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How to make the Philosopher's Stone
Despite what books may say, the Philosopher's Stone is not a secret. You don't have to spend your
entire life reading alchemy manuscripts and trying to decode symbolic languages. A great deal of
alchemists plainly revealed paths to the Stone.
By: NDC1

Text Size: +
Print Article
Difficulty: Challenging
Tips & Warnings:
For more information I have a website with over 100 photos of my lab work.
There are a few alchemists who have been doing alchemy for decades and still haven't made the stone
beacuse they believe everything alchemy books tell them. And there are for more misinformation books than
correct ones. One such person is named Rubellus, and he claims this process won't work and said 'real'
alchemists would laugh at this method. Well laugh all you want old man! REal alchemits, or people who've
studied alchemy literature will most certainly understand the reality of this method. It is the arrogant people
who think they are so well learned who will dismiss this processes as hogwash.
The antimony you use can't be just metal from a store. It needs to be the Star Regulus of antimony beacuse
the iron in that process gives it energy. I will have an article posted about how to make it.
Antimony is poisonous, especially when it's smoking and fuming. This process must not be performed unless
you are familiar with distillation and you have fume hood properly installed.
Zinc is also poisonous in free ionic form, and that's exactly what form it's in when you distill the zinc acetate.
You must make it impossible for the fumes to ever reach your nose. All fumes must exit through the fume
hood and not enter into the space of the laboratory.
Do NOT ingest this tincture unless until you have it assayed to ensure no antimony or zinc is present.
DISCLAIMER: This information is for educational purposes only. Consume tincture at your own risk. I advise
you to test it on lab mice first to ensure it's safety.
Step 1
Large zinc acetate crystals formed by slow dryingPRIME MATERIA:
All american pennies from 1982 onward contain zinc coated with copper. Take a file and score
open 4 spots around the edges. Do this to 50 pennies, then put them in a gallon of vinegar. After a
few days, the zinc will be dissolved, but the copper casing will remain. Filter and save the vinegar.
(The pennies should also be cleaned prior to placing them in the vinegar). You can also just buy
some zinc; it's pretty cheap. You then will need to evaporate the vinegar. The slower you evaporate,
the larger the crystals will be. Using only 100F is hot enough.
Step 2
Zinc oxide forming on the walls of the distillation flask like snowPHILOSOPHICAL MERCURY:
Place the crystals in a distillation flask, and heat until a white fog appears. This is acetone and zinc
fumes. If you use too much zinc acetate, more smoke will be created than your condenser can
handle, so don't use too much at once. It's essential to keep the condensers cold with ice water.
The fog will condense into a golden water, and zinc oxide flowers will form on the condenser walls.
After it's all done, the zinc in the distillation flask will be ashes, and will smell aweful. Pour the liquid
from the reciever flask back into the distillation flask with the zinc, and redistill. Do this several
times. Then wash out the condenser and attachment arm with the golden water solvent. You will
see a red oil form on the surface of the solvent. Collect and save this. It is the Philosophical Mercury
which dissolves gold without violence. It is red, just like metallic mercury is when in a vacuum like a
thermometer. It is the only chemical which dissolves gold, yet can be touched by the human skin
without harm. It's a special form of mesityl oxide created by the condenstation reaction of the
acetone fumes. This process was originally published in an alchemy book in the 12th century, but
wasn't published in scientific texts until the 19th century. That's just all the more proof of what a
treasure this was since they kept is secret for that long.
Step 3
Gold dissolving in the red oil (Philosophical Mercury)DISSOLUTION & VOLITLIZATION:
Place some gold leaf in this red Philosophical Mercury oil. In less than 4 hours it will dissolve. Distill
out the solvent, and some of the gold will go with it into the reciever. Pour it back into the distillation
flask and repeat until all of the gold goes over with the solvent. This volatizes the gold.
Step 4
Now distill the out the Philosophical Mecury solvent using very gentle heat of only 120F, and then
gold will remain behind as a gum. Take this resinous gum and put it in a fresh clean distillation
system, and heat it until it vaporizes and sublimes in the neck of the apparatus. All that sulbimes is
ready, and all that remains behind must be treated further with the Philosophical Mercury.
Step 5
You can dissolve the sublimed gold in alcohol and drink a few drops for a powerful elixir. But to
multiply it's power further, you must give it more energy. In this case we will use Antimony which is
a magnet of astral energy for the mineral realm. We of course will remove the antimony at the end
because it's poisonous, but it's energy will remain with the gold.
Step 6
Powder the anitmony, and dissolve it with the Philosophical Mercury, then add your gold to the
solution. Now digest this solution in low heat (120 to 130F) in a sealed flask for a few hours. You
must then seperate the solvent from the antimony and gold by distilling it at low temperature, and a
gum again remains behind.
Step 7
Now you need to get the antimony out. One way to do this is to heat the gum until a white smoke
sublimes which is the antimony. With just a little more heat, the gold sublimes, so you must be
careful. Sometimes the alchemists would use a hot copper sheet for this purpose. Once you have
the antimony removed, you can have the remaining resin assayed to ensure it contains no trances
of antimony. If it contains only gold, then you can dissolve it in alcohol to make a tincture.
Step 8
The antimony multiplies the power of the stone by 10 fold with each uniting and seperation. If you
consume anything beyond the first multiplication, it will kill you. Even though the assay shows
nothing but harmless gold, the tincture contains energy that will burn and 'fire' the body. After the
first multiplication, the 2nd and 3rd, 4th etc. are only good for transmutation of metals to gold.
My website
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NDC1 said
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on 6/17/2008 Rubellus is a lost old man who has been trying to make the stone for decades without
any success. He has 3 forums, and nobody has made the stone on any of them. I have 1 forum,
and several people have made the stone by my dirrections and performed transmutations. I read
the *correct* alchemy books, and Rubellus raeds the symbolic ones and misinterprets them. He
calls me a charlatan. Anyone with common sense who looks at my website will see the sincerity in
what I write. For those who are stbborn old fools, they will never make the stone, even with simple
step by step dirrections like these. Rubellus is always quick to talk trash about every alchemy
process someone else presents, and then he posts his useless website link. I'm very glad that so
far the only people with the common sense to make the stone are the GOOD people.

NDC1 said
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on 6/13/2008 Archemy huh? It's actually the very first european alchemy process to ever be written,
which was back in the 13th century by Hollandus.
ducation Other Continuing Education How to make the Elixir of Life


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How to make the Elixir of Life

By NDC1, eHow Member

Rate: (8 Ratings)
Here the easy path to the Elixir of Life is revealed. So many alchemy books only detail how to make
the stone through the use of dangerous acids and corrosives, but on this earth there are 2 elements
with which the whole art of alchemy can begin -- The Sun and the Moon.

The solar rays shine down on the sea water covering the vast majority of the earth, and the power
condenses in the sea salt itself. This is our Philosophical Gold or condensed sunlight.

The lunar rays condense in the morning dew mists, and this is our Philosophical Silver, or
condensed moonlight.

We simply combine above with below --- the dew of the air with the sea salt of the ocean -- and the
universal spirit is obtained, which not only can be ingested but also dissolves all metals radically
and without violence or release of any toxic gases.

Truly this path is one of the most beautiful in all the works of alchemy. Some people have theorized
that morning dew contains ammonium nitrate and this plus the chlorine from the salt makes a weak
Aqua Regia that dissolves the gold, but that is erroneous. Acid is not magically formed by just
digesting two salts together in water. To make nitric acid, you have to dissolve a nitrate salt in
sulfuric acid and condense the vapors. And even if a nitrate salt and common table salt could
dissolve gold slowly, that still doesn't explain how this Alkahest works because it dissolves the
metal INSTANTLY, not gradually.
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Difficulty: Easy

Things Youll Need:

Morning Dew
Sea Salt
1 gram pure 24 karat gold leaf ($30)
Champagne bottle with screw top cork ($10)
Heating pad from pharmacy or drug store ($15)
portable electric hotplate from Walgreens or hardware store($10)
Total cost: $65
Step 1
First you will need to collect your morning dew. By simply placing a bag of ice in an empty pitcher,
you can collect around 100ml of water if you place it outside at 1am, then take it back in before
sunrise. This process is convenient and the water is kept clean.

But the best morning dew is that which is found on the tips of pine needles because it is charged
with extra energy, and it has the added bonus of a lovely aroma. But it's far more painstaking to
collect the droplets this way. You can shake the branches in a bucket and slowly get more and
more dew, and actually collect an entire liter of dew in one morning. It's important that you put your
dew in a bottle and close it as soon as possible, because once the dew reach a higher temperature,
the spirit will begin to escape. Maybe there is a logical chemical explanation for this.

Step 2
Now dissolve raw sea salt in your morning dew water in small increments. If you have 1 liter of dew,
then only 1 tsp should be added each time. After vigorous stirring or shaking, if some salt remains
undissolved, it's almost ready. Wait a few days, each day shaking vigorously, and if after 4 days the
salt still won't dissolve, then it's finally reached it's saturation point. This first step is *crucial*
because for this process to work, the water needs to be completely saturated with salt so that it will
let go of the "Alkahest" and precipitate it as a powder each time you overheat the flask.

Step 3
Pour this salt water into a flask until it's 2/3 full, then seal it and set it into digestion of a Balneo Mary
bath. This means to place the flask in a bowl of water that is heated to around 110 to 120F. A
heating pad from the local pharmacy drug store will warm the bowl enough to accomplish this.

Step 4
After 40 days (a Philosophical Month, 6 weeks) there should be a black powder that has
precipitated to the bottom of the flask, not yet a salt, only a powder.

Step 5
Place the flask in a dry sand bath for 2 weeks at 200F, and the powder on the bottom will
coagulate and become a gray salt, no longer black. A great bottle to substitute for the flask is a
champagne bottle with a screw cap cork because it's designed to handle high pressure.

Step 6
When this happens, makes sure that not more than 2 days pass before you change the flask back
to the low temperature of the Balneo Mary bath. After another 2 weeks pass, the matter will slowly
redissolve into the water and putrefy, then again fall out.

Step 7
Again put the flask in your sand bath, and it will form itself into a salt, which again will be even
lighter in color than before. Repeat this cycle of placing the flask in the Balneo Mary bath and then
in the sand bath, and on the 5th time, it will be snow white, and if you were to take some of it out of
your flask and place it on a hot silver plate, it would melt like wax.

Step 8
But keep the flask sealed, and set it back into the Balneo Mary bath to putrefy once more, and after
enough time has again past, a third of the salt will dissolve into the water. Now filter and set aside
the salt which did not dissolve, and the water is now the Mercury of the Philosopher's and the
Alkahest able to dissolve all metals without violence and bring them to their highest state of

Step 9
This water can be taken at a dose of 5 drops, and it will wonderfully increase your thinking power
and memory, and if administration is continued, it will sharpen your senses until you can both see
and hear the spirit world, and in that way, you will be invited into the true and invisible order of the

Step 10
But to make the Philosopher's Stone from this most blessed and holy salt water, all one need do is
dissolve fine gold or silver leaf in the water, and it dissolves without violence, and without release of
gasses which proves this is no chemical reaction taking place, and after four days, filter the solution
so the remaining undissolved metal is left behind. And the solution is now supersaturated with the

Step 11
Set it Balneo Mary to putrefy, and treat it as you did before, doing the same simple process of the
water Balneo Mary bath and the coagulations in the dry sand bath. After each digestion in Baleno
Mary then coagulation in the and bath, the stone is multiplied, and each time the work is completed
in half the time, with the 5th coagulation taking only 24 hours. And after the 5th cycle, it will begin to
literally glow and emit it's own light. The stone from gold will glow like a hot coal, and the one from
silver will shine like a liquid florescent lamp. If you attempt to bring it further into the 6th
multiplication or 7th, it will penetrate the glass, causing a terrible poisonous gas odor. If you intend
to bring it further, you must use a quartz flask. (

Step 12
Now melt 5,000 parts of gold or silver (depending on which stone you are working with), and project
on the molten metal one part of your stone (which has been multiplied to the 5th cycle and is
glowing), and leave it in fusion for 1 hour. After you let the crucible cool, you will find a glass-like
substance which has the transmutation strength of 100,000:1.

Tips & Warnings

Note that in the original book "Secret Teachings of All Ages", the author edits the letter and puts in
the word "[to distill]" when there is actually NO distillation what-so-ever in this process. The flask is
simply sealed, then heated at 2 different temperatures in order to dissolve and coagulate the stone.
The entire work itself is nothing but "solve et coagula".
The Elixir of Life is the combination of the Philosopher's Stones from silver and gold, and also the
Alkahest itself which you have made from dew and salt. Already when ingested alone at the dosage
of 5 drops (just once then wait) you will be completely renewed and changed forever. Since you will
make the Alkahest long before your stone from gold will be ready, you will have plenty of time to
appreciate these changes taking place inside you before you ingest the Philosopher's Stone. The
Alkahest is what increases your psychic perception and ability to communicate with the spirit world,
and the Philosopher's Stone alone can not accomplish this; the stone acts mainly as a healing
agent of the body and keeps it continually renewed and youthful for the duration of your life. This is
because the stone is only a medicine the Alkahest has made from a metal -- it is merely the
Alkahest itself specified to the particular metal, and that narrows down it's power to a more specific
task, but in doing so, it also cause that specific power to be increased. So the stones made from
metals can do certain things better than what the Alkahest does alone. A stone made from your
own blood and the Alkahest will likewise be able to work miracles neither the Alkahest alone nor the
tinctures from metals can perform.
The Stone can be ingested as a medicine, but only when it's in the 1st order. In the 2nd and 3rd
multiplications it will 'fire' the body and bring a very painful death. And the projection powder must
NEVER be ingested, and is only useful on metals.
Do NOT touch the stone when it has been multiplied to the glowing stage
The use of the Elixir of Life will bring you into contact with your Guide, and if you choose to abuse
your gifts and power, then your Guide will abandon you, and leave you to self-destruct.
My website
My Youtube channel
My book that explains more about this processes with dew
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barticus said

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on 2/7/2009 to collect dew hang a tarp up like a roof but let the middle sag down and put a hole in it
and a bucket underneth. Google collecting dew and you will see

sophia25 said

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on 1/30/2009 How many grams of gold did you create based on this recipe?

NDC1 said

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on 1/18/2009 Download the book for free or buy the softcover to read more about this process.

JoeAnthony said

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on 12/20/2008 Hey Nick Does the dew have to be collected during a full moon? Thanks

JoeAnthony said

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on 12/17/2008 Hey Nick Would sea salt from the supermarket be ok? Or do i have to go to the sea
amd get sea water to extract the sea salt? Thanks

site is

The 1
few do

the bo


Currently the only book available for

free download or purchasing is "The
Universal Medicine". It's currently in
the 2nd edition, and only 36 pages.
The 3rd eidtion will have photos of
the finished glowing White and Red

From the back cover of the book:

"This short booklet shows you step by step

exactly how to make the true Elixir of Life,
which is also the Universal Solvent, able to
dissolve all metals down to their first
matter without violence or any chemical
explanation, and makes the Philosopher's
Stone from any of the metals. Even the
instructions for multiplication of the Stone
are included, and a brief explanation of
how to make the "Powder of Projection" for transmutation.
A single gram of the glowing Philosopher's Stone made from gold is worth over 16
billion dollars US. This is why nobody has ever revealed it in a book.

Using nothing more than Morning Dew and sea salt digested in a flask for many
weeks, anyone can make the true Elixir of Life. Hence the reason the word
Rosicrucian means Ros = dew and Crucis = crucible or flask. And they signed their
letters with F.R.C. which most people assumed meant Fratres Rosi Crucis (Brothers
of the Rose Cross) but in fact means Fratres Roris Cocti (Brothers of the concocted
or perfected dew). And the Order of the Golden Dawn also alludes to morning
dew, as well as the Order of the Morning Star.

With just one dose of 5 drops of this heavenly elixir, your mind is enhanced and
your heart opened. And gradually, the gateway to psychic perception is also
opened until all knowledge is revealed to you like a day dream.

Seems completely impossible that it could be this easy, but you will indeed have
this treasure of treasures.

Welcome to the good life..."

BUY NOW $14 US or Download FREE!

Books by
Nicholas D. Collette

With 4 new
chapters, and
double the pages
More information
was also added to
chapters, and
many errors

Number of copies
sold of 2nd edition
since Feb. 10th,
2010 =

YES! The Holy Grail is real! After 12 years of

researching alchemy manuscripts and trying every
different method under the sun to make the fabled
"Philosopher's Stone" and Elixir of Life, I finally got
on the right path which doesn't use acids or
dangerous chemical concoctions to dissolve metal
into a fasle "tincture". I wrote this book to
show seven processes for making the Philosopher's
Stone and Elixir of Life aka "Fountian of Youth" by
the method shown on the Notre Dame Cathedral and
in the famous 17th century wordless picture book
"Mutus Liber". Three of the processes use Morning
Dew, and three use "Golden Water", or
"Philosophical Dew", and one uses blood. Each of
the processes are generally the same method, just in
varying complexities.

This book has absolutely nothing to do with bogus

"white powder gold" or "monatomic gold". David
Hudson was a fraud, and room temperature
monatomic superconductors don't exist. Every
chemist who has reproduced Hudson's patents and
had the compounds tested during each stage of the
work has proven that his patents are nothing more
than an extremely inefficient way of producing
normal gold hydroxide. Hudson
simply mislabled the compounds in his patents,
using "marketing phraseology" to sell gold hydroxide
at insanely high prices. The reason his patent was
denied in the US is because he refused to correct his
terms and label the compounds as they are known
and identified in modern chemistry. If you are one of
the poor fools who buys white powder gold from
sketchy internet dealers who won't even show you
their faces, and can't prodvide an XPS annalysis of
their powders, then its time for you
to STOP ingesting that unidentifed "mystery
powder". Don't waste another dollar of your hard
earned money on that useless nonsense! Make the
true Elixir of Life as its depicted on the awe-inspiring
Cathedral of Notre Dame. Once you use the real
elixir, you will never buy white powders from
conartist internet salesmen again.

This book is about real alchemy, that produces

the true Elixir of Life by the simplest and most
ancient method. This is the cure-all that will destroy
the pharmaceutical industry. The companies that
dominate the countries of this world will be driven
into the ground by the revolution that arises from
this knowledge becoming well known to the general
public. The Covenant of Silence has finally been
broken, and the world will never be the same again.
No longer will this powerful medicine remain in the
hands of elite secret societies.

The entire world will now be able to make this elixir,

not just members of the Rosicrucian, Freemason, or
Golden Dawn orders.Click here to read more about
this book.

The 3rd edition will be in hard copy format with no

electronic version available. I chose to save the
photos for that edition,because there is less of a
chance the photos will be passed around the web,
and disrespected in the process.

While my heart desired to make this book available

for free download, the experience of having my last
book for free download has taught me that people
simply don't appreciate or respect eBooks they
obtain for free. The price for this book is only $11
USD, and the information it contains is obviously
worth infinately more. If a person is unwilling to pay
such a small fee for this book, then I don't believe
they have the desire to learn the alchemy processes
it contains. So please refrain from sending this book
to friends via email; if they are meant to have the
book, then they will pay the eleven dollars for it. If
you are planning to send the book to friends, then
be sure to increase the quantity you buy at check-

Later editions of the book will only be sold as hard

copies; there won't be an electronic version for
download. This book is only available here as an
eBook for a limited time.

Having the Elixir of Life is just like having a secret

cheat code to the game of life. You get to have super
powers normal people can only dream about. You
get to stay young while everyone else goes through
the horror of old age, watching themselves slowly
decay, taking a dozen different perscription drugs
every day, drowning in endless hospital bills. You get
to live a nice long life with plenty of time to
accomplish everything you wanted to do, while
normal people barely have time to enjoy life before
its over. You get to be like an immortal God amongst
mere mortals. Just be sure to keep your ego in
check and don't get arrogant! Don't look down on
the normal people around you and see them as
lesser people just because they don't know about
alchemy and don't have the psychic powers you will
have developed; don't pity them. They are all very
special, and a lot of them posses talents and skills
the Elixir of Life can never give you.on demand"
which means it's not created until someone places
an order. Please allow 4 to 6 weeks for delivery. If
you have any problems with your book order, or
wish to cancel your order after placing it, then
please contact customer service. I don't
have anything to do with the shipping of the books
or the payment transactions. I just receive a certain
royalty from Qoop on a quartly basis.
This book explains in
detail the process of
using the lucid dream
state of consciousness
to contact your "Higher
Mind" and go through
the great 'Ascension'. All
through history
thousands of techniques
have been developed in
an effort to cause
'enlightenment' or
'awareness' and even
religion itself stems from that search for the "Higher
Mind" aka "GOD".

There are many ways to achieve the Ascension and

become a powerful being, but it doesn't have to take
a lifetime of daily meditation for you to achieve that
transcendental state of mind. There is indeed a
'short-cut' you can take to get there faster, and it
involves nothing more than lucid dreaming. Just by
saying certain phrases aloud in a lucid dream, you
can cause drastic changes to happen to your
subconscious mind. And you will immediately feel
the powerful 'kundalini' energy take you over in the
form of electricity, which is so powerful itu feels like
it might even kill you! That's the type of extreme
energy you're going to feel when you do the process
detailed in this book. That electrical sensation was
known by many names in ancient times before the
discovery of electricity -- prana, chi, kundalini, and
many others.

But since you can only achieve but so much using

'inner alchemy' and the lucid dreaming Ascension
technique, I also include instructions and photos of
how to make the true "Philosopher's Stone" via the
'Great Wet Way' which uses powerful sulphuric acid
and hydrochloric acid to dissolve iron and stibnite
(antimony trisulphide). The advantage to this
process is that works via chemistry and the power
contained in the iron metal, so it doesn't rely on
subtle energy from morning dew like the methods in
my "Covenant of Silence" book. But the simplicity
and ease of the process has its drawbacks as well,
the most dangerous being the distillation of sulfuric
acid. That acid becomes literally a billion time more
reactive and dangerous when heated up to only
100F, which is the temperature you keep it at during
the long digestion phase of the work. But when
distilling it, you have to heat it up until the flask is
nearly glowing red-hot because the acid is like a
syrup when the water has been distilled away, and
it's extremely hard to distill. That's why the work in
this book is provided as a documentation only, and
not an official process that is intended to be
followed. Obviously this limits the people who will
actually be able to carry out this work and duplicate
the results which I've photographed for the book,
and therefore makes the releasing of this
information less of a concern.
I already provide the ridiculously easy paths to
making the Philosopher's Stone and Elixir of Life in
"Covenant of Silence", and very few people attempted
those methods, which makes no sense at all to me.
So if they didn't even do the simple distillation of
water from morning dew, and some paths in that
book don't even require distillation, then obviously
not many people will do the dangerous task of
working with sulfuric acid. But I included in the
book along with photos because it's one of the first
paths I discovered myself, and I saw photos of the
entire process posted on a website in French or
German, and now I've lost the address and never
said those photos either, which is a terrible shame.
That was over a decade ago, and I didn't realize what
I had found. Now I think it's important to put that
process in a book with the photos to make it very
clear to anyone who's searching for the Stone that
this is indeed a process worth pursuing, and they
should understand why it works.

I do more in this book than just give the step by step

instructions on the process -- I also explain why the
path works and what enables the energy contained
in the iron to pass into the antimony and then
become the Philosopher's Stone. I explain how the
Dry Path which is much faster and easier involves
the iron and stibnite as well, and it's so incredibly
simple that I'll eventually be selling paintings
depicting the process and only the buyer of the
original painting will receive the explanation of the
hidden alchemy codes in the painting. The Dry Path
is so fast and easy that it should never be given to
the world at large, but I do explain it enough in this
book that anyone who's been researching alchemy
long enough will understand how to proceed with it.

So several great treasures are contained within the

pages of this book, and hope you'll enjoy it and
prosper infinitely by it. This book truly has the
power to change your life and enable you to
experience a side to reality you never even knew
existed. I only wish I could explain how much more
beautiful the world becomes for those who have

PLEASE NOTE: This book is still in the printing

process due to the fact it's had many errors so far
that needed correcting, as well as many other delays
in getting it completed. I should have a link for it to
be sold at posted here sometime next

This is an elixir produced from gold

which has been empowered and
charged up using a special
alchemical process. The gold is
then made into gold chloride
crystals which are then reduced
using sodium citrate to create a
colloidal gold suspension in water.
Then a special spirit of dew is added and the two
solutions are digested together to form the final
elixir. It's not as powerful as the elixir made from the
multiplied Philosopher's Stone, but it's still much
more powerful than any normal colloidal gold.
Regular colloidal gold is made using gold that hasn't
been brought through an alchemical process, so its
essentially "dead" gold.

Comes in a 2oz cobalt blue glass bottle with dropper.

The solution is concentrated and should be diluted
in the ratio of 1oz elixir to 1 liter of water or white
wine. The dosage is then 1 tablespoon per day.

