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GITAM UNIVERSITY

(Declared as Deemed to be University U/S 3 of UGC Act, 1956)

REGULATIONS & SYLLABUS


OF

M.Tech. (Food Processing Technology)


(w.e.f 2011-12 admitted batch)

Gandhi Nagar Campus, Rushikonda


VISAKHAPATNAM 530 045
Website: www.gitam.edu
REGULATIONS
(w.e.f. 2011-12 admitted batch)

1. ADMISSIONS

1. Admissions into M.Tech (Food Processing Technology) programme of GITAM University are
governed by GITAM University admission regulations.

2. ELIGIBILTY CRITERIA

2.1 A pass in B E / B Tech or equivalent in Biotechnology / Chemical Engg.* / Agricultural engineering/


Food Engineering/ Food Technology. OR
**M.Sc. In Food Science / Food Technology / M.Sc. Biotechnology / M Sc in any Biological Science.
*Note: B.Tech. (Chemical engg.) students will be required to prove competency in molecular biology by
passing a prescribed remedial course, after admission, in order to fulfill the requirements of the degree.
**Note: M.Sc. Students will be required to p rove competency in mathematics by passing a prescribed
remedial course, after admission, in order to fulfill the requirements of the degree.

2.2 Admissions will be based on the following criteria:

(i) Score obtained in GAT (PG), if conducted.


(ii) Performance in Qualifying Examination / Interview.

The actual weightage to be given to the above items will be decided by the authorities before the
commencement of the academic year. Candidates with good GATE/GRE score shall be exempted
from appearing for GAT (PG).

3 STRUCTURE OF THE M.Tech. PROGRAMME

3.1 The Programme of instruction consists of:

(i) A core programme imparting competency and specialization in the concerned engineering
branch.
(ii) Separate remedial and elective courses prescribed for engineering & science students.
(iii) A technical project approved by the Department .

3.2 Each academic year consists of two semesters. Every branch of the M.Tech programme has a
curriculum and course content (syllabi) for the subjects recommended by the Board of Studies
concerned and approved by Academic Council.

3.3 Project Dissertation has to be submitted by each student individually.

4 CREDIT BASED SYSTEM

4.1 The course content of individual subjects - theory as well as practicals is expressed in terms of a
specified number of credits. The number of credits assigned to a subject depends on the number of
contact hours (lectures & tutorials) per week.

4.2 In general, credits are assigned to the subjects based on the following contact hours per week per
semester.

One credit for each Lecture hour.


One credit for two hours of Practicals.
Two credits for three (or more) hours of Practicals.

4.3 The curriculum of M.Tech programme is designed to have a total of 70 -85 credits for the award of
M.Tech degree. A student is deemed to have succes sfully completed a particular semesters programme
of study when he / she earns all the credits of that semester i.e., he / she has no F grade in any subject
of that semester.
5 MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION

The medium of instruction (including examination s and project reports) shall be English.

6.0 REGISTRATION

Every student has to register himself/herself for each semester individually at the time specified by the
College / University.

7.0 CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT AND EXAMINATIONS

7.1 The assessment of the students performance in each course will be based on continuous internal
evaluation and semester-end examination. The marks for each of the component of assessment are
fixed as shown in the Table 2.:

Table 2: Assessment Procedure

S.No. Component of Marks allotted Type of Scheme of Examination


assessment Assessment
(i) Two mid semester examinations
shall be conducted for 10 marks
each.
(ii) Two quizzes shall be conducted
40 Continuous for 5 marks each.
evaluation (iii) 5 marks are allotted for
1 Theory assignments.
(iv) 5 marks are allotted for
attendance
The semester-end examination in
Semester-end theory subjects will be for a
60 examination maximum of 60 marks.
Total 100
(i) 40 marks are allotted for record
work and regular performance of
the student in the lab.
(ii) One examination for a
Continuous maximum of 20 marks shall be
2 Practicals 100 evaluation conducted by the teacher handling
the lab course at the middle of the
semester
(iii) One examination for a
maximum of 40 marks shall be
conducted at the end of the semester
(as scheduled by the Head of the
Department concerned).
(i) 50 marks are allotted for
continuous evaluation of the project
work throughout the semester by
3 Project work 100 Project the guide.
evaluation (ii) 50 marks are allotted for the
presentation of the project work &
viva-voce at the end of the
semester.*
* Head of the Department concerned shall appoint two examiners for conduct of the examination.
8.0 REAPPEARANCE

8.1 A Student who has secured F Grade in any theory course / Practicals of any semester shall have to
reappear for the semester end examination of that course / Practicals along with his / her juniors.

8.2 A student who has secured F Grade in Project work shall have to improve his report and reappear for viva
voce Examination of project work at the time of special examination to be conducted in the summer
vacation after the last academic year.

9.0 SPECIAL EXAMINATION

9.1 A student who has completed the stipulated period of study for the degree programme concerned
and still having failure grade (F) in not more than 5 courses ( Theory / Practicals), may be
permitted to appear for the special examination, wh ich shall be conducted in the summer vacation
at the end of the last academic year.

9.2 A student having F Grade in more than 5 courses (Theory/practicals) shall not be permitted to
appear for the special examination.

10.0 ATTENDANCE REQUIREMENTS

10.1 A student whose attendance is less than 75% in all the courses put together in any semester will
not be permitted to attend the end - semester examination and he/she will not be allowed to
register for subsequent semester of study. He /She has to repea t the semester along with his / her
juniors.

