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TITLE DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION IN INDIA Author VIKAS VERNEKAR Date Sep-2008 MSc Sustainable Energy &

DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION IN INDIA

Author

VIKAS VERNEKAR

Date

Sep-2008

MSc Sustainable Energy & Environment

Cardiff School of Engineering

Cardiff University

Table of Contents

Pages

1. Abstract

3

2. Introduction to Distributed Generation (DG)

4

3. Available Options for distributed generation

4

4. Present Energy scenario of Indian power sector.

6

5. Sources of renewable energy generation

8

6. Distributed Generation Using Renewable

10

6.1 Wind Energy

10

6.2 Small Hydro power

11

6.3 Solar energy

13

6.4 Geothermal energy

13

6.5 Biomass(Solids,landfillgas and biogas)

14

6.6 Tidal energy

16

7. Advantages and Disadvantages

18

8. Conclusion

19

9. References

20

1. ABSTRACT:

On a global scale, power supply is the most capital incentive sector of all. Every industry and every aspect of social progress is heavily dependent on energy. Energy access, energy security, poverty alleviation, and environmental Considerations, combined with increasing fossil fuel prices, are key drivers for accelerating the adoption of affordable Distributed generation (DG). Distributed Generation (DG) is considered to be important in improving the security of energy supplies by decreasing the dependency on imported fossil fuels and in reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Distributed Renewable energy technologies, such as hydro (small), solar, geothermal, biomass, and wind, can deliver power with virtually zero emissions. Distributed generation (smaller generators that produce power locally apart from centralized grid) also has the potential to significantly reduce emissions and promote greater cost and network efficiencies. In India most of the people live in rural areas and still 20 % of villages are not electrified and people in many of the electrified villages are very much dissatisfied with the quality of grid power due to the remote places. As India is a developing country its energy demand is also increasing day by day, there is a huge demand supply gap of 9% of average load and 15.2 % of peak demand (As on Jan-2008). India is mainly dependent on fissile fuels which are producing greenhouse gasses and polluting the environment. If we consider all these things the Distributed renewable energy technology is the best option for India to come out of these problems. India is blessed with a variety of renewable energy sources such as Wind energy, solar energy, small hydro plants, biomass, geothermal energy, wave and tidal energy. In this case study I’m going to discuss what is distributed generation, what is the present energy scenario of India, what are the options available for energy generation using distributed renewable energy and how much potential is there in DREG in India and some of the Distributed renewable sources which can be used for generating energy in a small scale (local demand and for the future demand) for the sustainable future.

2.

INTRODUCTION DISTRIBUTED GENERATION:

Distributed generation (DG) can be defined as the installation and operation of electric power generation units connected directly to the distribution network or connected to the network on the customer site of the meter. DG is also referred to as dispersed generation or embedded generation or variety of small, modular power-generating technologies that can be combined with energy management and storage systems and used to improve the operation of the electricity delivery system, whether or not those technologies are connected to an electricity grid. Implementing DG can be as simple as installing a small electricity generator to provide backup power at an electricity consumer's site. Or it can be a more complex system, highly integrated with the electricity grid and consisting of electricity generation, energy storage, and power management systems. DG systems range in size and capacity from a few kilowatts up to 10 MW. They comprise a portfolio of technologies, both supply-side and demand-side, that can be located at or near the location where the energy is used. Distributed generation can provide standby generation, peak shaving capability, base load generation or cogeneration. Distributed Generation (DG) has an essential role to play in reducing emissions and improving security of supply because it can use relatively small, localized, sources of fuel (often renewable) to generate electricity, with or without heat. DG options can be classified based on the prime movers used—engines, turbines, fuel cells or based on the fuel source as renewable or non-renewable. There are a large number of possible system configurations.

3. Available Options for distributed generation

Distributed generation systems can be divided in two segments

1. Combined heat and power

2. Renewable Energy Sources

DISTRIBUTED ENERGY GENERATION Combined Heat and Power Renewable Energy Sources
DISTRIBUTED ENERGY GENERATION
Combined Heat and Power
Renewable Energy Sources

3

The available DG options in these segments are.

