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Vol.03,Issue.14

June-2014,

Pages:3018-3024

www.semargroup.org,

www.ijsetr.com

Blade Exist Angles

NI NI HLAING1, HTAY HTAY WIN2, ZAW MOE HTET3

1

PG Scholar, Mandalay Technological University, Mandalay, Myanmar, E-mail: ninihlaing.mm@gmail.com.

2

Assoc Prof, Mandalay Technological University, Mandalay, Myanmar, E-mail: htyahtayw@gmail.com.

Abstract: Some of the mechanical assisted devices include pneumatic pumps, axial flow pumps, and centrifugal pumps.

Among the pumps available, the centrifugal pumps have attracted worldwide interest because centrifugal flow pumps have high

efficiency. In this paper, centrifugal pump is analyzed by using a single-stage end suction centrifugal pump. Two main

components of a centrifugal pump are the impeller and the casing. The impeller is a rotating component and the casing is a

stationary component. In centrifugal pump, water enters axially through the impeller eyes and water exits radially. Centrifugal

pumps are widely used in many applications such as water pumping project, domestic water raising, industrial waste water

removal, raising water from tube wells to the fields. The application of designed pump is used the domestic water raising.

Various parameters affect the pump performance and energy consumption. The impeller outlet diameter, the blade angle and

the blade number are the most critical. The present paper describes significant effect of a centrifugal pump by varying outlet

blade angle. In this study, the performance of impellers with the same outlet diameter having different outlet blade angles is

thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, the pump is driven by one horse power electric motor and the design is based on Kyushu

Method. The head and flow rate of this pump are 20 m and 0.004167m3/s and the motor speed is 2900 rpm. The number of

impeller blade is 6 blades. The significant effect of centrifugal pump is carried out after designing the dimensions of centrifugal

pump. So, shock losses, impeller friction losses, volute friction losses, disk friction losses and recirculation losses of centrifugal

pump are also considered in performance analysis of centrifugal pump.

I. INTRODUCTION Invariably, some of the energy also pushes the fluid into a

A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a circular motion, and this circular motion can also convey

rotating impeller to increase the pressure of a fluid. some energy and increase the pressure at the outlet. The

Centrifugal pumps are commonly used to move liquids relationship between these mechanisms was described, with

through a piping system. The fluid enters the pump impeller the typical mixed conception of centrifugal force as known as

along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the that time. Pumps are used in a wide range of industrial and

impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute residential applications. Pumping equipment is extremely

chamber (casing), from where it exits into the downstream diverse, varying in type, size, and materials of construction.

piping system. Like most pumps, a centrifugal pumps There have been significant new developments in the area of

converts mechanical energy from a motor to energy of a pumping equipment. They are used as boiler feed pumps, hot

moving fluid; some of the energy goes into kinetic energy of well pumps, sewage and sump pumps, irrigation and drainage

fluid motion, and some into potential energy, represented by pumps, paper mills, deep well pumps and fire pumps.

a fluid pressure or by lifting the fluid against gravity to a Centrifugal pumps leave a very small field for reciprocating

higher level. The transfer of energy from the mechanical pumps, a field where capacities are too low and pressures too

rotation of the impeller to the motion and pressure of the high to permit a favorable type for a centrifugal pump.

fluid is usually described in terms of centrifugal force,

especially in older sources written before the modern concept However, this field is being gradually reduced further.

of centrifugal force as a fictitious force in a rotating reference Such progress in the development and application of

frame was well articulated. centrifugal pumps is due to several factors.

Their high adaptability for high speed electric motor and

The concept of centrifugal force is not actually required to steam driver.

describe the action of the centrifugal pump. In the modern Minimum of moving parts and,

centrifugal pump, most of the energy conversion is due to the Small size and low cost for the amount of liquid moved;

outward force that curved impeller blades impart on the fluid.

NI NI HLAING, HTAY HTAY WIN, ZAW MOE HTET

The centrifugal pumps are available in sizes from 1/4 in to The diameter shaft is obtained by using Equation.

100 in normal discharge. They may be either single or multi- 3

d = 16T S (4)

stage. The single stage centrifugal pumps may be either s s

single-suction or double-suction centrifugal pumps.Fig.1 For commercial steel shaft, permissible shear stress Ss is

shows component parts of a centrifugal pump [1]. 24.5 MN/ m2.