10.2 However, the Vice Chancellor on the recommendation of the Principal / Director of the
University college / Institute may condone the shortage of attendance to the students whose
attendance is between 66% and 74% on genuine medical grounds and on payment of prescribed
fee.

11. GRADING SYSTEM

11.1 Based on the student performance during a given semester, a final letter grade will be awarded
at the end of the semester in each course. The letter grades and the corresponding grade points are
as given in Table 3.

Table 3: Grades & Grade Points

Grade Grade points Absolute Marks


O 10 90 and above
A+ 9 80 89
A 8 70 79
B+ 7 60 69
B 6 50 59
C 5 40 49
F Failed, 0 Less than 40

11.2 A student who earns a minimum of 5 grade points (C grade) in a course is declared to have
successfully completed the course, and is deemed to have ea rned the credits assigned to that
course. However, a minimum of 24 marks is to be secured at the semester end examination of
theory courses in order to pass in the theory course
12.0 GRADE POINT AVERAGE

12.1 A Grade Point Average (GPA) for t he semester will be calculated according to the formula:
[Cx G]
GPA = ----------------
C
Where
C = number of credits for the course,
G = grade points obtained by the student in the course.

12.2 Semester Grade Point Average (SGPA) is awarded to those candidates who pass in all the subjects
of the semester.

12.3 To arrive at Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA), a similar formula is used considering the
students performance in all the courses taken in all the semesters completed up to the particular
point of time.

12.4 The requirement of CGPA for a student to be declared to have passed on successful completion of
the M.Tech programme and for the declaration of the class is as shown in Table 4.

Table 4: CGPA required for award of Deg ree

Distinction 8.0*
First Class 7.0
Second Class 6.0
Pass 5.0

* In addition to the required CGPA of 8.0, the student must have necessarily passed all the courses of every
semester in first attempt.

13.0 ELIGIBILITY FOR AWARD OF THE M.Tech DEGREE

13.1 Duration of the programme :


A student is ordinarily expected to complete the M Tech. programme in four semesters of two
years. However a student may complete the programme in not more than four years including
study period.

13.2 However the above regulation may be relaxed by the Vice Chancellor in individual cases for
cogent and sufficient reasons.

13.3 Project dissertation shall be submitted on or before the last day of the course. However, it can be
extended up to a period of 6 months maxim um, with the written permission of the Head of the
Department concerned.

13.4 A student shall be eligible for award of the M.Tech degree if he / she fulfils all the following
conditions.

a) Registered and successfully completed all the courses and proj ects.
b) Successfully acquired the minimum required credits as specified in the curriculum
corresponding to the branch of his/her study within the stipulated time.
c) Has no dues to the Institute, hostels, Libraries, NCC / NSS etc, and
d) No disciplinary action is pending against him / her.

13.5 The degree shall be awarded after approval by the Academic Council.
RULES

1. With regard to the conduct of the end -semester examination in any of the practical courses of the
programme, the Head of the Department concerned shall appoint one examiner from the department not
connected with the conduct of regular laboratory work, in addition to the teacher who handled the
laboratory work during the semester.

2. In respect of all theory examinations, the p aper setting shall be done by an external paper setter having a
minimum of three years of teaching experience. The panel of paper setters for each course is to be prepared
by the Board of Studies of the department concerned and approved by the Academic Cou ncil. The paper
setters are to be appointed by the Vice Chancellor on the basis of recommendation of Director of
Evaluation / Controller of Examinations.

3. The theory papers of end -semester examination will be evaluated by two examiners. The examiners m ay be
internal or external. The average of the two evaluations shall be considered for the award of grade in that
course.

4. If the difference of marks awarded by the two examiners of theory course exceeds 12 marks, the paper will
have to be referred to third examiner for evaluation. The average of the two nearest evaluations of the three
shall be considered for the award of the grade in that course.

5. Panel of examiners of evaluation for each course is to be prepared by the Board of Studies of the
department concerned and approved by the Academic Council.

6. The examiner for evaluation should possess post graduate qualification and a minimum of three years
teaching experience.

7. The appointment of examiners for evaluation of theory papers will be don e by the Vice Chancellor on the
basis of recommendation of Director of Evaluation / Controller of Examinations from a panel of examiners
approved by the Academic Council.

8. Project work shall be evaluated by two examiners at the semester end examination. O ne examiner shall be
internal and the other be external. The Vice Chancellor can permit appointment of second examiner to be
internal when an external examiner is not available.

9. The attendance marks (maximum 5) shall be allotted as follows:

Percentage of Attendance Marks


76% to 80% 1
81% to 85% 2
86% to 90% 3
91% to 95% 4
96% to 100% 5
SYLLABUS
M.Tech. (Food Processing Technology)
Programme Course Code: EPRFP201100

Course structure for M.Tech. (Food Processing Technology)

