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BAB I

SANGKURIANG
One day, as usual Sangkuriang go to forest for hunting. Once when he arrived in the woods,
Sangkuriang starts looking for prey. He saw a bird perched on a branch, then without thinking
Sangkuriang shot him, and right on target. Sangkuriang then asked Tumang to pursue his quarry
before, but the Tumang silent and did not want to follow Sangkuriangs order. Because Tumang
was very annoyed at, then Sangkuriang drove out Tumang and not allowed to go home with him
again.

At home, Sangkuriang tell the incident to her mother. Upon hearing the story of her son, Dayang
Sumbi was very angry. He picked up the spoon, and banged on the head Sangkuriang. Feeling
disappointed with the treatment of his mother, then Sangkuriang decided to go wandering, and
left his house.

After the incident, Dayang Sumbi deeply regretted his actions. He prayed every day, and ask that
one day could see her son back. Because of the seriousness of the Sumbi Dayang prayer, then
God gave a gift of eternal beauty and youth forever.

After many years of wandering Sangkuriang, eventually he intended to return to his hometown.
Once there, he was very surprised at all, because his hometown has changed completely. The
Sangkuriangs pleasure increased when the current in the middle of the road met a woman who
is very beautiful, which is none other than Dayang Sumbi. Because fascinated by her beauty, the
Sangkuriang proposed her directly. Finally, an application was received by Dayang Sumbi, and
agreed to be married in the near future. One day, his future wife Sangkuriang asked permission
to hunt on health-.Before leaving, Dayang Sumbi asked him to belt tightening and smoothing on
his head. Dayang Sumbi was surprised, because when she smoothed Sangkuriang headband,
he saw a scar. The scar is a scar similar to his son. After asking about the cause of the wound
Sangkuriang it, Dayang Sumbi increased tekejut, because it is true that her husband was her
own son.

Dayang Sumbi very confused, because he may not marry his own son. After Sangkuriang home
hunting, Dayang Sumbi tried to speak to Sangkuriang, so Sangkuriang cancelled their wedding
plans. Dayang Sumbis request was not approved by Sangkuriang, and only considered wind
alone.

Every day Dayang Sumbi thoght how to order their wedding never happened. After thinking hard,
Dayang Sumbi finally found the best way. He filed two terms to Sangkuriang. If Sangkuriang can
meet both of these requirements, then Dayang Sumbi want to be a wife, but otherwise if it fails
then the marriage will be canceled. The first requirement Dayang Sumbi wanted Citarum river
dammed. And the second is, ask Sangkuriang to create a very large boat to cross the river. Both
conditions must finish before dawn.

Sangkuriang undertaked Sumbi Dayang the second request, and promised to finish before dawn.
With its magic, then Sangkuriang exert his friends from the jinn to help complete the task.
Secretly, Dayang Sumbi peek of Sangkuriang work. How shocked him, because Sangkuriang
almost finished all requirements given Dayang Sumbi before dawn.

Dayang Sumbi then ask for help communities to hold a red silk cloth to the east of the city. When
looking at redness in the eastern city, Sangkuriang thought that it was already dawn.
Sangkuriang immediately stopped work and was not able to meet the requirements that have
been submitted by Dayang Sumbi.

With a sense of annoyance and disappointment, Sangkuriang then break down the dam that has
made his own. Because of the breakdown of the dam, then there was a flood and the whole town
is underwater. Sangkuriang also kicked big boat that has been made. The canoe was drifting and
fell on his face, and then into a mountain called Tangkuban Perahu.
Terjemahan
Pada suatu hari, seperti biasanya Sangkuriang pergi ke hutan untuk berburu. Setelah
sesampainya di hutan, Sangkuriang mulai mencari buruan. Dia melihat ada seekor burung yang
sedang bertengger di dahan, lalu tanpa berpikir panjang Sangkuriang langsung menembaknya,
dan tepat mengenai sasaran. Sangkuriang lalu memerintah Tumang untuk mengejar buruannya
tadi, tetapi si Tumang diam saja dan tidak mau mengikuti perintah Sangkuriang. Karena sangat
jengkel pada Tumang, maka Sangkuriang lalu mengusir Tumang dan tidak diijinkan pulang ke
rumah bersamanya lagi.

Sesampainya di rumah, Sangkuriang menceritakan kejadian tersebut kepada ibunya. Begitu


mendengar cerita dari anaknya, Dayang Sumbi sangat marah. Diambilnya sendok nasi, dan
dipukulkan ke kepala Sangkuriang. Karena merasa kecewa dengan perlakuan ibunya, maka
Sangkuriang memutuskan untuk pergi mengembara, dan meninggalkan rumahnya.