As with all products in this catalog, please allow 3 to

4 weeks handling time before shipment even though
it probably won't take more than a week to ship once
I get going. Currently my credit card merchant
account is down, so I can't process cards at this
time. When you go through the shopping cart and
enter your information, it will send me an email to
notify me that you'd like to place an order. You will
also be sent a confirmation that your order has been
submitted for processing, but it is NOT a receipt.
The only way to make a payment to me is via check
or money order sent to my PO BOX address, or by
using a MoneyPak card. You pay for the card with
cash, and it's sold at most local 7-11 gas stations
and Walgreens or Rite-Aids in the USA and in some
European contries. Then all you do is email me the
code on the back of the card, and I'm able to
instantly transfer the money to my account. The
card itself is $5, but you can deduct that from the
total of your order. It's very important you complete
the checkout process through the shoping cart first
so you can see what the handling charges are for
you order and get a correct total. And it also sends
me your order information with shipping address,
and I store those emails in a special folder so they
are taken care of in the order in which they're

$221.95 per bottle

Quantity: 1

via the Volpierre path

This is the true

Philosopher's Stone
of the 1st Order,
created by the
Volpierre path detailed in the above book
"Ascension". This elixir passes the test of
transmutation, and that is why the price is so high.
Comes with a booklet explaining how to use it
The Alchemist's

I'm currently working on

another book which will
around 100 photos of
my other lab work,
showing all the paths I
wandered down before I
finally found the simple
Morning Dew path,
brilliantly displayed
with a giant sky of
starlight on the
entrance to the Notre
Dame Cathedral. One day it just "screamed" at me
and I had the grand epiphany that alchemists were
meant to have when they gaze upon the sculptures
of that building long enough. The sky full of stars
was symbolizing the common alchemical belief
which involves the idea of star light being the
cause/source of morning dew fog, falling from
heavens to feed the earth and create all the minerals
and metals in the ground. It is the "seed" of all
metals. Back then, every alchemist who discovered
the Elixir on thier own, without the help of any
books (because such books were hard to find back
then and kept in private collections or libraries
reserved for the upper class) came to that realization
during the early morning hours, after staying up all
night working on failed experiments. As the sun was
just starting to peak over the hills, and morning dew
fog was gently illuminated in all its heavenly glory,
the Alchemist comes to understand what the "Prime
Materia" is for starting the Great Work. Any amount
of investigation with dew using the alchemical
practices of distillation and digestion will yield
positive results eventually, when the dew itself
suddenly attains the incredible power to dissolve
gold, the hardest of all things to dissolve in nature.
Dissolving gold with water is no small feat, and
nothing short of a miracle.

In the 17th century the book "Mutus Liber" meaning

"Silent Book" was created as 15 plates of artwork
depicting a husband & wife team of Alchemists
gathering dew and rain water to create the material
need to dissolve gold and silver for making the Red
and White medicines respectively. The instructions
are so clear, that anyone who spent enough time
studying the book would eventually achieve success
with making the Stone. In my other book, "Covenant
of Silence", I have a chapter which decodes this book
in plain step by step instructions for the first time in
nealry 400 years. But I had the help of the rare easy
to understand alchemy manuscripts from private
collections which were never intended to be
publicized. Thanks to Hanz Nintzel and his team of
world-wide hermetic researchers, those manuscripts
were put in a book and made available for the
modern world as a one large PDF file. It is from that
book, "Potpouri Alchemia", that I learned most of
what I know about the dew path, and all the texts
were written in the 1700s by alchemists living in
different countries, yet all had become aware of how
to work with dew. It's a secret you don't find in any
well publicized book for 2000 years, until now. Each
alchemist had a different way of working with dew,
as you will read in my "Covenant of Silence" book,
and some made the work harder than it needed to
be, while others didn't know how to complete the
work, or didn't dare write down the final steps. But
my book sets everything striaght, laying plain the
most highly gaurded secret path of Alchemy -- The
Morning Dew work.

My "Alchemist's Notebook" shows many of the

incorrect paths I dabbled in before my
"enlightenment". From distillations of mercury with
other metals to "animate" it, to dry distillations of
zinc acetate to produce acetone mixed other strange
chemicals that somehow dissolved gold, you will see
just how long and arduous my journey has been,
and ironically at the end, the process that works
doesn't even require a lab or any chemicals at all,
and no understanding of chemistry. In fact, real
Alchemy has very little to do with chemistry, if
anything at all, as no amount of chemical tests can
help determine what the strange energy we
concentrate and condense to a minimum of matter
actually is. Nor can it explain how the sweet salt of
dew is able to dissolve gold in such a harmless, non-
corrosive, non-oxidizing, and non-acidic

Alchemy is not just the early development of

chemistry techniques. It is a superior science unto
itself and can't be compared to chemistry. It is a
supernatural art that deals with the energies of the
spirit world, binding those energies into a physical
vessel so they can be worked with in the lab. For a
long time I thought there would be a simple
chemical explanation for how gold and other metals
are transformed into these powerful medicinal
substances, and they would have a chemical
formula. But that is simply not how alchemy works.
Chemical analytics are utterly useless for trying to
figure out what is happening in an alchemical
reaction. That is why I'm not worried about the elixir
ever becoming patented or mass produced; its
impossible to come up with a chemical synthesis.

More informtion about the book
Ever wish there was a magical elixir that could keep you young and
wrinkle free your whole life, help you develop psychic ability, and let you
live longer than anyone in recorded history, and eradicate disease? Well
such an elixir does indeed exist! And I'm going to tell you how to make it
in 6 different ways!

Throughout the ages, this elixir has been kept secret from the public.
The alchemists who knew about it always wrote down the instructions
and kept them in a little book with the rest of their alchemy books. They
never intended their secret little books to be published and read by
hundreds of thousands of people. They also never dreamed information
would be so easy to share and pass around the world instantly by using
the magic of the Internet.

Now when you research old alchemy manuscripts, you find thousands of
books to look through, and how are you supposed to find the correct way
to make the true Elixir of Life? Most of the books are laced with
symbolism, and nearly impossible to decipher with any accuracy. The
task of finding this treasure is an enormous undertaking for the modern
day student of the art. Ironically, we are spoiled rotten with the wealth
of alchemy knowledge at our fingertips, but we are also overwhelmed
from having too much available to us.

Over the last twelve years of doing research into alchemy, I dreamed of
the day someone from the Rosicrucian Order or some other secret
society would come along and end my suffering by sending me a book
that clearly explains how to make the Elixir of Life. I would have given
just about anything for a book like that. But a person like that never
showed up, and I was left alone to find my way through the alchemy
maze without any assistance from the "higher-ups".

Finally I found the answer to my questions in some old 17th and 18th
century alchemy texts from the library of rare alchemy
texts. These manuscripts were hand written and never published -- only
a single copy of each one ever existed, and they remained locked in the
library of private collectors until the RAMS team translated them to
English and made copies for their collection back in the 1980s. There is
no better source for rare alchemy manuscripts than the
collection, but it costs $50US to receive those CDs with all the books
scanned into digital format, and the amount of books is so great that it
still causes the researcher to get lost.

In my book "Covenant of Silence", I break the silence and secrecy that

has enshrouded the elixir for so many hundreds of years by describing 6
methods of making the true Philosopher's Stone, from which the Elixir of
Life is prepared. Some of the methods are easy enough for virtually
anyone to follow, and there is no lab or chemistry equipment needed. My
heart sympathizes with all the alchemists who are tortured day after day
as they wander aimlessly through the never-ending alchemy library on
the web.

Alchemy books leave you spell-bound by telling you all the wonderful
things the elixir can do, and how marvellous it is to behold its glory in
your own hands. Why can't you have it? Surely you deserve it just as
much as those old alchemists, right? Why does this endless teasing
never stop? Well now it will stop, and you will have your Elixir! The
search for the Elixir is over, and a new chapter starts in your life today --
you are going to transmute your inner self from lead into gold!
All of the processes in my book are related to each another, and they all
follow the same basic rules; a universal solvent in the form of a special
crystalline salt is formed from various natural sources or "prime
materials", and this "solvent" is able to dissolve metals like acid, but
without corrosion or violence. There is no chemical explanation as to
how this is achieved, because there is nothing present in the salt that
should be able to dissolve metals like gold and silver. But the solvent
does its job, despite the seemingly impossible task it may appear to be,
and converts the metal into a glass-like substance that is water soluble,
and no longer assays or tests to be metal. This is the most mysterious
substance in the universe, and when modern science finally discovers it,
the technology created to utilize its power will be revolutionary.

This is NOT monatomic gold or "ormus", and it is NOT colloidal gold. This
material eventually begins to glow by its own light, yet releases no
radiation of any kind (except of course electromagnetic radiation at the
frequency of visible light). This material is everything David Hudson
wishes his fake "monatomic gold" actually was. Do NOT waste your
money buying bottles of fake "white powder gold" or "ormus" from all
those con-artists out there on the web. Hopefully one day the FDA will
do something about those degenerates selling gold hydroxide and other
poisons as a fake Philosopher's Stone.

This elixir I describe in my book is the REAL deal. I'm not allowed to say
what diseases this Holy medicine might be able to cure, nor should I, but
soon enough its powers will be known to many people all over the world
and disease will be totally eradicated from the face of the planet, and old
people with worn down bodies and wrinkly skin will be something of the
forgotten past, only told about in fictional story books.

All throughout history, as long as alchemy existed, there also existed con
men who sold fake elixirs and tinctures at the apothecary drug stores,
containing poisonous gold chloride and other toxins. And now even in
modern times, with the return of real alchemy also comes the return of
false alchemy. Countless websites exist that sell bottles of white
powder, containing a mix of sodium and calcium compounds and
poisonous gold hydroxide. And indeed even colloidal gold is a false elixir
of alchemy; it was sold as "potable gold" or the "tincture of gold"
hundreds of years ago in apothecary drug shops, and now its sold on the
internet as the "Red Lion" and ultimate elixir of gold. Do NOT be fooled
into buying any of that nonsense! And do NOT believe anyone who
claims they are selling an elixir made by the methods in my book! They
are liars and con-artists!
The methods for making the elixir in my book are taken from a collection
of old 17th and 18th century alchemy manuscripts that are so rare, only
a few copies ever existed. Thanks to Hanz Nintzel who banded together
a team of alchemists all over the world in the 70s and 80s, those rare
manuscripts were translated into English and put into a collection of
other rare books, which are now online in digital form at

This is the true Elixir of Life, which rejuvenates the old if they aren't
already too far into their senior years. If a young person takes it before
the onset of old age begins, that person will live the rest of their lives
without even the slightest wrinkle in their skin. They will never look
older than 30, and they will always have the energy of a person the same
age, because they are in fact still young! The aging process doesn't ever
have a chance to start if you take the elixir regularly.

The elixir has the ability to drastically alter the future of this world. We
have a chance to completely eradicate disease alltogether on this planet.
And with the average human life expectancy dramatically multiplied
several times over by this elixir, people will start to care a lot more about
the future of this world, and will work harder to find ways to save it,
since we will all be around to see it come to an end if we don't change
our ways.

It may have made sense to keep the Elixir a secret during the early
stages of human development, but now it is time to reveal this treasure
of treasures to the world at large. The Covenant of Silence has been
broken, and its time for the world to know what alchemists have known
for thousands of years.

I, Nicholas D. Collette, am here to show you the way to the good life. I
searched tirelessly over the last 12 years to find the right way of making
the Elixir which used natural sources and remained pure and true to the
tradional ways of alchemy, without using modern made chemicals and
acids, and I was rewarded for all my effort. I asked for guidance, and I
was indeed led down the correct path by my spirit guide. Whenever I
started to wander, she put me back on track with her perfect words of
wisdom, always making sure I kept my eyes on the prize and never gave
up, even though at times I so dearly wanted to.

So now instead of keeping this knowledge a secret like so many others

before me, I instead choose to share it with all those who are led into my
world. You will follow the white rabbit, and you will stay in wonderland
and see just how incredibly deep this rabbit hole goes. You will be
forever grateful that I have given you the keys to Heaven & Earth; but
don't praise me for this gift -- praise God for his grace that he has
granted it to you, because it was God who led you down the path which
ended here, with the white rabbit waiting to show you an entire world
beneath the one you know so well. This is a world unlike anything you
ever imagined, where dreams come true and thoughts become solid, and
desires manifest themselves quicker than you can prepare for them.
Choose your wishes wisely dear reader, for this book grants you more
than you would ever expect a book could grant someone. The
instructions it contains have the power to create that impossible object
of fantasy -- the fabled Philosopher's Stone.



This website is for those people who are already "in the know" with regard to
alchemy and it's Great Work. If you are unfamiliar with alchemy, read these articles.

This website is for sharing the knowledge of alchemy processes with those who
have been searching hard and diligently through the alchemy maze, and have yet
to reach any reward. My heart sympathizes with their tortuous journey, and so I
have provided this treasure for them to discover amongst all the nonsense that
clutters the shelves in an Alchemy Library. For as long as the lot of the
Philosophers remains a small one, it is far from a happy place. There aren't enough
people succeeding because there is no one to lend a helping hand. But my hand
extends to you now, and the gifts I offer will grant you more than you dared ever
hope for.

There are over 100 photos on this website (not inlcuding the artwork section). And
hundreds more will be added. Some internet browsers load pages faster by
displaying the images in lower quality. If these photos don't appear sharp and
crisp, then your browser settings may need to be changed.

ver archive Alchemy Key

There are severals ways to work with antimony and draw out it's special energy. The sub-
menus on the left will show you 4 different paths. One with acids, one with bases, one
with antimony trichloride, and one with dry amalgamations.

*WARNING: The mineral stibnite (antimony trisulfide) usually often contains dangerous
contaminants like aresenic. It's therefor better to use pure antimony trichloride purchased
from a chemical supplier.

The path using acid creates a beautiful display of colors, and produces the most attractive
stone at the end. It also produces a Philosophical Mercury and 3 volatile salts which
dissapear from a sealed flask if they are not kept in their own water. They are a wonder of
science because they posses properties of the metals they were made from, yet they don't
test as being the metal. One salt is yellow, one is white, and one is silver. The yellow is
from the sulfur, and the white is from the iron. The white also aligns itself in a north-south
dirrection because it's magnetic just like the iron it was made from. The silver salt is only
formed once the Philosophical Mercury appears, and it is antimony which is no longer
poisonous but now a powerful medicine instead. When these 3 salts are united, a beautiful
red stone is formed which glitters and sparkles like nothing else on earth; a most precious
jewel to own.

The antimony trichloride path takes just as long as the acid path, and produces impressive
displays of color as well. But the process is much more dangerous, and the end
product can be contaminated with antimony and poisonous gold chloride.

The alkaline path which uses bases to extract a red juice from antimony ore is quick and
efficient, but produces no color displays and leaves much to be desired. It also may
contain antimony metal in the end.

The dry path is quickest way to make a stone which passes the test, but using it as a
medicine for the human organism would be foolish since it contains mercury. But still, it
will perfect metals, and makes plants grow extremely fast. And instead of antimony,
radioactive metals like uranium can be used in this dry path, and the mercury absorbs
their energy. The mercury is then fixed with sulfur and made into a red powder which has
extremely strong effects if one were so brave as to have a taste. But it's a mistake to try
and consumer a stone made by any of these processes if you have multiplied their power.

All of these processes come from different sources. Each is unique in it's time of
development in the history of alchemy. On each page I explain where the process came
from and give credit where credit is due (which is a rare thing in the modern alchemy
world; often I find people who've made their own little website that is nothing but a
plagerism of this one. Every word on this website was type out by me, with the exception
of quotes from older manuscripts).

(Nikolaus Burtschell)

Volpierre was a relatively recent alchemist who figured out how to make the stone
through intuition. His process is so simple, it seems ridiculous. Chemically it makes
no sense and nothing special should be able to come from it. Just by dissolving
metal in an 'artful' manner, a red juice, the Red Lion, can be obtained from any
metal (but antimony is the preffered metal because it contains the most power).

And then once this Red Lion is redistilled 7 times, a white Philosophical Mercury
appears which contains silver particles. In the distillation flask 2 salts are found,
one yellow (sulfur) and one white (iron). The white one forms itself into a north-
south dirrection because it's magnetic like iron should be. But these 3 salts will all
dissapear and evaporate even in a sealed flask, so they must be kept in their own

When these 3 salts are combined, a beautiful red stone is formed, but only after
going through a series of color changes, just like what happened when the metal
was first dissolved with acid.

All of this I have seen before because one person had a website with photos of
every step of this process, but that was several years ago, and he has since
removed it. Most likely because it all too plainly reveals how to make a powerful
stone which can be easily multiplied.

*WARNING: When antimony trisulfide (stibnite) is dissolved in hydrochloric acid,

deadly hydrogen sulfide gas is created. It's therefor essential to leave the flask
outside while doing this procees in case the stopper blows off.

Frater Albertus was a modern alchemist you should be familiar with (see the link in
the 'Study' section of this website) and you should also by now have a copy of all
his Golden Manuscripts series of books. And you would therefor be familiar with
Volpierre's book. If not, you can download the book by clicking here.

Frater Ablertus was teaching a class in Germany and met a man by the name of
Heinz Fischer-Lichtenthal. He gave the frater a copy of Volpierre's book as well as
a copy of his personal notes on exactly how to perform the work. He never
intended either to be published, and never dreamed of the internet and how easily
information would be shared across the globe in the future. But luckily we now
have a copy of his notes, since Volpierre's book is so vague. Those notes are
attached to the book you can download at the above link.

Many foolish and ignorant modern alchemists have convinced themselves a special
solvent needs to be made which dissolves gold, and it is the required key for
making the Philosopher's Stone. And even though I do show the acetate path on
this website, and it produces a special solvent for metals, it is not the one and only
way of making the Stone. Even acids can be used, and they were wonderfully
disguised by many names in alchemy books. And if you never tried making the
Stone with acid, then you would never know that it works and that is indeed what
many alchemist were refferring to when they used terms like "Philosophical
Vinegar" or "Philosophical Wine".
These two photos show a set of twin stibnite crystals that grew together. They are
about 3 inches long and weigh approx. 13 grams. I like the idea of natural
antimony crystals for this process, not just any stibnite ore. The crystals are
extremely beautiful, but also may contain poisons like aresenic. Some people
believe this impurities are what lead to success in this work, but I disagree. Even
commerically bought anitmony sulfide powder can be used.
Even though the crystals seem very hard like steel, they actually crush down to a
powder quite easily. I simply placed them in the mortar and pounded them with
the pestle until the crystals broke like shattered glass into small silvery splinters. I
then rubbed the broken pieces against the mortar by stirring them hard, and a fine
powder formed.

Even though it says in the notes of Heinz Fischer-Lichtenthal that you must use
sulfuric acid prepared by the lead chamber process because normal sulfuric acid is
useless, I now know this is a lie. It was only put in the book to make the whole
process seem impossible to perform using today's sulfuric acid. It is gate to block
the information from ever being used by anyone who isn't smart of enough to
realize it's a lie. It's sort of a test.

All that is important for this work to succeed is that iron filings be placed in the
flask with the antimony. Not only does the iron remove the sulfur from the
antimony but in doing so, it transfers energy to the antimony, much like the dry
Star Regulus process does. And that iron will do it's job even better if it be strongly
magnetized first.
Also, there will Antimony Trichloride formed when the stibnite reacts with the
hydrochloric acid. The side product is deadly hydrogen sulfide which is why
Volpierre used an oversized bottle he could immediately close.

And by doing it that way, he made the process extremely long, lasting months on
end, because he only added acid is small amounts. It produces wonderful color
changes, but is completely uneccessary for success. The process can indeed be
sped up by simply dissolving all of the stibite and iron at once into the Red Lion,
then moving on to the distillation steps.

But if you still wish to see the color changes, then add only small amounts of acid
each time, but leave the bottle or flask open outside. You can then photograph the
color changes, then add the next bit of acid and it will change colors again.

However, even in Volpierre's long digestion method, after the first juice of the Red
Lion is poured off, he then instructs us to add more acid to the remaining metals in
much larger quantities until everything dissolves into a red solution. So you can
see the irony of waiting for months and adding only small amounts of acid each
day, when in the end you are going to dissolve everything with as much acid as it

Many old alchemy books will try and convince you there is a dry way, and a wet
way to the Stone. The wet way takes almost a year or more, and the dry way is
the fast proess that takes only a few hours. And for the dry way the most
commonly used chemical was orpiment (aresinc sulfide), because aresenic can
dissolve gold. But there is no need to work with such deadly poisons in alchemy,
and some dry paths are longer than wet paths. For example, the dry path with
cinnbar, lime, and potash takes over year. And yet this wet path of using acids can
take less than a month.

With the recent ORMUS and ORME David Hudson montaomic elements craze,
many people find themselves using acids to dissolve gold in the way I show in the
section on the pH swing process for calxes. They sell this to people as monatomic
gold, despite the fact it's merely white gold hydroxide, and with books like
Laurence Gardner's, people are lead to believe this calx of gold is the Philosopher's
Stone. And because of how ridiculous of an assumption that is, people who
conisder themselves 'real' alchemists laugh at the idea of using acids in alchemy.
They think their speical solvents and philosophical mercuries are so superior to the
acids because the ORMUS fans have given acids such a bad name.

But here in the Volpierre path we see how to properly use the acids to obtain a red
juice from metals, which after special distillations, the Philosopher's Stone can be
made, and indeed multiplied until it literraly glows like an ember of coal.
...more to be added...


These step by step notes below I wrote thanks to the information provided in "The
Alchemy Key" by Stuart Nettleton. While he assumed the end product would be
nothing but gold chloride, that is not the case, which can be proven by the test of
transmutation. Chemically speaking this makes no sense, but alchemically we
know how nature works and the secret spirit which is contained in the metals, with
antimony being the most potent. But this process would fail if commercial
antimony trichloride were used, or if you made it by dissolving stibnite in
hydrochloric acid, because that would leave out the iron. It is the iron that charges
the antimony, and without it, antimony will no be able to produce the Stone.

Antimony trichloride works by dissolving the gold through direct chlorine ion
transfer. It's a very corrosive and dangerous chemical to work with.

More photos will be added to the steps below.

The First Perfection

This first part is the creation of antimony trichloride, which actually
becomes antimony oxychloride when allowed to absorb moisture from
the air. Antimony expands when cooling, so it's very tricky to deal with
in a distillation system.

While it is a beautiful thing to reproduce the experiment the same way

the alchemists did hundreds of years ago, you have to decide if it's
worth the risk.

1. Mix together 3 parts pulverized stibnite (gray antimony sulfide

Sb2S3), 1 part iron powder or filing, and 4 parts of the Secret Fire
(Potassium Chloride). Put this mix into a 250ml flask that is set up to
distill into a 500ml receiver flask. The neck of the flask must be cooler
than the base so the vapor of the Mercury will condense. If the neck is
warmer, the vapor will expand too rapidly and explode the vessel.
Alchemists call their vessels an Iimbic, Alembic, Kerotakis or Pelican. A
liebig condenser is best for this operation because crystals may form in
the condenser, and a liebig is straight and wide enough to insert tools
inside to scrape the crystals. Water cooled with an ice and salt bath is
circulated through the condenser using a simple $10 submersible
fountain pump from your local pet shop.

2. The flask is now gently heated in a sand bath on a precision control

hotplate. The temperature should be between 98F and 105 (blood
heat, hen's heat). Leave it at this temperature for 84 days. After the
"Star Regulus" (pure antimony) crystallizes on the surface of the
material, the antimony Trichloride will begin to fume and smoke, then
condense in the receiver flask as a bright liquid. This is the Mercury of
the Philosopher's. [It has been discovered that this temperature does
not work, no matter how long you wait for the reaction to occur. A much
higher temperature is required, and the reaction happens in only a few
minutes. The error may be the fact Stuart Nettleton explains the secret
fire as being urine saturated with potassium chloride. And since the
liquid would be present, that might make it possible to use much lower
heat since the chemicals have a solution to react in. But even if it can
work that way, it would take much longer and be quite a disgusting

3. At the end of the 84 day cycle, seal up the receiver flask at the same
time you turn off the heat.

4. Now the Star Regulus (antimony) inside the flask will be saturated
with iron sulfide. Evaporate any remaining water away, and then
remove the star from the black iron sulfide mat and pulverize it. Discard
any oxide flowers from the neck of the flask and discard the iron sulfide
unless you have some other experiment you want to save it for.

Pictured below is the regulus which is obtained by heating iron and

antimony trisulfide together. This is NOT the *star* regulus; it is merely
a normal regulus which is very popular for alchemists to assume is the
star regulus. The correct star regulus literally forms a STAR and can only
be made when the secret fire (potassium chloride) is also added to the
mix of iron and stibnite. This is the ingredient which is kept secret in all
alchemy works about the antimony path. When you see old alchemy
engravings that show a gray wolf, this is antimony. And when there is
also pictured a star, this is representing a process to produce the star
regulus, and hence, antimony trichloride.