Combined heat and power:

Internal combustion engine fuelled by diesel Internal combustion engine fuelled by natural gas Micro-turbine fuelled by natural gas Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with reformer fuelled by natural gas

Renewable Energy Sources:

Hydro power ( small)

Wind turbine

Biomass ( befouls, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas and biogas)

Solar photovoltaic (PV) , Solar thermal energy

Biogases cogeneration in sugar factories

Geothermal

Wave and tidal energy

Renewable energy technologies, such as hydro (small), solar, geothermal, biomass, and wind, can deliver power with virtually zero emissions. Distributed generation (smaller generators that produce power locally apart from centralized grid) also has the potential to significantly reduce emissions and promote greater cost and network efficiencies. Both renewable energy and distributed generation lend well to promoting energy security. This case study reviews the different technological options available for Distributed Renewable energy Generation, their current status and future potential. The relevance of these options for a developing country context is examined using data for India, In order to place DG in the context of the Indian power sector, a brief background of the Indian power sector is provided before comparing the DG options.

4. PRESENT SCENERIO OF INDIAN POWER SECTOR:
4.
PRESENT SCENERIO OF INDIAN POWER SECTOR:

India ranks sixth in the world in total energy consumption .India had an installed capacity of

145819 MW (As per Ministry of Power,Govt of India) as on 31st Jan 2008. Of this 92,893 MW is accounted for by thermal power plants, 36,348 MW of large hydro plants, 4120 MW of nuclear and 12458 MW of Renewable plants. However the capacity addition has not been able to keep pace with the increasing demand for electricity. This is reflected by the persistent energy and peak shortages in the country. The total installed capacity fuel wise as on jan-2008 is given below.

TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY

 

FUEL

MW

%

COAL

76989

52.9

GAS

14704

10.1

OIL

1200

0.8

HYDAL

36348

25.0

NUCLEAR

4120

2.8

RENEWABLE

12458

8.4

TOTAL

145819 MW

From the above we can say that India had been traditionally depending on thermal power as a major source of power generation, which constitutes about 65% of current capacity. Balance is contributed by Hydro power (25%), Nuclear (3 %) and remaining Renewable energy (7%). As India is a developing country its energy demand is increasing over the years and growth in demand for power has outstripped supply. There is a huge demand supply gap of 9% between energy requirement and energy availability. And there is peak demand shortage of 15.2 %. Due to this in many parts of the country, electricity is available only for few hours in a day and is of poor quality, making it unusable for industrial purposes.

5

Present Energy Availability, Demand and Shortage:

YEAR

ENERGY

ENERGY

ENERGY

ENERGY

REQUIRMENT

AVAILIBILITY

SHORTAGE(

SHORTAGE

(MU)

(MU)

MU)

(%)

2004-05

591373

548115

43258

7.3

2005-06

631554

578819

52735

8.4

2006-07

690587

624495

66092

9.6

2007-08(UP

608804

554248

54556

9

TO JAN-08

8.4 2006-07 690587 624495 66092 9.6 2007-08(UP 608804 554248 54556 9 TO JAN-08

Peak demand and Shortage

YEAR

PEAK DEMAND

PEAK MET

PEAK

PEAK SHORTAGE

(MU)

(MU)

SHORTAGE(

(%)

MU)

