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Exam

Name___________________________________

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
1)

Ideally, all managers should be leaders.

1)

_______
Answer

True

False

2)

According to Ibn Khaldun, "perfecting details" mean the detailed messages that leaders communicate to their followers.

2)

_______
Answer

True

False

3)

According to Ibn Khaldun, "Asabiya" mostly stems from blood ties and alliances.

3)

_______
Answer

True

False

4)
"Asabiya" is one of the four elements of the Khadra's Prophetic-Caliphal model.

4)

_______
Answer

True

False

5)

According to the Prophetic-Caliphal model, a combination of personalism and individualism leads to a lack of
institutional development.

5)

_______
Answer

True

False

6)

According to the Prophetic-Caliphal model, strong attachment to the leader will occur if people expect a "great man" and
a "great man" really emerges.

6)

_______
Answer

True

False

7)

Despite the best efforts of researchers, it proved impossible to identify one set of traits that would always differentiate
leaders from nonleaders.

7)
_______
Answer

True

False

8)

Effective leaders do not need a high degree of knowledge about the company, industry, and technical matters.

8)

_______
Answer

True

False

9)

Cognitive theories are leadership theories that identified behaviors that differentiated effective leaders from ineffective
leaders.

9)

_______
Answer

True

False

10)

The managerial grid only provides a framework for conceptualizing leadership style.

10)

______
Answer
True

False

11)

According to the University of Michigan studies, leaders who are production oriented are described as emphasizing
interpersonal relationships and as taking a personal interest in the needs of their followers.

11)

______
Answer

True

False

12)

Fiedler's contingency model of leadership style proposed that effectiveness depends on the ability and willingness of the
subordinates.

12)

______
Answer

True

False

13)

According to Fiedler's research, task-oriented leaders tend to perform better in situations that are very favorable or
unfavorable to them.

13)

______
Answer

True

False
14)

According to Fiedler's research, relationship-oriented leaders seemed to perform better in very unfavorable situations.

14)

______
Answer

True

False

15)

Robert House's path-goal theory is an expectancy theory of motivation.

15)

______
Answer

True

False

16)

Robert House's achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level.

16)

______
Answer

True

False

17)

Robert House assumed that leadership style changes depending on the situation.

17)
______
Answer

True

False

18)

Path-goal theory holds that subordinates with an external locus of control will be more satisfied with a directive style.

18)

______
Answer

True

False

19)

Path-goal theory states that employee performance and satisfaction are likely to be positively influenced when the leader
compensates for shortcomings in either the employee or the work setting.

19)

______
Answer

True

False

20)

Transactional and transformational leadership are opposing approaches to getting things done.

20)

______
Answer

True
False

21)

Charisma is the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for any organization or
organizational unit that grows out of and improves on the present.

21)

______
Answer

True

False

22)

A charismatic leader is likely seen as being self-confident and influential.

22)

______
Answer

True

False

23)

People working for charismatic leaders are motivated to exert extra work effort but express lower satisfaction.

23)

______
Answer

True

False

24)
Charismatic leadership may not always be needed to achieve high levels of employee performance.

24)

______
Answer

True

False

25)

The challenge for many managers is learning how to become an effective team leader.

25)

______
Answer

True

False

26)

Legitimate power and authority are one in the same.

26)

______
Answer

True

False

27)

Legitimate power and authority are inherent in management positions.

27)

______
Answer
True

False

28)

Credibility is the degree to which followers perceive someone as honest, competent, and able to inspire.

28)

______
Answer

True

False

29)

Trust is the belief in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader.

29)

______
Answer

True

False

30)

Of the five dimensions that make up the concept of trust, loyalty seems to be the most critical when someone assesses
another's trustworthiness.

30)

______
Answer

True

False
31)

A vision should offer clear and compelling imagery that taps into people's emotions and inspires enthusiasm to pursue
the organization's goals.

31)

______
Answer

True

False

32)

The scarcity of female leaders in the Arab world is a unique case not found anywhere else in the world.

32)

______
Answer

True

False

33)

Women's economic activity rate in the Arab world is low but remains much higher than the activity rate found in other
developing countries.

33)

______
Answer

True

False

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
34)

Persons who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority are termed ________.
34)

______
A)

organizers

B)

visionaries

C)

leaders

D)

managers
Answer

35)

Leadership is ________.

35)

______
A)

the process of influencing a group toward the achievement of goals


B)

the function of influencing a group towards the achievement of goals


C)

directing a group towards the achievement of goals


D)

a group that achieves goals


Answer

36)

Leadership ________.

36)

______
A)

is based on management direction


B)

has only been studied since the early twentieth century


C)

has a requirement of at least five members to be led


D)

cannot be developed, according to research


Answer

37)

Ibn Khaldun's most famous book, in which he included a perspective on leadership, is called the ________.

37)

______
A)

Assiyash wal Hukm (or "Politics and Governing")


B)

Tareekh (or "History")


C)

Muqaddimah (or "Introduction")


D)

Assabiyat AlArab (or "The Group bond among Arabs")


Answer

38)

Perfecting details, according to Ibn Khaldun, refer to ________.

38)

______
A)

the personal qualities of the leader


B)

the details of the leader's message


C)

the environmental factors that shape a leader's behavior


D)

the attributes of the leader's tribe or family


Answer

39)

Ibn Khaldun describes "asabiya" as ________.

39)

______
A)

the agreements between tribes

B)

the leader's ability to force compliance


C)

the follower's attachment to the leader

D)

the group feeling or group bond


Answer

40)

One element of the prophetic-caliphal model of leadership is ________.

40)

______
A)

the amount of resources that a leader has

B)

the presence of a group bond


C)
the role of asabiya

D)

individualism
Answer

41)

Personalism, in the prophetic-caliphal model of leadership, refers to ________.

41)

______
A)

a person making personal connections with his/her followers


B)

a person easily following a potential leader


C)

a person being easily insulted by others


D)

a person's insistence on his personal opinion


Answer

42)

According to the prophetic-caliphal model of leadership, a vacuum of leadership ________.

42)

______
A)

is never really filled


B)

occurs when a leader dies


C)

results from a leader who does not have the necessary resources
D)

is filled by the expectation of the "great man"


Answer

43)

According to the prophetic-caliphal model of leadership, the combination of personalism and individualism leads to
________.

43)

______
A)

lack of institutional development


B)

an expectation that the leader will succeed


C)

weak attachment to the leader


D)

an expectation that the leader will fail


Answer

44)

Early research into leadership traits sought ________.