Simply google the phrase "star regulus" and antimony, and you will be
amused at all the incorrect theories people write about the star regulus
being made from only iron and antimony, and they show this kind of
photo below. They are oblivious to the fact the star regulus actually is a
perfect star, and they assume they actually understand the alchemy
work they are reading, but then wonder why they can't obtain the
Philosophical Mercury from this path (antimony trichloride).
The Second Perfection

5. Now for the second perfection, you will need a 100ml flask with a
long vertical condenser tube connected, which can be found anywhere
flasks are sold. is a good place.

The tube will act as the condenser, and it should be 6 fingers high
(about 20 inches). Alchemist's used a rubber bung stopper to seal the
flask so it would blow off instead of the flask exploding. You can also use
a ground glass stopper. Twist the stopper on tight, and if any pressure
builds up too high, the stopper will blow off. (It's essential to do
this process outside in case antimony trichloride sprays everywhere.) If
you have a hard time removing the stopper, just twist it of with a pair of
pliers. Don't be afraid that the glass pennyhead will break off from the
stopper. A lot of people foolishly break open the entire flask just
because they can't get the stubborn ground glass stopper off. But with
pliers, it's actually quite easy. Getting the condenser off the flask will be
much harder.

6. Now make the "Azoth" by mixing together the below ingredients in

the flask-

3 drachms of gold leaf (10.8ml or 2 teaspoons)

1 drachm of the Star Regulus (pure antimony crystals) from step 4
(3.6ml or teaspoon)

180 drops (4 drachms 14.4ml) of the Antimony Trichoride (made liquid

by exposing it to air which converts it to antimony oxychloride)
(*remember, do not add Nitre (potassium nitrate) to Antimony
Trichloride! Because KNO3 dissolved in SbCl3 produces the highly deadly
reddish-brown gas NO2 (Nitric oxide). Many people do not appreciate
the great danger of exposure to this gas. While initial exposure may
cause only pain in the lungs, death can occur a few days later from the
resulting edema.)

7. Your flask will now be full. Keep the heat at 99F. If the reaction
doesn't start, increase the heat to 105F, then turn it back down to
99F. Vapors will rise and fall, and they will turn from white, to yellow,
then bluish and blackish. After that, everything will dry up and burst
open into a black mass called the Raven. This part of the process is
called the rule of Saturn, and takes 46 to 50 days.

8. Now the rule of Jupiter begins. Slowly raise the temperature to 105F
(the fever). A water will begin to wash the black mass, and the beautiful
metallic Peacock's Tail will begin to show. This happens in 56 to 60
days. When these colors appear, it signals the end of the rule of

9. Now the rule of Luna begins. It takes 22 to 24 more days to form the
white dove, which will float on the water as a cream. This is the Second
Stone. This cream can be gathered and gently heated to evaporate the
water, leaving fragrant white oil. This oil was the famous salve or
universal unguent of the Knights Templar. It has been of widespread
medicinal virtue until the advent of modern pharmaceuticals. The cream
cured maladies such as gout, leprosy, stroke, dropsy, epilepsy,
consumption and dehydration to fever and pestilence. But if you wish to
continue on to making the red stone, leave the white dove in the flask,
and don't open it yet.

10. Slowly increase the heat to 150F and 170F. The rule of Venus
starts and will last for 40 to 42 days. The white dove (the Queen, the
Philosophical Mercury) will unite with the golden water (the King). The
King and Queen produce the Green Dragon.

11. Now the rule of Mars starts, and lasts 42 days. During this time
azure, gray and citrine overcome the Green Dragon, which finally
changes to another red Hermetic Mercury. The Earth is red and called
Sulphur. The red Sulphur fixes the white Mercury and they dissolve into
a liquid state.

12. The temperature is increased to 212-250F. This is the rule of Sol,

and lasts 40 to 42 days. In a moment the Tyrian color comes. It is a
sparkling red oil of fiery vermilion. Alchemists call it the Red Rose; the
perfect fixation and perfection; the Red Poppy of the Rock; and the
precious tincture. This is at last the Philosophers Stone or Third Stone.
When powder forms from the solution, the alchemist slowly increases
the temperature to 300F.
Link de clicking here:

El archive de ese link se llama:

(complete book in PDF format)

The Philosopher's Stone

Here the entire process of making the Stone is revealed by following the Wet Path via the Volpierre process.

The entire book and my notes can now be downloaded in PDF text format.

Right click on the link, then select "Save Target As.." to download the files. If you don't have the PDF reader application,
you can download it for free at

Click here to go to the download page.

A few years ago I found a website which photographed every step of this process, but unfortunately it has now been
removed. I attempted to find it using but my efforts were fruitless.

But I will have photos here of the entire work.

IMPORTANT NOTE: The temperature of the flask only needs to be 37 to 38 degrees celcius (98.6 to 100.4 F). In the PDF
file it has 370 to 380 but the zero is supposed to be a degree symbol

Name: Nicholas Collette
Email: Rosicrucis(at)



The sub-menu to the left shows the various techniques developed by the
old alchemists for making calxes of metals.

Today calxes of gold are sold as "monatomic gold" because David Hudson
created an elaborate hoax to convince people they were a special form of
matter, and could superconduct at room temperature, and even levitate
and disappear from this dimension. If you believe that, I doubt there is
much you don't believe. lol

But don't feel stupid; even I was convinced David Hudson was telling the
truth, especially after seeing Laurence Gardner's lectures and reading his
lengthy books. But in the end it turned out that monatomic gold is pure
nonsense, existing only in the mind of a once millionaire dirt farmer from
Arizona who was desperately seeking a way to make back his fortune.
Then his dad or brother game him a book from the "Time Magazine"
series of mysterious and strange phenomenon books, and it explained
what alchemy was.

Funny thing is that it had information about using morning dew to make
the correct Philosopher's Stone from gold, with photos of Armand
Babaults work, and Frater Albertus. It even had all the plates of the
"Mutus Liber" book with explanations under each one about how to
perform the work with dew.

But dumb old David Hudson was too blind to see what was right in front
of his face, and he was unaware of the Rosicrucian Order and what the
name "Rosi-crucis" actually means.

So he made up a nice elaborate story about discovering a strange form of

matter in his feild. He got the world to believe the Philosopher's Stone
was just laying around in feilds of dirt, and anyone could find it in nature.
A real alchemists knows better than to believe such dribble, but the easy
to fool public that was desperately seeking a scientific answer to how the
Philosopher's Stone could be a reality ate up every word Hudson spewed
out of his deceitful, evil little mouth.

Buy any powder from the internet that claims to be 100% pure white
powder gold, and have it assayed by a technique that is more advanced
than simple spectrometry or X-ray Fluorescence. Those method are not
always able to determine what elements are present in a sample if its
something that was produced in a lab and involves comlpex molecular
structure or bizzare compounds like sodium-gold (metal & alkaline)
compounds. But have the powder tested by Neutron Activation Analysis
(NAA), and you will see that your "monatomic gold" is nothing but normal
everyday gold, with some sodium, and whatever else the seller cut it with
(usually calcium).

I will eventually have the test results of EVERY powder being sold on the
web right now, and every new powder someone tries to sell, all posted
on my website
These assholes are going down!

I knew David Hudson was a bad man when I saw his first lecture on tape,
and the first thing he did when he approached the microphone was
complain about the way the lady introduced him to the crowd. Then his
entire way of talking was serious and unhappy. Not the kind of guy who
seemed at all enlightened by the Philosopher's Stone.

The real Stone makes you very happy to be alive, and enables you to see
the awesome beauty in the world. As you grew up, and became more
"mature", you also became a boring person, and your ability to see the
beauty in the world gradually turned to gray, like a color TV becoming

The true Stone brings back the vitality and enthusiam you once possesed
for life. But don't take my word for it, try it yourself.

Here is a list of common questions and answers about the pH swing process.

DISCLAIMER: The information on this website is for information purposeses

only. The procedures outlined are simply notes of work performed in the lab and
are not intended as instructions for others to follow.

Q: How do you evaporate the acid without burning the crystals?

A: Use the lowest setting on your hotplate. You must evaporate acids outside
using a cheap portable stove burner since the acid will eat away the metal of the
stove. You can buy these stoves at or at your local Sears or hardware
store if you live in the USA. Once the acid gets down to only a quarter inch of liquid
(regardless of the width of the beaker) then you need to take it off the stove and let
the residual heat do the rest of the evaporation work. If you have a tiny bit of acid
still remaining, don't worry about it. It's better to have a little acid to deal with than
to have scorched gold crystals you have to start all over with. But the more acid
remaining, the harder it will be to flip the pH to alkaline when doing the pH Swing

Q: What can I use instead of Aqua Regia to dissolve the gold?

A: The Philosophical Mercury itself will dissolve gold, but it will take a lot more work
of repeated distillations. Hence the reason the gold is first dissolved with acid.
If you live in an area where obtaining chemicals is hard, then you do have some alternatives. The
hydrochloric acid sold at hardware stores in the USA is food grade (but that doesn't mean drink it
pure!) because when it's used in pools, it can accidentally get ingested. And it's only around $7 for
two gallon size bottles. The nitric acid is what's expensive because you have to order it online no
matter where you live. The shipping usually costs as much as the acid. You can use sodium nitrate
or potassium nitrate crystals instead, which are sold as Stump Remover in some hardware stores
and KNO3 can be found in fertilizers.

But there is an even better alternative -- hydrogen peroxide. This can only be purchased as a 3%
solution at the pharmacy or drug store. You can freeze it and the water will freeze, but the peroxide
won't. But this only works until the solution is 62% peroxide, and after that, the water won't freeze
first and the peroxide will intsead. You will get about 20ml of peroxide from a 500ml of the 3%
solution. If you freeze out 470ml of the water, you will have a 50% peroxide solution which is the
highest concentration you should be messing with. If it's foorzen again, most likely the peroxide will
freeze since it's so close to the 62% concentration. Read up about peroxide saftely if you intend to
go above a 70% concentration. Even a tiny bit of organic material present in the container can
oxidize and cause the enitre mass of peroxide to explode. This is why I don't recommend anything
above 50% concentration.

Be careful with concentrated peroxide because it's extremely dangerous. Don't let it touch your skin.
You can now put your gold in the hydrochloric acid, and then add a few drops of this peroxide. Wait
for the reaction to start. It will be an exothermic reaction and generates it's own heat so you won't
need to warm it up yourself. The fumes of stong peroxide solution can self ignite with very little heat.
And if you add too much peroxide too fast, the heat will become so intense it will ignite the peroxide,
causing an explosion. It's safest to just use the 3% peroxide dirrectly from the bottle and not try and
concentrate it. The saying goes "peroxides kill chemists". For instance, if concentrated peroxide
falls on a flammable material like cloth, it will evaporate the water first, and then spotaneously ignite
the cloth. When dropped on leather it iginites instantly because of the metal used to treat the
leather. The fumes from peroxide above 70% can ignite and then cause the entire bottle to explode.
During the reactions, if the temp. gets above 150 oF, it will explode. Peroxide is therefor a far more
dangerous chemical to work with than Nitric acid, and is a far more powerful oxidizer. Yet ironically,
it's easier to obtain and far less expensive.

Q: What if I can't find hydrochloric acid either?

A: If you can't find hydrochloric acid, you can make it by mixing salt with clay and heating it in a
retort until the fumes go over into the reciever flask where they need to be bubbled through water. I
don't recommend you try this until you do more research (do the reasearch, don't email me
and ask more questions). But you can also use vinegar and bleach instead. You freeze the
vinegar and the water will freeze before the vinegar. Just like with the peroxide, you can
concentrate this chemcial the same way. Now with your strong acetic acid and some extra strength
bleach (make sure it's sodium hypochlorite) you can then add the peroxide slowly and dissolve the

Q: What strength acid should be used?

A: The acids are sold in various strengths, which are shown as percentages. The hydrochloric acid
you need will be 30% strength, which is the widely availabe standard of Muriatic pool acid. The
Nitric acid you need will be 70% stength, which is also the most common. You can find 40% Nitric
acid for a lower cost and it's easier to obtain. In this case, you would need to evaporate water from
your hydrochloric acid to concentrate the acid. Then you can adjust your measurements
accordingly. You can't evaporate the Nitric acid to concentrate it since it will evaporate with the

Q: What if the gold hydroxide precipitant won't dissolve in

hydrochloric acid?

A: You try and remove as much water as you can from the precipitant. If you dry
the precipitant into a powder, you run the risk of the clusters combining, which is
the opposite of what you want. So it's best to keep it wet, however this can weaken
the hydrochloric acid. If your precipitant doesn't dissolve, then try heating the acid
to about 200F. If it still won't dissolve, then let it cool off, then add a few drops of
3% peroxide (this assumes you are working with 3 grams of gold). In a few hours
you should see the precipitant turns white and fluffy. Add a few more drops of
peroxide, and wait. All of the fluffy cotton-like precipitant should then be dissolved.

Q: What kind of water should be used in Alchemy?

A: It's important to use distilled water because it's deionized by the distillation process. It should
also be brought to a priest and blessed to become Holy Water. And if you don't believe in God, then
you shouldn't be doing Alchemy because you are wasting your time.

pH Swing Process
The old alchemical maxim of "Dissolve et Coagula" which means dissolve and
coagulate, is what this pH Swing Process does.

Even though this method of using acids and bases to dissolve and precipitate the
gold may seem modern, it was actually used in old alchemy also. After the gold
was dissolved in Aqua Regia, they would precipitate it using "oil of calcined
tartar" which is potassium carbonate that has been exposed to humid air and
allowed to absorb water, and they did indeed refer to this precipitant as the calx
of gold.

Many new age internet shops are selling this calx of gold as monatomic "white
powder gold", though it is merely gold hydroxide.
Q: What is the "pH Swing" process?

A: When the pH of the gold solution is adjusted from 1 to 14, and then back down
to 1, this is one single "pH Swing". It breaks down the size of gold clusters so each
one contains less atoms bound together. As this happens, the color will change.
The gold is in the chloride form when the water is acidic and chlorine is present
(hydrochloric acid) and it's a hydroxide when the water is alkaline. The goal of this
process for most people is to try and create "monatomic gold", but even if you get
the atoms all the way down to just 1 single gold atom, NOTHING happens to it.
The gold doesn't magically become superconductive, and it won't attach itself to
the ends of your DNA if you eat it. Scientists work with single atoms of the platinum
group every day in nano-science research, and its well documented. There isn't
some giant conspiracy to cover up the truth about single atoms of metals. There is
NOTHING special about single metal atoms! You really think every country in the
world and every scientist would actually keep this a secret? Wake up to reality!

Pic. 1

Gold is dissolved in Aqua Regia, and the acid is evaporated to form crystals.
Pic. 2

Water is added to dissolve the crystals and the pH adjusted to alkaline while
stirring. This removes the nitrates and gets the gold ready for dissolving in pure
HCl acid so there is only gold chloride in solution. Here can be seen the dark
purple gold hydroxide precipitant swirling around.

Pic. 3

The precipitant is washed to remove salt and lye. The gold is allowed to settle on
the bottom each time.
Pic. 4
And here can be seen how the gold preciptant looks almost black. With more pH
swings it precipitates as a fluffy white powder, but in these begining stages, it is
clumped together and very heavy. This is because the gold clusters are still made
up of thousands of atoms bound together.

Pic. 5

After 50 pH swings the gold has become a white powder.

Pic. 6
After 100 swings the gold was allowed to dry in a wide crystallization dish, and it
formed these little crosses. The same peculiar crosses form when the process is
done on copper. One hundreds pH swings might seem like a lot, but when you do
them in sets of 10, they go fast, and you only need to do 10 sets.

Q: How is the pH Swing done?

A: Using the process I describe here, you will quickly and easily be able to obtain a
white precipitant after only 10 pH swings. The ratios of water to gold and the use
of lye solution instead of pure sodium hydroxide crystals is what makes this
process work better. Follow the instructions exactly. If you don't use the suggested
quanities of water you will obtain many different colors instead of a white powder.

After the gold metal has been dissolved into a chloride form, the acid is evaporated
using low heat (150F). The crystals are not allowed to dry completely because they
will most likely become scorched from the heat source, and won't dissolve in water
(and then you will need to redissolve the gold in Aqua Regia). Because there will
be some acid left in the beaker, quite a large volume of water needs to be added
for dilution. Using 1/20th to 1/10th an ouce of gold, the crystals/acid should be
dissolved in at least 700ml of water.

100 grams of sodium hydroxide is dissolved in 1 liter of water to make a lye

solution. Water weighs 1 gram for every milliliter (labeled as "cc" when reffering to
drug dosage. cc = cubic centimeter). This first pH swing will require a lot of lye
solution to bring the pH up to alkaline. It should only be brought up to 8.5 since
gold hydroxide will redissolve in strongly alkaline water, and you will be washing
the precipitant. Purple gold hydroxide will precipitate to the bottom. When this
precipitant is settled, the top water is poured off and saved in your "wash water"
beaker. Add new water to the precipitant beaker, and once the precipitant is
settled pour off the water again (saving it in the wash water beaker). This cleaning
process removes the sodium hydroxide and the salt which formed from the
reaction of hydrochloric acid and NaOH. Once the pH is neutral, pour off most of
the water, being careful not to loose your precipitant. There will be around 200ml
of water remaining if you are using a 1 liter beaker. This can be transferred to a
smaller beaker, then when the precipitant settles again, the excess water is easier
to pour off (decant).

Now a few milliliters of hydrochloric acid is stirred into the precipitant. After
swirling the solution around (erlenmeyer flask is good for this), the gold hydroxide
dissolves to become gold chloride again. The pH is raised up to 14 now because
you won't be washing the precipitant yet. After the pH is adjusted from 1 to 14
and back to 1, this is a single pH swing. During the first few swings, it will be
very easy to see when the solution is alkaline because it will turn purple and you
can easily see the fluffy gold hydroxide. As you continue it will become increasingly
difficult to tell what the pH is by eyesight, and pH paper should be used (Don't dip
it dirrectly into the solution; use a dropper to drip a sample onto the pH paper).

After 10 swings, there will be a substantial amount of salt that has been created
by the reaction of sodium hydroxide and acid. It's essential to remove this salt
with washes just like you did after the first pH swing. The gold clusters are now so
small they will be white, and will attached themselves to bubbles, which makes
them float to the surface. The water will look clear and it will seem as though your
gold has dissapeared. Fear not. Dilute the solution back up to 1 liter. Then just
place the solution on gentle heat and let about 100ml of water evaporate, then let
it cool back to room temperature. Now you will be able to see white gold hydroxide
precipitant falling to the bottom. Tap the beaker to shake any precipitant floating
on the surface so it will decend to the bottom. Don't bother trying to get creative
using a centrefuge because that would also force the salt to the bottom of the tube
and defeat the purpose of the washings.

At least 100 pH swings should be performed on the gold. This may sound like a lot
of work, but once you get the hang of it, you will be able to do 10 pH swings in 30
minutes. When you have your white precipitant, it will be gold hydroxide broken
down so small it appears white because it's actually not reflecting any color and is
clear. This is what is sold on the internet as "White Powder Gold" but its sill just
useless gold hydroxide that will have no more effect on a person than a bottle of
oridinary water they strongly believed was an Elixir of Life.

But of course, gold hydroxide is also a serious poison because in the stomach its
converted to gold chloride, which is a potent neurotoxin. People who ingest this
"white powder gold" often say they feel high. Well yes indeed, poisonous
neutoxins tend to have that effect. Its only a mater of time before the FDA starts
going around bashing in the doors of the 'labs' (dirty garage) of the people who
sell these poisons and confinscate all of their fake "Philosopher's Stone", and hall
them off to jail.

Pour off as much water as possible from your white precipitant, and evaporate
most of the remaining water. When you want to dry the precipitant, don't use
heat. Just let the remaining water evaporate at room temperature by covering the
beaker with a coffee filter.

Making the Philosopher's Stone and Elixir

of Life
You can now mix this white calx of gold with your powder salt from morning dew in
equal proportions by weight, then heat the powder in an iron crucible pipe with
end caps screwed on tightly with a wrench. Heat at 2200F for one hour, then allow
it to cool completely and remove the gold. It should now look something like
cinnabar and glass. Crush the powder and again add an equal amount of your dew
salt, and grind them together well using the pestle and mortar. Repeat the heating
process, and this time you will find your gold has become a beautiful ruby red
glass-like material, which is the Stone of the First Order, and dissolves readily in
water for wine for making the Elixir of Life. {You can multiply the power of your
Stone further until after the 7th time, it will begin to glow by its own light.}

To prove that your Stone is indeed the fabled Philosopher's Stone, or to test if you
have done the process correctly when you made your dew salt, simply melt down
1 ounce of lead. Then prepare your Stone by grinding it to a fine powder in your
mortar, and place it on a piece of wax paper and drip hot beeswax onto it, then
allow the wax to cool enough so you can work it with your hands into the form of a
ball. Don't wrap it up with the wax paper -- pull it off the paper and use only the
beeswax ball. Remember that parrafin wax wasn't invented until the petroleum
industry discovered how to obtain it from refining petroleum products. Beeswax
contains an enourmous amount of chemicals and elements, some of which may
assist in the transmutation.

Some alchemy books say that you should put this red glass in a flask and keep it
warm with the gentle heat of a Balneo Mary water bath for many weeks, until it
begins to flow like oil, then its ready for use as an Elixir, 1 to 7 drops being a dose.

Other manuscripts warn that such a dose would quickly kill a man, and the Stone
needs to be properly diluted to almost homeopathic potencies. You dissolve a little
of the red glass in a liter of white wine until it has become colored deep ruby red.
Then you add just a little of this deep red wine to a fresh bottle of white wine.
Keep adding until the color of the wine goes from golden to orange, and you see a
film form on the surface of the wine. This is your sign that the wine is the proper
strength, and one dose is a teaspoon.

You can read more about dosage at

Q: What is done with the left over wash water?

A: All the water you used to wash your gold precipitant will contain some gold
hydroxide you can't see. So evaporate your wash water and you will begin to see it
turn pink. The water contains a great deal of salt, and this traps the gold
hydroxide and causes it to fall to the bottom. The reason you couldn't see it before
was because it was floating on the surface of the water in tiny clusters.

Once the solution is evaporated down to 200ml, let it cool off. Salt crystals are
forming which contain the gold hydroxide powder trapped inside. Add enough
water to refill the beaker back up to 1 liter, and this will dissolve the salt. Now do
the washes on the pink precipitant until there is no longer a salty taste in the
water. Then you will know the salt has been removed and you can now perform
the pH Swing process on this pink gold until it's white, just like you did the first
time. Save the wash water again, but now since it's mostly just salt, pour it on
your garden outside. Helps plants grow for some reason; the salt has nothing to
do with it and should actually kill the plants.
Pic. 6
In this photo can be seen the pink gold hydroxide which
appeared when the water was heated. This wash water
which was clear and would have been tossed down the
drain actually contains this hidden gold.

Pic. 7
Here is the precipitant washed and dried. Contains a lot
of sodium which doesn't wash out. It's a very soft
powder with irridecent clear flakes also. On the side of
the beaker which the water was evaporated in, a
rainbow effect can be seen in the right lighting. This
seems to be the Oil of Gold which was in the wash
water. It has long been rumored that the wash water
should be saved for this very reason, then reunited with
the original precipitant to give back the spirit to the
gold. So in this pink powder, there is apparently the
"Oil of Gold" along with some normal gold hydroxide
which gives the powder it's pink tint.
Pic. 8

The precipitant was dissolved in a few milliters of hydrochloric acid,

but some remind undissolved as can be seen in this photo. A little
peroxide was added (3% solution) and the red precipitant became
white but refused to fully dissolve.
Pics. 9 & 10
These two photos show the precipitant when dried. The one on the stop was taken
with light comming from underneath, and the photo on the bottom shows light
from above.
Pic. 12

Every color of the rainbow can be created with gold depending on how it's
precipitated. If pure sodium hydroxide powder is added straight to the acid
solution, then the clusters will remain large and the precipitant will slowly change
through the colors after each subsequent dissolution and precipitation. While this
makes beautiful colors, it's not the goal and there is no benifit to having a colored
gold solution instead of a crystal clear white calx. The water clear solution is what
is the best because the gold clusters are smaller.


Misc Photos:

Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonium nitrate is probably the most extensively used chemical in alchemy. It's
use dates back as far as the times of ancient Egypt, which is were it was named
after the god Amon.