2004-05

87906

77652

10254

11.7

2005-06

93255

81792

11463

12.3

2006-07

100715

86818

13897

13.8

2007-08(UP

107010

90793

16217

15.2

TO JAN-08

12.3 2006-07 100715 86818 13897 13.8 2007-08(UP 107010 90793 16217 15.2 TO JAN-08

From the chart we can see that country faces an average energy shortage of about 9 percent and a peak shortage of about 15.2 percent -- reflected in power cuts nationwide. In India most of the people live in rural areas, out off 59372 No of villages only 475117 No of villages are electrified and still 20 % of villages are yet to be electrified .And people in many of the electrified villages are very much dissatisfied with the quality of grid power due to they are situated at remote places. The transmission and distribution losses are extremely high which accounts more than 25% and in some states its 35 to 40 %, this includes theft. As India is mainly dependent on fossil fuels for energy generation it is increasing the emission of greenhouse gases in the environment. And now India counts for world’s 3 rd largest CO2 emitter from power generation. In order to meet the increasing demand , to reduce the demand supply gap, to electrify villages and especially to reduce CO2 emissions ,distributed renewable energy generation is the best option .Let us see what are the options available in distributed renewable energy generation

5. Sources of Renewable Energy Generation:

India is blessed with a variety of renewable energy sources, the main ones being biomass, biogas, the sun, wind, and small hydro power.

Renewable Energy Generation Solar Tidal Biomass Small hydro Wind Wave energy Geo thermal energy Solar
Renewable Energy Generation
Solar
Tidal
Biomass
Small hydro
Wind
Wave energy
Geo thermal energy
Solar Thermal
Solar Photovoltaic

Installed capacity of Renewable energy in India:

INSTALLED CAPACITY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN INDIA

RESOURCES

INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW)

Wind power

657

Biomass power

9522

Small hydro power

2221

waste to energy

56

solar power

2.12

TOTAL

12458

to energy 56 solar power 2.12 TOTAL 12458 The installed capacity of renewable energy is only

The installed capacity of renewable energy is only 12458 MW which is 8.4 % of total energy generation. In which Biomass is contributing 76%, small hydro 18%, wind 5%, waste to energy 1% and solar is contributing very less portion. Villages where grid extension is not feasible are electrified through locally available renewable energy sources to meet universal electrification. Renewal based distributed electricity generation systems are especially relevant for electrification of remote villages. Grid extension may not be feasible or cost effective in many of these villages and hence local solutions through distributed generation will have to be identified. Since renewable are widely available and Grid connectivity is either not feasible or not cost effective.

Now we will discuss the different Renewable sources available for distributed generation.

6. Distributed Generation Using Renewable

6.1 Wind energy :

A wind energy system transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be harnessed for practical use. Mechanical energy is most commonly used for pumping water in rural or remote locations. Wind turbines generate electricity for homes and businesses and for sale to utilities. The most economical application of electric wind turbines is in groups of large machines (700 kW and up), called "wind power plants" or "wind farms." Wind plants can range in size from a few megawatts to hundreds of megawatts in capacity.

The Indian wind energy sector has an installed capacity of 1870 MW (as on March 31, 2008). In terms of wind power installed capacity, India is ranked 4th in the World. Today. The estimated power generation capacity in India through wind is about 47,000 MW. The installed capacity is about 1,870 MW, which is about 4% of the total estimated potential.

Wind turbines used to generate electricity come in a wide variety of sizes. Large wind turbines, which are usually installed in clusters called wind farms, can generate large amounts of electricity. Large wind turbines may even produce hundreds of megawatts (MW) of electricity - enough to power hundreds of homes. Small wind turbines, which are generally defined as producing no more than 100 kW of electricity, are designed to be installed at homes, farms and small businesses either as a source of backup electricity, or to offset use of utility power and reduce electricity bills.

Wind energy offers many advantages over conventional power production, including minimal environmental impact, reduced dependence on fossil fuels, and potential long- term income for property owners who lease land for wind farms.