The torsion moment is estimated by:

T = P60 2N (5)

The diameter of the impeller eye is

D = K 3Q (6)

0 0 n

The value such as Km1, Km2, Ku are obtained from the

Stepanoff chart [5].

V =K 2gH

m1 m1 (7)

Vane outlet velocity,

V

m2

=K

m2

2gH (8)

Impeller inlet diameter,

D = (1.1 ~ 1.15)K 3 Q (9)

1 o n

The value of K0 is chosen as 4.5.

Fig.1. Liquid flow path inside a centrifugal pump. The outlet diameter of impeller is:

1/6

n 2gH

II. DESIGN OF SIGNIFICANT EFFECT OF D = 19.2 s opt; n (10)

2 100

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP BY VARYING OUTLET

BLADE ANGLE Inlet peripheral velocity, U1 is calculated by using Equation.

A. Design of centrifugal pump D1n

U =

1 60 (11)

The design pump is a single stage centrifugal pump.

Impeller is designed on the basic of design flow rate, pump Outlet peripheral velocity, U2 is calculated by using

head and pump specific speed. So, the design data are Equation.

required to design the centrifugal pump .The design D 2n

U = 60 (12)

parameters are taken as follows: 2

Flow rate, Q = 0.004167 m3/s 2. Vane Inlet and Outlet Angle:

Head, H = 20 m The water is assumed to enter the vanes radially, so that

Pump speed, n = 2900 rpm the absolute velocity 1 is 90. After Vm1 and U1 have been

Gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m/s2

Density of water, = 1000 kg/m3

calculated, the vane inlet angle 1 is obtained by the

equation.

1. Specific Speed: -1 Vm1

= tan + (0 ~ 6)

U1

(13)

Selection of the specific speed value at the best efficiency 1

point is the first step in the design of centrifugal pumps. This In this design the vane outlet angle 2 , is assumed as 23

involves a selection of the relative speed and whether the

required head should be produced in one or more stages. [5]. The number of blades is calculated by using the

Another distinction in impellers is the liquid traverses and following Equation. The number of blades,

leaves the impeller blades. This is called the specific speed. Z = 6.5

(D2 +D1)

(D2 -D1) sin 1+2 2 (14)

n Q

Specific speed; n = (1) The inlet passage width b1

s H3/4

Q' D

The input power P is calculated by the following equation. b = S 1

D1Vm1 D1-S1Z

1

(15)

P=

gQH

(2)

The outlet passage width b2

From Figure pump efficiency versus discharge, the Q' D

efficiency is approximately taken 0.52 [5]. b = S 2

D2Vm2 D2 -S2Z

1

(16)

The volumetric efficiency is calculated by using the

Equation. The minimum blades thickness is 2.0 mm and shroud

= 1 (3) thickness is 2.5 mm for an impeller having the diameter less

v 1.124

1+ than 200 mm. Flow through the impeller:

ns2/3

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research

Volume.03, IssueNo.14, June-2014, Pages: 3018-3024

Design and Significant Effect of a Centrifugal Pump by using Various Blade Exist Angles

' Q Impeller outlet width, b2 = 6 mm

Q = s (17)

s v Shroud thickness = 2.5 mm

B. Required Parameters for Impeller Blade Shape Average flow Velocity,

To draw the curvature of the blade curve equally spaced V K 2gH (21)

v v

circles are drawn between impeller outside circle and

impeller inside circle. Vane slope angles are also drawn. The The volute area at the throat,

Q

angle between 1 and 2 are equally divided into three A

v

= Vv (22)

angles [5]. Other volute sections,

DA Where, the value of i is from 1 to 8 representing the volute

Radius, RA= 2 =70.415m sections. Volute base circle diameter D3 is used in laying out

Impeller inside diameter, DD = D1h= 49.5 mm

the volute casing. It is first drawn and then other drawings of

(R 2 2

A -R B ) volute sections can be done. So, it is one requirement of

= 2(R Acos2 -R BcosB ) (18)

A

volute casing design. The value of D3 -D2 D 100 is

2

(R 2 2

B -R C )

= (19) obtained from volute constant chart. Volute base circle

A 2(R BcosB -R CcosC )

diameter D3 is calculated by the following relation.