44)

______
A)

characteristics that might differentiate leaders from nonleaders


B)

and found the traits status of leaders


C)

identification of traits that leaders could use


D)

to clarify the need for leadership traits


Answer

A
45)

Research on leadership made it increasingly clear that predicting leadership success involved ________.

45)

______
A)

was more complex than a few leadership styles


B)

something more complex than isolating a few leader traits or preferable behaviors
C)

proper analysis of leader consideration for people and concern for production
D)

hiring managers that could demonstrate and develop trust with workers
Answer

46)

Trait theory ignores ________.

46)

______
A)

the interactions of leaders


B)

the interactions of leaders and their group members as well as situational factors
C)

situational factors in the leadership research


D)

the characteristics of the group members


Answer

47)

The University of Iowa studies discussed all of the following leadership styles except ________.

47)
______
A)

laissez-faire

B)

accommodating
C)

autocratic

D)

democratic
Answer

48)

Which of the following describes the leadership style in which a leader tends to centralize authority, dictate work
methods, make unilateral decisions, and limit employee participation?

48)

______
A)

democratic style

B)

laissez-faire style
C)

cultural style

D)

autocratic style
Answer

49)

The ________ style of leadership describes a leader who tends to involve employees in decision making, delegate
authority, encourage participation in deciding work methods and goals, and use feedback as an opportunity for coaching
employees.
49)

______
A)

laissez-faire

B)

autocratic

C)

democratic

D)

cultural
Answer

50)

Which of the following describes the leadership style in which the leader generally gives the group complete freedom to
make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it sees fit?

50)

______
A)

autocratic style

B)

laissez-faire style
C)

cultural style

D)

democratic style
Answer

51)

In the University of Iowa behavioral studies, group members' satisfaction levels were generally ________.
51)

______
A)

maintained when the leader was autocratic in the short run


B)

higher under a democratic leader than under an autocratic one


C)

improved when the leader was considerate of the outcomes


D)

higher under an autocratic leader in the long run


Answer

52)

According to the Ohio State studies, which of the following dimensions of leader behavior refers to the extent to which a
leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and the roles of group members in the search for goal attainment?

52)

______
A)

psychological structure

B)

intelligence structure
C)

consideration structure

D)

initiating structure
Answer

53)

According to the Ohio State studies, the dimension of leader behavior that is defined as the extent to which a leader had
job relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for group members' ideas and feelings is called ________.

53)
______
A)

cultural

B)

physical

C)

consideration

D)

initiation
Answer

54)

The Ohio State and the University of Michigan studies were ________.

54)

______
A)

about the same time and had similar research objectives


B)

about the same time, but had different research objectives


C)

at different times, but had similar research findings


D)

at different times, but had similar research objectives


Answer

55)

According to the Ohio State studies, a leader who was high in ________ helped group members with personal problems,
was friendly and approachable, and treated all group members as equals.

55)

______
A)

initiating structure

B)

consideration
C)

production orientation

D)

employee orientation
Answer

56)

The Fiedler model was based on the premise that a certain leadership style would be ________.

56)

______
A)

more effective than concern for production


B)

most effective in different types of situations


C)

less effective than the behavioral styles models


D)

effective depending on the followers


Answer

57)

The ________ model proposed that effective group performance depended upon the proper match between the leader's
style of interacting with his or her followers and the degree to which the situation allowed the leader to control and
influence.

57)

______
A)
Fiedler contingency

B)

Leader participation
C)

Path Goal

D)

Situational leadership
Answer

58)

Research by Fiedler uncovered three contingency dimensions that define the key ________.

58)

______
A)

leader behavioral style factors for determining leader effectiveness


B)

follower factors for determining leader effectiveness


C)

situational factors for determining leader effectiveness


D)

situational factors for determining follower effectiveness


Answer

59)

Which of the following are two of the three key situational factors that Fiedler felt were important in determining leader
effectiveness?

59)

______
A)

task structure and leader-member relations


B)
maturity of organization and subordinates
C)

organizational success and position power


D)

leader-member relations and maturity of followers


Answer

60)

Fiedler's term '________' refers to the degree of influence a leader has over power-based activities.

60)

______
A)

leader-member relations

B)

responsibility
C)

position power

D)

task structure
Answer

61)

Fiedler assumed a person's leadership style was ________.

61)

______
A)

relative

B)

fixed
C)

dimensional

D)

contingent
Answer

62)

Fiedler's dimension termed '________' is the degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates had for their leader.

62)

______
A)

leader-member relations

B)

task structure
C)

power relationship

D)

authority
Answer

63)

Reviews of the major studies undertaken to test the overall validity of Fiedler's model have shown ________.

63)

______
A)

minor evidence to refute the model


B)

considerable evidence to refute the model


C)

minor evidence to support the model


D)

considerable evidence to support the model


Answer

64)

According to Hersey and Blanchard, a high task-low relationship situation calls for the ________ leadership style.

64)

______
A)

delegating

B)

selling

C)

participating

D)

telling
Answer

65)

The ________ theory is a contingency theory that focuses on followers' readiness.

65)

______
A)

active leadership

B)

consideration leadership
C)

passive leadership
D)

situational leadership
Answer

66)

Which of the following leadership styles describes a leader who provides both directive and supportive behavior?

66)

______
A)

selling

B)

delegating

C)

telling

D)

participating
Answer

67)

The main role of the leader is to facilitate and communicate in which of the following leadership styles?

67)

______
A)

telling

B)

participating

C)

selling
D)

delegating
Answer

68)

Which of the following leadership styles describes a leader who provides little direction or support?

68)

______
A)

telling

B)

delegating

C)

selling

D)

participating
Answer

69)

Who developed path-goal theory?

69)

______
A)

Fiedler

B)

Blake and Mouton


C)

House
D)

Lewin
Answer

70)

________ is derived from the belief that effective leaders clarify the path to help their followers get from where they are to
the achievement of their work goals and make the journey along the path easier by reducing roadblocks and pitfalls.

70)

______
A)

Path Goal Theory

B)

Leader Participation Model


C)

Fiedler's Theory

D)

Contingency Theory
Answer

71)

The degree to which the job assignments are formalized and procedurized is the ________ contingency dimension
according to Fiedler.

71)

______
A)

task structure

B)

centralization
C)

position power
D)

subordinate maturity
Answer

72)

According to path-goal theory, a leader who lets subordinates know what's expected of them, schedules work to be done,
and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks is termed ________.

