(Dos) is an assault on a
including user ID, pw, user group and privileges granted Web server to prevent it from servicing its legitimate
to the user. users.
3.Access control list assigned to each IT resources 3 common types of Dos attacks
(computer directory,data file,program, or printer) 1.SYN flood is accomplished not by sending
which controls to the resources. the final acknowledgement to the SYN-ACK
4.Discretionary access privileges allow them to grant response, which causes the server to keep
accesss privieges to the users. signalling for acknowledgement until the server
3 exposures from three resources times out.
1.Privileged personnel who abuse their authority. 2.Smurf attack involves three parties: the
2.Internal and external individuals of the org. who perpetrator, intermediary and the victim. Ping
browse the OS to identify and exploit security flaws. maintenance tool wherein smurf attack can be
3.Individuals who intentionally insert computer viruses accomplished.
into the OS. 3.Distributed denial of service(DDos) attack
Password is a secret code the user enters to gain may take form of a SYN flood or smurf attack;
access to systems, applications, data files, or a network sheer scope of the event. Internet relay chat
server. (IRC) networks as a source of zombies. Botnets
collections of compromised computers.
3 configurations of network topologies Digest sender using one-way hashing algorithm to
1.Communication lines calculate it.
2.Hardware components Digital certificate required to verify the senders
3.Software identity
Network level firewalls provide efficient but low- Certification authority (CA) issued by trusted 3rd party
security access control. Screening router examines the Public key infrastructure (PKI) constitutes the policies
source and destination addresses that are attached to and procedures for administering the activity.
incoming message packets. Message sequence numbering a sequence number is
Application-level firewalls provide higher level of inserted in each message and any attempt will become
customizable network security but they have overhead apparent at the receiving end.
to connectivity. Message transaction log - device that records all
Intrusion prevention system(IPS) that employ deep incoming and outgoing messages as well as attempted
packet inspection(DPS) to determine when an attack is access.
in progress. Request-response technique a control message from
Encryption the conversion of data into a secret code the sender and a response from the receiver are sent at
for storage in databases and transmission over periodic, synchronized intervals.
networks. Call-back device requires the dial-in user to enter a
Cleartext original messafe password and be identified.
Ciphertext coded equivalent 6 criteria for assessing the effectiveness of firewall
Decrypted ciphertext decoded back into cleartext 1.Flexibility
Caesar cipher earliest encryption method 2.Proxy services
2 fundamental components 3.Filtering
1.Key 4. Segregation of systems
2.Algorithm 5.Audit tools
Key mathematical value that the sender selects 6.Probe for weaknesses
Algorithm the procdure of shifting each letter in the Line error most common problem in data
cleartext message the number of positions that the key communications is data loss due
value indicates. 2 techniques used to detect and correct line errors
Public key encryption Advance encryption standard 1.Echo check involves the receiver of the message
(AES) is a 128-bit encryption technique that has returning the message to the sender.
become a US government standard to provide key 2.Parity check incorporated extra bit into the
encryption. structure of a bit string when it is created or
Triple DES encryption is an enhancement to an older transmitted.
encryption technique called data encryption standard Electronic data interchange (EDI) agreement is the
(DES) foundation for fully automated business process.
EEE3 uses three different keys to encrypt the message 6 common EDI cost savings approach
three times. 1.Data keying reduces or eliminates the need for data
EDE3 uses one key to encrypt the message. entry.
Public key encryption uses two different keys: one for 2.Error reduction reductions in data keying, human
encoding and the other for decoding; each recipient has interpretation and classification of errors and filing
a private key that is kept secret and a public key that is errors.
published. 3.Reduction of paper use of electronic envelopes and
Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSI) a highly secure public key documents.
cryptography method. 4.Postage mailed docs replaced with cheaper
Digital envelope the term when both DES and RSA are transmission
used together 5.Automated procedures automates manual activities
Digital signature electronic authentication that cannot associated with purchasing, sales etc
be forged. 6.Inverntory reduction - ordering directly to vendors to
reduce lag time.
3 tests of controls Transfer control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP)
1.Test of authorization and validation controls the basic protocol that permits communications
2.Test of access controls between Internet sites.
3.Test of audit trail controls File transfer protocol (FTP) is used to transfer text
PC system risks and controls files, programs, spreadsheets and databases across the
1.OS weaknesses Internet.