Code No. Name of subject Instruction hours Maximum marks Credits


L T P Total S E Total
Semester I
EPRFP 101 Food Biochemistry 3 1 - 4 40 60 100 3
EPRFP 102 Food Microbiology 3 1 - 4 40 60 100 3
EPRFP 103 Dairy & Aquaculture 3 1 - 4 40 60 100 3
Technology
EPRFP 104 Transport Processes in 3 1 - 4 40 60 100 3
Food Engineering
EPRFP MBGE / Applicable 3 1 - 4 40 60 100 0
121/122 Mathematics
EPRFP 111 Food Biochemistry - - 6 6 60 40 100 3
Laboratory
EPRFP 112 Food Microbiology - - 6 6 60 40 100 3
Laboratory
Total 32 320 380 700 18
Semester II
EPRFP 201 Plantation Crop Product 3 1 - 4 40 60 100 3
Technology
EPRFP 202 Food Processing 3 1 - 4 40 60 100 3
Operations -1
EPRFP 203 Food Processing 3 1 - 4 40 60 100 3
Operations - 2
EPRFP 204 Food Handling and 3 1 - 4 40 60 100 3
Packaging
EPRFP 205 Instrumentation and 3 1 - 4 40 60 100 3
Control in Food Industry
EPRFP 211 Food Engineering Lab-I - - 6 6 60 40 100 3
EPRFP 212 Food Engineering Lab - II - - 6 6 60 40 100 3
Total 32 320 380 700 21
Semester III
EPRFP 301 Research Methodology 1 1 3 4 40 60 100 3
and Data Analysis
EPRFP 302 Food Plant and Equipment 3 - 1 4 40 60 100 3
Design
EPRFP 311 Seminar - 3 - 3 100 -- 100 2
EPRFP 312 Project - - - 50 50 100 12
EPRFP 313 Industrial Training - - - - 100 -- 100 2
11 330 170 500 22
Semester IV
EPRFP 411 Project - - - 32 50 50 100 20
Total 32 50 50 100 20
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I Semester

Food Biochemistry

Code : EPRFP101
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit-I: Chemical composition of f ood: Classification, structure, physical and chemical


properties of Macromolecules (Carbohydrates, Proteins and Lipids)

Unit- II : Vitamins: sources, physiological role and deficiency disorders of vitamins A, D, E, K,


Vitamin C and B complex vitamins Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, lipoic acid,
pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid and Vitamin B 12. Functions and deficiency disorders of minerals.
Pigments

Unit III: Enzymes in food processing, enzymatic spoilage, Biochemical deterioration duri ng
storage, Industrial application of enzymes.

Unit IV: Principles of Nutrition : Nutritional aspects of Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins


dietary requirements, Proteins Nitrogen balance studies, Determination of Biological values of
proteins, Balanced diet. Recommended Dietary allowances, Infant nutrition, Nutrition of
pregnant and lactating mother. Starvation, Obesity Toxicants occurring in food.

Unit V: Measurement of energy value of food, Basal metabolism, factors influencing Basal
metabolic rate, Specific Dynamic Action, improvement of protein quality by supplementation
and fortification. Antinutrients Protease inhibitors, hemeagglutinins, hepatotoxin, goitrogens,
cyanogenic glucosides, methyl xanthines, oxalates. Toxins from mushrooms. Biolo gical effects
of food contaminants Hexachlorobenzene, arsenic, DDT, cadmium, mercury, lead, aflatoxins,
food additives - saccharin and sodium nitrite. Animal foods and sea foods. Food allergy

Recommended books:

1. Meyer. Food Chemistry. 2002. CBS.


2. MS Bamji, NA Rao and V. Reddy. Textbook of Human Nutrition. 2003. Oxford &
IBH.

Reference Books:
1. S. Nielsen. Introduction to chemical analysis of foods. 1994. Jones and Bartlett.
2. LML Nollet. Handbook of Food Analysis. 1986. Marcel Dekker.
3. AL Branen and PM Davidson and S Salminen. Food additives. 2 nd Ed. 2001. Marcel Dekker.
4. R. Whitehurst and B. Law. Enzymes in Food Technology. 2002. Blackwell Publishers.
th
5. Fennema's Food chemistry. Ed. Srinivasan Damodaran, Kirk Parkill and Owen R. Fennema. 4
Ed. 2007. CRC
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I Semester

Food Microbiology

Code : EPRFP102
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit-I: Introduction to food microorganisms, Morphology and characteristics of


bacteria, yeasts and molds.

U n i t - I I : Factors affecting microbial growth and decay. Microbial growth and


death kinetics. Industrial microbiology production of glutamic acid and
citric acid.

Unit-III : Microbiology of water. Microbiology of milk and m ilk products.

Unit-IV: Industrial applications of genetically engineered food microbes. Case


studies: Production of alcoholic beverages, production of cheese, single celled protein.

Unit-V: Microbial spoilage of foods. Intoxicating and infective organisms. Food


poisoning.

Recommended Books:

1. W.C.Frazier. Food Microbiology. 4 th Edition. 2008. Tata-Mc GrawHill.

Reference Books:

1. B. Ray and A.K.Bhunia. Fundamental Food Microbiology. 4 th Ed. 2008. CRC.


2. J. Garbutt. Essentials of Food Microbiology. 1997. Arnold Heinemann.
3. JM Jay, MJ Loessner and DA Golden. Modern Food Microbiology. 7 th Ed. 2005. Springer.
4. V.K.Joshi and A. Pandey. Biotechnology: Food fermentation: Microbiology, Biochemistry
and Technology. 1999. Asiatec Publishers Incorporated.
5. T.Krishna Kumar Reddy. Microbiology of foods. 2010.
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I Semester

Dairy & Aquaculture Technology


Code : EPRFP103
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit I : Physico-chemical properties of milk and milk constituents. Fluid milk processing,
packaging and distribution. Common dairy processes cream separation (standardization),
pasteurization, sterilization and homogenisation. UHT processing of milk.

Unit II : Process technology for manufacture of evaporated milk, condensed milk,


dried milk, malted milk, infant and baby foods, ice cream, cheese, butter,
fermented milk and indigenous dairy products.