72)

______
A)

achievement oriented

B)

directive
C)

participative

D)

supportive
Answer

73)

According to path-goal theory, a leader who is friendly and shows concern for the needs of subordinates is termed
________.

73)

______
A)

participative

B)

achievement oriented
C)

supportive
D)

directive
Answer

74)

According to path-goal theory, a manager who consults with subordinates and uses their suggestions exhibits what type
of leadership behavior?

74)

______
A)

participative

B)

supportive
C)

directive

D)

achievement oriented
Answer

75)

A leader who sets challenging goals and expects very high performance levels from subordinates is classified as what
type of leader, according to path-goal theory?

75)

______
A)

achievement oriented

B)

participative
C)

democratic
D)

supportive
Answer

76)

Path-goal theory identifies two classes of contingency variables that moderate the leadership-behavior outcome as
________.

76)

______
A)

tact and relationship


B)

path and goal


C)

environment and personal characteristics of followers


D)

people and history


Answer

77)

Which of the following is included in the class of contingency variables termed "environmental factors"?

77)

______
A)

locus of control and experience


B)

task structure and formal authority system


C)

employee satisfaction
D)

perceived ability
Answer
B

78)

Which of the following is included in the class of contingency variables termed "personal characteristics of the follower"?

78)

______
A)

performance

B)

employee satisfaction
C)

locus of control

D)

formal authority system


Answer

79)

Which of the following is not one of the hypotheses that have evolved from the path-goal theory?

79)

______
A)

Subordinates with an external locus of control will be less satisfied with a directive style.
B)

Supportive leadership results in high employee performance and satisfaction when subordinates are performing
structured tasks.
C)

Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant among subordinates with high perceived ability or with
considerable experience.
D)

The clearer and more bureaucratic the formal authority relationships, the more leaders should exhibit supportive
behavior and deemphasize directive behavior.
Answer

A
80)

According to the path-goal theory, directive leadership will lead to higher employee satisfaction when there is ________
within a work group.

80)

______
A)

high structure

B)

substantial conflict
C)

internal locus of control

D)

cohesiveness
Answer

81)

Research on path-goal theory could be summarized as ________.

81)

______
A)

very unsupportive

B)

mostly supportive
C)

somewhat supportive

D)

inconclusive
Answer

B
82)

Transactional leaders are leaders who guide ________.

82)

______
A)

or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements
B)

or clarify the group's goals and roles


C)

and clarify the followers' goals and task requirements


D)

and direct groups towards their goals and tasks


Answer

83)

Which of the following is an accurate statement about transformational leaders?

83)

______
A)

They focus on tasks and pay little attention to followers.


B)

They exhibit more than just charisma.


C)

They are poor motivators.


D)

They clarify task requirements.


Answer

84)

Which type of leaders attempt to instill in followers the ability to question, not only established views, but those views
held by the leader?
84)

______
A)

transformational

B)

charismatic
C)

trait

D)

transactional
Answer

85)

A leader, such as Esam Janahi of Gulf Finance House, who can inspire followers beyond their own self-interests and have a
profound effect on their performance, is known as a(n) ________.

85)

______
A)

directive leader

B)

transformational leader
C)

informational leader

D)

transactional leader
Answer

86)

The evidence supporting the superiority of transformational leadership over the transactional variety is ________.
86)

______
A)

moderately negative

B)

inconclusive
C)

overwhelmingly impressive

D)

moderately supportive
Answer

87)

Evidence indicates that transformational leadership is strongly correlated with ________.

87)

______
A)

lower turnover rates and higher levels of productivity and creativity


B)

higher turnover rates and higher levels of employee satisfaction and follower well-being
C)

lower turnover rates and lower levels of goal attainment and follower well-being
D)

higher turnover rates and lower levels of productivity and employee satisfaction
Answer

88)

All of the following are sources of leader power except ________.

88)

______
A)

coercive

B)

expert

C)

legitimate

D)

status
Answer

89)

Which of the following is the type of power a person has because of his or her position in the formal organizational
hierarchy?

89)

______
A)

coercive power

B)

legitimate power
C)

expert power

D)

reward power
Answer

90)

________ is the power that rests on the leader's ability to punish or control.

90)

______
A)

Coercive power

B)

Expert power

C)

Reward power

D)

Referent power
Answer

91)

________ is the power to give positive benefit or rewards.

91)

______
A)

Expert power

B)

Reward power

C)

Referent power

D)

Coercive power
Answer

92)

A firm's attorney has ________ power when giving legal advice.

92)

______
A)

coercive

B)

expert

C)

legitimate

D)

status
Answer

93)

________ is the power that arises because of a person's desirable resources or personal traits.

93)

______
A)

Reward power

B)

Expert power
C)

Legitimate power

D)

Referent power
Answer

94)

When a young child copies a professional sports star's behavior, the star has what kind of power over the child?

94)

______
A)

expert

B)

legitimate

C)

coercive

D)

referent
Answer

95)

The most dominant component of credibility is ________.

95)

______
A)

honesty

B)

expertise

C)

authority

D)

status
Answer

96)

How are ethics a part of leadership?

96)

______
A)

Transactional leaders have been described as fostering moral virtue when they try to change the attitudes and behaviors
of followers.
B)

Trust explicitly deals with the leadership traits of honesty and integrity.
C)

Unethical leaders may use their charisma in more socially constructive ways to serve others.
D)

Ethics are used when leaders give themselves large salaries while they lay off employees.
Answer

97)

The dimension of trust that is used to describe honesty and truthfulness is ________.

97)

______
A)

loyalty

B)

integrity

C)

consistency

D)

competence
Answer

98)

The dimension of trust that is used to describe reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations is
termed ________.

98)

______
A)

integrity

B)

loyalty

C)

competence

D)

consistency
Answer

99)

Why are more and more companies empowering employees?

99)

______
A)

Managers must cope with increased work demands.


B)

Management needs to make quick decisions.


C)

Organizational upsizing left many managers with smaller spans of control.


D)

Empowerment is appropriate for all circumstances.


Answer

100)

One general conclusion that surfaces from leadership research is that ________.

100)

_____
A)

national culture is a situational variable in determining which leadership style will be most effective
B)

leaders always make good team leaders


C)

effective leaders do not use any single style


D)

women are better leaders than men


Answer

101)

________ are expected to be humble and speak frequently.

101)

_____
A)

Arab leaders

B)

Korean leaders
C)

German leaders

D)

Japanese leaders
Answer

102)

________ are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low self-protection, low team orientation,
high autonomy, and high participation.