2.Weak access control TELNET a terminal emulation protocol used on TCP/IP-
3.Inadequate segregation of duties based networks; allows users to run programs and
4.Multilevel password control used to restrict review data from computer.
employees who are sharing the same computers to Simple network mail protocols (SNMP) the most
specific directories, programs and data files. popular protocol for transmitting e-mail messages.
5.Risk of theft 2 other e-mail protocols
6.Weak backup procedures 1.Post office protocol (POP)
7.Risk of virus infection 2.Internet message access protocol (IMAP)
Virus infection one of the most common threats to PC Security sockets layer (SSL) - is a low-level encryption
and system availability. scheme used to secure transmissions in higher-level
3 principal threats to the OS HTTP format.
1.unauthorized access Private communications technology (PCT) is a
2.intentional or unintentional insertion of virues security protocol that provides secure transactions over
3.loss of data due to system malfunctions the Web.
Packet switching messages are divided into small Secure electronic transmission (SEC) is an encryption
packets for transmission; packets of the same message scheme developed by a consortium of technology firms
may take diff.routes to their destinations. and banks to secure credit card transations.
Virtual private networks (VPN) private network Network news transfer protocol (NNTP) is used to
within a pubic network. connect to Usenet groups on the Internet.
Extranet a variant of the Internet technology; that is Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) controls Web
password-controlled network for private users rather browsers that access the Web; a connection is
than the general public. established in web page upon clicking it.
World wide web (WWW) an internet facility that links Hypertext transfer protocol network generation
user sites locally and around the world. (HTTP-NG) is an enhanced version of HTTP protocol
3 types of addresses for communications that maintains the simplicity of HTTP while adding
1.E-mail addresses important features such as security and authentication.
2.Web site URL addresses Hypertext markup language (HTML) the document
3.Internet protocol (IP) addresses format used to produce Web pages.
E-mail address format for an e-mail address is Network topologies physical arrangement of the
USERNAME@DOMAINNAME. components of the network.
URL address that defines the path to a facility or file Local area network (LAN) confined to a single room in
on the Web. a bldg. or may link several bldgs. within a close
Internet protocol (IP) address the unique address of geographic area.
computer node and host attached to the Internet; Nodes computers connected to LAN.
represented by 32-bit data packet; separated by Wide area network (WAN) when the networks exceed
periods, the geographic limitation of LAN; involves distance and
Protocols the rules and standards governing the high cost of telecommunication infrastructure,
design of hardware and software that permit users of commercial networks that the org. leases.
networks, which diff. vendors have manuftd. to Network interface cards (NIC) physical connection of
communicate and share data. workstations to the LAN is achieved through this; which
*5 ways that protocols serve network functions fits into one of the expansion slots in the
(pg109-110) microcomputer.
Servers LAN nodes that share common resources as Logic bomb a destructive program; virus, that some
programs, data and printers are managed through predetermined event triggers.
special-purpose computers. Back door (Trap door) software program that allows
Star topology a network of computers with a large unauthorized access to a system w/o going through the
central computer (the host) at the hub that has direct normal (front door) log-on procedure.
connections to a periphery of smaller computers. Trojan horse a program whose purpose is to capture
Hierarchichal topology one in which host computer is IDs and PW from unsuspecting users.
connected to several, smaller computers in a master-
slave relationship.
Ring topology the peer to peer arrangement in which
all nodes are of equal status, thus, responsibility for
managing communcations is distributed among the
Bus topology most popular LAN topology it is named
bec. the nodes are all connected to a common table-the
Client-server topology often misused to describe any
type of network arrangement; has specific
characteristics that distinguish it from other topologies.
4 purpose of network control
1.Establish a communications session between the
sender and the receiver.
2.Manage the flow of data across the network.
3.Detect and resolve data collisions between competing
4.Detect errors in data that line failure or signal
degeneration cause.
Data collision destroys both messages with two or
more signals transmitted simultaneously.
Polling - the most popular technique for establishing a
communication session in WANs.
Token passing involves transmitting a special signal-
token- around the network from node to node in a
specific sequence.
Carrier Sensing random access technique that detect
collisions when they occur.
Virus a program (usually destructive) that attaches
itself to a legitimate program to penetrate the
operating system and destroy application programs,
data files and the OS itself.
4 types of files that virus attach themselves
1.An .EXE or .COM program file
2.An .OVL (overlay) program file
3.The boot sector of a disk
4.A device driver program
Worm used interchangeably with virus; software
program that virtually burrows into the computers
memory and replicates itself into areas of idle memory.