Unit III : Nutritional Aspects of Fish and Fishery Products. Miscellaneous Products-Crabs,
Shrimp and Mollusks. Fishery Byproducts-Fish Meal and Oil.

Unit IV: Principles of Preservation and Processing. Chilling and Freezing-physical aspects,
Methods of Freezing, Typical Frozen Products. Drying of Fish- Fundamentals, Salting.
Methods of Drying, Smoking, Typical Dry Products.

Unit V: Quality control in aquaculture and dairy technology: Laws and standards in Fishery
Industry. Methods and procedures for sampling and testing of milk and milk products. Laws
and standards f o r m i l k a n d m i l k p r o d u c t s .

Recommended textbooks:
1. P.Sinha. Fish processing and preservation. 2011. APH publishing.
2. De Sukumar. Outlines of dairy technology. 2001. Oxford.
3. Hershdoerfer. Quality control in food industry. Volume 2. 1986

Reference Books:
1. Eiri board. Hand Book Of Milk Processing Dairy Products And Packaging Technology.
2008. Engineers India Research Institute.
2. C.D. Khedkar S.D. Kalyankar . Shital S. Deosarkar M.R. Patil. Handbook of Dairy
Science. IK Publishers.
3. Kilbourn. Fish preservation and refrigeration. 2009. Bibliolife.
4. M. Clute. Food industry quality control systems. 2008. CRC Press.
5. Britz, Trevor J.Robinson, Richard K. Advanced Dairy Science and Technology
2008. Wiley-Blackwell
M.Tech Food Processing Techno logy I Semester

Transport Processes in Food Engineering


Code : EPRFP104
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit-I : Momentum transfer. Equation of continuity, equation of motion, pipe flow, channel
flow, flow through porous media . Rheology of gels. Effect of sugar on rheology.

Unit- II: Heat Transfer- Fourier's law, conduction, convection and radiative heat transfer.
Steady state and transient heat transfer.

Unit III: Heat transfer in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates. Analytical and numerical
solutions to transient state heat transfer. Heat exchangers without and with heat loss,
effectiveness and transfer units.

Unit- IV: Mass transfer. Molecular diffusion. Fick's laws of diffusion. Diffusion in solids,
liquids and gases. Heat and mass transfer analogy.

U n i t - V: Fluidization of solids. Principles of extrusion.

Recommended books:

1. C.J.Geankoplis. Transport processes and separation process principles. 4 th Edition. 2003.


Prentice hall.
2. D.G. Rao. 2010. Fundamentals of Food Engineering, PHI.

Reference Books:
1. Welti-Chanes, Jorge Barbosa-Canovas, Gustavo V. Velez-Ruiz, Jorge F.
Transport Phenomena in Food Processing. 2002 CRC Press.
2. Rheology of fluid and semisolid foods: principles and applications. M.A.Rao. 2007. Springer.
3. Bird, stewart and lightfoot. Transport Phenomena. 2007. Wiley.
4. Betty, J.C. & Folkman, Sl 1983. Food Engineering Fundamentals. John Wiley.
5. Heldman, Dennis R. Lund, Daryl B. Handbook of Food Engineering (2nd
Edition). 2006. CRC Press
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I Semester

Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering


Code : EPRFP121
Credits : 0 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit-I: Genome organization in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Review of Replication. Epigenetic


methods of inheritance. Plasmids. Grou p I introns. Group II introns. LINEs and SINEs. Vectors
for bacteria, yeast and animal cells.

Unit-II: Review of Transcription and translation. Regulatory mechanisms. Posttranscriptional


regulatory mechanisms. SnRNPs. Spliceosome structure and function. Posttranslational
regulatory mechanisms. MicroRNAs. RNAi.

Unit-III: Major signal transduction pathways and regulation of the Cell cycle. Transport
mechanisms. Regulatory mechanisms of metabolic and signal transduction pathways: feedback
and feedforward controls.

Unit-IV: Methods: DNA sequencing by Sanger's method. High throughput DNA sequencing
methods. Protein sequencing by Edman degradation and by Mass spectrometry. Oligonucleotide
synthesis. Solution phase and solid phase peptide synthesis.

Unit-V: Review of Transformation, transduction and conjugation in bacteria. Restriction and


and ligation. Construction and screening of libraries. Site -specific and cassette mutagenesis.
Introduction to PCR and microarray technology. Construction and scree ning of a subtractive
cDNA library.

Recommended books:

1. H.D. Watson, T.Baker, S.P.Bell, A.Gann, M.Levine, R.Losick. Molecular Biology of the
gene.6th Ed. (2007) Benjamin Cummings.
2. Primrose and Twyman. Principles of gene manipulation and genomics. 7 th Ed. (2006)
Blackwell publishers.
3. Alberts et al. Molecular biology of the cell. 4 th Ed. (2002) Garland publishers.

Reference Books:
1. Lodish et al. Molecular cell biology. 5 th Ed. (2003) W.H.Freeman.
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I Semester

Applicable Mathematics
Code : EPRFP122
Credits : 0 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit- I: Solving simultaneous linear equations in 2 and 3 variables using matrix inverse method
and Cramers rule. Eigen values and eigenvect ors of matrices. Sums and products of trignometric
functions. Equation of line and plane in three dimensions.

Unit II: Differential and Integral Calculus: Methods of differentiation. Elementary methods of
integration.
Partial differentiation: Partial derivative and total derivative of functions of more than one
variable. Euler's theorem. Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems and
transformation rules.