102)

_____
A)

German leaders

B)
Scandinavian and Dutch leaders
C)

Malaysian leaders

D)

Arab leaders
Answer

103)

Which of the following is an accurate statement about the differences between gender and leadership style?

103)

_____
A)

Women encourage more participation.


B)

Males and females do not use different styles.


C)

Men share power more than women.


D)

Men are more democratic than women.


Answer

104)

________ to motivate others by transforming their self-interest into organizational goals.

104)

_____
A)

Men tend to use transformational leadership


B)

Women tend to use transformational leadership


C)

Women tend to use transactional leadership


D)

Men tend to use transactional leadership


Answer

105)

Men tend to use ________ leadership, handing out rewards for good work and punishment for bad.

105)

_____
A)

transformational

B)

transactional
C)

initiating

D)

situational
Answer

106)

The scarcity of women in leadership positions across the Arab world ________.

106)

_____
A)

can be explained by religious reasons alone


B)

is unique to that region


C)

reflects the problematic conditions that women face in the workplace across the rest of the world.
D)

is only found in very few Arab countries.


Answer

Mediation (Scenario)

Kamal, a team leader, will be mediating a dispute between three team members who are bickering about overtime
assignments. He recently learned about the technique of letting the parties involved in the dispute come up with the
solution themselves.

107)

In working with his employees, Kamal tries to ensure that they are involved in decision making and he encourages them
to participate in deciding their work methods and goals. Kamal's leadership style can best be described as ________.

107)

_____
A)

despotic

B)

laissez-faire

C)

autocratic

D)

democratic
Answer

Jamal and Joumana (Scenario)

Jamal and Joumana are both managers at a medium-sized medical supply firm. Jamal emphasizes to his people that the
work must be done, regardless of circumstances, and encourages his employees to meet their sales quotas. He is generally
liked, but because sales are unstructured, sometimes his employees resent his rather heavy-handed approach. Joumana
has tried hard to build a good rapport with her employees and knows each of their families. She encourages her
employees to work hard, but to be certain to take time for themselves and their families.

108)

Fiedler's contingency model would classify Jamal as ________ oriented.

108)

_____
A)

task

B)

relationship

C)

employee

D)

organization
Answer

109)

Fiedler's contingency model would classify Joumana as ________ oriented.

109)

_____
A)

relationship

B)

employee

C)

organization

D)

task
Answer

110)

Which of the following would be assumed by Fiedler's contingency model about the leadership styles of Jamal and
Joumana?

110)
_____
A)

The leadership styles are fixed, regardless of the situation.


B)

The leadership styles can be adjusted to fit the situation.


C)

The leadership styles can be changed with appropriate training.


D)

Jamal's style is well suited for unstructured tasks.


Answer

111)

Fiedler would expect that the best leadership style was a function of ________.

111)

_____
A)

formal authority, production process, and personality of employees


B)

leader-member relations, task structure, and position power


C)

chain of command, relationships, and power


D)

type of organization, personality of leader, and education of employees


Answer

The Path to Leadership (Scenario)

Bassema is a manager of the nightshift in a nursing home. She has been reading literature on House's path-goal theory
and would like to apply that information to becoming a better leader.

112)

Bassema should understand that the path-goal theory is a(n) ________ model of leadership that extracts key elements
from the expectancy theory of motivation.

112)

_____
A)

untested

B)

fixed

C)

alternative

D)

contingency
Answer

113)

Bassema generally lets subordinates know what's expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific
guidance as to how to accomplish tasks. She would be termed a(n) ________ leader.

113)

_____
A)

directive

B)

participative
C)

achievement-oriented

D)

supportive
Answer

114)

Bassema would like to become a participative leader. She should ________.

114)

_____
A)

be friendly and show concern for the needs of subordinates


B)

set challenging goals and expect subordinates to perform at their highest level
C)

let subordinates know what's expected of them, schedule work to be done, and give specific guidance as to how to
accomplish tasks
D)

consult with subordinates and use their suggestions before making a decision
Answer

115)

Lately Bassema has been setting challenging goals and expecting subordinates to perform at their highest level. She is
acting as a(n) ________ leader.

115)

_____
A)

directive

B)

supportive
C)

achievement-oriented

D)

participative
Answer

116)

Bassema has decided that the appropriate leadership style would be to show friendliness and concern for the needs of her
subordinates. She wishes to be a(n) ________ leader.

116)

_____
A)

participative

B)

directive
C)

achievement-oriented

D)

supportive
Answer

The Proactive Supervisor (Scenario)

Randa has been a departmental supervisor and feels that in order to be a leader to the employees she supervises, she often
has to utilize a different type of leader behavior. Recently, she met with the employees to let them know what she
expected of them and the schedules they had for the products to be shipped. She also gave some specific assignments to
individuals and explained the tasks she expected to be completed. Randa really enjoys the time that she gets to spend
with the employees and hopes they see that she is friendly and has concern for the employees. She also likes to consult
with the employees for suggestions prior to making a decision. Prior to the start of a new fiscal year, Randa always meets
with the employees to establish challenging goals and expectations for the followers to perform at their highest level.

117)

When Randa recently met with the employees to let them know both what she expected of them and also the product
schedules and assignments, she was performing which of the following leadership styles?

117)

_____
A)

achievement-oriented leader

B)

supportive leader
C)

participative leader

D)

directive leader
Answer

D
118)

When Randa spends time with the employees and they see that she is friendly and has concern for the employees, she is
performing which of the following leadership styles?

118)

_____
A)

participative leader

B)

achievement-oriented leader
C)

supportive leader

D)

directive leader
Answer

119)

When Randa consults with the employees for suggestions prior to making a decision, she is performing which of the
following leadership styles?

119)

_____
A)

participative leader

B)

supportive leader
C)

directive leader

D)

achievement-oriented leader
Answer

A
120)

When Randa meets with the employees to establish challenging goals and expectations for the followers to perform at
their highest level, she is performing which of the following leadership styles?

120)

_____
A)

supportive leader

B)

directive leader
C)

achievement-oriented leader

D)

participative leader
Answer

A Leadership Junkie (Scenario)

Selma is a leadership "junkie." She has read all of the latest popular management texts on leadership and strongly feels
that it has improved her ability to manage and perform her job. She is always eager to share her knowledge with her
peers, especially emerging issues in leadership and the differences between the ways men and women lead.