The state wise wind energy potential is as follows

states

Gross potential (MW)

Andhra Pradesh

9063

Gujarat

7362

Karnataka

7161

Kerala

1026

Madhya Pradesh

4978

Maharashtra

4519

Orissa

1520

Rajasthan

6672

Tamil Nadu

4159

West Bengal

32

others

508

TOTAL

47,000

West Bengal 32 others 508 TOTAL 47,000 6.26.26.26.2 SmallSmallSmallSmall HydroHydroHydroHydro

6.26.26.26.2 SmallSmallSmallSmall HydroHydroHydroHydro power:power:power:power:

Hydro power is obtained from the potential and kinetic energy of water flowing from a height. The energy contained in the water is converted into electricity by using a turbine coupled to a generator. The rural energy scenario in India is characterized by inadequate, poor and unreliable supply of energy services. Realizing the fact that mini hydropower projects can provide a solution for the energy problem in rural, remote and hilly areas where extension of grid

system is comparatively uneconomical, promoting mini hydro projects is one of the objectives of the small hydro Power program in India. Small-scale hydropower systems capture the energy in flowing water and convert it to usable energy. Although the potential for small hydro-electric systems depends on the availability of suitable water flow, where the resource exists it can provide cheap clean reliable electricity.

Depending upon the energy generation capacity these hydro plants can be classified as

Micro hydro electric schemes -
-

Mini hydro electric schemes

Small hydro electric schemes -

Up to 101 KW 101 to 2000 KW 2000 to 15000 KW

BENEFITS OF SMALL HYDRO:

Hydroelectric systems provide the following general benefits

Hydroelectric energy is a continuously renewable electrical energy source

‘Fuel-free’ source of power

Renewable energy source therefore helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and having

a net positive impact on the environment. Constant generation over long periods unlike wind and solar power

Long lifetime of systems, typically 25 years or more Low maintenance requirements and running costs Reasonable payback for grid -connected systems, often 10 years or less Hydropower offers a means of responding within seconds to changes in load demand. In India large potential of energy remains untapped in low flow high head falls in hilly areas, river slopes, canal falls, irrigation and water supply dams which can be exploited by installing small hydro plants. Most of this potential exists in rural and remote areas. The estimated potential of small hydro is 15000 MW in India which can be cheaply harnessed as a very attractive source of renewable energy.

SMALL HYDRO POWER POTENTIAL

POTENTIAL

15000 MW

INSTALLED CAPACITY

2221 MW

Thus a small hydro power can be used as a cost efficient option for distributed generation.

6.3

Solar Energy:

Solar radiation represents the earth’s most abundant energy source. Apart from its direct form, solar energy is responsible for creation of other renewable energy sources such as wind, flowing streams and rivers, photosynthetic production of biomass, and thermal gradients in the ocean. Solar energy is being used by humankind from time immemorial for various purposes. More recent applications of solar energy, like its direct conversion to electricity and transformation to thermal energy at various temperatures, have expanded its potential use enormously.

Solar energy, experienced by us as heat and light, can be used through two routes The Thermal route uses the heat for water heating, cooking, drying, water purification, power generation, and other applications. The Photovoltaic route converts the light in solar energy into electricity, which can then be used for a number of purposes such as lighting, pumping, communications, and power supply in unelectrified areas. Potential of solar energy:

The geographical location of India provides long days of sunny weather for the majority of the year. Most parts of India receive 4–7 kWh (kilowatt-hour) of solar radiation per square meter per day with 250–300 sunny days in a year. This allows solar energy in India to be a viable option for a means of generating electricity for a large proportion of the population. The highest annual radiation energy is received in western Rajasthan while the north-eastern region of the country receives the lowest annual radiation.

6.4 Geothermal Energy:

Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth. From the surface down through the crust, the normal temperature gradient - the increase of temperature with the increase of depth - in the Earth's crust is 17 °C -- 30 °C per kilometer of depth (50 °F -- 87 °F per mile). Geothermal reserves up to depths of 10 km are estimated at 403X106 Quads.

Hot rocks underground heat water to produce steam. We drill holes down to the hot region; steam comes up, is purified and used to drive turbines, which drive electric generators.

There may be natural "groundwater" in the hot rocks anyway, or we may need to drill more holes and pump water down to them.