2 -R 2 )

(R C D D3 -D2

= 2(R CcosC -R Dcos1) (20) D2 100 = 9 (24)

A

Base circle radii and blade curved angles for impeller are as Volute width is estimated by Equation

shown in Table1. Then the blade curve radii are calculated by b = b + 2 shroud thickness + 2 clearance (25)

v 2

using this data.Fig.2 illustrates drawing of impeller blade

shape.

Requirements for Laying Out Volute Casing:

Other requirements are the values of vi and rvi for laying

out the cross sectional shapes of the volute sections.Table.3

shows values of volute areas and parameter for laying out

cross section shape of volute sections.

A vi +0.604b2v

= (26)

vi 0.367

For i= 1, i.e., for drawing the cross sectional shape of the

first volute cross section.

The relationship between vi and rvi

(27)

The result data of the single-suction centrifugal pump are listed

in Table 2.

Fig.2. Drawing of Impeller Blade Shape.

TABLE I: Base Circle Radii and Blade Curved Angles TABLE II: Values of Voltage Areas and Parameter for

Laying Out Cross Section Shape of Volute Sections

Flow rate, Q = 0.004167 m3/s

Pump head, H = 20 m

Pump speed, n = 2900 rpm

Impeller diameter at outlet, D2 = 140.83 mm

Volume.03, IssueNo.14, June-2014, Pages: 3018-3024

NI NI HLAING, HTAY HTAY WIN, ZAW MOE HTET

III. SIGNIFICANT EFFECT OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP not account for losses. At flow rates below design flow rate,

BY VARYING OUTLET BLADE ANGLE separation occurs on the suction side of the blade [1].

A calculation to estimate the theoretical performance of a The net theoretical head is calculated by:

pump is an indispensable tool in pump design. Performance U V

needs to be known, not only at the rated, best efficiency H thn 2 u2 (30)

point, but also off design. Pump specifications often impose g

special requirements, such as head at shutoff, maximum The whirl velocity at the outlet velocity is;

power demand, rate of head rise to assure stability, and so on. Vu 2 U2 Vm2 cot2 (31)

A good pump design process requires trail-and-error So, slip value is obtained by using the following equation.

iteration, a check on anticipated performance with a trial

1

geometry, and progressive approximation to the optimal (sin 2 ) 2

design configuration. The best hydraulic design does not 1 (32)

necessarily correspond to the best commercial pump product. 0.7

Z

Generally, the more accurate and detailed these calculations C. Shock Losses

are, the greater the number of input variables needed: not The major loss considered is shock losses at the impeller

only the desired head, flow rate, and rotational speed, but inlet caused by the mismatch of fluid and metal angles.

also the details of the geometrical description of the impeller Shock losses can be found everywhere in the flow range of

and housing. When the characteristic cure is approached, the pump. Shock Losses are given by following equation:

pumps rotational speed, n is chosen 2900 rpm. The impeller

inlet diameter, D1 is 55.87mm, the outlet diameter, D2 is (33)

140.83mm, the impeller inlet width, b 1 is 11mm and the Maximum flow rate:

impeller outlet width, b2 is 6mm. Inlet vane angle and out

(34)

vane angle are 20 and 23 respectively. Number of vanes is

The shut off head:

6 and the largest volute diameter, Dv is 153.50mm.

(35)

In the shut off condition, and . So,

shock losses equation is formed by substituting in equation

26.

The impeller was designed that the width of the impeller

would become small and the friction loss at the flow passage

would become large. Therefore to relive the increase in

friction loss, radial flow passage on the plane of the impeller

Fig.3. Velocity Diagrams (a) Inlet Velocity Diagram (b) was adopted. The friction losses can be found for energy

Outlet Velocity Diagram. dissipation due to contact of the fluid with solid boundaries

such as stationary vanes, impeller, casing, disk and diffuser,

A. Theoretical Head etc[1].

The Euler head is determined from zero to maximum The impeller friction losses are:

theoretically attainable flow using. 2

The theoretical head, b 2 (D2 D1 )(Vr1 Vr2 )

h1 (36)

H th 1 U 2 Vu2 (28) 2sin 2 H r 4g

g

The whirl velocity,

The hydraulic radius is calculated by using Equation 22.