121)

Selma stopped Sarah in the lunchroom and just had to tell her about ________, where followers make claims about heroic
or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.

121)

_____
A)

situational leadership

B)

transactional leadership
C)

charismatic leadership
D)

transformational leadership
Answer

122)

Selma stopped Imad in the parking lot and just had to tell him about ________, where leaders guide or motivate their
followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.

122)

_____
A)

attributional leadership

B)

transactional leadership
C)

transformational leadership

D)

situational leadership
Answer

123)

Selma stopped Hani in the hall and just had to tell him about ________, that is, leadership characterized by enthusiasm,
self-confidence, and the ability to influence people to behave in certain ways.

123)

_____
A)

transactional leadership

B)

charismatic leadership
C)

situational leadership
D)

attributional leadership
Answer

124)

Selma had to tell Zeina about the findings concerning women and leadership. Zeina was interested in the fact that all but
which of the following is true concerning women and leadership?

124)

_____
A)

Women tend to share power less than men.


B)

Women are less likely to use a directive style than men.


C)

There are differences between how men and women lead.


D)

Women utilize a democratic style more than men.


Answer

125)

At home, Salma was fixing dinner and thinking about the new CEO her firm had hired. In her speech the previous day,
the new CEO had discussed her experience in the industry and her education. Salma thought that the new CEO would do
a great job given these characteristics, coupled with how well-spoken she was and the fact that she just looked like a CEO.
Laughing, Salma realized that she had been judging the new CEO in a manner consistent with the ________ theories of
leadership that were popular in the 1920s and 1930s.

125)

_____
A)

situational

B)

contingency

C)
trait

D)

behavioral
Answer

Crazy Powermakers, Inc. (Scenario)

Crazy Powermakers, Inc., was a unique company in that its philosophy was to prevent any one person from having too
much power in the company. Therefore, any power found to exist in the company was distributed to someone who did
not have any power yet. As a result, Tamara was the person employees went to when disciplinary action had to be taken;
Kays was the supervisor that the employees went to for general decisions that needed to be made; Fadi was the person
employees went to when they were to receive special recognition; Amira was the person employees went to when
knowledge of a topic was needed; and Firas was the person employees went to when they needed resources or sought his
charisma.

126)

Tamara held ________ power.

126)

_____
A)

legitimate

B)

expert

C)

reward

D)

coercive
Answer

127)

Kays held ________ power.

127)

_____
A)

expert

B)

coercive

C)

legitimate

D)

reward
Answer

128)

Fadi held ________ power.

128)

_____
A)

coercive

B)

referent

C)

legitimate

D)

reward
Answer

129)

Amira held ________ power.

129)

_____
A)

legitimate

B)

referent

C)

reward

D)

expert
Answer

130)

Firas held ________ power.

130)

_____
A)

referent

B)

reward

C)

legitimate

D)

expert
Answer

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
131)

In a short essay, identify seven traits associated with leadership.


Answer
a. Driveleaders exhibit a high effort level. They have a relatively high desire for achievement; they are ambitious; they
have a lot of energy; they are tirelessly persistent in their activities; and they show initiative.
b. Desire to leadleaders have a strong desire to influence and lead others. They demonstrate the willingness to take
responsibility.
c. Honesty and integrityleaders build trusting relationships between themselves and followers by being truthful or
nondeceitful and by showing high consistency between word and deed.
d. Self-confidencefollowers look to leaders for an absence of self-doubt. Leaders, therefore, need to show self-
confidence in order to convince followers of the rightness of their goals and decisions.
e. Intelligenceleaders need to be intelligent enough to gather, synthesize, and interpret large amounts of information,
and they need to be able to create visions, solve problems, and make correct decisions.
f. Job-relevant knowledgeeffective leaders have a high degree of knowledge about the company, industry, and
technical matters. In-depth knowledge allows leaders to make well-informed decisions and to understand the
implications of those decisions.
g. Extraversionleaders are energetic, lively people. They are sociable, assertive, and rarely silent or withdrawn.

132)

In a short essay, contrast the behavioral theories of leadership.


Answer

a. The University of Iowa studies (conducted by Kurt Lewin and his associates) explored three leadership styles. The
autocratic style described a leader who typically tended to centralize authority, dictate work methods, make unilateral
decisions, and limit employee participation. The democratic style described a leader who tended to involve employees in
decision making, delegate authority, encourage participation in deciding work methods and goals, and use feedback as an
opportunity for coaching employees. Finally, the laissez-faire style leader generally gave the group complete freedom to
make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it saw fit. Lewin and his associates researched which style was
the most effective. Their results seemed to indicate that the democratic style contributed to both good quantity and
quality of work.
b. The Ohio State studies identified two important dimensions of leader behavior. The first was called initiating
structure, which referred to the extent to which a leader defined and structured his or her role and the roles of group
members in the search for goal attainment. It included behavior that involved attempts to organize work, work
relationships, and goals. The second dimension was called consideration, which was defined as the extent to which a
leader had job relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for group members' ideas and feelings. A leader
who was high in consideration helped group members with personal problems, was friendly and approachable, and
treated all group members as equals. He or she showed concern for (was considerate of) his or her followers' comfort,
well-being, status, and satisfaction.
c. Leadership studies conducted at the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center at about the same time as those
being done at Ohio State had a similar research objective Identify behavioral characteristics of leaders that were related to
performance effectiveness. The Michigan group also came up with two dimensions of leadership behavior, which they
labeled employee oriented and production oriented. Leaders who were employee oriented were described as
emphasizing interpersonal relationships; they took a personal interest in the needs of their followers and accepted
individual differences among group members. The production-oriented leaders, in contrast, tended to emphasize the
technical or task aspects of the job, were concerned mainly with accomplishing their group's tasks, and regarded group
members as a means to that end. The conclusions of the Michigan researchers strongly favored leaders who were
employee oriented as they were associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction.
d. The behavioral dimensions from these early leadership studies provided the basis for the development of a two-
dimensional grid for appraising leadership styles. This managerial grid used the behavioral dimensions "concern for
people" and "concern for production" and evaluated a leader's use of these behaviors, ranking them on a scale from 1
(low) to 9 (high). Although the grid had 81 potential categories into which a leader's behavioral style might fall, emphasis
was placed on five styles impoverished management (1,1), task management (9,1), middle-of-the-road management (5,5),
country club management (1,9), and team management (9,9). Of these five styles, the researchers concluded that managers
performed best when using a 9,9 style. Unfortunately, the grid offered no answers to the question of what made a
manager an effective leader; it only provided a framework for conceptualizing leadership style. In fact, there's been little
substantive evidence to support the conclusion that a 9,9 style is most effective in all situations.