When evaporating the water from an ammonium nitrate solution, a curious thing
can happen which gives the illusion the material is 'growing' out of the container.
If the water is evaporated at very low temperature in a wide container, then long
needle shaped crystals will form. But if the water is evaporate in a narrow
container, like a beaker, then instead of long crystals, a sort of growth happens
which seems impossible because it goes right out the top and over the sides.
Here can be seen the beaker with a coffee filter that was left on to keep out dust.
The ammonium nitrate grew right through the filter and down the sides of the
Here at the bottom of the beaker are more typical crystals. But for some reason, at
the top of the beaker the ammonium nitrate clings to the walls and 'grows'
upwards as the water evaporates. It's a mystery how it ascends upwards out of
the water when it shouldn't be able to vaporize at room temperature.
These two close ups show how instead of crystals, it seems to have grown much
the way coral does.
Here is the outside lip of the beaker after removing the coffee filter paper.
This shows the inside of the beaker. Only a small hole remains in the center.


1. Three 9 volt batteries were connected in series (they snap together) to form a
27v DC power source, and a solution of salt water was prepared by dissolving 1
tablespoon of salt in 2 cups of water. A 3 gram gold coin was spilt into 2 halves to
make electrodes. One electrode was connected to the positive side of the battery
series and the other gold electrode was connect to the negative using tape and
2. The electrodes were immersed in the salt water solution. Hydrogen gas is
released, and it causes brain damage in pure form so this was done outside. The
batteries drained quickly and became very hot. The reaction was stopped when
they were too hot and were allowed to cool down, then electrolysis was continued.
This was done for 30 mins. As this is happening gold is also coming off the cathode
electrode into the solution and it can be seen as a yellow hue floating on the
bottom of the beaker.

3. The gold that went into the salt water solution was ignored and discarded and
attention was turned to the electrodes instead. They were both dissolved
separately in Aqua Regia solutions of 50ml. I didn't think at the time to remember
which one was the anode and which was the cathode. But one of them had a white
film covering the outside - this was probably the anode. After they had dissolved in
the acid, one turned green after 3 days, and the other had a small amount of
white powder at the bottom that wouldn't dissolve. Fresh Aqua Regia was added
but the white powder still didn't dissolve. Pictured below are the solutions.
4. The green solution was chosen to work with for now since it was already
showing a color very different from normal gold chloride. It was diluted with 100ml
of water, and it now looked more yellow than green, as can be seen in this photo

5. Now the pH was adjust to 14. It was necessary to use pure NaOH crystals
because there was so much acid. This is dangerous since bases and acids react
strongly. Almost an entire cup of NaOH crystals was required to get the pH to
finally flip to the alkaline side. Gold hydroxide precipitates best between pH 8 and
9 and at pH 14 it is a little soluble in the solution. That's why the solution is yellow
in this photo.
6. The water was poured off, and more water was added, and the precipitant
settled to the bottom again after a few hours. These washes were repeated until
the pH neutralized.

7. Most of the water was removed from the gold hydroxide precipitant, and 10
drops of 30% hydrochloric acid was added. The gold chloride now has a more
emerald color.
8. The solution was again diluted to 150ml with water.

9. And the gold hydroxide was precipitated out.

10. These 2 photos show the precipitant settling out of solution. The solution is
green, but the precipitant is pure blue.

11. Here it is after a the first wash.

12. And the precipitant settling out of solution after the final wash. Now a beautiful
cyan blue.

13. Acid was again added to make gold chloride. It's now more of a kelly green.
14. It was diluted with water then precipitated with NaOH again.

15. Here the color of the precipitant can be seen better. It's an even cleaner blue
than photo 11.
16. It was washed, and acidified again. Now it's no longer green but a marvelous

17. After another precipitation, the color is a very different blue, much less cyan.
18. After being washed and acidified the gold chloride is now a turquoise with a
more blue tint.

19. Here you can see it precipitating in the beam of a flash light.
20. And here it is finally settled. Notice how much more fluffy it is then the
previous photos. It took a long time to settle because it kept hydrolyzing with the
water and floating back to the top attached to tiny bubbles.

21. The final solution of the gold chloride. When the acid was added to the gold
hydroxide, it didn't have any color at all until a few minutes later. Then in about 30
mins. it took on a very slight gray-blue tint.
This experiment was to simply show that electrolysis (and perhaps
electricity in general) does have some sort of affect on the gold. It is
highly abnormal for these colors to present themselves in this way. If
the pH Swing process is carried out on the gold exactly as it's detailed
on the Metal Calx page, then a white gold hydroxide precipitant
is formed in just 10 swings. But if pure sodium hydroxide is added to
the solution instead, the color changes are slower, which is normally
what you don't want. Done this way, the precipitants of gold hydroxide
will follow this color scheme - black, purple, red, pink, white. And the
colors of the gold in chloride form will go from yellow to orange, then
clear. The blues and greens are the ellusive colors which won't form
like the above photos unless electrolysis is first done with the gold as an

This blue gold hydroxide precipitant can now be taken through the process of
making a Tincture, and it most likely will give a blue tincture with properties
very different from the red. A sort of "high-tech" tincture which the old
alchemists never had the luxury of trying.


Pic. 1
3 grams of copper was dissolved in Nitric acid, then the acid was evaporated
and water added to redissolve the crystals. The copper was then precipitated
with lye.

Pic. 2

The copper hydroxide was then dissolved in hydrochloric acid and most of the
acid was evaporated until crystals began to form.
Pics. 3 & 4

The copper chloride crystals were dissolved in 250ml of water and turned from
green to blue. At this point it has a lot of color because the solution is so

Pic. 5
Here is the solution diluted up to 900ml with more water. Click on the image to
watch a short video of the pH being adjusted to alkaline.

Pic. 6

Here the copper hydroxide is shown illuminated by the blue light of a magnetic
stirrer. Using a stir rod by hand can slow things down quite a bit when 100 pH
swings need to be done.
Pic. 7

Here is the turquoise copper hydroxide precipitant. After being gently dried to
a powder, it is a clax which can be converted to a volatile oil by use of our
Philosophical Mercury. But it's best to do more pH Swings on the copper until it
is a white powder. It's then much easier for the Philosophical Mercury to
dissolve it down to it's first matter.
Pic. 8

After several hours, the precipitant has settled and has become dark green.
This is due to copper atoms recombining and forming larger clusters. The fact
copper hydroxide has this tendancy is what makes it so stuborn to work with.

The simplest form of distillation. A mason jar with a large cork and a
thin copper pipe used for the condensor coil. This little unit is sold at
Edmund Scientific for around 30US but can be made for only 5 bucks.
The exact type of copper pipe is hard to find at hardware stores. It's
thin, but has thick walls so the hollow center is thin like the graphite in a
pencil. This compresses the steam so you don't need to cool the coil.
The jar is simply placed in a pan of water to heat it without breaking the
fragile Mason Jar glass. Yes the glass is thick, but it's not borosilcate so
it will break with too much heat in one spot. And of course, acids can't
be distilled with this unit, but alcohol can, which is why it's good for
beginners who don't have enough money for a professional setup.

Here is another distillation setup. This one uses a flask which has a side
arm permanently attached. A graham condenser cools the steam in a
glass coil which is bathed continuously with recirculating cold water. A
simple portable stove hotplate was used for the heat source.
This distillation setup uses a 2 liter flask in a heating mantle specifically
designed for the 2 liter flask size. A small 250ml receiver flask is
attached to the condenser at the other end. Everything has glass ground
joints so it can be sealed up when distilling something of an offensive or
penetrating odor, or when distilling acids. A ventilation hose will need to
be attached to the receiver flask to vent gases. Or an extremely large
receiver flask can be used but the distillation will go much slower with
everything sealed up, and the temperature must be kept low.
Here is a close-up of the distillation arm. This can be arranged in 2
ways. When it's angled down toward the distillation flask, less impurities
will make it over to the condenser. But when it's reversed like in the
above distillation setup, it's angled down to the condenser and more
impurities will drip down into the receiver flask. This makes it act more
like a retort of the old alchemists. When making the Philosophical
Mercury, it's best to have it angled down towards the condenser since
the acetonal oils condense in the arm and need to flow downward.
Here is a diagram of the distillation setup. Cold water is circulated
through the condenser and bathes the coil in water. If acids are being
distilled, they will condense into a liquid in the receiver flask to be
reused a few more times. But since the acid produces such terrible
corrosive fumes, gasses need to vent outside using tubing that
resists acid attack. A normal rubber hose can't be used in this case. In
fact, the only use for normal rubber is with the hoses connected to the
condenser. A simple $10 fountain pump can recirculate the ice water
through the condenser.

The venting hose can also be submerged in a solution of very strong lye
water which will neutralize the acid vapors, but it must be removed
when the heat is turned off, or else water will siphon up the hose into
the receiver flask. This happens because the air contracts as it cools,
which creates suction.
This is an attachment for a flask with ground glass joint. The tube
connects to an air stone for fish aquariums. (not all air stones will work;
some are too porous). It's used to collect the gases emitted when wine
and vinegar are heated together. A salt forms on the air stone which is
very medicinal. While it would appear to modern alchemists that the
alcohol and acetic acid vapors must be the cause for this salt formation,
that is not the case.
I only did this to prove that it doesn't work. There is an article in the Essentia
journal or Parachemy a man shows a drawing of an elaborate distillations set up
like the one show above and claims that an acetone can be obtained which boils in
the palm of your hand and dissolves gold. Pure nonsense lies of course; he just
took a reference from 1 alchemy book about the Philosophical Mercury boiling in
the palm of your hand and then claimed it could be obtained from the acetate
process. What's funny is that he only had a drawing of his distillation set up
and then demanded everyone else needs to get to work on real lab alchemy and
quit being so lazy.

Miscellaneous Photos
These are various photographs which either don't have a place
elsewhere on the site, or don't yet have a production process outlined
for them on the site.
This is gold hydroxide mud which is simply gold hydroxide precipitated
and then most of the water evaporated. Has the consistency of pudding.

This is red gold chloride made by

swinging the pH of the solution up
and down from acid to alkaline. It's
what some people believe is the
Red Lion, but they are mistaken.
This is just gold chloride that has
been broken down into small
cluster sizes, so it appears red
instead of golden. Every color of
the rainbow can be made in this
Tin was dissolved in Nitric acid, and it precipitated as Tin oxide
(stannous oxide) because Nitric acid oxidizes the tin while it dissolves it.
Since the tin is insoluble, it precipitates as a white powder. After
washing, the tin acetate was placed in concentrated red wine vinegar,
and that is why you see it stained purple in this photo. Tin acetate
gradually forms when the acetic acid attacks the tin oxide. In alchemy
the acetate of tin is known as Acetum of Jupiter.
Here we see the tin acetate after it's been washed. It's quite a nasty
mess which sticks to the glass beaker and is hard to work with.
Tin oxide resting in a candle holder made of Egyptian cats.

Sodium nitrate (saltpeter) which was made by simply mixing a lye

solution with nitric acid and evaporating. This photo was taken when it
was in the evaporating dish. Crushes like snow and makes the same
sound. Never make this chemical without reading up about the dangers.
It can also be made using ammonium nitrate and soidum chloride
instead of wasting expensive nitric acid.

Silver chloride was precipitated out of a silver nitrate solution by adding

salt water. The silver chloride is insoluble and precipitates to the bottom
as a fluffy powder. In this photo it's still falling to the bottom and you
can see the purple tint.

Here it is completely settled on the bottom.

This is after it was washed to remove the acidity of the nitric acid. It
now has a mud and pudding like texture. Once dried it becomes
extremely hard and bonds to the glass. It becomes more and more
purple as it sits exposed to the light.

Calcium nitrate made by dissolving agricultural lime in nitric acid then

evaporating. Everything made with calcium seems to be like a rock
instead of crystals, which makes it a little hard to work with. Plaster of
Paris is calcium sulfate. Calcium carbonate is limestone. This photo
shows the calcium nitrate after it was ground into a powder. After being
exposed to sunlight or focused moonlight, it glows red when heated to a
high enough temperature (around 500C). It's charged with moonlight
focused through a magnifying glass, then allowed to absorb Morning
Dew which is called deliquescence. It's then placed in a flask and the
water is distilled and collected. This water is known in alchemy as the
"Living Water" and the Spiritus Anima (animated spirit).

After several days, the powder has become liquid just by sitting exposed
to the air. And this is during the winter with humidity lower than 30%. If
it sits outside in the morning dew before sunrise, it will collect enough
water in just one night. It's now ready to be distilled. The beauty of this
material is that once exposed to intense light, it moves the atoms into a
higher spin state until the material is heated to 500C and it finnally can
release this extra energy in the form of light particles. But until then, it's
charged with a good deal of energy. This helps the water gain it's
charge, and the energy isn't released until the end of the distillation
when the material is completey dry again and starts to glow. The water
collected in this manner should never be touched by the bare hard or
metal objects because it will then loose it's charge. With enough of this
water in a glass flask, a finger held next to the glass will make a
continuous spark jump like static electricity through the glass to your
finger. It's a little tricky to see even in total darkness and can't be felt.
One website selling alchemy tinctures even has a photograph of this
A can of concentrated grape juice was poured into a glass jar. The can
was refilled with water and a tablespoon of sodium hydroxide was
dissolved therein. This warm lye water was then added to the grape
juice concentrate. This raised the pH and caused the sugars to break
down and release the monatomic elements. The water was then
evaporated and a syrup formed, which is pictured above.
Here the syrup is red instead of the purple like grape juice would
normally be. It's actually completely red, but the camera made the
photo have a hint of purple. This syrup is dried to a hard black crust
(which is actually dark red) using the heat of a candle flame, which is
then crushed into a powder using a mortar and pestle. When a magnet
is run over the powder, it will pick up the magnetic superconductive
monatomic irdium and rhodium. The can says it contains 0% iron, so
this is a non-ferrous magnetic material in the grape juice, but ONLY
after this process is performed on it. The magnetic material is indeed
monatomic iridium and rhodium. It's only magnetic because the atoms
are too close. Once they are separated using a matrix of plastic or even
ceramic clay, you can create a levitating disk. This material is so
sensitive, it levitates even when touched because of the moving
magnetic field around the human body. That process will be detailed on
the Technology section of this website which has yet to come.

Monatomic Gold from Quartz

There has long been a rumor circulating that quartz crystal contain monatomic gold
which can be extracted by simply heating the quartz in a strong lye solution since
silicon is slowly attacked and dissolved by strong alkali solutions. Most of the
stones you find which are clear, are actually quartz. And all sand is quartz (silicon

So there are some people who are even selling a precipitant made from sand
which they claim is natural white powder gold. I theorize that this is simply silicon
dioxide and not white powder gold at all. Here I give the step by step process with
my results. So there are some people who are even selling a precipitant made from
sand which they claim is natural white powder gold. I theorize that this is simply
silicon dioxide and not white powder gold at all. Here I give the step by step
process with my results.

Pics. 1 &2

A solution was made of 2 ounces of sodium hydroxide in 300ml of water, then 6

ounces of sand was added. The color seen in these photos is because the sand
was the colored kind you find at the art store. I chose to use this since it was
already perfectly clean and ready to go, except of course for whatever coloring
agent was used on it.
Pic. 3

The solution was kept just below boiling because when heated too much, little
explosion or eruptions of gas would occure beneath the sand and cause it to
'bump' so hard I feared the flask would crack. After 24 hours of this heating (and
water was added when too much had evaporated) the solution was allowed to
cool and was filtered. The pH was then adjusted down to 1 using hydrochloric
acid. This causes the silicon to precipitate, but not all of it will come out unless
the pH is adjusted very slowly and carefully with constant stirring.

This photo shows the globs of silicon which seem like chunks of fat. The solution
was again filtered but now the silicon clogged the paper and the process took
many hours since the filters had to constantly be changed. A vacuum filtration
would certainly have helped tremendously.

Pic. 4

Now using a solution of sodium hydroxide (10:1 ratio of water:lye) the

"monatomic gold" was precipitated out by raising the pH to 8.5

After the precipitant settled, the top water was decanted and fresh water
added. This was repeated until the pH was neutral and the water no longer had a
salty taste.
Pic. 5

During the drying of the precipitant, it formed strange balls which looked like
glass and would seem to indicate the presence of a large amount of silicon. When
completely dry, the balls became tiny rocks. Although they seem hard, when
rubbed between the fingers they break down into an ultrafine chalk-like powder.
The taste of the powder is sweet at first and dissolves fast in the mouth, yet this
powder dissolves poorly in water.
Pic. 6

Hydrogen peroxide (3%) was added to the powder and it foamed up and became
light tan. Some of the powder dissolved, and some remained on the bottom
which had the appearance of glass beads. When the water was evaporated, the
powder returned to pure white.

Heating the powder up to 2000F with a butane flame only made it red hot, but
did not melt it.

So far all attempts at converting this powder back to normal gold metal have
proved futile, which is why I theorize it must just be silicon dioxide. Monatomic
white gold will convert back to normal metallic gold when microwaved, burned
with sulfur, oxidized with 35% grade peroxide, or if left in strong ultraviolet
light, and I have UV lamps so strong they tan the skin, but none of these methods
affected this powder.

If this is just dissolved quartz, ingesting silicon dioxide in a finely powdered form
may not be harmful since it's actually used as fillers for some pills, but they
use colloidal silicon dioxide. And there could also very well be any number of
heavy metals in this powder which were in the sand, and selling it to people as
"White Powder Gold" would be immoral and reprehensible if it was not at least
assayed first.


Secret Solvent

Pic. 1
Pic. 2
Pic. 3

Pic. 4
Pic. 5

Pic. 6 & 7
Pic. 8

Pic. 1
Pic. 2a
Pic. 2b
Pic. 3

Pic. 3b
Pic. 4

Pics 5-8
Pic. 9

Pic. 10
Pic. 11

Pic. 12
Peacock's Tail.

Pic. 13
Pic. 14

Pic. 15

The vinegar can also be distilled and when the water is down to a small
enough amount, the heat can be turned off and the zinc acetate will
crystallize the remaining water. Alchemists called this effect "ice" since it
appears like frozen water. The zinc acetate would normally be clear if
clean pure zinc is used, but in this photo it is colored because the
pennies were dirty.
After distilling off the water and phlegm, the zinc acetate begins to
release a fog which gently rolls over into the receiver flask and then
condenses like morning dew into a golden liquid.
This photo shows the golden oil drops forming in the condenser. But a
condenser is not even required; a distillation flask attached to a receiver
flask directly by an arm will still form the golden oil. An air space can be
left between the receiver flask and the connecting arm and a wet cloth
wrapped around it to absorb any fumes that might try and escape.


Green gold chloride solution

Distilled with solvent

Caput Mortum, showing gold flakes and brown residue

Burnt gold chloride looks like this

The distillate

Globs of clear oil in the solvent distillate

A small bit of the Oil. When heated with
molten metals, it remains an oil and doesn't
evaporate (even at 2000F) and won't form
an amalgam with the metal. This photo
actually shows the oil after heating with
molten gold. It remained clear and
unchanged. It is truly an incombustible oil.

The oil is certainly not ingestible and tastes

like machine oil (or what one would expect
machine oil to taste like).



1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6.

These illustrations and images of many other paintings are also located at:-

1. The completion of the production process, vapourised nitric acid being added
to the compound to oxidize any free mercury remaining.
2. The production of pyro-antimonic acid.
3. An attempt to produce stable mercuric pyroantimonate by combining antimony
pentachloride with mercuric oxide.
4. An attempt to produce stable mercuric pyroantimonate by combining mercuric
chloride with antimonic acid.
5. The stabilisation of mercuric pyroantimonate with recovery of nitric acid.
6. The completion of the production process, alchemical symbols indicating the
elements present.

A synopsis of the book.

My account of the subject is intended to be an informative rather than

fictionalised one, cutting to the scientific bone of the matter. Red mercury (RM)
has become a by-word for nuclear smuggling swindles but, according to one of
its modern progenitors, Oleg Sadykov, could be a means to faster semiconductors
and of dealing with nuclear waste. If it exists at all it is a dangerous substance
though, apparently, non-explosive. According to the most consistent accounts it
is a viscous amalgam of mercuric pyro-antimonate containing a small (~4%)
amount of an actinide. This is used as a neutron provider and mirror whilst acting
to compress the deuterium-tritium content of a 'pure fusion bomb' above its
critical mass under the influence of trigger charges, producing a blast with a
destruction radius of about 600 metres for a 500 cc bomb, flooding the area with
fast neutrons, the fallout lasting for only about 2 days. Essentially, it would
represent a strategic advance over the neutron bomb. Although the principal
compound is almost completely undocumented, the metallic elements involved
loom large in the history of alchemy and the descriptions of it bear an uncanny
resemblance to those of the Philosopher's Stone (PS), right down to its being a
form of 'fixed', i.e. thermally stable, mercury which can then be 'projected upon',
i.e. amalgamated with, liquid mercury. The product in both cases is supposed to
be remarkable for its high density, 20.20 g/cc in the case of RM 20:20. However,
I should state at this point that I now consider the claims made for its density, as
well as those for the densities of its related amalgams to be pure rubbish.
According to the only book on the subject that I know of the packing
requirements for RM 20:20 (or 'R 20/20') state that 12 litres of it has a mass of
90.89 kg, allowing for a little ambiguity in the description of the volume. RM
20:20 therefore has a density of 7.57 g/cc, a perfectly plausible density for a gel
with the apparent viscosity of black treacle (at room temperature). The
expression describes only what it appears to describe, a simple quantitative ratio.
I am currently satisfied that it is the molar ratio of the mercury to the mercuric
compound (the latter having a density of 9.02 g/cc according to Dr. Sleight). The
references to this ratio in 'The Mini-Nuke Conspiracy'(Hounam & McQuillan)
are ambiguous or even unscientific (cf. footnote on p.127). It is as if a garbled
rendition of the information translated from the original Russian sources had
been made worse rather than corrected during editing, at certain vital points in
the text.

Analyses of my own versions of the compound, based on Dr.Sleight's

synthesis of '68, broadly confirm that chemist's findings but with an odd twist
concerning the purity of its most thermally stable allotrope. Certainly, I can
confirm that both the meta- and (impure) pyro-antimonates are stable at
~1,0000C, but pure pyro-antimonate always begins to decompose at ~7000C.

My hypothesis concerning the utilisation of this substance as an agent for cold

fission relies on two mechanisms. One is muon induced atomic fission (initiated
by cosmic radiation) and the other is a neutron cascade due to the neutron mirror
effect of mercuric ions trapped between antimony and lead atoms at temperatures
in excess of mercury's normal boiling point. The analogy between the
densification of tinted lead in the (so-called) alchemical gold and that of mercury,
amalgamated in a 5 MW reactor with the pyro-antimonate, also represents an
important condition for and strong constraint upon this hypothesis. It is the point
at which RM and PS become crucially codependant on each other's existence. If
the one never existed then, in all likelihood, the other never can.

Fortunately, at least one sulphide exists in the form of a mineral that combines
mercury and antimony whilst the proximity of deposits of those metals in certain
areas of China, the great antiquity of Chinese alchemy and the tendency of
sulphides to form oxides as alteration products provide an, admittedly
circumstantial, origin for the legend of the PS. According to my hypothesis it
never required to be invented (always a dubious proposition given the universally
acknowledged difficulties surrounding its production) but was originally found
with, and mistaken for, cinnabar. Its mysterious properties then came to light but
poor qualitative analysis of the substance led to rumours, rather than hard facts,
circulating concerning its composition. Current analytical facilities should
therefore be devoted to this purpose before the opportunity of identifying PS/RM
is again lost, likewise to the more general question of what happens to volatile
metals once their atoms become bonded into pyroxenes.


The scope and objective of the book with a brief account of the limitations
imposed on research by the nature of the subject. Note on Arne Magneli and
1. Note on the contents of this part concerning its limitations.
2. RM 20-20.
3. A brief description of the compound and related compounds. Basic crystal
4. Mercuric and antimonic sulphides and oxides as minerals.
5. The distinctions between ortho-, meta- and pyro- compounds. Mercuric meta-
antimonate, lead pyro-antimonate and mercuric pyro-phosphate.
6. A conclusion about the structure of mercuric pyro-antimonate drawn from
comparative studies of the other, analogous crystalline compounds.
7. An overview of those episodes in alchemical history that involve mercury and
antimony and the scientific judgement on alchemy.
8. An experiment to determine the propensity of mercury and antimony to form
mixed oxides.
9. Note on silicates that may have entered into the composition of 'philosopher's
stones' during their production.
10. X-ray diffraction.
11. Neutron diffraction.

1. Introduction, containing a relation of the new influences that were brought to
bear on my researches after April '96.
2. Dr.Sleight's report to the Journal of Inorganic Chemistry of April '68.
3. The production of pyro-antimonic acid and mercuric oxide.
4. The masses involved in the course of an experiment designed to produce
mercuric pyro-antimonate.
5. The interpretation of X-ray scans of my oxide samples, the adjustments in my
experimental approach and the final results of the experiments.
6. Conclusions drawn from comparison of my samples to those described in
Dr.Sleight's report.
7. Note on Dr.Sleight's work after '68, his contribution to the development of
superconductors and collaboration with Arne Magneli.
8. The use of neutron reflectors in nuclear reactors; mercury as a neutron mirror.
9. The muon as an agent for atomic fission.
10. Observations of transmutations in ancient China; the 'out of China' theory of
alchemy's origin.
11. Scamathon; the puerile nature of the disinformation surrounding the true
nature of red mercury.
12. The stringent nature of scientific proof.
13. Requirements for a fuller understanding of 'fixed' mercury.