Vu2 U 2 Vm2 cot 2

(29) D 2

b2 sin 2

Where Vm2 and 2 are outlet flow (fig.3) velocity and outlet Z

(37)

blade angle. Hr

D 2

b2 sin 2

Z

B .Net Theoretical Head

The inlet relative velocity,

If the slip factor is known, the net theoretical head may be

obtained from Eulers head. It is possible to relate the V

Vr1 m1 (38)

theoretical characteristic obtained from Eulers equation to sin1

the actual characteristic for various losses responsible for the

difference. The use of the slip factor which varies with flow The outlet relative velocity,

Vm2 (39)

rate enables the net theoretical head curve to obtain. This Vr 2

represents the net head developed by the impeller but does sin 2

Volume.03, IssueNo.14, June-2014, Pages: 3018-3024

Design and Significant Effect of a Centrifugal Pump by using Various Blade Exist Angles

E. Volute Friction Losses characteristic provided it is plotted against (fig.4). Therefore,

2 the actual pump head,

The volute friction losses: h C v V3 (40)

2 2g (49)

The volute throat velocity: V3 Q (41)

A3

D

The volute throat area: A V ( 2 ) (42)

3 u2 D

3

The volute flow coefficient is obtained Equation (28).

L vm

C v 1 (0.02 ) (43)

D vm

The volute circumferential length:

Di

L vm (44)

8

The volute mean diameter:

Di (45)

D vm

8

F. Disk Friction Losses Fig.4. Prediction of Characteristic Curve of Centrifugal

The disk friction power is divided by the flow rate and Pump.

head to be added to the theoretical head when the shaft power

demand is calculated [1]. I. Effect of Blade Exit Angle on Head and Efficiency

The disk friction loss, Changing some geometric characteristic of the impeller in

3 D 5 centrifugal pumps improves their performance. It is known

f ( ) that blade exit angle plays very important role in the

h3 2 (46)

9 performance of a centrifugal pump. To investigate effect of

10 Qs

blade exit angle on the performance of centrifugal pump by

2n means of experiment is very expensive and lengthy process.

The angular velocity , (47) In the present study three pumps of different specific speeds

60

Loss coefficient of disk friction, f is assumed a 0.005. are taken for the investigation. In recent years, centrifugal

pump have been increasingly utilized for various purposes,

such as irrigation, water supply, steam power plants, oil

G. Recirculation Losses

refineries, air conditioning systems. Due to the vast

The recirculation loss coefficient depends on the piping

application it is very important that centrifugal pump should

configuration upstream of the pump in addition to the

work efficiently. There have been continuous efforts to

geometrical details of the inlet. The power of recirculation is

improve the performance of centrifugal pumps. Therefore,

also divided by the volume flow rate, like the disk friction

the blade exit angle has significant effect on the head and

power, in order to be converted into a parasitic head.

efficiency of the centrifugal pump. It is found from this

The recirculation loss,

investigation, both head and efficiency of centrifugal pump

3 2 Q 2.5

h 4 K D1 (1 s ) (48) increases with increasing in blade exit angle (fig.5).

Q0

The pump speed is carried out with the value of specific

speed because impellers with relatively large inlet diameters

(usually encountered in high-specific-speed pumps) are the

most likely to recirculation. Coefficient of leakage loss K is

assumed as 0.005 [1].

H. Actual Head

The output of a pump running at a given speed is the flow

rate delivered by it and the head developed. Thus a plot of

head against flow rate at constant speed forms the

fundamental performance characteristic of a pump. In order

to achieve this actual head, the flow rate is required which

involves efficiency of energy transfer. The actual pump head

is calculated by subtracting from the net theoretical head all

the flow losses which gives the actual head/flow rate Fig.5. Head-flow characteristic graph at various blade

exit angles.

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research

Volume.03, IssueNo.14, June-2014, Pages: 3018-3024

NI NI HLAING, HTAY HTAY WIN, ZAW MOE HTET

J. Efficiencies V. NOMENCLATURES

How small the losses or how good a machine in converting Avi = The volute area at the throat (mm2)

energy is indicated by its efficiency. The efficiency of a b1 = Width of impeller at inlet (mm)

machine is always defined as the ratio of the power output of b2 = Width of impeller at outlet (mm)

the machine to the power input into it. A centrifugal pump bv = Volute width (mm)

has four types of efficiencies. These are mechanical, D1 = Impeller diameter at inlet (mm)

volumetric, hydraulic and overall efficiencies. D2 = Impeller diameter at outlet (mm)

D1s = Shaft diameter at inlet (mm)