Unit III: Vector Calculus: Properties of Gradient, divergence and curl. Line i ntegrals. Area,
surface and volume.
Representation of a complex number. Modulus and amplitude of a complex number. Cauchy's
integral formula. Residue theorem and contour integration.

Unit- IV: Ordinary Differential equations: Solution of differential eq uations of first order and
first degree using the method of separation of variables. Brief description of other methods of
solving first order differential equations (no numericals).
Simultaneous linear equations with constant coefficients.
Cauchy's and Legendre's linear equations.
Partial differential equations: The Laplacian in cartesian and cylindrical coordinates. Poisson's
equation.

Unit V: Taylor series (statement only, no proof or numericals).


Elementary properties of Fourier series and Fouri er transforms.
Laplace transformation of elementary functions, derivatives and integrals. Convolution theorem.
Applications to solution of ordinary differential equations and simultaneous linear differential
equations with constant coefficients.

Recommended Books:
1. Erwin Kreyszig. Advanced Engineering Mathematics 8 th ed. 2004. John wiley and sons.
(Units-III,IV & V)
2. B.S.Grewal. Higher Engineering Mathematics. 35 th ed. 2000. Khanna publishers.
(Unit-I & II)
3. V.Venkateswara Rao. Intermediate Mathematics. S.Chand& Company Ltd. Volume I & II
(Unit - I)
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I Semester

Food Biochemistry Laboratory

Code : EPRFP111
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 6 per week

1. Analysis of food for proximate composition: Determination of moisture, oil and ash
content of food
2. Calorimetric determination of crude protein (Kjeldahl nitrogen -N)
3. Quantitation of non-protein nitrogen (NPN)
4. Estimation of proteins by Lowry, Bradford methods
5. Determination of carbohydrates by Anthrone method
6. Determination of RM value and polensky number of oils
7. Determination of rancidity in edible oil
8. Estimation of polyphenols/tannins
9. Analysis of anti-nutritional factors
10. Determination of acid value and peroxide value of oils
11. Microstructure analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope
12. Crystallinity by X-ray Diffractometer. Fatty acid composition of oils by NMR
spectroscopy
13. Analysis of inorganic salts by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
14. Fatty acid profile by Gas-liquid chromatography
15. Flavour components by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Reference Books:

1. Beedu Sasidhar and Vijay Deshpande. Experimental Biochemistry: A Student


Companion Textbook. 2006. Anshan.
2. S. Suzanne Nielsen. Food Analysis Laborato ry Manual. 2010. Springer.
3. Ronald E. Wrolstad, Eric A. Decker, Steven J. Schwartz, Peter Sporns. Handbook of Food
Analytical Chemistry, Water, Proteins, Enzymes, Lipids, and Carbohydrates. 2005. Wiley -IEEE.
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I Semester

Food Microbiology Laboratory

Code : EPRFP112
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 6 per week

1. Isolation and identification of food pathogens and indicator organisms.


2. Enumeration of food pathogens and indicator organisms.
3. Enumeration of bacteria.
4. Enumeration of yeasts.
5. Spore count.
6. Microbial examination of w ater.
7. Pasteurization of milk.
8. Microbial spoilage of milk.
9. Microbial examination of bread moulds.
10. Microbial quality of street food s.

Recommended books:

Neelima Garg. Laboratory Manual of Food Microbiology. 2010. I.K.International.


M.Tech Food Processing Technology II Semester

Plantation Crop Product Technology

Code : EPRFP201
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit-I: Principles and techniques in preservation of foods and vegetables -cold storage, freezing,
addition of chemicals, dehydration and canning, packaging.

Unit-II: Manufacturing methods, processing and quality c ontrol of major horticultural and
plantation crop products-alcoholic beverages, juices, pickles, j ams, jellies, marmalades, tea,
coffee and cocoa.

Unit-III: Manufacturing methods, processing and quality control of major horticultural and
plantation crop products- cereals, vegetables, fruits, baked goods, pasta, confectionary products,
fermented foods and ready to eat foods. Relevant food laws and standards.

Unit-IV: Genetically modified foods.


Food quality control and quality assurance.
Relevant food laws and standards for horticultural and crop products.

Unit-V: Forecasting-time series analysis and calculations, project feasibility report


preparation, agro-industrial production systems -capital budgeting, productivity measurement,
quality control, inventory, risk analysis, maintenance.

Recommended Books:

1. The complete tech book on processing dehydration, canning, preservation of fruits &
vegetables. 2003. NIIR Board.
2. LR Verma and VK Joshi. Post harvest technology of fruits and vegetables. 2000. Indus
Publishers.
3. SS Reddy and PR Ram and TVN Sastry and ID Bhavani. Agricultural economics. 2004.
Oxford and IBH.
4. Scott J. Smith and Y.H.Hui. Food processing: principles and applications. 2007. Wiley -
Blackwell.