A. Atoms and fundamental particles.
B. The conventional representation of chemical reactions.
C. The periodic table and the proximity of alchemy's 'metallic elements'.
D. Basic crystallography.
E. Limitations of the PW1720 X-ray analyser.
F. Atomic decay sequences.
G. Cosmic rays, the pion and the muon.
H. 'Cold fission', is it the result of muonic catalysis?
I. Circumstantial evidence for the existence of red mercury referred to in 'The
Mini-Nuke Conspiracy'.
J. Useful Internet addresses for further information on red mercury.


1. Note on the contents of this part concerning its limitations.
2. RM 20-20.
3. A brief description of the compound and related compounds. Basic crystal
7. An overview of those episodes in alchemical history that involve mercury and
antimony and the scientific judgement on alchemy.
8. An experiment to determine the propensity of mercury and antimony to form
mixed oxides.

1. Introduction, containing a relation of the new influences that were brought to
bear on my researches after April '96.
3. The production of pyro-antimonic acid and mercuric oxide.
4. The masses involved in the course of an experiment designed to produce
mercuric pyro-antimonate.
6. Conclusions drawn from comparison of my samples to those described in
Dr.Sleight's report.
10. Observations of transmutations in ancient China; the 'out of China' theory of
alchemy's origin.

APPENDIX D. Basic crystallography.


1. Note on the contents of this part concerning its limitations.
The following represents the extent of my researches and speculations up to
March 1996, concerning a largely unacknowledged compound with a number of
allotropic forms, one of which is credited with the capacity to pigment mercury,
rendering it viscous. Although it may be considered that my findings after that
date obviate most of the difficulties previously encountered and make the
associations I have suggested superfluous and irrelevant, the plain fact is that
there are too many aspects to this compound for a researcher to confidently
dismiss a finding as otherwise accounted for. Even the professionally produced
report introduced in Part II describes two structurally different compounds for
mercuric pyro-antimonate whilst only providing data for one. That is not to say
that definite conclusions are not reached in Part II, merely that they are
insufficient to preclude the hypotheses of Part I at this stage. The background
information is so incomplete and disagreements on the significance or otherwise
of this compound are so common that the whole project for producing and
identifying it is essentially a tentative exercise.

2. RM 20-20
In April 1994 there appeared a TV documentary, "The Pocket Neutron", in which
an interviewee stated that tons of a substance called Red Mercury were being
smuggled through Italy to developing countries each year and that this was a
matter of grave concern to the authorities as it could be used in the manufacture
of neutron bombs. Elsewhere in the programme it was referred to as mercury
antimony oxide and, more helpfully, as a mercury salt of antimony acid, which,
given the formula, would seem to indicate pyro- as opposed to meta-antimonic
acid. Consistent with a previous programme on this subject it also gave the code-
name for this double oxide as RM 20-20, and attributed its production to
Russian scientific progress whilst repeating the Ministry of Defences assertion
that it was non-existent.
Apparently the mode of operation of RM 20-20 within neutron bombs is that it
reflects neutron radiation, a quality exploited by using it as the packing material
for plutonium or tritium, 1 kg. of it supposedly being present in each warhead of
the SS-20 missiles. Its effect when used in conjunction with tritium gas, for
instance, was to generate thermonuclear fusion by producing great concentrations
of nuclear energy. An estimate in the previous programme, "The Hunt for Red
Mercury", was that it would only take a teacup of fissile material in RM 20-20 to
destroy Manhattan. The process was described, by Russian witnesses, as being
both slow and difficult. One military specialist, interviewed by the American
physicist Dr. Frank Barnaby, displayed a sample of "liquid Red Mercury", but
declined to give details of its manufacture. A Russian scientist previously
employed by the military establishment was more forthcoming and during the
interview Dr. Barnaby drew a chemical structure:-

However, the programme makers of Dispatches felt unable to broadcast the

dialogue of this interview. Back in the USA one Dr. Sam Cohen, largely
responsible for the development of the neutron bomb in the 1950s, gave his
assessment of Russian progress towards a pocket-sized nuclear fusion bomb. He
was more concerned about this at that time than at almost any previous time, he
said, and the root of his concern was the existence of RM 20-20.
In attempting to discover a structure for the compound and thereby assess the
probability of its existence and the requirements for its production two courses
naturally spring to mind. The first is to examine compounds with features and/or
component elements and seek out documentary evidence for its having been
synthesised. Dr. Arthur Sleight produced a report describing its synthesis and
structure, carried out in the USA in 1968, whilst Dr. Oleg Sadykov is reported as
having discovered it in that same year, in the former USSR. The idea that these
two events were unconnected is, of course, laughable. The second course is to
refer to and investigate the efforts of those who sought to promote nuclear
change in lead through the application of a powder remarkably similar to that
used in the production of RM 20-20, namely, the alchemists. The association of
mercury and antimony with each other and the alchemists target element, gold,
is far from being the only reason for believing they chose them for the creation of
their transmuting powder, the so-called Philosophers Stone. The references in
their literature to Our Lead (antimony) and assertions that their injunctions not
to use common mercury were mere double-talk are too prominent to be
disregarded. Note here that the powder and RM 20-20 are not one and the same,
for the makers of the two Dispatches programmes were misled. The powder
must be projected upon (amalgamated with) mercury in order to achieve its
multiplication, in alchemical terminology, followed by the addition of just a
soupcon of an actinide and compression at the heart of a 4MW reactor till the
viscous packing agent, Red Mercury, is produced. This instance serves to
illustrate how the one area of study serves to illuminate the other.

Experiments aimed at producing the powder need to start with the most common
reactants and progress to the less stable variety used by Dr. Sleight until success
is achieved. For my own part, these involved testing a combination of antimony
sulphides and antimony and mercury oxides to find out if these would react in
such a way as to displace the sulphide ions, forming the double oxide,
replacement of sulphides by oxides being a common feature of mineral
production underground; the results are called alteration products. I then took the
stable compound remaining, added HgO again and marinaded the result in a
solution of sodium peroxide. Next I added HgCl2 to it, heating it at each stage of
the process and noting any changes. Finally I heated it to about 4000C in order to
find out what part of it would continue stable.

3. A brief description of the compound and related compounds, with their basic
crystal forms.

Mercuric Antimonate

M.P. 356.60C

Colour: Cherry Red

Density: 9.02 g/cc or 9.6 g/cc

Structure: By analogy with K2Cr2O7, monoclinic/ triclinic, or, using HgSb2O6 and
IF7 as the basic ionic structures, a development of the pentagonal bipyramidal or
octahedral type.

Production: Hypothetically, by displacing the H+ ion in H4Sb2O7, pyro-antimonic

acid, but the essential reaction would be:-

2HgO + Sb2O5---> Hg2Sb2O7

At 2000C pyro-antimonic acid converts to meta-antimonic acid and, at 3000C, to

antimony pentoxide, which process might facilitate the reaction :-

(2) 2HgO + H4Sb2O7 ---> Hg2Sb2O7 + H2O

It may also be worthwhile to take account of the fact that most antimonates
contain the [Sb(OH)6 ]- ion, which derives from the pentoxide.

The compound closest in valency terms to the pyro-antimonate is that which

contains the key Group 5 element, phosphorous, namely, mercury pyro-
phosphate, Hg2P2O7, which forms an aqueous Hg22+ - P2O74- system but there is
much less documentation for it than for the orthophosphate Hg3 (PO4)2. The
meta-antimonate, HgSb2O6, by way of contrast, is among the few solid mixed
mercury oxides to have been investigated structurally. It forms hexagonal
crystals, isomorphous with PbSb2O6, in which layers of linked SbO6 octahedra
are separated by layers of Hg. Suggesting as it does that the pyro-antimonate
should have the structural formula Hg2O.Sb2O6 there is plainly another analogy
for it involving the configuration of the mercurous oxide ionic units, this being
Hg6Cl4O. This is structured with slightly deformed Hg2Cl2 molecules connected
via the Cl- anions to infinite chains of Hg2O.

Compounds possibly analogous to mercuric pyro-antimonate in ionic structure

and crystalline form:-

Mg2P2O7, K2Cr2O7, Mn2P2O7, Ca3(PO4)2, Hg2CrO4 ,HgCrO4, HgSb2O6, K4P2O7,

K2H2Sb2O7, M2+Sb2O6,
(M = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn), MnSb2O6, Ca2P2O7.

Mg2P2O7 :- tablets, monoclinic.

K2Cr2O7 :- red, mono/triclinic.

Mn2P2O7 :- monoclinic.

Ca3(PO4)2 :- fusible slag.

Hg2CrO4 :- red needles/powder.

HgCrO4 :- red, rhombic/orthorhombic.

HgSb2O6 :- trirutile.

M2+Sb2O6 :- trirutile.

MnSb2O6 :- Columbite, octahedral.

Ca2P2O7 :- monoclinic (alpha), tetragonal/uniaxial, positive crystals (beta).

As a mineral, manganese meta-antimonate and the M-meta-antimonates are

analogous to a large group of silicates, the pyroxenes, M2+Si2O6.



Potassium dichromate, being a common, stable compound with a structure

similar to that of the supposedly unstable compound, pyro-antimonic acid,
would seem to be a good starting point for determining the stereochemistry of
mercuric pyro-antimonate, particularly when deciding where to place the
mercury ions.

Like the antimony hydroxide ion, pyro-antimonic acid is associated with the acid
oxide, antimony pentoxide, being ditetrahedral in structure (see diagrams 1 and
2). The position of the potassium ions in the dichromate provides an initial
concept of how the mercury ions might bond to the dehydrogenated acid (see
diagram 2).

Meanwhile, given that the Stone was regarded as the product of natural
components, such as the "quintessence", the "moist vapour" that, passing
through geological strata, caused metals to breed underground, it would seem
fitting that minerals which were probably used in the Work should be examined.

Stibiconite, or hydrous antimony oxide (Sb.Sb2O6 (OH)), is a yellow mineral,

white when pure, with a prismatic crystalline form. Kermesite (2Sb2O6.Sb2O3 or
8[Sb2S2O]) is a course dark red powder, turning black when heated but reverting
to red when cool again, which forms light feathery aggregates of crystals if a
little water of crystallization is present. Cinnabar (HgS) is likewise red, forming
hexagonal crystals, the same formation as that adopted by orange HgO (see
photos of crystal aggregates). If these mineral structures were in close proximity
it would not be surprising if, once the sulphur had vapourised, they gave rise to
an alteration product, a double oxide that was symmetrical despite the odd
number of ions it possessed in each formula unit (11).


Hypothetical disposition of ions in a crystal lattice of antimony pentoxide,

based on the octahedral form of bismuth

Pyro-antimonic acid

Potassium Dichromate


Hypothetical disposition of ions and bonds in a crystal lattice of antimony

hexoxide octahedra with shared edges based on the hypothetical disposition
of antimony pentoxide ions and the arrangement of the hexoxide ions in
mercury meta-antimonate

5.HEXAGONAL HgO - Hexagonal HgO has the same crystal structure as red
hexagonal HgS. It is orange, being derived by slow precipitation from Hg(NO 3)2,
as opposed to the red , orthorhombic form and, in contrast to either yellow or red
particulate forms, its infinite chains of -O-Hg-O- are helical in structure:-



One major psychological barrier to the proper examination of these is the

supposed degeneration of alchemy after the beginning of the history of
iatrochemistry and the reputation it acquired following the reviews of it given by
such as Robert Boyle. However, Boyle himself admitted, in his Sceptical
Chymist (1667) that, inasmuch as he had ventured long ago to write of matters
philosophical he was made to believe that tis not inexpedient they should be
known to come from a person altogether a stranger to chymical affairs. This
situation evidently altered as he and Isaac Newton spent many years studying the
metals of alchemy. The publication of Principia Mathematica was supposedly
delayed by Newtons laboratory experiments and he wrote about 650,000 words
on the subject of alchemy, though he and Boyle do not, by their own account,
appear to have got much further in investigating gold than the production of gold
sols. These are colloids, or suspensions, of various colours. Certainly, Newton
spent much of his later life trying to find the Philosophers Stone and may have
gone mad from mercury poisoning caused during his experiments.

Details of the experiments recorded in Newtons Chemistry Notebook were

first published by Boas and Hall in 1958. They include some on the action of
distilled liquor of antimony on salts of lead, iron and copper, and on the
preparation of regulus of antimony (a pure, crystalline form of the
element).and chlorides of mercury. According to the publishers they read like
those of a rational experimental scientist.

Much of Boyles purpose in writing The Sceptical Chymist was to propagate

the Aristotelian alternative to the arabic Tria Prima, or the Three Chymical
Principles of Mixt bodies, namely, the theory that there are four rather than three
basic elements. He writes about a meeting of persons of several opinions, in a
place that need not here be named, principally the inquisitive Eleutherius, a
pseudonym for Boyle himself, and one Carneades, the sceptical chymist of the
title. He tells them that (from experiment) he was quickly induced to think that
the number of elements has been contended about by philosophers with more
earnestness than success. However, in disputing with them on the subject he had
but a negative to defend, the same position as that adopted by the British and
US ministries of defence nowadays, with regards to red mercury.

Nevertheless, he seems to have realised the importance alchemists placed upon

the purification of antimony but not their reason for using muriatic acid (HCl)
for the purpose. He states that .some years ago I sublimed out of antimony a
sulphur and that in greater plenty that ever I saw obtained from that mineral, by a
method which I shall therefore acquaint you with, because chymists seem not to
have taken notice of what importance such experiments may be in the indagation
of the nature, and especially of the number, of the elements. Having then
purposelydigested eight ounces of good and well powdered antimony with
twelve ounces of oil of vitriol in a well stopt glass vessel for about six or seven
weeks (followed by distillation in a retort)..our antimony afforded us..about
an ounce of sulphur, yellow and brittle like common brimstone, and of so
sulphureous a smell, that upon the unluting the vessels it infected the room with a
scarce supportable stink, something which also occurs when HCl is used
instead, or a similar method used to decompose cinnabar. However, he plainly
did not realise that oil of vitriol (H2SO4) contributed sulphur to the process

Now, antimony had become almost as much a focus of alchemical attention as

mercury by the dawn of the C17. Basil Valentine, the pseudonym of Johan
Tholde, who wished to publish his own findings as those of a C15 monk, wrote
Triumphwagen des antimonii in 1604 and it was considered the most important
work on metallurgy since Agricolas De re metallica of 1556. Paracelsus
himself, who mentioned compounds of mercury and antimony as medicinal
compounds in his Paragranum of 1530, gave the name al kohol to the
quintessence, a hypothetical substance supposed capable of opening the pores
of intractable metals like mercury so that they could unite to form the Stone,
which was thought to be a single metallic element (see also chhi in Part II,
section 10). Al cohol was the arabic name for finely divided stibnite (Sb2S3) and,
as the quintessence was reckoned a very penetrating vapour, the name came to be
applied, by association, to spirits of wine.

The author of Alchemy, the Ancient Science appears to take alchemical recipes
too literally, in the manner of Boyle (who thought the alchemists merely wished
to produce a lot of Sulphur from their antimony), as appears in his translators
parenthetical comments on the alchemical process called the Red Lion. The
original description of it is due to Solomon Trismosin (a pseudonym) a well
respected author writing c. 1475 to 1500. The first half of this reads:-

1. Take 4 ounces calcined alum, 4 ounces calcined saltpetre (KNO3), and 2

ounces calcined sublimate (HgCl2), and sublimate [refine] in a proper subliming
2. Carefully take out the sublimate, and resublimate it with 10 ounces fresh salts.
During this operation it will be wholesome, on account of the poisonous fumes,
to eat bread thickly spread with butter.
3. Put the sublimate in a glass retort, and cover it with alcohol, and distill it over
in a water bath until half the fluid remains as an oil behind.
4. The alcohol distilled over is poured back [cohobated] on the residue in the
retort, until it is covered about a fingers breadth.
5. This distillation repeat three times, and the whole of the sublimate will pass
over into the recipient. This is the Mercury of the Philosophers, the Mercurial
Water, as it were the Hellish fire in water(aqua regia?). This Mercurial Water
fumes always, and it must be kept in a closed phial, or glass-stoppered bottle.
6. Take fine gold, in leaf or thin beaten, put it in a glass retort, just cover it with
the Mercurial Water, and put the retort on gentle heat, when the Water will begin
to act upon the gold, and dissolve it, but it will not be reduced to a liquid entirely,
and only remain at the bottom like a greasy substance, then pour off the
Mercurial Water, which can be used again.
7. The gold sediment divide into two parts. Take one half and pour thereon
alcohol, and let the mixture putrefy on a gentle heat fifteen days, and it will
become blood red; this is the Lions Blood.
8. This Lions Blood pour into another glass retort, or phial, which seal
hermetically, and give it the heat of the Dog Days, and it will at first turn black,
then variegated, then light gray; when heat is increased it will turn yellow and at
last deep red. This is the first Tincture. [Provided it does not explode!]
9. The Red Tincture triturate [How will a fulminate triturate?] in a glass mortar.
Take one grain thereof, wrap it in paper and project it on 1000 grains of gold in
fusion. When it has remained in fusion for hour, the gold will turn to the
second Tincture.
10. Take one part of this Tincture, project it on one thousand parts of pure
quicksilver, which has been heated until the fumes arise, and the quicksilver will
be changed into the third Tincture.

Unfortunately, the subsequent stages in the process merely involve implausible

transmutations of copper and iron into gold rather than cold fissioning lead into
gold and are effectively invitations to commit fraud. The salient issue here is that
naively presuming the alcohol mentioned to be ethanol pre-supposes the
production of mercury fulminate (Hg(ONC)2), whilst Paracelsus definition
suggests the possibility of developing a mercury salt of an oxy-acid of antimony.

In his book Auream Vellus, dealing with the period 1473-5, Trismosin claims
he performed a transmutation upon cinnabar, and on testing the ingot of the
fixed Mercury, the whole weighed nine loth, the test gave three loth of fine
Gold. Fixed Mercury, Mercurius Fixatus, and the alternatives Mercurius
praecipitatus per se (or calcinatus per se) were all equally HgO, the only
distinction being in the method of production which was always thought to lead
to a different outcome depending on the method chosen.

Trismosins achievement was far from unique. In 1602, one Alexander Seton
performed transmutations at a goldsmiths in Strasbourg and supervised one in
Frankfurt, where he took care to avoid the accusation of having used the type of
frauds then current, by causing his witness, a merchant named Koch, to perform
it himself; the latter wrote: He did not put a hand to the work himself, but
allowed me to do everything. He gave me a reddish-gray powder, weighing about
three grains. I dropped it into two half-ounces of quicksilver in a crucible. Then I
filled the crucible about halfway up with potash (K2CO3, to avoid oxidation), and
we put it over a gentle heat. After this I filled the furnace with charcoal, so that
the crucible was entirely embedded in a very hot fire; I left it there for about half
an hour. When the crucible was red hot, he told me to throw a little piece of
yellow wax into it. A few minutes later, I cooled the crucible and broke it open.
At the bottom I found a small piece of gold that weighed 54 ounces three grains.
It was melted in my presence and submitted to an assay; 23 carats 15 grains of
gold resulted, together with six of silver both of an exceptionally brilliant
color.. Note the point about it being a small piece of gold. All accredited
examples of anomalous or paranormal transmutations that have come down to us
from alchemy involved small pieces of gold. Nobody ever generated a ton of it in
a single demonstration.

Seton certainly convinced at least one important individual of his abilities. After
his servant had demonstrated a transmutation at the court of Christian II of
Saxony, the latter had him tortured so badly, in the attempt to extract his secret
means of making the Stone, that he afterwards died, but not before passing on his
red powder to a Pole, Michael Sendivogius. Sendivogius demonstrated a
transmutation to the Emporer of Bohemia, Rudolf, himself an enthusiastic
laboratory worker. The Emporer had a marble plaque made, bearing the
inscription Faciat hoc quispiam alius quod fecit Sendivogius Polonus?;
Whoever else could do what Sendivogius the Pole has done?

Quite a few, apparently. Tales of visits by wandering strangers with the power to
turn mercury and lead into gold became part of European folklore and on
occasion the visits were to professional men of established integrity. One such,
Dr. Johan Schweitzer, called Helvetius, was visited in Holland, in 1666, by a
stranger who gave him a sample about as big as a rape or turnip seed from a
stone about the bigness of a small walnut, transparent, of a pale brimstone
color. Wrapped in wax and put into half an ounce of molten lead it made such a
hissing and bubbling in its perfect operation, that within a quarter of an hour all
the mass of lead was totally transmuted into the best and finest gold The
Assay Master of the province, a Mr. Porelius, tested the metal and pronounced it

Another instance in which the stone or powder appeared yellow as opposed to the
more conventional red colour was a transmutation performed by Boyles
preferred authority on chemical matters, the Fleming J.B. van Helmont, in 1618.
Once again it resulted from a visit by a stranger and the gift of a minute quantity
of the Philosophers Stone, which van Helmont described as of color such as
saffron in its powder, yet weighty and shining like unto powdered glass. Heating
about eight ounces of mercury in a crucible and adding the powder he noted
Straightaway all the Quicksilver.stood still from flowing and being congealed
settled like unto a yellow lump; but after pouring it outthere were found eight
ounces and a little less that eleven grains of gold.

The small quantities involved and the transmuting power of the powder relative
to the mass of base metal, its textural qualities and high density are both
consistent with similar reports of transmutations and typical of the descriptions of
the Stone given in 'theoretical' alchemical literature. A document supposedly
derived from a manuscript in the possession of the Rosicrucians in 1777
describes it as 'a ponderous mass, thoroughly of a scarlet colour, which is easily
reducible to powder, by scraping, or otherwise, and in being heated in the fire
flows like wax, without smoking, flaming, or loss of substance, (another account
reads 'flows like wax upon hot iron') returning when cold to its former fixity,
heavier than gold, bulk for bulk, yet easy to be dissolved in any liquid.'

Relations between alchemists and the treasuries of the countries they inhabited,
with their gold-based currencies, were bound to remain fraught, although Boyle
managed to persuade William III's government of the efficacy of legalising the
production of gold from base metal under licence. Meanwhile, the pretensions of
the new scientific societies would not permit of their researching anything that
had been associated with low-class charlatanism. However, in 1782, a recently
elected member of the Royal Society, James Price (born Higginbotham)
demonstrated the transmutation of mercury into its equivalent weight of silver
using a white powder (a product of an alchemical process called the Higher
Circulation, though in this case, as in similar accounts, the transmutation seems
highly suspect, given the relative positions of those elements in the Periodic
Table) and that of mercury into gold, using a red powder. The metals were tested
and found to be genuine, causing an enormous sensation. The Royal Society felt
bound to investigate the powders officially, but Price had already let it be known
that they were exhausted so he was given six weeks to prepare some more. He
evidently failed, a sure sign that, like all alchemists before him who thought they
had cracked the Stone's chemical composition, he was really working blind.
However, whatever his shortcomings as a chemist in this respect he was well
apprised of the fatal effects of prussic acid. On the appointed day the Society's
representatives were shown into his laboratory, Price disappeared, drank a
concoction of the stuff, returned, and died before their eyes. It was the last
occasion on which a learned scientific association was prepared to officially
investigate the claims of alchemy.

In order to illustrate the relationship between Aristotle's four elements, or states

of existence, and the processes alchemists associated with them I attach a copy of
a figure produced by George Ripley, termed Ripley's Wheel and dated early C15
to 1490, for which I provide the following interpretation.

The Lesser Circulation

Earth. Beginning 'Heere the red man to his white wife' Iron (Mars) is added to
impure antimony trioxide (Venus inverted) and the mixture put into solution after
roasting since the antimony precipitates out, leaving dissolved ferric sulphide
(FeS). This is then removed by washing and filtration. The presence of black
sulphides corresponds with the 'nigredo' or black stage.
Water. The addition of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the antimony, followed by
heating, produces a range of colours due to chlorides of impurities going into
solution, particularly those of iron and copper.
Air. Reflux distillation gradually separates out the compounds in accordance with
their different levels of solubility (i.e. their relative ionisations) and some
hydrgen sulphide (H2S) is emitted. The 'albedo', or silvery-white stage, is
reached, suggesting the metal is pure, but this is misleading.
Fire. Continual heating, in the alembic, or closed flask, produces a red
compound, Kermesite
(8[Sb2S2O]), the synthetic form of Kermes mineral.

