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In order for the project to work, through research of information need has been conducted.

Information and related knowledge has been gathered, complied and studied, issues, advantages

flaws and other matters relating to the study have also been deliberated, as a sole purpose of this

chapter. It also comprises other associated literature that serves purpose and significant

contribution to the study.

This chapter deals with data collected from books and the various areas which will benefit

this project work as follows.

(a) Screen printing

(b) Multiple holder

(c) Rotary

(d) Printer

(e) Designing


Screen Printing

The New Encyclopedia Britannica (2002) is of the view that screen printing consists of

forcing an ink, by pressing with a squeegee through the mesh of a netting screen stretched on a

frame onto the object to be printed.


Lellatom (1993) also defines screen printing as a process involving forcing ink through an open

area in a piece of woven fabric called screen cloth on a frame to make a print on the surface


The above two definitions have one idea about screen printing. They express how the rotary

press works. However the New Encyclopedia Britannica gives a more detail definition by stating

the materials and tools used in the process of printing. Lellatom (1993) on the other hand states in

rotary printing some of the materials used and eliminates the tools involved.

The World Book Dictionary (1993) defines screen printing as a covered frame that hides,

protects or separates one design from another. It further explains that the screen frame can either

be wood, metal, plastic or any convenient material suitable for printing.

Amenuke et al (1991) also explain that screen printing is a process where all the areas that are not

desired to print are blocked leaving the open parts of the design for the ink to penetrate.

At the different views from different people, the researcher would like to say that, screen

printing could be a process of printing whereby a stencil is attached to a well treated mesh which

is stretched tightly onto a measured frame, squeegee is then used to press the ink through an open

area of the mesh to have an image printed on the surface. According to Microsoft Encarta

Encyclopedia Standard (2002) printing is the name used for several processes by which words,

pictures or designs are produced on paper, fabrics, metal or other suitable material. Based on the

various definitions, the researcher would like to define printing as the act of introducing

impressions or design, on a suitable surface.


However in rotary printing, a similar impression is expected. In view of this, designing a

manual on rotary printer (press) for the School of Applied Arts would be recurs so that teaching

and learning becomes effective.

Multiple Holder

There is little definition on Multiple Holder. However the researcher would like to separate

the phrase and review them accordingly. Thesaurus Dictionary (2010) defines multiple as a several

or many individuals. Merriam Webster (1828) holder also defines as a device that holds. As a

whole, the researcher wants to point that multiple holder it can hold two or more objects.


Oxford Advance Learner Dictionary (2002) defines rotary as moving in a circle around a

central fixed point and the World Book Encyclopedia (1994) also defines rotary as Turning like a

top or wheel.

In short, the researcher is of the view that rotary is an electronic manual device which turns

at a pivoted point of an object.


Oxford illustrated Encyclopedia (2004) printer is seen as an output device for providing

printed text and sometimes graphic image and text. The Oxford Advance Learner Dictionary

(2002) also defines printer as a machine for printing text onto a paper. The World Book

Encyclopedia (1994) defines printer as an instrument or appliance use for printing whiles the All

Nations English Dictionary (2002) also defines printer as a device that print.

These definitions have a similar idea where by they specifically emphasize on the general

printing by a machine. In that case it becomes obvious that the main function of a printer is for


With regards to the definitions above, the researcher would like to give a working definition

for rotary printer. Rotary Printer can be defined as an electronic manual device which turns at a

pivoted point of an object in order to make a print.


Designing is the most important aspect of any creative work done. But before looking at

the various definitions, the researcher would consider the following simple passage written by Sir

M. Finniston (1987) he says that, designing is the performing of a very complicated act of

faith.The World Book Encyclopedia (1994) defines design as the organized arrangement of

materials to satisfy a functional or artistic purpose. Also the Encyclopedia Americana(2002)

defines design as the first plan of a large work drawn roughly and in small-scale.

The definition above is clear, since it elaborates on the first idea of a work, the layout and

the preliminary composition of the work. It continuous to explain that, before a large work is done,

it has to be designed in a small-scale or layout before enlarged.

Amenuke et al (1991) opine that, design is a plan within a work of art or the organization,

arrangement or composition of a work. Jones (2002) says that, the effect of design is to initiate

change in man-made things.


In view of the above, the researcher would like to conclude that design could be the

conceptional process by which some functional requirement of people or individual is satisfied

through the use of a product or a system which derives from the physical

transaction of the concept. The definition emphasizes that designing concerns the conceptional

process which brings product or a system into being. The researcher will therefore employ this

principle in the work, so that something worthwhile would be achieved.


Vista manual printer (MUHAMAD AIZUDDIN BIN RUSLEE)

The most popular professionals features are combined in RANAR Vista multi-colour

printer to produces the best outcome of silkscreen process. RANAR Vista printer can operate for

a long period of time nonstop with the same outcome.

There are some disadvantages of using RANAR Vista printer. Firstly, the stamping process

still needs to be done manually by human. Like had been state in the previous chapter, human is

physically and mentally fatigue when doing something repeatedly. Secondly, the printer only can

stamp six shirts at a time. The stamped shirts need to be removed and new shirt must be inserted

to start the new stamping process. A lot of time can be save if the insert and remove shirt process

is no need to be done. Furthermore, the price of RANAR Vista printer is too expensive for small

silkscreen company. Last but not least, a big space is needed to place the printer and the printer is

difficult to be movable due to the printer size and weight.

Full Automatic Nonwoven Silk Screen Printing Machine


This machine operates automatically. Stamping, drying and collecting process is

automatically operates by the machine. The machine also can stamp on various size of stuff.

Silkscreen printing machine is very powerful silkscreen machine. It produces very high quality

products. The main problem is the machine is too expensive and cannot be affordable by small

silkscreen printing company. Furthermore, a very big place is needed to put the machine because

the size of the machine is big. Lastly, the machine is difficult to movable.