Reference Books:
1. Alli, Inteaz. Food Quality Assurance : Principles and Practices. 2003. CRC Press.
2. Yanbo Huang, Dale Whittaker, Ronald E. Lacey. Automation for Food Engineering:
Food Quality Quantization and Process Control. 2001. CRC Press.
3. Atherton, Keith. Genetically Modified Crops : Asses sing Safety 2002. CRC Press
4. Nigel G. Halford. Geneticall modified crops. 2003. Imperial College Press.
5. Sahin, Serpil Sumnu, Servet Gulum. Food Engineering Aspects of Baking Sweet Goods.
2008. CRC Press.
6. R.R.W.Folley. Intensive crop economics. 1973. Ameri can Elsevier.
7. P.C.Rajendran. Systematic and Economic Botany of Perennial Plantation Crops and
Spices. 2010. New Central Book Agency.
8. AA Kadar. Post-harvest technology of horticultural crops. 2 nd Edition. 1992.
9. RS Hoseney. Principles of Cereal Science and Technology. 2 nd Ed. 1994. AACC.
10. EJ Pyler. Bakery science and technology. 3 rd Ed. Vol. I and II. Sosland Publishers.
11. AH Varnam and JP Sutherland. Beverages: Technology, Chemistry and Microbiology.
1994. Chapman and Hall.
12. A Krammer and BA Twigg. Quality con trol in Food Industry. Vol I and II. 1973. Avi Publishers.
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I I Semester

Food Processing Operations -1

Code : EPRFP202
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit I: Overview of mechanical operations carried out in dairy and food processing.
Particle size analysis as in spray dryer and gravity separator. Pneumatic conveying of solid foods.

Unit II: Pressure drop and flow rate of air in fixed and fluid bed drying. Filtration of food.
Slurry - filter medium and cake resistances. Filtration equipments. Size separation through
sieving.

Unit III: Particle movement in sediment and centrifugal settling tank. Solid bowl and disc
bowl centrifuges. Operation of cyclone separa tor and self cleaning centrifuge.

Unit IV: Agitation and mixing of liquid foods, powders and pastes. Drag and pressure
flow mechanisms in screw press and extruder.

Unit V: Material handling system and device in food processing plants. Design of screw,
bucket, belt, oscillating vibratory conveyors.

Recommended Books:
rd
1. Dennis R. Heldman and Romeo Toledo. Fundamentals of Food Process Engineering, 3
Edition. 2007. Springer.
2. Jelen P. Introduction to food processing. 1985. Prentice Hall.
3. D.G. Rao. Fundamentals of Food Engineering. 2010. PHI Learning Private Limited.

Reference Books:
1. Food Processing: Principles and Applications, Michele Maracotte, Hosahalli
Ramaswamy, Taylor and Francis. 2005. CRC Press.
2. Fellows, P. Food Processing Technology. Princi ples and practice. 3 rd Ed. 2009. Taylor and
Francis.
M.Tech Food Processing Technology II Semester

Food Processing Operations -2

Code : EPRFP203
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit I: Overview of thermal operations carried out in dairy and food processing. Role of
water and water activity in foods. Control of water activity by addition of solute and
moisture removal. Different models of isotherms, their limitations and applicability.

Unit II: Effect of heat, acid and short wave electromagnetic radiation on t he kinetics of
enzyme inactivation, microbial destruction and nutrient loss in pasteurization, sterilization
and UHT processing. Pasteurization and UHT processing of liquid food containing particulate
solids. Aseptic packaging. Irradiation and microwave processing of foods.

Unit III: Crystallization and freezing. Estimation of freezing time of foods. Equipment used
for freezing water in food and for production of crystalline foods, e.g. sucrose and lactose.
Freeze concentration of liquid food.

Unit IV: Concentration of liquid foods in batch and continuous type evaporators. Energy
saving by use of multiple effect evaporators with mechanical and thermal vapour compression.

Unit V: Mechanism of moisture removal in solid and liquid foods during drying. Spray,
freeze, roller tray and through-flow drying operations.

Recommended Books:
1. Zeki Berk. Food process engineering and technology. 2008. Academic Press.
2. Jelen P. Introduction to food processing. 1985. Prentice Hall.
3. Food Processing: Principles and Applications, Michele Maracotte, Hosahalli Ramaswamy,
Taylor and Francis. 2005. CRC Press.

Reference Books:
1. Dennis R. Heldman and Romeo Toledo. Fundamentals of Food Process En gineering. 3 rd
Edition. 2007. Springer.
2. NW Desrosier and N. James. Technology of Food Preservation. 4 th Ed. AVI Publications
3. WB Arsdel, MJ Copley and AI Morgan. Food Dehydration. 2 nd Ed. 1973. Vol.I & II. AVI
Publications.
4. Fellows, P. Food Processing Tec hnology. Principles and practice. 3 rd Ed. 2009. Taylor and
Francis.
5. D.G. Rao. Fundamentals of Food Engineering. 2010. PHI Learning Private Limited.
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I I Semester

Food Handling and Packaging

Code : EPRFP204
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit I: Overview of material handling system and devices in food processing plants.
Refrigerated transport and transportation in insulated containers. Characteristics and properties
of Packaging materials. Manufacture of plastic films, foils, laminates, pouches, rigid plastic
container paper and corrugated fibre board.

Unit II: Design of shipping cartons and containers. Rigid packaging using tin plate and
aluminium. Design of aerosol container, metal tubes, glass containers and closures. Labels and
printing in packages. Case study: Handling and Transport of Wet Fish-Icing, Containers
and Packages.

Unit III: Principles of Canning, Canning Process , Canned Products.


Packaging requirement for processed and unprocessed foods, e.g., cereal grains, baked foods,
milk and dairy products, fish and meat, fresh fruits and vegetables.

Unit IV: Principles of operation of fillers: form- fill-seal machine, gas packaging and
modified atmosphere package design.

Unit V: Shelf life prediction of foods in packages. Quality control in food packaging,
Product safety and packaging regulations.