The Higher Circulation

Air. The 'white wife' is again antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) but this time the 'red
man' is Mercury, in the guise of cinnabar. The Kermesite from the Lesser
Circulation is added, in solution, and the slow heating process recommences.
Water. The 'nigredo' or black stage is reached again followed by a lighter tone as
water is added and the stibnite (Sb2S3) derived from the Kermesite hydrolises,
producing sulphate (SO3-) ions.
Earth. This time a stronger oxidising agent is added, probably nitric acid (HNO3)
in the impure form of green vitriol, and pale nitrates form. The colour variations
in these nitrates and the hydroxides and oxides that subsequently displace them,
particularly those due to the presence of copper, contrasting strongly with those
of antimony and mercury, may have given rise to the description 'The Peacock's
Tail', a stage expected between the black and white stages. The nitrate and
remaining sulphide ions are removed with steam as distillations since this stage is
traditionally carried out in a retort.
Fire. Oxidation by heating the precipitate left in the retort in a crucible gives rise
first to a mixture characteristic of Sb2O3 and yellow mercuric oxide (HgO).
Further heating then produces a crystalline red compound that melts at the
boiling point of mercury. The symbol for mercury commonly appears in
illustrations of the final process but is most likely intended to represent 'sophic'
mercury as opposed to the metallic element.
Confusion about the sequence of these stages as depicted on the wheel may be
avoided by referring to the 'Sphaera colorum principalium' or 'Sphere of principal

The timing of the stages of the process may be determined by referring to an

interpretation of Ripley's poem 'Vision' made by one Eiranaeus Philalethes in the
C17, Thought to be reliable because Philalethes himself was considered an adept,
or one who had himself produced the Philosopher's Stone. They are defined in
terms of the alchemist's only guide to progress, that is to say, colour change.
'In six and forty or fifty days expect the beginning of intire Blackness; and after
six and fifty days more, or sixty, expect the Peacock's Tayl, and Colors of the
Rainbow; and after two and twenty days more, or four and twenty, expect Luna
perfect, the Whitest White, which will grow more and more glorious for the
space of twenty days, or two and twenty at the most: After which, in a little more
increased Fire, expect the Rule of Venus for the space of forty days more; and
after him the Rule of Sol flavus forty days, or two and forty: And then in a
moment comes the Tyrian Color, the sparkling Red, the fiery Vermilion, and Red
Poppy of the Rock..' etc. The total time required adds up to about nine months, a
typical requirement of the process.

Two further points seem worth mentioning in this context. In the celebrated
document 'Collectanea Chemica' (author anonymous) the usual injunction not to
overheat the work during the white stage takes the following form; '.if the dry,
fixing quality of the sulphur exceeds so as not to suffer an alternate resolution of
its substance into vapors,, there is danger of the whole vitrifying; and thus
you shall have only glass instead of the noble tincture.' The author recommends
trituration 'and then its actuated mercury must be added, incorporating both
together till the earth will imbibe no more', a clear reference to metallic mercury
and one seldom provided for the production of the Stone, plus a reference to
antimony glass, a plasticised form of stibnite.

The other point is that this stage is supposed, depending on the text referred to, to
be carried out in a 'strong glass', earthen or iron vessel, 'well luted', even though
the alternatives to a glass container would naturally deprive the researchers of
their only means of identifying changes. Their more fragile glass vessels were
presumed to be destroyed by the heat employed at this stage, since the pressures
exerted by gases was not a recognised factor up until Von Guericke's vacuum
experiments in the mid C17. Pressures above 1 atmosphere improve the quality
of mercuric pyro-antimonate produced so this may be a prime instance of the
alchemists recognising a requirement without understanding the reason for it.

In his conclusion to 'The Sceptical Chymist' Boyle criticises, understandably, the

deliberately obscure writings of Paracelsus, expressing himself in a less reserved
manner than elsewhere:-
'.methinks the chymists, in their searches after truth, are not unlike the
navigators of Solomon's Tarshish fleet, who brought home from their long and
tedious voyages, not only gold, and silver, and ivory, but apes and peacocks too;
for so the writings of several [I say not, all] of your hermetick philosophers
present us, together with divers substantial and noble experiments, theories,
which, either like peacocks' feathers make a great shew, but are neither solid nor
useful; or else like apes, if they have some appearance of being rational, are
blemished with some absurdity or other, that when they are attentively
considered, makes them appear ridiculous.' The didactic purpose of his book was
that chymists should 'learn by particular experiments, what differing parts
particular bodies do consist of' and how to isolate them 'without fruitlessly
contending to force them into more elements than nature made them up of, or
strip the severed principles (elements) so naked, as by making them exquisitely
elementary to make them almost useless.'

Nevertheless, the sceptical chymist rejects the notion of settling for one or other
theory if either would conflict with 'undoubted truths'. 'And, (concludes
Carneades, smiling) it were no disparagement for a sceptick to confesse to
you.I can yet so little discover what to aquiesce in, that perchance the
enquiries of others have scarce been more unsatisfactory to me, than my own
have been to myself.'

An unwholesome certainty has crept into these kinds of discussions since 1667.
The 1780's brought a revolution in the concept of 'calxes' due to their
identification as oxides and the development of a structured approach to
chemicals in general. The scientists principally involved in it were, significantly,
no more inclined to credit the original researcher responsable for the isolation of
oxygen or the person whose discoveries gave rise to their own regarding this
element than Michael Sendivogius was to acknowledge Alexander Seton's
achievement or any other 'adept by proxy' to acknowledge the true alchemist's
contribution to their borrowed status. Lavoisier, taxed with making scant
reference to Cavendish in his report to the Paris Academy of Science concerning
inflammable air, commented cruelly that 'those who start the hare do not
necessarily catch it', yet even this acknowledgement oversimplified the case
inasmuch as it was Scheele who metaphorically started the hare (by identifying
'fire air'), Priestley caught it, then Cavendish, but it was Lavoisier who took it and
ran with it (and named it).

In order to incorporate radioactive isotopes into the established, rigid order then
associated with elements previously thought to be eternal and immutable,
Rutherford and Soddy put forward, in 1903, the idea of the spontaneous
disintegration of atoms still current today:-
'In radioactive changes the transmutation of the elements, so long but so vainly
sought by the alchemists, is proceeding of its own accord. No human effort can in
the minutest detail change any phase of the process; the rate at which the atoms
of radio-elements break down is unchanged by temperature, by chemical
reagents, or by any other means.'
Rutherford's own discovery of secondary emission due to the impact of alpha
rays in 1919* does not contradict the spirit of this statement so much as
emphasise the difficulty of minting durable generalisations about atomic activity.
All the same, isotopes are categorised as either stable and immutable or
radioactive but, in either case, they are considered to be immune the influence of
subatomic particles other than those generated by particle accelerators or nuclear
fallout, due to consideration of the energy barriers involved. Therefore, neither
'cold' fusion nor fission, i.e. room- temperature transmutation, can occur. If there
is any truth in the reports concerning the effects of red mercury Rutherford and
Soddy's statement is nonetheless disproved in detail and those energy barriers no
longer exist.

*by 147N + 42He2+ --> 168O + 11H + 10n

An anecdote concerning the Philosopher's Stone*

Thomas Charnock, 1524/6 -1581, related the tale of the last Prior of Bath,
William Holway (or Gibbs) who, so he told Charnock several years later,
possessed the 'Red Elixir' but had hidden it at the time of the dissolution of the
Abbey. When, sometime afterwards, he went to look for it in the wall where he
had secreted it, he could not find it, and was so overcome by grief that he
temporarily lost his reason.
Charnock met him as a blind old man, probably shortly after the catastrophe that
had destroyed his (Charnock's) first 'Work' (another source describes Holway as
"having lost his reason and gone blind and had to be led about by a boy").
According to Elias Ashmole the elixir had pulled down some stone-work of the
Abbey "there was a Glasse found in a Wall full of Red Tincture, which being
flung away to a dunghill (or Rubish), forthwith coloured it, exceeding red. This
dunghill was afterwards fetched away by Boate by Bathwicke men, and layd in
Bathwicke field, and in the places where it was spread, for a long tyme after, the
Corne grew wonderfully ranke, thick and high: insomuch as it was there look'd
upon as a wonder." Witnesses to this event, or of the fact of it's occurring, are
then mentioned.

*From 'Alchemy': E.J. Holmyard.

Philosophers on alchemy

Avicenna (Abu Ali ibn Sina), 11th. century:- Regarded transmutation as

impossible "since there is no way of splitting up one metallic combination into
another." He considered that the essential distinctions between one metallic
element and another was unknown "And if a thing is unknown, how is it possible
for anyone to endeavour to produce it or to destroy it?."

Vincent of Beauvais, 13th. century:- Thought that alchemy bore the same relation
mineralogy that agriculture bore to botany and believed that metals are generated
and grow in
the bowels of the earth.

Petrus Bonus, in "The New Pearl of Great Price", c. 1330:- "In Nature, the
generation of metals takes thousands of years, and occurs in the bowels of the
Earth..... Transmutation is
merely the work of Nature aided by the Art and directed by the divine will."



TEST 1. After roasting stibnite, melting the impure antimony (Sb) derived from
it and combining a little of the cooled crystalline compound with HgO the Hg
was seen to vapourise out of the mixture; a typical reaction. However, a dark
red compound was left, which withstood heating to 4000C, turning black and
slightly liquid , the red colour returning as it cooled. A little water was added
and feathery, needle-like shapes crystallized out on its surface. On adding a
pinch of this to a little HgO plus water an exothermic reaction developed once
the mixture was heated moderately, cautious repetition of the process leading,
once more, to separation of the Hg from the other constituents and further
separation into compounds of antimony.

Observations and interpretation.

Initially, a little of the pinkish-grey mixture produced after the second
operation proved to be soluble. When heated it turned brown, but on cooling
this separated into a grey precipitate below an orange-brown solution. This
turned a russet colour on reheating, but eventually cooled to give a thin red
layer precipitated on top of a light grey one. The effects of this process are
practically the same as when the constituent compounds are heated separately,
illustrating the perennial difficulty of persuading these stubborn metals to unite.
The reaction equations obtaining here would appear to be:-

2HgO--->2Hg + O2

and Sb2S3.Sb2O3 (aq)--->Sb2S3 (s) + Sb2O3


The situation is somewhat strange as, apparently, the presence of antimony

in cinnabar is not uncommon and renders the refining of the mercury difficult,
suggesting amalgamation of the metals; but Hg Sb alloys do not appear to be

TEST 2. This is designed to test the similarity in behaviour of Hg and Sb in the

presence of an alkali metal to that of Mg and P combined with NH3. Should a
single compound form it might later decompose in accordance with the reaction

2 Mg(NH4)PO4 ---> Mg2P2O7 + 2NH3 + H2O

By analogy, 2 HgNaSbO4----> Hg3Sb2O7 + Na2O

Antimony, its trioxide, its pentoxide and its trisulphide were added to HgO
so that about 2 gm of the mixture was present and heated in a 150 ml flat-
bottomed flask with a bent exhaust tube until an exothermic reaction
developed. Allowed to cool, it was removed to an evaporating dish and warmed
until it resembled a single compound, by reason of its uniform appearance.
Sodium peroxide solution was added to a sample of it, together with a little of
the Kermesite (?) from Test 1 and it was left to soak overnight, then heated until
another thermally stable compound was seen to form.

Observations and interpretation.

Initially dark brown, the mixture turned black on heating. The exothermic
reaction proceeded vigorously, a splint test confirming the emission of oxygen
gas, with light grey and white vapour condensing on the inside of the flask. The
mixture itself turned light grey, then a reddish-lilac colour when allowed to cool,
a mirror effect forming on the inside of the flask the while. As crystallization
occurred a pale, powdery crust appeared above the light red crystals. Adding
water restored the brown colour but a russet colour, accompanied by the
development of a textural effect like that of clay, appeared when the product
was reheated. Meanwhile, the appearance of tiny beads of Hg upon its surface
indicated that progress to a stable compound had not yet been achieved. On
adding sodium peroxide and Kermesite (?) an opaque amber solution was seen
to form which then cleared leaving a pinkish precipitate. Upon heating, Hg
gradually re-appeared as tiny beads upon the precipitate. It may be surmised
that, in the first instance, the reaction:-

Sb + Sb2O3 + Sb2S3 + 2HgO ---> Sb + 2Sb2O3(v) + Sb2S3(v) + 2Hg(v) + 2O2

occurred, and subsequently :-

2Sb2S3 + Sb2O3 + Sb2S3. Sb2O3(aq) + Na2O2(aq) + 3HgO(s)

---> Sb2S5 + Na2S + Sb2S3 + O2 + 3Hg

All of the elements, save oxygen, formed a single unidentifiable, thermally

unstable complex.

TEST 3. Mercuric chloride was added to some of the Kermesite(?) in a boiling

tube and heat applied until the sequence of colour changes appeared to be
complete. After allowing it to cool until its appearance changed it was reheated to
drive off any remaining water and heated in a 0.5L round-bottomed flask with
thermometer, testing for thermal stability. Trituration of the resultant product
then served to confirm its consistency and fixedness.

Observations and interpretation.

A creamy-pink transparent solution formed, turning deep brown on heating,
then grey. Allowed to cool, it turned light greyish yellow with a grey precipitate.
On dehydration a grey concretion with a powdery white surface appeared, but
almost all of this vapourised, leaving a creamy white coating on the entire inner
surface of the flask, only a few small crystalline lumps remaining in the bottom.
Trituration yielded a uniform grey-brown powder.
The creamy white powder suggests the presence of mercury(finely divided),
antimony trioxide and mercuric oxide, as its readiness to vapourise would seem
to confirm. The remaining lumps probably contain a complex of sulphides and
the appearance of the triturated product supports this as well as the supposition
that the chloride ions had all been emitted as chlorine gas by this stage. However,
stable sulphides are readily obtainable from combining cinnabar or mercuric
oxide with antimony oxides or sulphides. They do not produce stable mixed
oxides when heated, unless, perhaps, they are heated under oxygen or for much
longer than would be usual given the time constraints in a modern laboratory.

TEST 4. A layer of moistened antimony pentoxide (<1gm) was applied to a

supporting mesh of iron wire and covered with ~1gm of mercuric oxide (yellow
particulate form). This was heated, gently at first, then more strongly, in a length
of combustion tubing, until the cycle of changes appeared to be complete. The
resultant product was then scraped off the wire and the inside of the tube,
triturated with sodium hydroxide crystals and replaced, unsupported, in the tube.
This was heated strongly until an exothermic reaction developed and then again,
to observe the dehydrated product.

Observations and interpretation.

The layered mixture turned orange, then dark red when heated strongly,
vapourisation occurring but ceasing rapidly when it was allowed to cool. It
appeared to solidify as an orange-brown product but the red colour returned on
reheating it. However, with the sodium chloride added it first turned black and
moist and then bubbled like potassium carbonate when heated. Finally, a light-
grey, blue, green and yellow variegated product resulted, vitrification appearing
where it touched the glass tube.

Essentially, the reactions indicate the production of Schlippe's salt (dehydrated)

or sodium thioantimonate, which forms yellow, tetrahedral crystals. These would
appear green or blue when intimately mixed with the grey mercury and
antimony. The initial reaction would be:-

2HgO ---> 2Hg + O2 (incomplete reaction)

heated in
presence of antimony

followed by:- 6NaOH + Sb2S3 ---> 3Na2S + Sb2O3 + 3H2O(v)

Then, on reheating:-

Sb2S3 + 3Na2S + HgO + Sb2O3 ---> 2Na3SbS4 + Hg + 3O2


The limited oxidising effect of the halides, on Hg at least, is well illustrated by

the failure of the chloride ions to replace the sulphide ions in Test 3. Iodine,
though it forms HgI readily enough with HgO, disguises the development of the
red mixed oxide of Hg and Sb and the iodide is difficult to eliminate afterwards
so it was not introduced into the process. The alkali metals seem better
candidates when it comes to producing complex catalytic compounds aimed at
assisting oxidation. Potassium introduces the sort of dangers associated with the
nitrates and ethanol but sodium is less problematical and is equally easy to
separate by filtration from the less soluble mercury and antimony ions.
Combination of mercury with a Group 5 element more reactive than antimony, in
a mixed oxide, might appear to be a suitable intermediate strategy but nitrogen
excludes itself because it forms dangerous nitrates. Not having a bismuth
compound to hand I tried using orthophosphoric acid. A fine, crystalline, white
powder is produced when mercuric oxide is slowly heated in an excess of this
acid. As tiny droplets of mercury were seen to form on the surface of the powder
after it had been left standing for a few days, it might be thought that this
compound was unstable at room temperature, but this symptom is characteristic
of the standard reaction for the production of mercuric phosphate. Consequently,
phosphorus may yet prove to be the most suitable Group 5 element for the
purpose of producing a mixed oxide of antimony and mercury by a displacement

The problem highlighted by these tests is the mutual reduction of mercury and
antimony compounds to their metallic elements, or, at any rate, the reduction to
mercury and an antimony compound. It is difficult to form antimony amalgam
but is sufficient tendency for it to amalgamate to cause gaseous ions like oxides
and chlorides to be expelled from mixtures of their compounds due to their
displacement by the metal atoms. Heating the metals together does not appear to
reverse this process. It simply prevents their oxides from forming.

In observing the diagrams of infinite chains of mercuric and oxide ions and
antimony hexoxide octahedra the adjective polymeric comes to mind. It is not
surprising that early chemists associated them with organic substances. The
emphasis laid on complete purification of the metals, in alchemical literature,
becomes understandable in the current context since any impurity could form a
buffer compound, preventing a slow reaction that was difficult to maintain from
taking place at all. The vitreous character attributed to the Stone links it, by
association, to the pyroxenes. Nonetheless, it would have been easy for the
fragile soda glass vessels used by the alchemists to contribute to the final product
due to long term thermal stress gradually breaking down the surface of the glass,
a process that could easily go undetected. The production of pure mercuric pyro-
antimonate seems to require an unusually close packed arrangement of metal ions
in the crystal strucure in order that its high thermal stability should not be
compromised by the natural volatility of the metals. However, on the basis of
these test results, the only response to the question "What tendency have
antimony and mercury to form a stable mixed oxide?" must be "Hardly any".


In April 1996 two things happened which gave new direction to my researches
into this compound. One was that a correspondent to the Internet website,
Erick Singley, provided the International Chemical Register (ICR) Number for it;
20720-76-7. The other was that a book published in 95, The Mini-nuke
Conspiracy, came to my attention. It contained the ICR number plus the name
of the chemist, Dr. Sleight, who had synthesized one or more allotropes of it for
the American explosives manufacturer Du Pont de Nemours, in 68. Using this
information I easily found the chemical abstract (or note concerning the
experimental report) in volume 69 of the Chemical Abstract Services (CAS)
output, abstract number 71239v.

The description appearing against the ICR number would not inspire much confidence in
anyone unfamiliar with the one available in The Mini-nuke Conspiracy, where it is
described as a mercury salt of antimonic acid:-

20720-76-7 Antimonic acid (H4Sb2O7 ), mercury (2+) salt (1:2)

H4O7 Sb2 .2Hg

However, anyone who had attempted to produce the compound using reaction (2) on
page 3 of Part I* would recognise the reactants referred to. Unless they had a supply of
oxygen available they would also recall their observation of the ease with which mercury is
liberated from a compound when it is heated in solution. My own experiences with this
method were so disappointing that I did not even include it in my test reports. The thing to
remember about its limitations is that they only obtain for the thermally unstable
allotropic forms of the compound. Another situation hardly calculated to inspire
confidence in the procedure is J.R. Partingtons reference to antimonic and antimonious
acids in his Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry, where he states that their existence is
extremely doubtful. Antimonic acids formula appears against Antimony oxyhydrate in
R.C. Weasts Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.

Now, if the ICR description is considered inconclusive what may be said of the one in the
abstract? I had already examined the CAS Subject Index for 1967-71 before April 96 during
the course of a trawl through the services indices, looking for mercury salts of all possible
descriptions. The sought-after compound appeared as:-

mercury (2+) salt (1:2)[20720-76-7], crystal structure of, 69 :71239v

* (2) 2HgO + H4Sb2O7 => Hg2Sb2O7 + H2O

Referring to the abstracts one finds:-

71239v New ternary oxides of mercury with the pyrochlore structure. Sleight, A.W. (E.I.
du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, Del.) Inorg. Chem. 1968, 7(9), 1704-8 (Eng).
Three new ternary oxides of Hg- Hg2Nb2O7, Hg2Ta2O7 and Hg2S2O7 (sic) - have been
prepd. and characterized.......

Perhaps unsurprisingly, I had not considered it worth my while to take a look in volume 7
of the Journal of Inorganic Chemistry for 68 in order to find out if the CAS were mistaken
in referring to a pyrosulphate (hardly a likely compound given the valency of sulphur). Of
course, a cross-reference to their number index would have confirmed this, as the CAS
were to do when inquired of, calling the misprint a typographical error. In any case, I had
no good reason to follow up such an old lead when the red mercury scare appeared only
to have started in 93, particularly since I would have had to rely on such a prestigious
organisation as the CAS making a mistake with a short chemical formula. Further research,
after April 96, failed to find any more references, indirect or otherwise, to Hg2Sb2O7 in CAS
literature, wherefore it might be said that there is no specific reference to the formula in
scientifically respectable literature outside of Dr. Sleights report and the reference to its
structure in Wells Structural Inorganic Chemistry.

As to the practical significance of Dr. Sleights report, suffice it to say that has served me as
a source of information for the 3 years in which I have refined my experimental
procedures and sought to account for the discrepancies between the results of his X-ray
analysis of his version(s) of the compound and mine. The final product was a pasty brown
powder, thermally stable to some temperature above the melting point of pyrex glass,
that stains the melting glass an orange-brown colour without appearing to melt of itself. It
turns a yellow-ochre colour as it adsorbs onto the surface of molten lead (doubtless
litharge is added to its composition) and it also adsorbs onto the surface of mercury at
room temperature, but not to the extent that anyone could call the resultant amalgam
viscous. The one positive result of the process has been the achievement of the fixation of
mercury and if that is what grabs you then read on.



(from A textbook of Pure and Applied Chemistry:- Garside & Phillips)

Various hydrated forms of (antimony pentoxide), corresponding in composition to the ortho-,

pyro-, and meta-antimonic acids, have been prepared....Thus hydrolysis of antimony pentachloride
by boiling water, followed by drying the resulting precipitate at 1000C, produces the hydrate
corresponding to pyro-antimonic acid, H4Sb2O7 :

2SbCl5 + 7H2O => 10HCl + H4Sb2O7

The hydrochloric acid is filtered off after precipitation has occurred.


Heating mercury in a partially evacuated, round-bottomed flask until it is mostly deposited as a

condensed vapour all over the interior and then adding nitric acid before repeating the procedure
will produce mercuric nitrate. Further heating whilst distilling the fumes from the compound with
a Leibigs condensor gradually yields mercuric oxide. The reactions are:-

2HNO3 + Hg => Hg(NO3)2 + H2

followed by 2Hg(NO3)2 => 2HgO + 4NO2 + O2


[Error = 0.02g throughout unless otherwise specified]

Reactants:- Required molar mass ratio of Oxide:Acid = 434:360 = 1.206:1


Mass of beaker 1 + H4Sb2O7 = 65.34

= 54.86

= 10.48 0.03g

Mass of beaker 2 + HgO = 19.33

= 7.14

= 12.19 0.03g
Measured masses have an Oxide to Acid ratio of 1.163:1


Mass of boiling tube 1 + reactants = 68.00

= 45.33

= 22.67 0.03g

Product:- Molar mass ratio of reactants to desired double oxide = 794:758 = 1.048:1

Therefore, expected mass of Hg2Sb2O7 = 22.67gm = 21.63gm


(ignoring the discrepancies between required and measured mass ratios for now).

Final mass of boiling tube 2 + product, gm

after heating under oxygen and expulsion of steam from

tube = 63.95

Mass of boiling tube = 43.74

Hg2Sb2O7 = 20.21

(Error in these last values is 0.05g)

The amount of water lost due to evaporation of the water generated during the reaction may be
calculated from the masses of the reactants and expected product and is 1.04gm. The remaining
difference of 1.42gm between the expected mass of the product and that found is readily
attributable to Hg being lost through the oxygen outlet tube along with any nitrate remaining as
an impurity from the HgO production process. Likewise it would also be due to the discrepancy in
the required to measured mass ratios of the reactants, the acid being the determining (or limiting)
constituent and the surplus HgO subliming, with Hg, as a frost onto the inside of the boiling
tube. It has something of the character of the nitrate but is powdery rather than having the
whiskery, needle-like appearance of the latter.



By repeatedly heating the product under oxygen and returning any further sublimate to it, also
heating it in the partially evacuated boiling tube over a candle, and overnight, it gradually
approached a condition in which it was thermally semi-stable. Having repeated this procedure
on the several occasions when I have carried out this experiment, with variations, I can state that
this never takes less than 3 weeks.