133)

In a short essay, describe Ibn Khaldun's conception of leadership and his rationale for leadership failures.
Answer

Ibn Khaldun (born in Tunis in the year 1332) emphasizes the personal qualities of the leader. He calls those qualities
"perfecting details." Such qualities include generosity, forgiveness of error, patience and perseverance, hospitality toward
guests, maintenance of the indigent, patience
in unpleasant situations, execution of commitments, respect for the religious law, reverence for old men and teachers,
fairness, meekness, consideration to the needs of followers, adherence to the obligations of religious laws, and avoidance
of deception and fraud. Good leadership, according to Ibn Khaldun, requires kindness to, and protection of, subjects. He
emphasizes the need of the leader to be mild to his followers and to gain their love. He notes, probably surprisingly, that a
leader should not be too shrewd. This is the case because such a quality would distance him from
his subjects.
Many leaders fail, in Ibn Khaldun's opinion, because of their inability to understand the significance of asabiya
("group feeling" or "group bond"). Asabiya stems from blood ties and alliances, with the former having the most weight in
fostering the leadership bond. While blood ties may be discounted in the West as a source of leadership, one need only
review recent organizational history in the Middle East and North Africa to see how much blood ties are instrumental in
leadership emergence.

134)

In a short essay, explain the prophetic-caliphal model of leadership.


Answer

This model consists of four elements (1) personalism, (2) individualism, (3) lack of institutionalization, and (4) the
importance of the great man. Personalism refers to the egocentric view that a person has in relation to others. It refers to
the degree that a person insists on his personal opinion and the degree of concern and emphasis he has on himself.
Individualism means making decisions or actions that do not take into account the opinions of the group. The
combination of personalism and individualism leads to a lack of institutional development. Leadership is thus more
vested in the person, rather than being vested in an institution. In cases of conflict or succession, there is no institution to
fill the vacuum. The vacuum is alternatively filled
by an expectation of the "great man." If the expected great man really turns out to be a great man, then we have a
"prophetic" type of leader whose relationship with followers depends on love and compassion and voluntary compliance.
If on the other hand, the expected great man turns out to be an "ordinary man" then the only way to ensure follower
compliance is through coercion and authoritarianism.
{Note to instructor you may want to require students to draw a sketch of this model as it appears in Exhibit 16-1].

135)

In a short essay, discuss the situational leadership theory as developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. Next, list and
discuss the four specific leadership styles and the four stages of follower readiness as defined by Hersey and Blanchard.
Answer

The situational leadership theory is a contingency theory that focuses on followers' readiness. Hersey and Blanchard
argue that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which is contingent on the level of the
followers' readiness. The emphasis on the followers in leadership effectiveness reflects the reality that it is the followers
who accept or reject the leader. Regardless of what the leader does, effectiveness depends on the actions of his or her
followers. And, readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific
task. The four specific leadership styles are as follows
a. Telling (high tasklow relationship)the leader defines roles and tells people what, how, when, and where to do
various tasks.
b. Selling (high taskhigh relationship)the leader provides both directive and supportive behavior.
c. Participating (low taskhigh relationship)the leader and follower share in decision making; the main role of the
leader is facilitating and communicating.
d. Delegating (low tasklow relationship)the leader provides little direction or support.
The final component in the model is the four stages of follower readiness
a. R1People are both unable and unwilling to take responsibility for doing something. They're neither competent nor
confident.
b. R2People are unable but willing to do the necessary job tasks. They're motivated but currently lack the appropriate
skills.
c. R3People are able but unwilling to do what the leader wants.
d. R4People are both able and willing to do what is asked of them.

136)

In a short essay, discuss the path-goal leadership theory developed by Robert House, and the four leadership behaviors
based on this theory.
Answer

Developed by Robert House, path-goal theory is a contingency model of leadership that takes key elements from the
expectancy theory of motivation. According to this theory, a leader's behavior is acceptable to group members to the
degree that they view it as an immediate source of satisfaction or as a means of future satisfaction. A leader's behavior is
motivational to the extent that it makes the satisfaction of subordinates' needs contingent on effective performance and
provides the coaching, guidance, support, and rewards that are necessary for effective performance. To test these
statements, House identified four leadership behaviors
a. Directive leaderlets subordinates know what's expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific
guidance on how to accomplish tasks.
b. Supportive leaderfriendly and shows concern for the needs of followers.
c. Participative leaderconsults with group members and uses their suggestions before making a decision.
d. Achievement-oriented leadersets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level.

137)

In a short essay, differentiate between transactional and transformational leaders.


Answer

Transactional leaders are those who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying
role and task requirements. Transformational leaders, however, pay attention to the concerns and developmental needs of
individual followers. They change followers' awareness of issues by helping those followers look at old problems in new
ways. They are able to excite, arouse, and inspire followers to put out extra effort to achieve group goals.
Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional leadership. Transformational leadership produces levels of
employee effort and performance that go beyond what would occur in a transactional approach alone.

138)

In a short essay, list and discuss five sources in which leader power has been identified. Include specific examples of each
source of power to support your answer.
Answer
a. Legitimate powerrepresents the power a leader has as a result of his or her position in the organization. People in
positions of authority are also likely to have reward or coercive power, but legitimate power is broader than the power to
coerce and reward.
b. Coercive powerthe power that rests on the leader's ability to punish or control. Followers react to this power out of
fear of the negative results that might occur if they did not comply. As a manager, you typically have some coercive
power, such as being able to suspend or demote employees or to assign them work they find unpleasant or undesirable.
c. Reward powerthe power to give positive benefits or rewards. These rewards can be anything that another person
values. In an organizational context, that might include money, favorable performance appraisals, promotions, interesting
work assignments, friendly colleagues, and preferred work shifts or sales territories.
d. Expert powerinfluence that's based on expertise, special skills, or knowledge. As jobs have become more specialized,
managers have become increasingly dependent on staff "experts" to achieve the organization's goals. If an employee has
skills, knowledge, or expertise that's critical to the operation of a work group, that person's expert power is enhanced.
e. Referent powerthe power that arises because of a person's desirable resources or personal traits. Referent power
develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person. If you admire someone to the point of modeling
your behavior and attitudes after him or her, that person has referent power over you.