Advantages:

Geothermal energy does not produce any pollution, and does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. The power stations do not take up much room, so there is not much impact on the environment. No fuel is needed. Once you've built a geothermal power station, the energy is almost free. It may need a little energy to run a pump, but this can be taken from the energy being generated Potential of Geothermal energy in India:

In India, there are 350 geothermal energy locations in the country. The most promising of these is in Puga valley of Ladakh. The estimated potential for geothermal energy in India is about 10000 MW. There are seven geothermal provinces in India: the Himalayas, Sohana, West coast, Cambay, Son-Narmada-Tapi (SONATA), Godavari, and Mahanadi. Potential Applications:

Power generation Cooking Space heating Use in greenhouse cultivation Crop drying

6.5 BIOMASS ENERGY:

Biogas is a mixture of 55-65 percent methane, 30-40 percent carbon dioxide and the rest is made up of H2, H2s and N2.it can be produced from the decomposition of animal, plant and human waste. Cow dung, piggery waste and poultry droppings can be used for generation of bio-gas. Crop residues, kitchen waste, sea wood, human waste, waste from sugar cane refinery are also useful for bio-gas generation. Biomass can be utilized through following different processes for energy conversion:

Gasification: Gasification is the thermo-chemical process of obtaining energy from solid matter in a gaseous form. In principle, the process is a thermal decomposition of organic matter in the presence of limited supply of air or oxygen to produce combustible gases thus converting calorific value of organic material into a gaseous energy carrier. Pyrolysis: In contrast to complete combustion of solid carbonaceous material, the process of pyrolysis refers to combustion in a deficient supply of air / oxygen. The process gives out carbon-mono-oxide and methane, which are condensed to form tar and aqueous liquor. The latter is then distilled to give methanol and other organic substances. Direct Combustion: Thermal decomposition of organic matter is carried out in the presence of excess air, liberating heat and leaving behind incombustible ash. Fuel + Air Heat + Ash + Inert Gases Direct combustion of Biomass is an important route for generation of grid-quality power by efficient use of agricultural, agro-industrial and forest residues, which are either being wasted or are being sub-optimally utilized in the country.

Biomass Potential:

India is a tropical country blessed with abundant sunshine and rains, thus offering an ideal environment for Biomass production. Further, the vast agricultural produce also makes available large quantities of agro-residues which can be used to meet energy needs. With an estimated production of about 350 million tones of agricultural waste every year, residual biomass is capable of mitigation of GHG emissions to the extent of 300 million tones / annum.The estimated potential of Biomass based renewable energy options in India are as follows:

Biomass potential in India

Biomass Energy

16, 000 MW

Biomass Co-Generation

3, 500 MW

Total

19, 500 MW

Installed capacity

303 MW

Economic drivers for use of locally available non-conventional energy sources are important for distributed generation. Of all the non-conventional energies, biomass is the

most suited for distributed electricity generation as it offers a number of advantages. Some of the advantages of biomass energy are: it is renewable, widely and locally available, is carbon neutral and has the potential to provide significant productive employment in rural areas. Additionally, in power generation mode, biomass offers following advantages:

Ability to produce `firm', dispatchable power; Amenability to storage and use as per power demand; No need for elaborate pre-firing preparation. Biomass has been considered one of the ideal energy resources for DG mode of power Generation in view of these advantages. APPLICATIONS OF BIOMASS ENERGY:

Water pumping

Electricity generation : 3 to 1 MW power plants

Heat generation : for cooking gas – smokeless environment

Rural electrification means better healthcare, better education and improved quality of life.