K. Overall Efficiency Do = Eye diameter of impeller (mm)

Overall efficiency is the ratio of the water power to the Dbt = Hub diameter (mm)

power supplied to the pump shaft at the coupling [5]. ds = Shaft diameter at hub section (mm)

gQH g = Gravitational acceleration (m/s2)

o (50)

H = Head of the pump (mm)

P

(or) n = Pump speed (rpm)

ns = Specific speed

o m v h (51)

P = Input Power

Where, o = Overall efficiency Q = Flow rate of the pump (m3/min)

h = Hydraulic efficiency Qs = Flow through impeller

T = Torsional moment (N-m)

v = Volumetric efficiency U1 = Inlet tangential velocity (m/s)

= Density of the fluid being pumped U2 = Outlet tangential velocity (m/s)

g = Gravitational acceleration (9.81 ms-2) Vm1 = Vane Inlet Velocity (m/s)

Q = Fluid flow rate through the pump Vm2 = Vane Outlet Velocity (m/s)

P = Shaft power Z = The number of blade

= Density of water (kg/m3)

1 = Impeller Inlet Vane Angle (degree)

2 = Impeller Outlet Vane Angle (degree)

VI. REFERENCES

[1] Khin Cho Thin., Design and Performance Analysis of

Centrifugal pump, (2007).

[2] Marcel Dekker., Inc. Turbo machinery design and

theory, hydraulic pump, (2003).

[3] Larry Bachus., and Angel Custodio. Japan: Bachus

Company, Tokyo. Known and Understand Centrifugal Pump,

(2003).

[4] Khin Maung Aye, U. December. 2000. Fluid Machinery

for MechanicalEngineering.

[5] Kyshu Institute of Technology. 1996. Fluid Mechanics of

Turbomachinery. Training Course.Japan: Kyshu Institute of

Technology.

[6] M.V. Casey, P. Dalbert, and P. Roth, The use of 3D

viscous flow calculations in the design and analysis of

Figure6. Efficiency-flow characteristic graph at various

centrifugal compressors, ASME Journal of Turbomachinery,

blade exit.

vol. 114, pp.27-37, 1992.

IV. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

[7] P. Bansod, and C.M. Rhie, Computation of flow through

The author is very thankful to Dr. Myint Thein, Rector of

a centrifugal impeller with tip leakage, AIAA Paper No 90-

Mandalay Technological University, for his encouragement,

2021,1990.

invaluable permission and his kind support in carrying out

[8] H. Krain, and W. Hoffman, Verification of an impeller by

this paper work. The author is deeply grateful acknowledge

laser measurement and 3D viscous flow calculations, ASME

Dr. Htay Htay Win, Associate Professor and Supervisor,

Paper 89-GT-150, 1989.

Mandalay Technological University, for her kind permission

[9] T.Z. Farge, and M.W. Johnson, The effect of backswept

and guidance to submit the paper to NCSE, 2014. The author

blading on the flow in a centrifugal compressor impeller,

would like to thank Dr. Ei Ei Htwe, Associate Professor and

ASME Paper 90-GT-231, 1990.

Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mandalay

[10] M.J. Zhang, C.G. Gu, and Y.M. Miao, Numerical study

Technological University, for her great suggestions and

of the internal flow field of a centrifugal impeller, ASME

encouragement to do this research work. The author would

Paper 94-GT-357, 1994.

like to express his gratitude to U Zaw Moe Htet, Lecturer and

Co-supervisor for his good guidance and suggestions.

Volume.03, IssueNo.14, June-2014, Pages: 3018-3024

Design and Significant Effect of a Centrifugal Pump by using Various Blade Exist Angles

[11] M. W Johnson, and J. Moore, The development of wake

flow in acentrifugal impeller, ASME Journal of Engineering

for Power, vol.102, pp. 382-390, 1980.

[12] D. Eckardt, Detailed flow investigations within a high-

speedcentrifugal compressor impeller, ASME Journal of

Fluids Engineering, vol. 98, pp. 390-402, 1976.

[13] Stepanoff, A.J, 1957, Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps.

[14] Austin. H. Church. 1972. Centrifugal Pump and Blowers.

New York:John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

[15] William.L. Amminger., and Howard. M. Bernbaum.1973.

Centrifugal Pump Performance Prediction.

Volume.03, IssueNo.14, June-2014, Pages: 3018-3024

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