Setelah kejadian itu, Dayang Sumbi sangat menyesali perbuatannya. Ia berdoa setiap hari, dan
meminta agar suatu hari dapat bertemu dengan anaknya kembali. Karena kesungguhan dari doa
Dayang Sumbi tersebut, maka Dewa memberinya sebuah hadiah berupa kecantikan abadi dan
usia muda selamanya.

Setelah bertahun-tahun lamanya Sangkuriang mengembara, akhirnya ia berniat untuk pulang ke


kampung halamannya. Sesampainya di sana, dia sangat terkejut sekali, karena kampung
halamannya sudah berubah total. Rasa senang Sangkuriang tersebut bertambah ketika saat di
tengah jalan bertemu dengan seorang wanita yang sangat cantik jelita, yang tidak lain adalah
Dayang Sumbi. Karena terpesona dengan kecantikan wanita tersebut, maka Sangkuriang
langsung melamarnya. Akhirnya lamaran Sangkuriang diterima oleh Dayang Sumbi, dan sepakat
akan menikah di waktu dekat. Pada suatu hari, Sangkuriang meminta ijin calon istrinya untuk
berburu di hutan. Sebelum berangkat, ia meminta Dayang Sumbi untuk mengencangkan dan
merapikan ikat kapalanya. Alangkah terkejutnya Dayang Sumbi, karena pada saat dia merapikan
ikat kepala Sangkuriang, Ia melihat ada bekas luka. Bekas luka tersebut mirip dengan bekas
luka anaknya. Setelah bertanya kepada Sangkuriang tentang penyebab lukanya itu, Dayang
Sumbi bertambah tekejut, karena ternyata benar bahwa calon suaminya tersebut adalah
anaknya sendiri.

Dayang Sumbi sangat bingung sekali, karena dia tidak mungkin menikah dengan anaknya
sendiri. Setelah Sangkuriang pulang berburu, Dayang Sumbi mencoba berbicara kepada
Sangkuriang, supaya Sangkuriang membatalkan rencana pernikahan mereka. Permintaan
Dayang Sumbi tersebut tidak disetujui Sangkuriang, dan hanya dianggap angin lalu saja.
Setiap hari Dayang Sumbi berpikir bagaimana cara agar pernikahan mereka tidak pernah terjadi.
Setelah berpikir keras, akhirnya Dayang Sumbi menemukan cara terbaik. Dia mengajukan dua
buah syarat kepada Sangkuriang. Apabila Sangkuriang dapat memenuhi kedua syarat tersebut,
maka Dayang Sumbi mau dijadikan istri, tetapi sebaliknya jika gagal maka pernikahan itu akan
dibatalkan. Syarat yang pertama Dayang Sumbi ingin supaya sungai Citarum dibendung. Dan
yang kedua adalah, meminta Sangkuriang untuk membuat sampan yang sangat besar untuk
menyeberang sungai. Kedua syarat itu harus diselesai sebelum fajar menyingsing.

Sangkuriang menyanggupi kedua permintaan Dayang Sumbi tersebut, dan berjanji akan
menyelesaikannya sebelum fajar menyingsing. Dengan kesaktian yang dimilikinya, Sangkuriang
lalu mengerahkan teman-temannya dari bangsa jin untuk membantu menyelesaikan tugasnya
tersebut. Diam-diam, Dayang Sumbi mengintip hasil kerja dari Sangkuriang. Betapa terkejutnya
dia, karena Sangkuriang hampir menyelesaiklan semua syarat yang diberikan Dayang Sumbi
sebelum fajar.

Dayang Sumbi lalu meminta bantuan masyarakat sekitar untuk menggelar kain sutera berwarna
merah di sebelah timur kota. Ketika melihat warna memerah di timur kota, Sangkuriang mengira
kalau hari sudah menjelang pagi. Sangkuriang langsung menghentikan pekerjaannya dan
merasa tidak dapat memenuhi syarat yang telah diajukan oleh Dayang Sumbi.

Dengan rasa jengkel dan kecewa, Sangkuriang lalu menjebol bendungan yang telah dibuatnya
sendiri. Karena jebolnya bendungan itu, maka terjadilah banjir dan seluruh kota terendam air.
Sangkuriang juga menendang sampan besar yang telah dibuatnya. Sampan itu melayang dan
jatuh tertelungkup, lalu menjadi sebuah gunung yang bernama Tangkuban Perahu.
BAB I