Then a lengthy period heating it over a candle gradually turned it from a yellow-ochre to a cream-
white colour. Heating it again over a bunsen burner turned it a chalk-white colour. There was
much sublimate and this was collected.


Mass of sublimate from Hg2Sb2O7 + petri dish = 13.090

" " " " = 6.953

Mass of sublimate = 6.137 0.03g


Mass of residue + boiling-tube = 63.751

" " " " = 52.369

Mass of residue = 11.382 0.03g

5. The interpretation of X-ray scans of my oxide samples, the adjustments in my

experimental approach and the final results of the experiments.

If you are unfamiliar with the principles of X-ray Crystallography, refer

to APPENDIX D. BASIC CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. Here you will notice that
the last equation in the section 'The Law of Rational Indices' is:-

h2/a2 + k2/b2 + l2/c2 = 1/d2

The most important thing to note at this point is that Dr. Sleight identified
mercuric pyro-antimonate as a compound with a cubic pyrochlore structure. As
lengths a,b and c are identified with the orthogonal axes of the unit cell, which
is, in this case, a cube, a = b = c. The equation therefore simplifies to:-

h2/a2 + k2/a2 + l2/a2 = 1/d2

(h2 + k2 + l2)/a2 = 1/d2

At this point, refer to the equation for first-order reflections, which appears in
the section 'X-rays and the atoms in a crystal lattice':-

sin2B = (2/4)(1/d2)

Next, substitute the previously derived value for 1/d2 in this equation, to give:-
sin2B = (2/4)(h2 + k2 + l2)/a2

This is the equation from which the values of the Bragg angles,B, are to be
derived. The squared length h2 + k2 + l2 is the square of the hypotenuse for the
3D equivalent of Pythagorus' Theorem. It is equal to S2, S being referred to as
the Structure Factor.

Dr. Sleight determined that the structure of mercuric pyro-antimonate was face
centred cubic,
with Cell Edge, a = 10.349 Angstroms. (The Angstrom = 1 X 10-10of a metre).
Now refer to Bragg formula for a cubic crystal structure:-

sin2B = (2/4)(h2 + k2 + l2)/a2

Substituting for 'a' and using = 1.54 Angstroms, (taken to 3 s.f.s), gives a value
for /a of 0.1488066, denoted 'r' in the following lists. The Bragg angles and
Scattering angles are then, by my calculation:-

hkl sinB = [S/2]r B S = 2B(to 3 s.f.s)

111 (3/4)r 7.40 14.8

311 (11/4)r 14.29 28.6

222 (3)r 14.94 29.9

400 2r 17.31 34.6

331 (19/4)r 18.92 37.9

511 (27/4)r 22.74 45.5

440 (8)r 24.89 49.8

531 (35/4)r 26.12 52.2

622 (11)r 29.57 59.2

444 (12)r 31.03 62.1

711 (51/4)r 32.10 64.2

553 (59/3)r 34.86 69.7



As the sublimate from the Hg2Sb2O7 has every appearance of being impure HgO and has a
mass = 0.503 of the mass of HgO originally added it might be supposed that the residue was
HgSb2O6. Now, diffraction scans 17 to 21 demonstrate the compatability between the scattering
angles for the residue and those calculated using Dr. Sleight's data for Hg2Sb2O7. The mass of the
residue and that calculated for the product of the principle reaction are in the ratio 0.526:1,
suggesting that, within an allowable error of 0.5g, half of the Hg2Sb2O7 produced has been
subsequently lost but the residue is still the pyro-antimonate. However, scan 22 confirms the first
impression given by the sublimate; it is predominantly HgO and the residue cannot, therefore be
pure pyro-antimonate, experience having in any case shown that antimony compounds, like the
element, are less volatile than mercury compounds. The high thermal stability of the residue in its
cream-coloured form, as it is observed to convert eventually to a reddish-brown substance when
heated strongly, suggests that Dr. Sleight, or rather, his assistants, misdiagnosed the latter
compound. He considered that 'in samples apparently slightly defficient in mercury and
oxygen.the cell size was decreased' so, as the FCC structure and unit cell edge dimension that he
quotes appear to apply to the residue, it cannot be a pure compound with the formula Hg2Sb2O7.

Speculating that the residue is a combination of . Hg2Sb2O7 and HgSb2O6 in the molar ratio 1:1,
the mass ratio of HgO to the remaining oxide is that of 3HgO to 2Sb2O5 or 650:647. This is 1:1
within the error margins involved. Add half the mass of the residue (5.69g) to that of the sublimate
(6.14g) and the sum (11.83g) is within 0.5g of the mass of HgO originally introduced (12.19g). The
equivalent loss of Sb2O5 is seen to be 9.44g - 5.69g = 3.75g. Given the relative volatility of the
metals, the ratio of the oxide losses suggested here, 1.64:1, is certainly in line with expectations.
An FCC structure with the compound formula Hg3Sb4O13, comprising 80 atoms per unit cell, i.e.
with Z = 4, and arranged as alternating lattices of SbO6 octahedra plus HgO chains
and SbO6 octahedra plus Hg chains in four-fold symmetry would seem to fit the bill. Anything else
would most likely be a mixture, at least in part, so that it would have a lower thermal stability and
exhibit many more peaks on the X-ray diffraction scan. Of course, only mass spectroscopic analysis
could confirm the mass ratios of the elements present but the diffraction analysis does at least
point to a credible alternative to Dr. Sleight's interpretation of the differently coloured samples of
Hg2Sb2O7 with their variable purities.


Dr. Sleight's observed intensities Iobs. for Hg2Nb2O7 sample, standing in for
Hg2Sb2O7 (both having a pyrochlore structure 'with the same positional
parameter') expressed as ratios of the smallest peak, reflected from the {444}

All these peaks are above 1,000 c.p.s.

hkl Iobs

{222} 10.26

{400} 3.51

{440} 4.06

{622} 3.94

{444} 1.00
Equivalent data (Iobs) for scans obtained using data from my own samples. All
the peaks used for the purpose were with +/-l of the angles derived using Dr.
Sleight's value of 10.349 A for the relevant lattice planes.

Scan 15 16 17 19 20 21

h k 1 Hg2Sb2O7 -> |Hg2Sb2O7 + Hg2Sb2O6

{222} 3.40 2.02 2.40 4.64 6.40 5.51

{400} - 1.42 1.43 1.77 2.44 2.36

{440} 1.62 1.22 1.14 2.03 2.75 2.37

{622} - 1.12 1.31 2.23 2.60 2.10

{444} 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00



1. As per Dr. Sleight's report.

2. Including only 'axial' oxide ions, i.e. those directly linking the mercury and
antimony ions.
3. With 'construction lines' added to highlight the octahedra.


'When the chhi of the southern regions (lit. the 'bull-lands') ascends to the Red Heavens, they give
birth after 700 years to chhi tan (red cinnabar). This in turn produces after 700 years red mercury,
red mercury after 700 years produces red metal (copper), and red metal in 1,000 years gives birth
to a red dragon. The red dragon, penetrating to the treasuries (of the earth) gives rise to the Red
Springs. When the dust from the Red Springs ascends and becomes red clouds, the Yin and Yang
beat upon one another, produce peals of thunder, and fly out as lightning. The (waters) which
were above thereupon descend (as rain) and the running streams flow downwards uniting in the
Red Sea.'

From the fourth chapter of the 'Huai Nan Tzu' (2nd. Century BC)

Eric Holmyard, introducing the third chapter of his classic treatise on the subject, 'Alchemy'
(1949), wrote of Chinese alchemy that, previously, 'the available data gave little information about
the paths of development it had followed. At the present time, however, largely owing to the work
of O.S. Johnson, T.L. Davis, L.C. Wu, K.F. Chen, and particularly H.H. Dubs, the facts are beginning
to emerge - and very interesting facts they are.' The massive task of analysing and arranging the
translations of Chinese writings on alchemy fell to Joseph Needham, representing just a small part
of his massive oeuvre 'Science and Civilisation in China', published, in 42 parts, in 1970. In the
process he completely rewrote the history of Western alchemy, which had been thought to derive
and date from Aristotle's theory of the four elements of the 1st Century BC. The proportions of
Earth, Air, Water and Fire contained by base metals existing in minerals within the earth was
supposed to modify over hundreds of years as the metals 'grew', developing a 'more perfect' form
as silver or gold. Aristotelians used the growth of plants from bulbs and roots in the earth as an
analogy. However, Needham found that 'The Chinese theory of the metamorphosis of minerals is
.. fully developed by 122 BC, and probably goes back to 350 BC or before. It is extremely difficult to
believe that Tsou Yen and his School (of Naturalists) derived it from Aristotle or the pre-Socratics.'1

With reference to the two metals central to this book it should be noted that whilst antimony
was not referred to in its elemental form in a chinese document until 1584, only 16 years before
the publication of Basil Valentine's 'Triumphal Chariot of Antimony' in Germany, references to
mercury go back to antiquity in China, as in the West. Cinnabar was of particular interest to the
Chinese, already being associated with gold prospecting by the 4th Century AD. A book of that
period, the Kuan Tzu, mentioned that superficial cinnabar was considered a sign of deeper gold.
The theory behind this reasoning was given by that most celebrated of all chinese alchemists, Ko
Hung, who wrote, in about 300 AD,:- 'When the manuals of the immortals (hsien ching) say that
the seminal essence of cinnabar gives birth to gold, this is the theory of making gold from
cinnabar. That is why gold is generally found beneath cinnabar in the mountains.'2 It is worth
noting at this point that Greek and Arabic documents referring to Western alchemical writings of
c. 100 BC to 100 AD did not themselves appear until the 8th and 9th Centuries AD together with the
notion of the Philosopher's Stone as a red powder. Writing in his 'Clerks and Craftsmen in China
and the West', Needham states that '.by 20 AD the idea of the 'philosopher's stone' .makes its
appearance for the first time in a story of Huan Than'sTransmitted to the Arabic world by about
700 AD, Chinese lien tan shu set the definitive alchemical style which lasted in European culture
from c. 1200 AD till the time of Boyle, Newton and Lavoisier.Thus Chinese alchemy long
antedates Arabic alchemy and even Hellenistic 'alchemy'.'

Vol. 3, Section 25, p.641.

From Section 33.

Where did the word come from anyway? When C19 British writers and
ethnographers came to consider the matter they postulated that its most likely
derivation was 'al khem', 'khem' meaning 'earth' in Egyptian but not, they
reasoned, just any old earth. No, it must refer to the rich alluvial mud of the Nile
delta, early Egyptian chemists having supposedly learned how to extract gold
from it by means of 'alchemy'. Alternatively, it could refer to the name of Egypt,
Khemt. The superficial plausability of this ad hoc argument is challenged as soon
as one considers the original spelling of the word 'chemistry' (describing the 'art
of chem').

It was spelt 'chimistry' from the time of alchemy's introduction to this country in 1100AD until
Boyle's 'Sceptical Chymist' appeared, in 1667, wherefore it would more precisely be said to
represent the 'art of chim' and this focusses one's attention on the actual pronunciation of
'alchemy'. In 'Clerks and Craftsmen in China and the West' Needham proceeds as follows:- 'The
origin of the word 'alchemy' has been much disputed .I suggest that the word is really Chinese in
origin and comes from the words lien chin shu, the art of transmuting gold. This would be
pronounced in Cantonese lien kim shok. Now it is known that Arabic people and Syrians were
trading with China as early as 200 AD so that Arabs would naturally put the prefix al on to it, and
get al kimm [actually al-kimiya] 'pertaining to the making of gold'.' It is not simply a matter,
therefore, of considering which noun serves as the most likely origin for the term describing
transmutation to noble metals, 'earth' or Egypt or 'gold'. In order to refute Needham's suggestion
it would be necessary to show that the ancient Chinese had taken a foreign word, taken off its
prefix, always assuming they knew it had one, spelt it using a phoneticised version of a non-
existent Cantonese word and then applied it to a process that they had been engaged in hundreds
of years before any Egyptian began to take an interest in it. Furthermore, the word just happened
to correspond with their own word for gold. It is the sheer implausibility of these circumstances
that seems to give both alchemy and, by extension, chemistry itself, a specifically Chinese origin.

As it is with the basic concepts, so it appears to be with matters related to the experimental
research involved. The 'Huai Nan Tzu' (C2 BC), from which the introductory quotation was drawn,
'mentions many of the inorganic substances which later became so important in alchemy - arsenic
sulphide, sulphur, arsenious acid, mercuric sulphide, mercury and the metals (of antiquity)'. It also
deals with what it refers to as yellow, green, red, white and black mercury, indicating how metallic
elements could be confused with their compounds, a practice that became all too common in the
West, but only a major influence in Western alchemical literature hundreds of years after the
writing of the 'Huai Nan Tzu'.

What was the impetus towards gold production that caused alchemy to become increasingly
popular in China up to the time of its prohibition by imperial edict in 144 BC? Needham relates
how Chhen Chih (1955) (argued) that gold became increasingly scarce in the course of the Han (a
dynasty lasting from 202 BC to 220 AD) and later, attributing this growing scarcity to the gradual
exhaustion of many of the most easily worked deposits as well as a siphoning off of much gold into
the gilding of Buddhist statuary.3 Certainly, gold substitutes were well known by that time. By the
Warring States (Chan Kuo) period (480 to 221 BC), liquid or pasty mercury-gold amalgams were
widely used for gold-plating metal objects (liu chin); after the amalgam was applied, the object
would be heated, driving off the mercury and leaving the gilding.4 The extraction of gold using
mercury was already practised, also the use of antimony in a cupellation process designed to
separate gold from silver 'by the use of stibnite (naturally occurring antimony sulphide); herethe
melt (in the cupel) forms two layers, the upper one containing the sulphides of silver and any
other base metals presentBelow there is gold with metallic antimony, and the latter is driven off
by further heating afterwards.'5

Science & Civilisation in China(SCC) Vol. 13, p.123.

Ibid p.146, from Lins & Oddy (1975):- The Origins of Mercury Gilding.

Vol. 5, Section 33, p.39.
Eric Holmyard quotes a commentator on the imperial edict of 144 BC, who provides the
background to the prohibition. 'The Emporer Wen had allowed such practises, and much
alchemistic gold had been made; however, alchemistic gold is not really gold, and the alchemists
thus lose their time and money and are left with nothing more than empty boasts. When they
become poor through wasting their substance on their experiments, they turn to brigandry or
robbery, and hence the Emporer Jing (Ching) issued his edict against them.' Specifically, the edict
'enacted that coiners and those who made counterfeit gold should be punished by public
execution.'6 Bearing in mind that Ching was a ruthless bloody tyrant, this still seems a little harsh
and gives an idea of the seriousness of the situation. Comparison with the approximate date (300
AD) of the emporer Diocletian's edict against alchemy, in which it is again treated as a way of
counterfeiting gold, serves to illustrate the enormous lead that China had on the West in this field.
Also, Holmyard relates how, in 133 BC 'an alchemist was received by the Emperor Wu because he
claimed that he had discovered the secret of immortality.The alchemist said that the Emperor
must first worship the goddess of the stove in his own person; this would enable him to invoke
spiritual beings who, when they appeared, would render possible the conversion of cinnabar into
gold;.'7 Apparently alchemy was thought worthy of consideration by the most elevated of
individuals and the notion that all of its procedures were fraudulent was just for public

The number of gold substitutes continued to proliferate. Joseph Needham provides a list of
different 'types' of gold and silver, contained in the 'Thang Liu Tien' (Administrative Regulations of
the Six Ministries of the Thang Dynasty), completed in 739 AD, making no distinction between the
real and the false. It lists chhuang chin as 'made' or 'created' gold, interpreted to mean artificial or
alchemical gold.8 The 'Pao Tsang Lun' (Discourse on the Contents of the Precious Treasury of the
Earth) of c. 918 AD lists 15 artificial kinds of gold and 5 genuine, all under the heading
of chin hsiao (gold powder). Number 15 is chu sha chin or cinnabar 'gold', interpreted by Needham
as either a form of gilding or copper 'whitened with mercury then yellowed by sulphides.'

Needham expatiates at some length on the subject of cupellation and cementation, rightly
drawing attention to the 'antiquity and universality of the testing and assay methods for the
precious metals.'9 He then asks asks a question of fundamental importance to my entire
hypothesis. 'How then, in such a situation, could 'alchemy' -aurifaction- ever have arisen? How
could goldsmithery ever have turned into 'alchemy'?'10 To state it differently, how did the notion
of aurifaction ever originate if a) nobody had ever achieved it and b) there was no reason to
believe anyone would ever achieve it? No amount of theorising concerning the acceleration of a
natural process could establish a practice when the only possible evidence of success was of an
obvious, practical nature. Due to the (necessarily) well developed art of assaying, any fraud ran the
risk of instant detection. Needham quotes the pioneering scientific archaeologist Berthelot, who
concluded that 'In ancient times, the precise analytical means of today were not known. Hence it
was a step to the idea that it was possible to make the imitation so perfect that it would be
identical with the reality. This was the step that the alchemists took.' However, Berthelot then
rationalised the continuation of the confusion that this process involved by supposing that 'the
artisans for whom these (fraudulent) recipes were written probably became real alchemists later'.
Needham comments, almost superfluously, that 'this is what we might call 'the theory of the
dupers duped' and it is really impossible to believe.'

Let us now turn to the subject of cinnabar, regarded by Chinese alchemists as central to their
craft and, like stibnite, a natural resource common to many parts of China. Needham mentions the
famous rich deposits of cinnabar at Chhen-chou in Hunan.11 Concerning cinnabar as a source of
'yellow silver' (huang yin) he writes:- 'Now Thang Shen-Wei in the Cheng Lei Pen Tshao (Classified
Pharmaceutical Natural History, 1249 AD edition) quotes (Chhing) Hsia Tzu (either the author of
the Pao Tsang Lun or an earlier alchemical writer) as saying that 'when cinnabar is subdued by fire
it turns into huang yin; this can be heavy or it can be light, with

Alchemy, Chapter 3, p31.

Ibid, p32.

SCC, Vol. 5, Section 33, p274.

SCC, Vol. 5, Section 33, p41.

Ibid, p44.

SCC, Vol. 13, p139.

spiritual or with magic powers'.' A Thang dynasty writer had listed 'yellow silver' with 'cinnabar
silver' (tan sha yin), 'realgar silver' (hsiung huang yin) and 'orpiment silver' (tzhua huang
yin).12 'Fang Shao, in his Po Choi Pien (written in 1117 AD), says: 'Huang yin comes from Szechuan,
and few Southerners know about it. The courtier of the former dynasty (i.e. the Thang) Yen Ching-
Chin.once found himself in charge of the Treasury and noted that there were ten hairpins
(of huang yin). These were made of some metal with a colour and weight no different from that
of the finest gold'.' However, Needham then goes on to state that 'There can be no question that
this 'yellow silver' refers to the whitening or silvering of surface-layers of copper and dark copper-
containing alloys, by mercury and mercury vapour (so as to form a superficial amalgam), and by
the formation of silvery or golden-looking surface films containing arsenic and sulphur'13 He then
adds that 'Chhing Hsia Tzu goes on to say: 'It (the huang yin) can be dark or light, and it can be dull
or shining. A man can hardly lift a hu bushel of it [~79 lbs] but if ten thousand catties [~10,000 lbs]
of it are subjected to the furnace it all soars aloft in a trice (as vapour) and even if the gods and
spirits were to set out to seek for it they could not tell where it had gone'.' Needham then
expresses the opinion that it must have comprised volatile metals and oxides.14 Quite apart from
the contradiction between this and his previous analysis, it is at variance with Dr. Sleight's and my
own experiences with double oxides of mercury.

The late Roman Empire developed a huge trade deficit with the Seres, large enough to
account for its fall, but there was one popular trade item that the Romans had access to that no
Chinese had, coloured glass. Originating in Sumeria, it was produced by adding powdered metals
to molten soda glass and annealing. Needham observes that gold-ruby glass was glass fused (and
annealed) with the 'purple of Cassius', colloidal gold adsorbed onto colloidal stannic oxide. He
mentions that 'W. Ganzenmuller [in his 'Zukunftsaufgaben der Geschichte der Alchimie',
1953]has drawn attention to the fact that there is a strangely close connection between the
gold-ruby glass and the 'philosophers' stone' of medieval Europe. He shows how often this was
referred to as dark red in colour, 'glowing like the carbuncle or the ruby', and he suggests that the
discovery of the colouring properties of colloidal gold had a very long hidden history'15 My own
researches have shown me that stable combinations of mercuric and antimonic
oxides always colour glass red, excepting in the case of mercuric meta-antimonate, which colours
it silvery white. In the circumstances I cannot imagine that Chinese alchemists would not have
noticed this property of their mixed oxides (or possibly sulphides) of mercury and antimony had
they developed the practice of colouring glass. As they were importing coloured glass from an
empire that was depleting its gold reserves in order to pay for all the goods it was importing
from themthere was simply no incentive for them to develop the technique. This, if anything does,
represents the parting of the ways between Chinese and Western alchemy.

SCC, Vol. 5, p205.

Ibid, p206.

Ibid, p207.

Ibid, p268.

An analysis of Ripley's 'Bosome-Book' from a modern chemistry

A copy of the book itself, published in 1683, can be seen
at The following is based both on
current chemical identities and their observed relationship to the results of my
own experiments using the same substances as Ripley refers to. The only
differences arise from the fact that I had the choice of compounds of a higher
purity than Ripley had access to.

Paragraph 1.
The antimony referred to would be almost pure stibnite (Sb2S3). Even today it is
very difficult for laboratories to produce pure antimony on anything approaching
a commercial scale. The distlled vinegar is, of course, as close to acetic acid as
was then practically attainable. The antimony acetate produced by their
combination is only a transitional compound, yielding on oxide of lower purity
than is achieved using hydrochloric acid. The C16 chemists simply had no access
to concentrated strong acids.

Paragraph 2.
"...our Sericon will be coagulated into a green Gum called our greene Lyon".
This process had great mystical significance for alchemists. In fact a solution of
antimony in an excess of acid, whether it be acetic, hydrochloric, nitric or a
combination of these acids will appear as an oily yellow liquid, the green colour
indicates the presence of the sulphide ions as an impurity. The only practical
significance of its appearance here is as an indicator that the weak acid has put
part of the stibnite into solution; the sulphide must be released, in the form of
hydrogen sulphide, before a pure oxide can be produced.

Paragraph 3.
"...when you see a white Smoak or fume issue forth, then put too a Receiver of
Glass..." The acetic acid could not be wasted, so would be recovered as the
antimony acetate was converted to oxide. The fume becoming reddish as the heat
applied to the retort was increased might indicate the release of red antimony
sulphide ('antimony vermilion') but antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is also volatile so a
proportion of the vapour would effectively be a solution of Kermesite, a mineral
that combines the sulphides and trioxides of antimony. The condensed vapour
would be known, from experience, to contain useful substances, though it is
unlikely that the presence of antimony was assumed.
"...a white hard Ryme..a Frosty vapour" The description is wholly consistent
with that of antimony trioxide, sublimed. So far the process is identical with that
required for the production of mercuric pyro-antimonate using minimal
resources, so that the intermediate reagent, antimony oxyhydrate, cannot be
generated and a less efficient route must be taken.
Paragraph 4.
This deals with the roasting of a portion of the remaining precipitate to impure
antimony trioxide. Due to the appearance of the 'clean', white, colour, it is
unlikely that an alchemist would realise that the white calx, "the Basis and
Foundation of the Work", was of a lower purity than the sublimate previously

Paragraph 5.
The rest of the stibnite is 'calcined' to the flame-orange isotropic form, antimony
vermilion, my own experiences suggesting that it would contain antimony
pentoxide as an impurity. If nothing else, the distracting experiments with these
sulphides and impure trioxide of antimony would have yielded a full range of the
thermally stable allotropes of these compounds.

Paragraph 6.
The antimony vermilion is redistilled to separate out more of the antimony and
sulphide ions in solution with the acetic acid. The acetates must precipitate out of
this if "the Fire of the Stone", presumably sulphurous acid, is to develope.