6.6 TIDAL ENERGY:

Tides are generated through a combination of forces exerted by the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon and the rotation of the earth. The relative motion of the three bodies produces different tidal cycles which affect the range of the tides. In addition, the tidal range is increased substantially by local effects such as shelving, funneling, reflection and resonance. Energy can be extracted from tides by creating a reservoir or basin behind a barrage and then passing tidal waters through turbines in the barrage to generate electricity. Tidal energy is extremely site specific requires mean tidal differences greater than 4 meters and also favorable topographical conditions, such as estuaries or certain types of bays in order to bring down costs of dams etc. Potential:

Since India is surrounded by sea on three sides, its potential to harness tidal energy has been recognized by the Government of India. Potential sites for tidal power development have already been located. The most attractive locations are the Gulf of Cambay and the

Gulf of Kachchh on the west coast where the maximum tidal range is 11 m and 8 m with average tidal range of 6.77 m and 5.23 m respectively. The Ganges Delta in the Sunder bans in West Bengal also has good locations for small scale tidal power development. The maximum tidal range in Sunder bans is approximately 5 m with an average tidal range of 2.97 m. The identified economic tidal power potential in India is of the order of 8000-9000 MW with about 7000 MW in the Gulf of Cambay about 1200 MW in the Gulf of Kachchh and less than 100 MW in Sundarbans.

Available potential from all the sources:

about 1200 MW in the Gulf of Kachchh and less than 100 MW in Sundarbans. Available
7. Advantages and Disadvantages of DREG:
7.
Advantages and Disadvantages of DREG:

Advantages of Distributed Renewable power generation:

High peak load shortages: With a deficit of 15.2% in peak demand, distributed generation systems can be used to reduce the peak demand. High transmission and distribution losses: Current losses amount to about 25.0 - 35.0% of the total available energy. Distributed power generation systems can greatly reduce these losses and improve the reliability of the grid network. Remote and inaccessible areas: In many parts of the country extension of the grid may not be economically feasible. In such cases distributed generation can play a major role. Rural electrification: Most of the villages are located at remote places where grid extension is not feasible or not at all possible, in such cases DREG can be used for electrification of these villages. Faster response to new power demands: The modular nature of distributed generation system coupled with low gestation period enables the easy capacity additions when required. Improved supply reliability and power quality: Disruptions such as grid failure, etc., can be prevented as electricity is produced close to the consumer. The quality of power, voltage and frequency, can also be maintained easily. Possibility of better energy and load management: Distributed generation systems offer the possibility of combining energy storage and management systems. Optimal use of the existing grid assets: Distributed generation facilitates an optimal use of the grid that improves the reliability of the grid network and reduces the congestion.

Disadvantages of Distributed Renewable power generation:

Operational complexity in connecting DG to grid.

DG finance and access to local capital.

17

8.

CONCLUSION

Current worldwide electric power production is based on a centralized, grid-dependent network structure. This system has several disadvantages such as high emissions, transmission losses, long lead times for plant construction, and large and long term financing requirements. Distributed renewable power generation is an alternative that is gathering momentum, and modern technologies, such as hydropower, biomass, geothermal, wind, solar and ocean energy. Sustainable distributed energy systems include

PV, micro gas turbine, solar thermal, solar hot water, mini hydro-electric, bio-energy, and small wind energy systems. India has huge renewable potential of 156048 MW, which is 7% more than the present energy demand. Using distributed renewable power generation the present problems in the energy sector can be solved such as

1. Increasing the security of supply by reducing dependency on imported fissile fuels.

2. Reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases especially CO2.

3. By electrifying the rural villages we can improve the quality of life of villages.

4. Reduction in Transmission and distribution losses.

5. Quality and reliable power

At present India is using only 20.16 % of renewable for energy generation .but India has a potential of 79.83 %, which can be used in the form of Distributed renewable energy generation for the sustainable future and for better quality of life. This can be achieved by making some action planes on renewable energy such as promotion of renewable energy technologies, Creating an environment conducive to promote renewable energy technologies, creating an environment conducive for their commercialization, subsidies from government for installation of small distributed renewable energy generation units, production of biogas units, solar thermal devices, solar photovoltaic’s, cook stoves, wind energy and small hydropower units

9.

References’ and Bibliography :

1. Willis, H L and Scott, W G. Distributed Power Generation, Planning and Evaluation.

2. G.D.Rai, Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Khanna publications.

3. Annual report 2007-08 of Ministry of power government of India.

4. Ministry of New and Renewable energy ,official site, Government of India