GOLDEN CUCUMBER

Once upon a time in a little village lived an old widow named Mbok Rondho. Since her
husband death she lived alone. She really dreamt to have a child. One day, Buto Ijo
came since he knew her wish. Buto Ijo offered her some cucumber seed. He said if the
cucumber seed was planted, it would grow into a huge cucumber. Inside it, there was a
lovely baby. Buto Ijo added that would take her back sixteen years later.
The old widow agreed with the condition. Soon, she planted the seed right in front of her
house. In the following day, she was surprised finding a huge cucumber in her yard. She
hurriedly splat the cucumber and found a cute baby who called as Timun Mas. She was
so happy for getting his dream came true.
Timun Mas grew to be a beautiful and humble lady. As the time past, finally it was her
sixteenth birthday came. One day, the old widow said that Timun Mas should go far
away or Buto Ijo would take her back. Then, she gave Timun Mas some salt. Timun Mas
was puzzled and wondered what was happened.
In the following day, Timun mas decided to go to the jungle. She didn't forget to bring the
salt which was given by the old widow with her to defeat the Buto Ijo. Right in the jungle,
Buto Ijo searched for her. He shouted loudly calling for her name. Timun Mas was so
terrified hearing Buto Ijos voice.
After a long hunt, Buto Ijo could find her. Timun Mas ran fast and threw the salt at the
same time. Suddenly, the salt turned into a muddy lake and made Buto Ijo sank in it and
he came into an end. Eventually, Timun Mas came back to her house and lived with the
old widow happily ever after.
Arti Terjemahan: Timun Mas

Dahulu kala di sebuah desa yang kecil hiduplah seorang janda tua bernama Mbok
Rondho. Semenjak kematian sang suami dia sekarang hidup sendirian. Dia sangat
bermimpi untuk mempunyai seorang anak. Suatu hari, Buto Ijo yang mengetahui
keinginannya tersebut datang. Buto Ijo menawarkan kepada dia beberapa biji mentimun.
Dia berkata jika biji tersebut ditanam, maka akan tumbuh buah mentimun yang sangat
besar. Di dalam buah mentimun tersebut, akan ada seorang bayi yang cantik. Buto Ijo
menambahkan jika ia akan mengambilnya kembali setelah enam belas tahun kemudian.
Si janda tua tersebut menyetujui dengan persyaratannya. Segera, dia menanam biji
tersebut tepat di lahan depan rumahnya. Di hari berikutnya, dia begitu terkejut
menemukan sebuah mentimun yang amat besar di halaman depan rumahnya. Dia
dengan cepat membelahnya mentimun tersebut dan menemukan seorang bayi yang
amat menggemaskan yang dipanggil sebagai Timun Mas. Dia begitu bahagia
bahwasanya impiannya telah terkabul.
Timun Mas tumbuh menjadi gadis rupawan dan sederhana. Waktu terus berjalan, dan
pada akhirnya ulang tahun keenam belas Timun Mas telah tiba. Suatu hari, si janda tua
tersebut berkata pada Timun Mas bahwa dia harus pergi yang jauh atau Buto Ijo akan
kembali mengambilnya. Lalu dia memberi Timun Mas beberapa kantung garam. Timun
Mas begitu bingung dan penasaran tentang apa yang telah terjadi.
Di hari berikutnya, Timun Mas memutuskan untuk pergi ke dalam hutan. Dia tidak lupa
membawa garam yang telah diberikan oleh janda tua tersebut bersamanya untuk
digunakan mengalahkan Buto Ijo. Tepat di dalam hutan, Buto Ijo mencari-cari Timun
Mas. Dia berteriak dengan suara lantang memanggil-manggil nama Timun Mas. Timun
Mas begitu ketakutan mendengar suara Buto Ijo yang seram tersebut.
Setelah perburuan yang cukup panjang, Buto ijo dapat menemukannya. Timun Mas
berlari dengan kencang dan melemparkan garamnya secara bersamaan. Tiba-tiba,
garam tersebut berubah menjadi danau berlumpur dan membuat Buto Ijo tenggelam ke
dalamnya dan akhirnya Buto Ijo menemui ajalnya. Pada akhirnya, Timun Mas kembali
pulang ke rumahnya dan tinggal bersama janda tua tersebut bahagia selamanya
PERCAKAPAN UNGKAPAN SARAN

Vina : I have a trouble, now


(Aku mengalami kesulitan, sekarang)

Opik : What is it?


(Apa itu?)

Vina : I have broken my sister cellphone.


(Aku telah merusakkan ponsel kakakku.)

Opik : Have you ever told about it?


(Apakah kamu pernah memberitahu tentang hal itu?)

Vina : I havent , I am afraid that she will be angry to me


(Belum, aku takut dia akan marah padaku)

Opik : I suggest you to tell her about it. Then say sorry.
(Aku sarankan kamu untuk menceritakan tentang hal itu. Kemudian katakanmaaf)

Vina : How about if she wants me to fix her cellphone?


(Bagaimana kalau dia ingin aku untuk memperbaiki ponselnya?)

Opik : It is better to you to bring it out to the cellphone center.