Recommended Books:
1. Gordon L. Robertson. Food Packaging: Principles and Practice. 2006. CRC Pre ss.
2. Gordon L. Robertson. Food Packaging and shelf life: A practical guide. 2009. CRC Press.
3. Mark J. Kirwan, Derek McDowell, Richard Coles. Food packaging technology. 2003. Wiley -
Blackwell
Reference Books:
1. S. Stanley and CG Roger. Food Packaging. 1970. AVI Publications.
2. S. Sacharow and RC Griffin. Principles of Food Packaging. 1980. AVI Publication
3. FA Painy. A handbook of Food Packaging. 1980. App. Sci. Publishers.
4. D.G. Rao. Fundamentals of Food Engineering. 2010. PHI Learning Private Limited.
M.Tech Food Processing Technology II Semester

Instrumentation and Control in Food Industry


Code : EPRFP205
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit I: Temperature Measurement: Bimetallic thermometers, pressure th ermometers,


thermocouples, thermopiles, resistance thermometers, thermistors, radiation thermometers.
Pressure Measurement: Manometer dynamics, Bourdon tubes, pressure transducers, force
balance transducers.
Vacuum Measurement: McLeod gage, Knudsen gage, thermal conductivity gage, Pirani gage,
ionization gage.

Unit II: Motion and Displacement Measurement: Strain gages, differential transformers,
piezoelectric transducers, nozzle flappers.
Force and Torque Measurement: Drawbar dynamometers, octagonal rin g transducers, torque
transducers.
Flow Measurement: Pilot static tube, hot wire anemometer, orifice meter, rotameter, turbine
flow meter.
Liquid Level Measurement.

Unit III: Humidity Measurement.


Microwave and infrared sensors for moisture, protein an d fat content.
Chemical and biochemical sensors. Concepts of Biosensors. Rapid olfaction arrays. Size, Color
and turbidity sensors.
Robotics in food processing. Vision systems for foreign body detection and sorting.

Unit IV: Control Theories: Proportional, integral and derivative controls, transfer functions,
feedback control, transient response, stability criterion, Roth test, root loci, frequency response,
Bode plots, controller tuning.

Unit V: Digital Control: Sampling and Z transforms, sample d data control; Microprocessor
based Systems. Application in Food Industry.

Recommended Books:

1. Ian McFarlane. Automatic control of food manufacturing processes. 2 nd Edition. 1995. Springer/
Chapman&Hall.
2. E.Kress-Rogers & CJB.Brimelow. Instrumentation an d sensors for the food industry. 2 nd Ed.
2001. CRC press and Woodhead publishing.
3. Yanbo Huang, Dale Whittaker, Ronald E. Lacey. Automation for Food Engineering: Food
Quality Quantization and Process Control. 2001. CRC Press

Reference Books:

1. Steven E LeBlanc and Donald R.Coughanowr. Process Systems Analysis and Control., 3 rd
Edition. 2008. McGraw-Hill Inc.
2. Mehmet Mutlu. Biosensors in Food Processing, Safety, and Quality Control
. 2010. CRC Press.
3. Ibtisam E. Tothill. Rapid and on -line instrumentation for food quality assurance
Woodhead Publishing in food science and technology. 2003. Woodhead Publishing.
4. K. Khodabandehloo. Robotics in Meat, Fish and Poultry processing. 1993. Chapman & Hall.
5. M. Clute. Food industry quality control systems. 2008. CRC P ress.
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I I Semester

Food Engineering Laboratory 1


Code : EPRFP211
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 6 per week

1 . Particle size analysis and energy requirement in comminution.


2. High pressure of milk and the measurement of fat-globule size before and after
homogenization .
3. Estimation and measurement of cut-off size of milk fat-globules in a disk type
centrifugal separator.
4. Rheological properties of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquid food.
5. Establishing the relationship between performance index and mixing time in a
planetary mixer.
6. Measurement of cake resistance, filter medium resistance and compressibility factor
in constant pressure filtration.
7. Determination of flow pattern, port arrangement and flow rate-pressure drop
relationship in a plate heat exchanger.
8. Failure mechanics of biological tissues.
9. Saturation vapor pressure-temperature relationships for pure solvent and dilute
solutions.
10. Thermal bactericide to achieve commerc ial sterility of food in sealed containers.
11. Dehydration of vegetables in cabinet tray dryer.

Recommended books:
1. McCabe, Smith and Harriot. Unit operations of chemical engineering. 7 th ed. 2005.
McGraw Hill Book Co.
2. Henry Drop Richard. A laboratory bo ok of dairy analysis. 2010. CRC Press.
M.Tech Food Processing Technology II Semester

Food Engineering Lab - II


Code : EPRFP212
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 6 per week

1. Measurement of thermal conductivity of solid/liquid foods.


2. Measurement of thermal diffusivity of solid/liquid foods.
3. Measurement of emissivity and absorptivity of solid/liquid foods.
4. Measurement of flow properties of powders.
5. Measurement of rupture angle and angle of inte rgranular friction of grains and powders.
6. Evaluation of food packaging material: water vapour transmission rate
7. Evaluation of food packaging material: gas permeability (O2,N2 and CO2)
8. Evaluation of food packaging material: oil permeability
9. Evaluation of food packaging material: impact resistance
10. Evaluation of food packaging material: dry and wet strength.
11. Particle size analysis and energy requirement in communition.
12. Milling of rice/wheat/pulses. Estimation of milling yield
13. Estimation and measurement of flow rate, power requirement and pressure developed in
extruder.