139)

In a short essay, describe the results of the studies that focus on gender and leadership style.
Answer

A number of studies focusing on gender and leadership style have been conducted in recent years. Their general
conclusion is that males and females do use different styles. Specifically, women tend to adopt a more democratic or
participative style. Women are more likely to encourage participation, share power and information, and attempt to
enhance followers' self-worth. They lead through inclusion and rely on their charisma, expertise, contacts, and
interpersonal skills to influence others. Women tend to use transformational leadership, motivating others by
transforming their self-interest into organizational goals. Men are more likely to use a directive, command-and-control
style. They rely on formal position authority for their influence. Men use transactional leadership, handing out rewards
for good work and punishment for bad. There is an interesting qualifier to these findings. The tendency for female leaders
to be more democratic than males declines when women are in male-dominated jobs. Apparently, group norms and male
stereotypes influence women and they tend to act more autocratically.

1)

TRUE
2)

FALSE
3)

TRUE
4)

FALSE
5)

TRUE
6)

TRUE
7)

TRUE
8)

FALSE
9)

FALSE
10)

TRUE
11)

FALSE
12)

FALSE
13)

TRUE
14)

FALSE
15)

FALSE
16)

TRUE
17)

TRUE
18)

TRUE
19)

TRUE
20)

FALSE
21)

FALSE
22)

TRUE
23)

FALSE
24)

TRUE
25)

TRUE
26)

TRUE
27)

TRUE
28)

TRUE
29)

TRUE
30)

FALSE
31)

TRUE
32)

FALSE
33)

FALSE
34)

C
35)

A
36)

B
37)

C
38)

A
39)

D
40)

D
41)

D
42)

D
43)

A
44)

A
45)

B
46)

B
47)

B
48)

D
49)

C
50)

B
51)

B
52)

D
53)

C
54)

A
55)

B
56)

B
57)

A
58)

C
59)

A
60)

C
61)

B
62)

A
63)

D
64)

D
65)

D
66)

A
67)

B
68)

B
69)

C
70)

A
71)

A
72)

B
73)

C
74)

A
75)

A
76)

C
77)

B
78)

C
79)

A
80)

B
81)

B
82)

A
83)

B
84)

A
85)

B
86)

C
87)

A
88)

D
89)

B
90)

A
91)

B
92)

B
93)

D
94)

D
95)

A
96)

B
97)

B
98)

D
99)

A
100)

C
101)

D
102)

A
103)

A
104)

B
105)

B
106)

C
107)

D
108)

A
109)

A
110)

A
111)

B
112)

D
113)

A
114)

D
115)

C
116)

D
117)

D
118)

C
119)

A
120)

C
121)

D
122)

B
123)

B
124)

A
125)

C
126)

D
127)

C
128)

D
129)

D
130)

A
131)

a. Driveleaders exhibit a high effort level. They have a relatively high desire for achievement; they are ambitious; they
have a lot of energy; they are tirelessly persistent in their activities; and they show initiative.
b. Desire to leadleaders have a strong desire to influence and lead others. They demonstrate the willingness to take
responsibility.
c. Honesty and integrityleaders build trusting relationships between themselves and followers by being truthful or
nondeceitful and by showing high consistency between word and deed.
d. Self-confidencefollowers look to leaders for an absence of self-doubt. Leaders, therefore, need to show self-
confidence in order to convince followers of the rightness of their goals and decisions.
e. Intelligenceleaders need to be intelligent enough to gather, synthesize, and interpret large amounts of information,
and they need to be able to create visions, solve problems, and make correct decisions.
f. Job-relevant knowledgeeffective leaders have a high degree of knowledge about the company, industry, and
technical matters. In-depth knowledge allows leaders to make well-informed decisions and to understand the
implications of those decisions.
g. Extraversionleaders are energetic, lively people. They are sociable, assertive, and rarely silent or withdrawn.
132)

a. The University of Iowa studies (conducted by Kurt Lewin and his associates) explored three leadership styles. The
autocratic style described a leader who typically tended to centralize authority, dictate work methods, make unilateral
decisions, and limit employee participation. The democratic style described a leader who tended to involve employees in
decision making, delegate authority, encourage participation in deciding work methods and goals, and use feedback as an
opportunity for coaching employees. Finally, the laissez-faire style leader generally gave the group complete freedom to
make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it saw fit. Lewin and his associates researched which style was
the most effective. Their results seemed to indicate that the democratic style contributed to both good quantity and
quality of work.
b. The Ohio State studies identified two important dimensions of leader behavior. The first was called initiating
structure, which referred to the extent to which a leader defined and structured his or her role and the roles of group
members in the search for goal attainment. It included behavior that involved attempts to organize work, work
relationships, and goals. The second dimension was called consideration, which was defined as the extent to which a
leader had job relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for group members' ideas and feelings. A leader
who was high in consideration helped group members with personal problems, was friendly and approachable, and
treated all group members as equals. He or she showed concern for (was considerate of) his or her followers' comfort,
well-being, status, and satisfaction.
c. Leadership studies conducted at the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center at about the same time as those
being done at Ohio State had a similar research objective Identify behavioral characteristics of leaders that were related to
performance effectiveness. The Michigan group also came up with two dimensions of leadership behavior, which they
labeled employee oriented and production oriented. Leaders who were employee oriented were described as
emphasizing interpersonal relationships; they took a personal interest in the needs of their followers and accepted
individual differences among group members. The production-oriented leaders, in contrast, tended to emphasize the
technical or task aspects of the job, were concerned mainly with accomplishing their group's tasks, and regarded group
members as a means to that end. The conclusions of the Michigan researchers strongly favored leaders who were
employee oriented as they were associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction.
d. The behavioral dimensions from these early leadership studies provided the basis for the development of a two-
dimensional grid for appraising leadership styles. This managerial grid used the behavioral dimensions "concern for
people" and "concern for production" and evaluated a leader's use of these behaviors, ranking them on a scale from 1
(low) to 9 (high). Although the grid had 81 potential categories into which a leader's behavioral style might fall, emphasis
was placed on five styles impoverished management (1,1), task management (9,1), middle-of-the-road management (5,5),
country club management (1,9), and team management (9,9). Of these five styles, the researchers concluded that managers
performed best when using a 9,9 style. Unfortunately, the grid offered no answers to the question of what made a
manager an effective leader; it only provided a framework for conceptualizing leadership style. In fact, there's been little
substantive evidence to support the conclusion that a 9,9 style is most effective in all situations.
133)