(Lebih baik kamu untuk membawanya ke pusat ponsel)

Vina : But I dont know where I can get


(Tapi Aku tidak tahu di mana saya bisa mendapatkan)

Opik : Dont be worried I have a friend who has a cellphone center.


(Jangan khawatir Aku punya teman yang memiliki pusat ponsel)

Vina : Will he fix it by himself?


(Apakah dia memperbaikinya sendiri?)

Opik : Yes.,of course.


(Ya, tentu saja. )

Vina : Thank you so much


(Terima kasih banyak)
Dialogue I

I
PERCAKAPAN UNGKAPAN SARAN

Yanti : Have you got the articles about environment?


(Apakah kamu punya artikel tentang lingkungan?)

Ratna : No,I havent . There is no newspaper at home. My father doesnt read the
newspaper in the morning.
(Tidak, aku tidak punya. Tidak ada koran di rumah. Ayahku tidak membaca koran di
pagi hari.)

Yanti : So how can you complete your task tomorrow?


(Jadi bagaimana kamu bisa menyelesaikan tugasmu besok?)

Ratna : I dont know, I have gone to the market but in the road ,, it was raining hard
so I turn back at home. Do you have an idea to solve this problem?
(Aku tidak tahu, Aku telah pergi ke pasar tetapi di jalan ,, hujan deras sehingga aku
kembali di rumah. Apakah Anda memiliki ide untuk memecahkan masalah ini?)

Yanti :How about if we go to My uncles home, he is a newspaper sender .


(Bagaimana kalau kita pergi ke rumah pamanku, ia adalah pengirim surat kabar.)

Ratna : It is a good idea, isnt it?


(Ini ide yang baik, bukan?)

Yanti : We have to get there at 4 p.m. He will get home after 3 p.m everyday in
the afternoon.
(Kita harus sampai di sana pada pukul 4 sore. Ia akan pulang setelah pukul 3 setiap
hari di sore hari.)

Ratna : You have to remember me, i am afraid i forget it


(Kamu harus ingat Aku, Aku takut aku melupakannya)

Yanti : Yes I will


(Ya akan aku ingatkan)
PERCAKAPAN UNGKAPAN MENAWARKAN

Percakapan 1

Tom : Hi Anna. (Hai Anna).

Anna : Hi Tom. (Hai Tom).

Tom : You look so busy Anna. What are you doing? (Kamu terlihat begitu sibuk
Anna. Apa yang sedang kamu lakukan?).

Anna : Yeah, as you can see, Tom. I am moving the things from my
bedroom. (Ya, seperti yang kamu lihat Tom. Aku sedang memindahkan benda-
benda dari kamarku).

Tom : Oh, I see. Why are you moving all those things? (Oh begitu. Mengapa
kamu memindahkan semua benda-benda itu?).

Anna : Im going to move to another room because my little sister wants to


have her own room now. (Aku akan pindah ke ruangan lain karena adikku ingin
memiliki ruangannya sendiri sekarang).

Tom : Marie is not a child anymore now, is she? She is growing fast. (Marie
bukanlah seorang anak kecil lagi, iyakan? Dia tumbuh dengan cepat).

Anna : Yeah, as you know. Actually I love this room, but thats okay. Id like to
try another room. (Ya, sebagaimana yang kamu ketahui sendiri. Sesungguhnya
aku menyukai ruangan ini, tapi tidak masalah. Aku ingin mencoba ruangan lainnya).

Tom : Yeah, as an older sister, you have to succumb to your little sister. (Ya,
sebagai kakak yang lebih tua, kamu harus mengalah pada adikmu).

Anna : Yes Tom. So thats why I move. I have moved all the small and light
things. The rest are a bit heavy. (Ya Tom. Maka dari itu aku pindah. Aku telah
memindahkan semua benda-benda yang kecil dan ringan. Sisanya sedikit berat).

Tom : Would you like some help Anna? Im free. So maybe I can help you with
those heavy things. (Apakah kamu memerlukan beberapa bantuan Anna? Aku
sedang lowong. Jadi mungkin aku bisa menolongmu untuk benda-benda yang
berat).

Anna : Oh, thats very kind of you, Tom. Thanks. I need your help to move my
desk. (Oh, kamu sangat ramah Tom. Terima kasih. Aku membutuhkan bantuannmu
untuk memindahkan meja belajarku).

Tom : Alright, lets do it then. (Baiklah, ayo kita lakukan).

Anna : Okay Tom. (Oke Tom).


PERCAKAPAN UNGKAPAN MENAWARKAN

Bimo : Hi, Tony. Your face looks so pale. Whats wrong with you? (Hai, Tony.
Wajahmu terlihat sangat pucat. Ada apa denganmu?).