Recommended books:
1. Food packaging technology. NIIR Board (National Institute of Industrial Research).
Reference:
1. D.Q.Kern. Process heat transfer. 1950. Tata -McGraw Hill.
2. McCabe, Smith and Harriot. Unit operations of chemical engineering.7th ed. 2005.
McGraw Hill Book Co.
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I II Semester

Research Methodology and Data Analysis

Code : EPRFP301
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 4 per week

UNIT I : Research Process: Introduction to research methodology, objectives, classification


of research methods: Historical method, case study method, survey method, experimental
method, and other methods( field investigation research, evaluation research, auction research,
ex-post facto research, laboratory research, business game) Definition, significance, sources,
advantages, limitations, steps involved in research.

Research Problem: sources, criteria of a good research problem, formulating and stating the
problem, common errors in selecting and formulating a research problem.
Research Design: Definitions, need for a research design, characteristics of good research design,
components of a research des ign, types of research design: descriptive, diagnostic, exploratory
and experimental.

UNIT II: Sampling Methods: Introduction of sampling, probability and non probability
sampling, sampling procedures simple random, stratified, systematic, cluster and multistage
sampling, concept of sampling distribution.

Collection and Processing of Data: Sources of data, methods of collection of primary and
secondary data, editing, coding, classification and tabulation of dat a, graphical and
representation of data, diagrammatic representation of data.

UNIT III: Inferential Statistics: Basics of Statistical Inference, Sampling distribution,


Estimation Point estimation, Interval estimation, Parameter, Statistic, Concept of a
hypothesis, Research Hypothesis, Null Hypothesis, Level of Significance, Comparison of
means of two samples, Comparison of sample proportion with population proportion,
Comparison of two sample proportions, Degrees of Freedom, Critical Value, Table value , Type
I and Type II errors, Rules for rejection & acceptance of Null Hypothesis, Standard Error.

UNIT IV: Inferential Statistics Parametric and Non-Parametric Test: t test Comparison
of sample mean with the population mean, Comparison of means of two independent samples,
Comparison of two correlated samples Z test different applications ANOVA one way
ANOVA: F test, Chi square test.

UNIT V: Correlation and Linear Regression: Introduction of correlation & regression


concepts, estimation of correlation coefficient, regression coefficients, variance of sample
estimates of the parameters, non linear regressions, weighted and transformations in regression
analysis, application of linear regressions - standard curves in drug analysis and drug s tability
studies, analysis of covariance.

Books Recommended:
1. Santosh Gupta: Research Methodology and Statistical Techniques. 2001. Deep & Deep.
2. K. P. C. Swain: A Text book of Research Methodology, 1st edition, 2007. Kalyani Publishers.
3. Reference:
4. C. R. Kothari: Research Methodology Methods & Techniques, 2 edition, 2000. Wishwa
Prakashan.
5. Research Methodology and Statistical Techniques Indira Gandhi National Open University.
M.Tech Food Processing Technology I II Semester

Food plant and equipment design


Code : EPRFP302
Credits : 3 No. of hours: 4 per week

Unit-I: Physical properties of food materials and energy balance calculations for preliminary
estimation of plant capacity and equipment sizes. Preparation of flow sheets for material
movement and utility consumption in food plant. Materials of construction: welding and
machining of stainless steel.

Unit-II: Design of storage vessels for liquid food and grains. Pressure vessels design and des ign
of vessel for drum drying. Performance characteristics and selection of fans, blowers, ejector
compressors and vacuum pumps.

Unit III: Design of fluid conveyance system; pipe, sanitary pipe fitting and valves.
Performance characteristics and selection of centrifugal and positive displacement sanitary
pumps. Design of CIP system.

Unit-IV: Design of heat exchange equipment -plate, scraped surface and extended surface for
heating and cooling of gas and liquid. Design of evaporator calandria, vapour s eparator and
condenser.

Unit V: Equipment layout and ventilation in food process plants. Single, multiple and
continuous facility design and layout problems. Design considerations for location of a food
plant. Discrete location and layout problems. Methods of techno-economic feasibility study.
Analysis of alternatives, economic decisions.

Recommended Books:
1. J. Peter Clark. Practical Design, Construction and Operation of Food Facilities. 2008.
Academic Press.
2. D.G. Rao. Fundamentals of Food Engineering. 2010. PHI.

Reference Books:
1. Zacharias B. Maroulis. Food Plant Economics. 2007. CRC Press.
2. Antonio Lopez-gomez, Gustavo V. Barbosa-canovas, Lopez-gomez Antonio. Food Plant
Design. 2005. CRC Press.
3. Maroulis, Zacharias B. Saravacos, George D. Food Process Design. 2003. Marcel
Dekker.
4. Robberts, Theunis C. Food Plant Engineering Systems. 2002. CRC Press
M.Tech Food Processing Technology III Semester

Seminar
Code : EPRFP311
Credits : 2 No. of hours: 3 per week

M.Tech Food Processing Technology I II Semester

Project
Code : EPRFP312
Credits : 12

Project is structured to:

1. Demonstrate ability to prepare techno -economic feasibility report.

2. Demonstrate proficiency in computer applications relevant to food processing industry.

M.Tech Food Processing Technology III Semester

Industrial Training

Code : EPRFP313
Credits : 2

Industrial Training at the end of 2nd semester.

M.Tech Food Processing Technology I V Semester

Project

Code : EPRFP411
Credits : 20 No. of hours: 32 per week