Paragraphs 7 and 8.
By carefully and repeatedly distilling the solution, a "yellow Oyl" of pure
antimony in acid solution is obtained, leaving behind "Ardent Water", a strong
acid, though most likely it is more sulphurous rather than sulphuric acid. The
latter could be extracted by repeated distillation. I must admit that I have not had
the patience to attempt to replicate this part of the alchemical process since, like
so many of its kind, it serves no useful purpose if you already have strong acids
to hand.
"....put upon (Sublimate) some of the Ardent Water". This would be a good
idea if the mercury was available as a pure metal, but where, as in this case, it is
already ionised, with a valency of +2, it might as well be heated slowly, replacing
the chloride with oxide. The process described simply degrades the purity of the
mercury by introducing its sulphate into an acid solution that resembles the green
solution produced by the dissolution of antimony sulphide in excess acid. Now, if
the acetic acid were introduced directly to the purified mercury there might be
some useful purpose served since a helpful internet correspondent, writing in the
'alt.engr.explosives' forum of the website, Henri Lehn, has pointed out
to me that a Russian method for producing mercuric pyro-antimonate involves
combining mercury in acetic solution with a complex of potassium and antimony
hydroxides. I am assuming an identity between the pyro-antimonate and the
'Stone' for this purpose. The only progress achieved by adopting the course
described here is that it adds hydrochloric acid to the "Ardent Water", which at
this point would comprise sulphate, chloride, mercury, antimony and sulphide
ions, all in solution.

Paragraph 9.
Heating mercury compounds in water always reduces them back to mercury,
eventually. Evaporating the sulphide to a thick solution produces black cinnabar
mixed with finely divided mercury, a dense black mixture. "Note when the
Liquor cometh white,..." indicates the contribution of white mercuric sulphate
(HgSO4) to the "Ardent Water". None of these should be "taken inwardly" any
more than should a mild solution of bleach, but this recommendation may
represent an origin for the use of mercury in the cure of syphilis.

Paragraph 10.
Recombination of sulphuric acid with mercury and mercuric sulphide would
produce, though only at one stage in the heating process, a mixture of red
mercuric sulphate and the red allotropic form of cinnabar ("Mans blood
rectified"?). Really of no importance to the end result, merely an indicator of the
tendency of alchemists to be distracted by any red compound or solution.

Paragraphs 11, 12 and 13.

The remaining black cinnabar is subjected to oxidation by the sulphuric acid
recovered using distillation from the previous stage. Heating and breaking down
the black concretion produced (trituration) produces a powder which can be more
readily heated to mercuric oxide with finely divided mercury. Unlike its sulphide
equivalent, this appears as a white powder.

Paragraph 14.
The mixture of chloride, sulphate and antimony ions in solution is added to the
impure mercuric oxide. "...distil it with a strong Fire ..... and then distil it again
.... and thus distil and Calcine 7 times." Ripley may have forgotten to add "and
imbibe it again with the Fiery Water". Certainly, if this is what he meant, the
process would add all the mercury to the acidic solution. Vapourising the
mercury together with the steam from the solution in this way would have been
safer than vapourising mercury on its own and collecting it in the solution. The
penetrative properties of the liquid metal serve to reinforce the oxidising effect of
the acid radicals. Antimony also penetrates most metals if finely powdered and
heated with them. Thus the "Water of Life rectified" would appear to "dissolve
all (metallic) Bodies" since, if it was too low in the reactivity series to be attacked
by the acids a metal would probably amalgamate and/or be alloyed with the
"Take the Cerus or Cream of the finest and purest Cornish Tinn ...." The recipe
described is effectively one for producing tin amalgam, long used for 'silvering'
mirrors, but with antimony as an impurity. This would give it the desired 'matt
effect', the better to simulate silver, but any qualified assayer would have spotted
the presence of copper in the form of its yellow and blue compounds in solution
(visible as green) when applying the acid test. Presumably the fraud was only
intended to pass casual inspection.

Paragraphs 15 and 16.

Firstly, the mercuric and antimony sulphides and sulphates precipitated from the
"Flood", or less volatile substances remaining in solution after the distillation
described in paragraph 10, are removed by further distillation. This would render
the solvent more effective by eliminating 'buffer' compounds. Then the all
important combination of the antimony trioxide with the acid solution containing
all the mercury introduced as 'sublimate' in paragraph 8 is described. There are
two ways in which this vital feature may be missed. Firstly, a casual reading of
the recipe would miss the connection between the 'sublimate', the fact that "all
the Substance of the Calx be lifted up ... and then hast thou the Water of Life
rectified" (para.14) and Ripley's use of the term "our Ardent Water rectified" in
paragraph 16. Since introducing the principle solvent as "our Ardent Water
rectified" in paragraph 8, he has redefined it three times during its 'fortification',
on the final occasion as "our Mercury", which is how he describes it in the rest of
his book. This is therefore the only description he should have used and his
consistency with respect to his other terminology makes me think that he wanted
to confuse the inexperienced rather than sell them the 'secret' of his method for
the price of the book. This was just the sort of practice that Boyle was later to
condemn but it is a crucial feature of my case that Ripley was detailing the early
laboratory production of the meta- and pyro-antimonates of mercury. As he
would not have realised this, I am assuming that experience taught him how
unstable the resultant products were if this stage of the process was omitted. Of
course, he could not carry out the reaction under oxygen and therefore it was
vital to confine the volatile metals in a hermetically sealed vessel while they

Paragraphs 17, 18 and 19.

"... the Stone within the Glass become(s) first Russet, and after whitish green,
and after that very white ..." This description is easily identifiable as the
oxidation of mercury and antimony to their russet-coloured mixed ternary oxide,
the pyro-antimonate, followed by the reduction to the white secondary oxide or
meta-antimonate, accompanied by the loss of mercuric oxide contaminated with
mercury from the lower portion of the vessel. The meta-antimonate is the only
compound I have encountered that stains glass a silverish white. Other
compounds, in particular those of mercury or of antimony alone, simply
decompose at temperatures that are too low to allow them to remain stable until
the surface of the soda glass melts. I use pyrex glass in the test process, for good
measure. Evidently, the white compound and its associated sublimate are divided
so as to produce a silver amalgam (the "white work") and a gold amalgam (the
"Red-work"). This was standard alchemical practice. Heating one of these
portions in a sealed vessel would reproduce the unstable pyro-antimonate as the
sublimed mercuric oxide re-entered the meta-antimonate.

Paragraphs 20, 21, 22, 24 and 25.

Basically, these do no more than describe how to make and implement the silver
and gold amalgams. The 'matt effect' produced by the antimony disguises the
mercuric 'sheen' of the resultant silver and gold substitutes. They are of no
relevance to the topic of cold fission, though the yellowing of molten lead by the
reddish-brown pyro-antimonate is an interesting phenomenon. It seems that the
gold just augments an effect that is easily generated without its inclusion.

Paragraph 26.
The process of 'Multiplication' appears, in this case, to involve the repeated
"dissolution" and "congelation", i.e. separation and recombination of the oxides
by heat, without the addition of any exterior substance. However, the soda glass
on the surface of these "Viols" would gradually flake away into the compounds
due to thermal stress during these sessions even though nobody seems to have
realised this at the time.

Paragraph 27.
The further amalgamation of silver or gold amalgams with a mass ratio of 1 part
amalgam to 100 of mercury might seem unusually unconvincing as versions of
solid metals. Of course, the term "converted into Medicine" may easily be an
indication that the compound must once again be heated until it forms another
crystalline powder, through oxidation. The greatest limitation on the alchemists'
understanding of the actual processes involved is seen to be their belief that all
calxes had to be white. In the current context, the calx was red, provided that my
analysis of the reactions occurring up to this point is correct.

Paragraph 28.
Ripley's "Accurtation of the great Work" exhibits, more plainly than in the rest of
his book, the clear parallels between what he is trying to describe and the
chemical reactions currently utilised in producing mercuric pyro-antimonate, as
exemplified by Professor Arthur Sleight in his report of 1968 to the 'Journal of
Inorganic Chemistry'. "The white Frosty Ryme" is Sb2O3 (see paragraph 3) and it
is "sealed up" with the silver amalgam and heated to oxidise the antimony and
mercury (Sb3+ ions becoming Sb5+ ions). This is the "fixation" of mercury, that is
to say, its stabilisation as a mixed oxide. Adding "our Mercury" to it adds the
remainder of the mercury from the mercuric chloride referred to (as sublimate) in
paragraph 8.
The conversion of mercuric meta-antimonate (HgSb2O6) to mercuric pyro-
antimonate (Hg2Sb2O7) is achieved as before. Presumably, as silver amalgam is
used (for the "white Work") gold amalgam is also employed in reproducing "the
Stone" in this abbreviated version of the experiment.

Paragraph 29.
Various permutations of the substances previously prepared appear here but no
explicit mention is made of additional reactants. It is difficult to believe that soda
glass (Na2SiO3) has not entered into the process when the final result is described
as being "transparent in Colour like a Ruby ..." Ruby glass was produced by
heating gold in its colloidal particulate form until it adsorbed into glass. As the
colour would only appear after the glass was reheated, expanding the colloidal
particles, this circumstance might account for the Stone's vitreous characteristics
only becoming apparent towards the end of the process. By way of support for
this hypothesis, I can testify to the opacity of all the antimony and mercury
compounds I have produced, likewise to the effect of heating the meta/pyro-
antimonate of mercury in pyrex glass boiling tubes until the surface of the glass
melted (i.e. up to ~ 9500C) at which point the glowing oxide adsorbed into it to
give a fine ruby-glass (substitute) without my having recourse to gold.



The use of Miller indices

These are used to define the planes of a crystal lattice for the purposes of
determining how these planes will interact with X- or neutron rays at different
of incidence and thereby building up a picture of the crystal structure.
The numbers represented by the letters h,k and l define a plane to which a
(hkl) may be given, and are called its Miller indices, after Miller, who introduced

The law governing the directions of crystal faces.

A face which is parallel to a plane whose intercepts on the x,y,z axes are Ha, Kb
Lc respectively, H, K and L being integers, is a possible face of the crystal.
For the planes which commonly occur, H, K and L are small integers (1 to 4, in

The Law of Rational Indices.

The greater number of the many problems associated with crystal identification
undoubtedly due to the word 'possible', and, strange to say, the word 'commonly'
also. For the
planes are always associated with line intervals, for powder camera scans and
peak intervals, for
computer-recorded powder layer scans. Taking any one type of crystal lattice,
there will be
such a multitude of substances referable to lines/peaks which are similarly spaced
that any
distinction between a line/peak range supposedly common only to one substance
and a
line/peak range associated with another is very easily lost. Furthermore, if there
are many
lines/peaks crowded into the observation space a particular isomorph of one
element, for
example, becomes difficult to associate with its standard reference scan when
indices. It may become associated with some atypical version (or adulterated
sample) of a
completely different element whose indices derive from an equally crowded
diffraction pattern.

Note concerning the axial intercepts.

For a given axis ratio a:b:c, the Miller indices of a plane are inversely
proportional to its intercepts on the axes
h/a, k/b, l/c and the direction cosines of the normal to the plane. The normal to a
plane defines that plane crystallographically.

The Law of Rational Indices

'A face which is parallel to a plane whose intercepts on the 3 axes are Ha, Kb, Lc,
where H, K and L are whole numbers, is a
possible face of a crystal and, for the planes which commonly occur, H, K, and L
are small whole numbers."

From this it follows that:-

OA' : OB' : OC' = Ha : Kb : Lc = a/KL : b/LH : c/HK

= a/h : b/k : c/l.


The magnitude of the perpendicular to the face A'B'C' from the origin to that
face, shown as the line ON = d.

So cos = d/(a/h) = dh/a , cos = d(b/k) = dk/b and cos = d/(c/l) = dl/c .

These are the direction cosines of ON, so :-

cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1

d2h2/a2 + d2k2/b2 + d2h2/c2 = 1

h2/a2 + k2/b2 + l2/c2 = 1/d2

Now, treat the atoms of the crystal lattice as similar, equally spaced, parallel
planes. Any diffracted X-ray beam which does occur must therefore be in a
direction corresponding to reflexion of the incident beam from a set of crystal
planes. There will, however, be no high intensity diffracted beam unless the
waves reflected from the different planes are exactly in phase. The X-ray
glancing angles, called Bragg angles, are indicated on the above illustration of
the relationship between the atoms and the beams. The path difference between
beams 1 and 2 is BC + BD and where the beams are in phase this represents a
whole number of wavelengths, n. Therefore:-

BC + BD = n = 2dsinB

where d = the spacing between the planes

= the wavelength of the X-rays.
B = the Bragg angle.

For first-order reflections, i.e. the strongest, n = 1, so:-

sinB = /2d.

So sin2B = (2/4)(1/d2)

Now, refer to the last equation relating to the Law of Rational Indices, above:-

h2/a2 + k2/b2 + l2/c2 = 1/d2

Put h = k = l = 1

So 1/a2 + 1/b2 + 1/c2 = 1/d2

Next, substitute for 1/d2 in the equation for sin2B giving

sin2B = (2/4)(1/a2 + 1/b2 + 1/c2) or

sin2B = 2/4a2 + 2/4b2 + 2/4c2

This represents the most important equation in the process of determining the
scattering angles at which peaks in the intensity of reflected X-rays may be
found, using the unit cell dimensions for the relevant crystal type of a particular
chemical compound.

The Sceptical Chymist: R. Boyle

Alchemy, the Ancient Science: N .Powell
The Alchemist's Handbook: "Frater Albertus"
The Timetables of Science: A. Hellemans and B. Bunch
Science in the Enlightenment: T .L. Hankins
The Hunt of the Greene Lyon; The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy: B.J.T.
The Newton Handbook: Derek Gjertsen
Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry: J.R. Partington
Experimental Chemistry: Stockhardt and Heaton
The Chemistry of Zinc, Cadmium and Mercury: B.J. Aylett
Macmillan's Chemical and Physical Constants
The Mineral Kingdom: Paul E. Desautels
The Collector's Encyclopaedia of Rocks and Minerals: edited A.F.L. Deeson
Mineralogy: Berry , Mason and Dietrich
Inorganic Chemistry .A Modem Introduction: T. Moeller
Introduction to Advanced Inorganic Chemistry: Durrant and Durrant
The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: R.C. Weast
The McGraw-Hill Encyclopaedia of Science and Technology
Chemistry Data Book: T.G. Stark and H.G. Wallace
Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants: Kaye and Laby
Alchemy: E.J. Holmyard
Science & Civilisation in China: J. Needham
The Origins of Mercury Gilding: Lins & Oddy (1975)


The Return of the Alchemists Part One: The Origins

By Raoul Tollmann, founder of AlchemiaNova

Alchemy - the ancient art and science with the primary purpose of
transforming the ordinary human into an enlightened being or immortal.
Methods applied are the production of laboratory-made potions as well as
inner techniques of energy work. Research into laboratory alchemy has
produced metallic transmutations of base metals into noble metals, as
well as the production of medicines.

What the bleep happened at the leading edge of science before we had
quantum mechanics?

Sir Isaac Newtons private answer might surprise you: He was

investigating alchemy. Night after night in his lab he distilled the toxins
that, when properly transformed, were supposed to lead to eternal youth,
perfect health and wealth.

Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle was engaged in the same quest of alchemy as the

redeemer of the human condition. A religious quest? Perhaps. A
delusion? No. We have positive evidence1 that Robert Boyle succeeded
in manufacturing the incalescent mercury, a substance that can be made
today as it has been made since time immemorial; the laboratory-made
running metal coagulates into pure gold when poured into a heated
crucible, as my own duplication of the experiments has shown.

Recent academic discoveries2 show that these founders of our modern

sciences were mystics, searching for the Philosophers Stone as the
central theme of their lives. Did they succeed? No, they died of mercury

So what is this alchemy quest about, that some of the brightest minds of
all time died pursuing it and others, not-so fortunate either, have lost
fortunes investigating it? In this series of articles we shall investigate and
uncover the code and hidden meaning of alchemy, the mother of all
modern sciences.

Western alchemical traditions

In the West, we can trace alchemy back to ancient Egypt where it was
one of the temple sciences. The highest-ranking physicians of Egypt were
priests, and people normally came to the temples for healing. There, they
were treated with a combination of medicine, religious indoctrination and
magic. Medicine meant extracts of herbs or animal organs and alchemical
potions that were derived from gemstones, minerals and metals. In the
Temple of Dendera, there was a long corridor lined with statues that had
healing incantations inscribed on them. Water, poured over the statues,
became empowered by the spells. Patients bathed in these magical
waters, received their alchemical potions and spent the night in small,
totally dark crypts in order to induce a therapeutic dream. The patient was
expected to be able to converse directly with the gods to determine his
cure. It must have been quite an experience!

Based upon the extended practice of directly conversing with the gods of
the Egyptian pantheon, the priest-healers derived their cosmology, their
sciences and their healing arts, which have partially survived in what are
known today as the Hermetic Books, ascribed to the Egyptian god Thoth,
better known by the Greek name Hermes.3 Modern physicians usually
credit the Greek Hippocrates with being the father of Western medicine.
Hippocrates separated the healing art from the other sciences of the
temple in the fifth century B.C. One of the consequences of this
separation is the present widespread scientific materialism in our Western

Hermetic axioms and formulae actually coexisted with the set of

Hippocratic doctrines until the Middle Ages, culminating in the
spectacularly successful work and subsequent demise of Paracelsus.
Since that time, they have been relegated to obscurity. Contemporary
allopathic Western medicine, however, does not even come close to
performing the miraculous cures of chronic diseases that the Egyptian
priest-healers and the medieval alchemists were known for, and which
are well documented
The Return of the Alchemists Part One: The Origins
By Raoul Tollmann, founder of AlchemiaNova
Continued from page 1

Eastern traditions

In the East, alchemy has fared somewhat better. The Rasa-Jala-Nidhi,6 a

sourcebook of Indian or Vedic alchemy, tells us that the science of
alchemy is divine, and the translators of the text add that its origins are
unknown and go back to hoary antiquity.

In Ayurveda today, alchemical preparations are considered to be the

capstone of this traditional system both for healing and for promoting
longevity. The current official Indian Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia contains a
list of alchemical preparations and their manufacture.

Many of them start out with toxins, such as mercury, which are to be
converted into "nectar" by the art of the alchemist. What are the effects
that can be expected of such potions that are still in use today?

Steven A. Feite reports on one of the uses of Makaradhwaj, a traditional

preparation of Vedic alchemy: Members of the Bhairavi cult, worshippers
of a particularly wrathful form of Lord Shiva, have been known to live
hundreds of years through the alchemical use of such mercury-based
compounds. Indeed some are said to have obtained immortality by
overcoming their innate addiction to time. Very apparently, some
practitioners of this ancient art in the hinterlands of India are doing better
than many exponents of Western science.

A look at alchemy in India today would not be complete without

mentioning the vast number of schools of inner alchemy. Ancient temple
murals portray the blue gods of the Indian subcontinent in various
positions of sexual embrace, a source of embarrassment for the uptight
contemporary culture of the land. Tantric alchemy always had
components of harnessing and cultivating sexual energy for purposes of
reaching transcendental states of mind and achieving longevity, as well
as utilizing laboratory-made substances. Today, many of these schools
have dropped the ingestion of potions most likely due to dramatic cases
of poisoning by unenlightened practitioners in the past. Inner alchemy on
its own, however, can and does produce the miraculous, too, if correctly
taught and applied. Even the California version of Tantric inner
alchemy7 may produce better results for attaining longevity and joie-de-
vivre than the latest drug promoted on TV.
The ancient Taoists of China aspired to raise the human being from the
Inferior Man to the Superior Man of the I Ching, and in their quest for
transcendence and immortality they gave us, as mere side-products,
acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, bone-setting and the now widely
known concepts of yin/yang and chi.

Taoist alchemist Ko Hung

At the core of Taoist alchemical studies were the development of

laboratory-made pills of immortality,8 comparable to the Philosophers
Stone of the West, as well as the refinement of inner techniques of
visualization, postures, breathing and energy cultivation, such as the
inner circulation of the light.9 Numerous variations of chi gung and nei
gung practices, all originally derived from Taoist research, have evolved
over the centuries, and in China, energy work was soon incorporated into
the training of the warrior, resulting in what we know today as the various
martial arts from the East.

China is the only country today that has fully implemented certain
disciplines of inner alchemy for the masses perhaps the most
unexpected turn of events ever in the long history of this secret science.
After the Maoist revolution, China found itself with less than half of its
former medical practitioners, while the population increased during the
Mao era from 400 to 800 million. The government needed to come up
with a solution for the medical crisis in order not to face the potential of a
counter-revolution. The Chinese approach was radical: Taoists, Tai Chi
and Chi Gung teachers who had basically no interest whatsoever in
making their secrets public were told to design Tai Chi and Chi Gung
programs for the health of the general population or face the
extermination of their entire clan. The blackmail worked, a populist
system of great efficacy was developed and from the mid 1950s to this
day, about 200 million people in mainland China practice Tai Chi or Chi
Gung, which literally means energy work.10

Chinese alchemists are convinced that at least some of their brethren

actually had become xian, or immortals. And despite the communist
revolution and the official doctrine of atheism, these Xian have kept a
place in the heart of the general population: The Eight Immortals rank
among the most popular figures in Chinese folklore today.

In part two of this series, we shall gain some insights into the basic
concepts of alchemy and how they apply to us today.


1 Principe, Lawrence M.: The Aspiring Adept Robert Boyle and his
Alchemical Quest, Princeton 1998, Princeton University Press

2 Two books and numerous articles by the late Betty Jo Teeter Dobbs
(Cambridge University Press 1975 and Smithsonian Institution Libraries
1990) on the alchemical preoccupation of Sir Isaac Newton ushered in a
completely new view of the man and his life. Reported symptoms of
chronic mercury poisoning suggest that Sir Isaac is likely one of the many
casualties of alchemical experimentation. Robert Boyles ill health and
demise are well covered in Lawrence Principes book The Aspiring

3 More on Egyptian Alchemy can be found in: Brier, Bob: Ancient

Egyptian Magic, New York 1981, Quill

4 The disconnect of spirit from our contemporary sciences found its worst
expression in the materialistic psychologies of Wundt and Pavlov, and for
traditional alchemists it is with great delight to observe that todays
movers and shakers of the material science of physics, particularly
quantum physics, are finally connecting back to the realm of the non-

5 Several authors have compiled documents of independent third-party

witnessed miraculous cures as well as metallic transmutations performed
by various adepts of medieval Europe; books for further study are:
Sadoul, Jacques: Alchemists and Gold, New York 1972, Putnam, as well
as Doberer, K.K.: The Goldmakers 10,000 Years of Alchemy, Westport,
Connecticut 1972, Greenwood Press Reprint

6 Mookerji, Kaviraj Bhudeb (editor): Rasa-Jala-Nidhi or Ocean of Indian

Chemistry & Alchemy, 5 vol., India : several editions by several publishers

7 Saraswati, Sunyata and Avinasha, Bodhi: Jewel in the Lotus The

Tantric Path to Higher Consciousness, California 1996, Sunstar Publ.

8 Preciously little of the vast alchemical heritage of the Middle Kingdom

has been translated into Western languages; three of the more readable
works on Chinese lab alchemy are: Ware, James R.: Alchemy, Medicine,
and Religion in the China of A.D. 320, the Nei Pien of Ko Hung,
Cambridge, Massachusetts 1966, The M.I.T. Press, and: Sivin, Nathan:
Chinese Alchemy - Preliminary Studies, Cambridge, Massachusetts,
1968, Harvard University Press, as well as: Johnson, Obed Simon: Study
of Chinese Alchemy, Shanghai, China 1928, The Commercial Press.

Please note: In order to preserve their secret knowledge, Chinese

laboratory alchemists have, just like Western alchemists, always left out
one or more ingredients or one or more steps of their often-involved
preparation methods. Taking Chinese laboratory alchemy recipes at face
value will only produce poisons. The above quoted books are NOT
uncovering the secret aspects of Chinese laboratory alchemy, but give an
insight into general concepts and methodology.

9 The classic translation of one of the many variations of this meditation

technique is by: Wilhelm, Richard: The Secret of the Golden Flower, first
published in the United States in 1931, several editions in circulation.

10 Frantzis, B.K.: Opening The Energy Gates of Your Body The Tao of
Energy Enhancement Series, Berkeley, California 1993, North Atlantic


If you are a serious student of alchemy, then you owe it to yourself to read all the
works listed here. The secret of the Philosopher's Stone is that it's not a secret at
all. If you read this library of information on these links below, and you still can not
produce the stone, then you should walk away from alchemy because it is not for
This is a collection of rare alchemy manuscripts transcribed
by alchemists all over the globe under the organization of
Hans Nintzel. Contained in this vast assortment of literature
are processes that explain very clearly how to produce true
alchemy treasures by a number of different paths.
Everything from using Vitriol and acids, to using antimony,
or just using the fluids of the human body. From the simplest methods
to the most advanced.

Frater Albertus

This man was one of the best alchemy teachers to have lived in the 20th
century. Founder of the Paracelsus Research Societywhich later evolved
into the Paracelsus College. At their website, be sure to also read all of
issues of Parachemy and Essentia because you will learn a great deal.
Traid Publishing created the PON (Philosopher's of
Nature) newsletters and alchemy courses. I highly
recommend buying all of the back issues and alchemy
courses. Some of the issues are also available for free
on their website so you can get an idea of the kind of
alchemy knowledge they had.