Tony : Hi Bimo. Yes, I think I got a stomachache. My stomach is very hurt. I


have not had my breakfast yet. (Hai Bimo. Ya, aku rasa aku sakit perut. Perutku
sakit sekali. Aku belum sarapan pagi).

Bimo : Oh, poor you Tony. I think we should have our breakfast before we go
to school or studying.(Kasihan kamu Tony. Aku rasa kita seharusnya sarapan pagi
sebelum kita berangkat ke sekolah ataupun belajar).

Tony : I was not so hungry last morning. So thats way, I didnt have my
breakfast. Maybe thats my fault Bim. (Aku tidak begitu lapar tadi pagi. Maka dari
itu aku tidak sarapan pagi. Mungkin itu kesalahanku Bim).

Bimo : Hmm. Yeah, thats okay for now. But next time, please remember to
have your breakfast Tony. (Hmm. Ya, tidak masalah untuk sekarang. Namun lain
waktu, tolong ingat untuk sarapan pagi Tony).

Tony : Alright Bimo. (Baiklah Bimo).

Bimo : Can I do anything to help? (Adakah yang bisa saya lakukan untuk
membantu?).

Tony : I need to get some medicine, but my stomach is still hurt. Can you get
some for me? (Aku membutuhkan beberapa obat, namun perutku masih sakik.
Bisakah kamu mendapatkannya untukku?).

Bimo : Okay Tony. I will get some for you in medical room and I also will buy
some food for you. (Oke Tony. Aku akan mengambilkan beberapa untukmu
diruang kesehatan dan aku juga akan membelikan beberapa makanan untukmu).

Tony : Thank you so much Bimo. I cant say a word. Thanks for your
help. (Terima kasih banyak Bimo. Aku tidak bisa mengatakan apapun. Terima kasih
atas pertolonganmu).

Bimo : Youre welcome Tony. (Terima kasih kembali Tony).


POSTCARD
POSTCARD

POSTER GOLDEN CUCUMBER


POSTER SANGKURIANG
BAB II

ARTICLE
Effect of Video Games on Child Development

Little bit o history


If you are a parent in this era of information and technology, chances are you have a
child who has played, is playing, or will be playing video games. The video game industry is
a rapid-growing market that went from having a market volume of $100 million in 1985 to $4
billion in 1990 (Gartner, 2013). How did this industry gain so much ground? Where did it
start? Prior to the 1980s, there were what we may consider rudimentary computer games,
commercially sold coin-operated games, and home consoles. Shortly after the North-
American Video Game Crash of 1983 a massive recession that hit the industry the
Nintendo Entertainment System induced a resurgence in popularity that has only continued to
grow (Cesarone, 2014). In the years since, the gaming world has expanded and subdivided
into numerous categories. There are casual, serious and educational games in mediums
ranging from console games to online RPGs (role playing games) to the most recent and
flourishing market of mobile games. In 2013, the worldwide market volume totaled $93
billion (Metrics 2.0, 2007).
So what does this mean for our kids today?
In America, 81% of youths play at least once a month, 8.5% of them are addicted and
the average 8- to 12 year-old now plays 13 hours of video games per week, while the
average 13- to 18 year old plays 14 hours of video games per week (Metrics 2.0, 2007).
Because video games are so prominent in childrens lives, it is difficult to prevent them from
playing video games entirely but is that even necessary? With such a variety of game types
out there, it is difficult to say if video games in general are good or bad. Luckily, there have
been countless studies done on this and information on the pros and cons can be easily found.
Negatives of Video Games
There are various types of video games available in todays industry. Video games are
intended to target different aspects of a childs life. These video games are comprised of a
variety of educational, serious, and casual games, but in reality, what child is going to choose
a game about learning versus a game where they can kill zombies or drive cars at unruly
amounts of speed? A study from Buchman and Funk found that violent games became
consistently popular across grades for both boys and girls (Cesarone, 1998). Educational
games were more popular for some of the girls being asked, but throughout all the age
groups, violent video games never lost their superior power in the gaming industry.
Studies have shown the negative effects violent video games have on the younger generation.
Calvert and Tan did a study on young adults, where they compared the differences between
playing versus observing violent video games. Studies found that students who had played a
violent virtual reality game had a higher heart rate, reported more dizziness and nausea, and
exhibited more aggressive thoughts in a posttest than those who had played a nonviolent
game (Cesarone, 1998). Although these studies do not directly determine if aggression
increases in their experimenters, they are able to observe behavioral changes that include
more aggressive patterns.
Another negative aspect of video games is the fact that kids are spending too much time
playing the games rather than physically playing outside. From the quote above, it is evident
that kids involved with video games are spending 13 and 14 hours a week playing them rather
than just an hour here and there. By spending so much time on their game console or on the
computer, children are missing out on their social life. Children are less likely to go out and
compete in extracurricular activities which inhibit them from meeting new people and
making friends. Funk and Buchman did another study on the effects video games have on
kids, but in this one, they were testing for self-competence. Results found that for boys, but
not for girls, a stronger preference for each of the three types of violent games was associated
with lower self-competence scores in one or more developmentally important areas, including
academic, interpersonal, and behavioral skills (Cesarone, 1998). This finding factors into the
idea of taking time away from doing other things for these boys because they are suffering in
important factors in life that will allow them to succeed.