Ibn Khaldun (born in Tunis in the year 1332) emphasizes the personal qualities of the leader. He calls those qualities
"perfecting details." Such qualities include generosity, forgiveness of error, patience and perseverance, hospitality toward
guests, maintenance of the indigent, patience
in unpleasant situations, execution of commitments, respect for the religious law, reverence for old men and teachers,
fairness, meekness, consideration to the needs of followers, adherence to the obligations of religious laws, and avoidance
of deception and fraud. Good leadership, according to Ibn Khaldun, requires kindness to, and protection of, subjects. He
emphasizes the need of the leader to be mild to his followers and to gain their love. He notes, probably surprisingly, that a
leader should not be too shrewd. This is the case because such a quality would distance him from
his subjects.
Many leaders fail, in Ibn Khaldun's opinion, because of their inability to understand the significance of asabiya
("group feeling" or "group bond"). Asabiya stems from blood ties and alliances, with the former having the most weight in
fostering the leadership bond. While blood ties may be discounted in the West as a source of leadership, one need only
review recent organizational history in the Middle East and North Africa to see how much blood ties are instrumental in
leadership emergence.
134)

This model consists of four elements (1) personalism, (2) individualism, (3) lack of institutionalization, and (4) the
importance of the great man. Personalism refers to the egocentric view that a person has in relation to others. It refers to
the degree that a person insists on his personal opinion and the degree of concern and emphasis he has on himself.
Individualism means making decisions or actions that do not take into account the opinions of the group. The
combination of personalism and individualism leads to a lack of institutional development. Leadership is thus more
vested in the person, rather than being vested in an institution. In cases of conflict or succession, there is no institution to
fill the vacuum. The vacuum is alternatively filled
by an expectation of the "great man." If the expected great man really turns out to be a great man, then we have a
"prophetic" type of leader whose relationship with followers depends on love and compassion and voluntary compliance.
If on the other hand, the expected great man turns out to be an "ordinary man" then the only way to ensure follower
compliance is through coercion and authoritarianism.
{Note to instructor you may want to require students to draw a sketch of this model as it appears in Exhibit 16-1].
135)

The situational leadership theory is a contingency theory that focuses on followers' readiness. Hersey and Blanchard
argue that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which is contingent on the level of the
followers' readiness. The emphasis on the followers in leadership effectiveness reflects the reality that it is the followers
who accept or reject the leader. Regardless of what the leader does, effectiveness depends on the actions of his or her
followers. And, readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific
task. The four specific leadership styles are as follows
a. Telling (high tasklow relationship)the leader defines roles and tells people what, how, when, and where to do
various tasks.
b. Selling (high taskhigh relationship)the leader provides both directive and supportive behavior.
c. Participating (low taskhigh relationship)the leader and follower share in decision making; the main role of the
leader is facilitating and communicating.
d. Delegating (low tasklow relationship)the leader provides little direction or support.
The final component in the model is the four stages of follower readiness
a. R1People are both unable and unwilling to take responsibility for doing something. They're neither competent nor
confident.
b. R2People are unable but willing to do the necessary job tasks. They're motivated but currently lack the appropriate
skills.
c. R3People are able but unwilling to do what the leader wants.
d. R4People are both able and willing to do what is asked of them.
136)

Developed by Robert House, path-goal theory is a contingency model of leadership that takes key elements from the
expectancy theory of motivation. According to this theory, a leader's behavior is acceptable to group members to the
degree that they view it as an immediate source of satisfaction or as a means of future satisfaction. A leader's behavior is
motivational to the extent that it makes the satisfaction of subordinates' needs contingent on effective performance and
provides the coaching, guidance, support, and rewards that are necessary for effective performance. To test these
statements, House identified four leadership behaviors
a. Directive leaderlets subordinates know what's expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific
guidance on how to accomplish tasks.
b. Supportive leaderfriendly and shows concern for the needs of followers.
c. Participative leaderconsults with group members and uses their suggestions before making a decision.
d. Achievement-oriented leadersets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level.
137)

Transactional leaders are those who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying
role and task requirements. Transformational leaders, however, pay attention to the concerns and developmental needs of
individual followers. They change followers' awareness of issues by helping those followers look at old problems in new
ways. They are able to excite, arouse, and inspire followers to put out extra effort to achieve group goals.
Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional leadership. Transformational leadership produces levels of
employee effort and performance that go beyond what would occur in a transactional approach alone.
138)

a. Legitimate powerrepresents the power a leader has as a result of his or her position in the organization. People in
positions of authority are also likely to have reward or coercive power, but legitimate power is broader than the power to
coerce and reward.
b. Coercive powerthe power that rests on the leader's ability to punish or control. Followers react to this power out of
fear of the negative results that might occur if they did not comply. As a manager, you typically have some coercive
power, such as being able to suspend or demote employees or to assign them work they find unpleasant or undesirable.
c. Reward powerthe power to give positive benefits or rewards. These rewards can be anything that another person
values. In an organizational context, that might include money, favorable performance appraisals, promotions, interesting
work assignments, friendly colleagues, and preferred work shifts or sales territories.
d. Expert powerinfluence that's based on expertise, special skills, or knowledge. As jobs have become more specialized,
managers have become increasingly dependent on staff "experts" to achieve the organization's goals. If an employee has
skills, knowledge, or expertise that's critical to the operation of a work group, that person's expert power is enhanced.
e. Referent powerthe power that arises because of a person's desirable resources or personal traits. Referent power
develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person. If you admire someone to the point of modeling
your behavior and attitudes after him or her, that person has referent power over you.
139)

A number of studies focusing on gender and leadership style have been conducted in recent years. Their general
conclusion is that males and females do use different styles. Specifically, women tend to adopt a more democratic or
participative style. Women are more likely to encourage participation, share power and information, and attempt to
enhance followers' self-worth. They lead through inclusion and rely on their charisma, expertise, contacts, and
interpersonal skills to influence others. Women tend to use transformational leadership, motivating others by
transforming their self-interest into organizational goals. Men are more likely to use a directive, command-and-control
style. They rely on formal position authority for their influence. Men use transactional leadership, handing out rewards
for good work and punishment for bad. There is an interesting qualifier to these findings. The tendency for female leaders
to be more democratic than males declines when women are in male-dominated jobs. Apparently, group norms and male
stereotypes influence women and they tend to act more autocratically.