Lastly, lets take a look at the obvious reason why video games are not beneficial to a
childs development, obesity. According to the CDC, in 2009-2010, 12.1 percent of children
ages 2 to 5 are obese, 18 percent of 6 to 11 year olds are obese, and 18.4 percent of 12 to 19
year olds are obese. Now, this is only the percentages of obesity, and does not account for the
amount of children who are overweight as well. What is causing this to occur? I can tell you,
the amount of time children are now spending playing video games is a factor in that. By
spending much of their free time on the computer or on their game console, kids are not
going out and participating in activities that will keep them physically fit in healthy. Kids get
the lazy mindset and would rather not go play outside.
Benefits of Playing Video Games
Research has shown that playing video games can be beneficial for a number of cognitive
functions and may also contain social benefits. The first and foremost thing one discovers in a
game is that following directions is of the utmost importance. In order to progress in games,
one must first learn to follow the guidelines, restrictions and components of them. As the
player confronts new challenges, he must use problem-solving to find solutions. This is true
for educational games, mind games, and RPGs alike. The player cannot get through with
what they already have or know and must find new combinations and incorporate old skills
with new skills to overcome obstacles such as the level or quest (Gee, 2003). In relation to
this, the player can also learn strategy and anticipation, management of resources (simulation
games), mapping, pattern recognition, how tojudge the situation and practice reading (with
directions, dialogue, etc.) and quantitative calculations (through educational games,
managing finances, buying and selling for profit, etc. (Tumbokon, 2014).
Gamers also get used to multitasking. As games become more intricate, players must
juggle different objectives while keeping track of all the changing elements and connecting
ideas. Games also induce quick thinking. According to cognitive scientist Daphne Bavelier of
the University of Rochester, results of a study found that people who play video games
become more attuned to their environment and able to keep visual tabs on friends in crowds,
able to navigate better and better at everyday things like driving and reading small print.
Playing games also significantly reduced reaction times without sacrificing accuracy
beyond the context of the games ( Bavelier et al., 2009) and into making correct real-world
decisions. Because of this effect on perceptual reaction times, even the U.S. military uses
warfare simulation games in training and claims its benefits (Vargas, 2006).
Video games also increase hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills and spatial
reasoning (Tumbokon, 2014). For example, in shooter games, the player keeps track of their
position, direction, speed, aim, results and more. The brain processes all this information and
then coordinates with the hands since all actions are done through the controller or keyboard.
These skills can be applied to real world situations like surgical procedure (Florida Hospital,
2013).
Finally, gaming is stimulating, a learning experience and a social activity. The reason
why people find it so enjoyable is that games are usually the right degree of challenging and
the player takes an active role (unlike watching television) so there is an incentive to
achieve (Gee, 2003). Lets also not forget that many games, like Rise of Nations or Age of
Mythology are educational and have a lot to offer in areas like science, politics, history and
cultural studies and some games are practical, like pilot-training simulations. The gaming
world is very popular. Thus, playing video games has become a social activity. In fact, nearly
60% of frequent gamers play with friends, 33% with siblings and 25% with a spouse or
parents. Many games require cooperative play and logistics, comradeship and frequent
interactions between team members.
Wrap-up
Like so many other issues these days, the concept of video games is controversial. The line
between a healthy amount of gaming and an excessive amount is easily blurred and crossed
especially when video games are as addicting as studies claim. As parents, it is prudent to
find moderation in all things. Banning games entirely may be good for some households, but
others (depending on the prominence of gaming within the environment) will find that it may
socially isolate their children, take away a source of joy and possibly cognitive development.
However, opening the door to the good, will also allow access to the bad including exposing
the childrens minds to the realm of violence, taking their free time away from doing other
things, and putting them at risk for obesity. In the end, it is important that the parent monitors
what kinds of games children are playing and being exposed to. Part of this job is to know the
descriptors and the genres they represent. The Entertainment Software Rating Board has
ratings that provide concerned parents information about the content of the games (ESRB,
2014). Efficient use of these ratings can help parents to make more informed choices for their
children.
BAB II

ARTICLE

Video Games and Children: Playing with


Violence

Playing video games has become a popular activity for people of all ages.
Video gaming is a multibillion-dollar industry bringing in more money than
movies and DVDs. On average, girls spend more than an hour per day
playing video games and boys spend more than two hours. Teens often
spend even more time than younger children. Video games have become
very sophisticated and realistic. Some games connect to the internet, which
can allow children and adolescents to play games and have discussions
with unknown adults and peers.

While some games have educational content, many of the most popular
games emphasize negative themes and promote:

The killing of people or animals


The use and abuse of drugs and alcohol
Criminal behavior, disrespect for authority and the law
Sexual exploitation and violence toward women
Racial, sexual, and gender stereotypes
Foul language and obscene gestures

Store-bought video games are evaluated by the Electronic Software


Ratings Board (ESRB) and rated for their appropriateness for children and
teens. The ratings are featured prominently on the game packaging.

Studies of children exposed to violent media have shown that they may
become numb to violence, imitate the violence, and show more aggressive
behavior. Younger children and those with emotional, behavioral or
learning problems may be more influenced by violent images.

In moderation, playing age-appropriate games can be enjoyable and


healthy. Some video games may promote learning, problem solving and
help with the development of fine motor skills and coordination. However,
there are concerns about the effect of video games on young people who
play videogames excessively.

Children and adolescents can become overly involved with videogames.


They may have difficulty controlling the amount of time they play. They may
resist their parents attempts to limit their time playing video games.
Spending excessive time playing these games can lead to:

Less time socializing with friends and family


Poor social skills
Time away from family time, school work, and other hobbies
Lower grades
Less reading
Less exercise and becoming overweight
Decreased sleep and poor quality sleep
Aggressive thoughts and behaviors

Tips for Parents


Parents can help their children enjoy these video games appropriately and
avoid problems by:

Avoiding video games in preschool-aged children


Checking the ESRB ratings to select appropriate gamesboth in
content and level of development
Playing videogames with their children to share the experience and
discuss the games content
Setting clear rules about game content and playing time, both in and
outside the home
Monitoring online interactions and warning children about potential
dangers of Internet contacts while playing games online
Allowing video game playing only in public areas of the home, not in
the childs bedroom
Remembering that you are a role model for your children including
which video games you play and how long you play them
Enforcing total screen time limits
Ensuring video games are only played after homework and chores
are done
Encouraging participation in other activities, particularly physical
activities

If you continue to have concerns about your childs gaming habits or if your
child is having difficulty with mood or behavior, ask your childs pediatrician,
family physician or school counselor to help arrange a referral to a trained
and qualified mental health professional.
Percakapan tentang meminta dan memberi pendapat :

A : good morning.
(A : selamat pagi)

B : good morning
(B : selamat pagi)

A : What do you think about my appearance?


(A : apa pendapatmu tentang penampilanku?)

B : in my opinion you look so different.


(B :menurut pendapatku kamu terlihat berbeda.)

A : Really? which one that different from my appearance?


(A : benarkah? Yang mana yang berbeda dari penampilanku?)

B : I think you hair.


(B : saya rasa rambutmu.)

A : OhMy God. You are right, friend.


(A: yaTuhan. kamu benar, teman.)

B : Yes, of course.
(B : tentu saja.)
Percakapan tentang meminta dan memberi pendapat :

Ani : what do you think about this meat ball?


(Ani : apa yang kamu fikirkan tentang bakso ini?)

David : I think that this meat ball very delicious.


(David : saya fikir bahwa bakso ini enak.)

Ani : where do you buy it?


(Ani : dimana kamu membelinya?)

David : I buy it in front of my school.


(David : aku membelinya di depan sekolahanku.)

Ani : what do you think about his income?


(Ani : apa yang kamu fikirkan tentang pendapatannya?)

David : I think, he can get income Rp.1.000.000,00 every day.


(David: saya pikir, dia bisa memperoleh pendapatan Rp.1.000.000,00 setiap hari.)

Ani : Wow, fantastic.


(Ani : wow, luar biasa.)
OPINION ABOUT SOCIAL PROBLEM

Respecting other religious beliefs


Amy Peterson

Throughout the world, many people practice different religions. Other people call
themselves spiritual, but dont follow the doctrines of an organized religion. As our
world becomes more global, it is important to respect each other and our different
beliefs. Just as you may feel your church is perfect for you and offers all you need in
your spiritual life, so others feel the same about theirs. I am very happy with my
choice of religion and church, and am actively teaching my children the doctrines I
believe. However, I also want to understand and respect others and for my children
to do the same. Ive incorporated these five ideas into my interactions with people of
faiths different than mine.

1. Gain a basic understanding


Take opportunities to learn about other religions and their beliefs. I like to read
articles and books about world religions. Knowing that Jews are still waiting for the
Messiah to come is important. As the religion of Islam spreads across the world, it,
sometimes, gets a bad reputation as the religion of terrorists. I feel that I should
understand more about it, so I dont misunderstand the people in my community.

Everyone on my fathers side of the family is Catholic, but I am not. Because I


respect my heritage, I know some of the basic Catholic beliefs and have attended
Mass. Knowledge of other religious systems will help foster respect.

2. Recognize common ground


Both Jewish and Christian faiths place great importance on the 10 commandments.
As I studied the concept of life after death, I found similarities between my own
beliefs and those of Muslims. You might find you have more in common with those of
other faiths than you previously thought.

Like me, my daughters preschool teacher is a Christian. But we attend different


churches. We have had great talks about the power of prayer and feeling Gods
hand in our lives. These discussions have deepened our respect and love for each
other, which is also a blessing.
3. Ask thoughtful questions
If you are confused about beliefs, or have questions about basic doctrines ask
someone who practices that religion. You will show a sincere interest with a goal of
understanding and respect. I recently talked with a Catholic friend of mine about the
dress code for attending Mass. She asked me questions about the programs for
teaching youth at my church.

If you seek answers via the Internet, be sure to find correct sources. For example,
the official website for a church or religion will offer better answers than a website
that is clearly antagonistic toward that church.

4. Teach your children respect


Children are naturally curious. They may ask why a man wears a turban, a woman
wears a headscarf or why some people dont attend church on Sundays. Your
knowledge of others beliefs will help you explain why different religions do things
differently and why they should respect others.

My children dont participate in sporting events on Sunday. This is in keeping with


the commandment to keep the Sabbath day holy. Their friends and coaches have
respected their choice. Experiences like this help them to respect the religious
beliefs of others, as well.

5. Always show respect and love


No matter what religion you follow; as a spiritual person you should always show
respect and love for other people, even those who do not believe in God at all. God
loves all of his children and wants them to be happy. Showing respect for religious
beliefs of others reflects your love for God.

There are many wonderful people in the world. As you learn more about them and
their religious beliefs, you will find common ground in a love of God.
OPINION ABOUT SOCIAL PROBLEM

The poor get poorer and the rich wont


admit it
People dont want to be rich any more. Its a world turned upside down.
Genies are having to completely rethink their planning strategies in
anticipation of an era of altruistic lamp-rubbers. Suddenly theyve got to
find a way to make wishing for world peace turn round and bite you on the
arse.

Im thinking maybe an all-life destroying pestilence so that the world


peace is the silence that follows the death of every living thing, a genie
who refused to be named told me. But Im just talking off the top of my
turban.

Its actually a fez.

Sorry I havent looked in a mirror for two millennia. Genies cant see
their own reflection.

Thats vampires.

After that the interview turned a bit sour and he refused to be drawn on
whether Donald Trump has got any wishes left. Its genie-client
confidentiality. But I will say Ive been reading a hell of a lot of books about
golf.

What I actually mean is that people dont want to be called rich. They still
want the trappings of wealth, I imagine. Big houses, big baths, big dinners,
leg-room, gold, a willingness to use the sort of cash machine that charges
you 1.50. Everyone wants all that. They just dont want it to be known that
theyre getting any of it, if indeed they are or for the amount of it theyre
getting to qualify them for that unfortunate section of society, the fortunate.

The rich are the bad guys so, being called rich, whether or not you are, is
to be called bad

This notion that theres something unlucky about being called lucky
occurred to me last week in the wake of John McDonnells controversial
definition of the richas those earning above 70,000 to 80,000 a year. A
lot of people objected to that, and even more objected to those objections.
The first group pointed out that 70k a year is far from unimaginable
wealth, PIYLIL (particularly if you live in London). So, if your image of a
rich person is someone in a gold hat lighting a cigar with a 50 note, then
the adjective is unfairly applied to a demographic of dutiful mortgage-
paying graduates who occasionally go to Carluccios.

These complainants detractors, pausing only to mime playing the worlds


smallest violin, countered with the undeniable statistical fact that earning
70k puts you in the richest 6% of the British workforce, and the richest
0.09% of the global population. In this row, comparatives and superlatives
are oddly less controversial than the terms from which theyre derived.
Richest doesnt necessarily mean rich any more than poorest means poor.
Tony Blair must have been the poorest man at many plutocratic dinners
hes attended around the world, but that doesnt mean he needs to argue
over who ordered extra chips.

Its easy to define whos richer than whom, but at what point do you
become actually rich? Are you rich if youre richer than average? If so, the
70k bunch might qualify as very rich. Are you tall if youre taller than
average? Possibly. I reckon many who are only marginally taller than the
mean would consent to the adjective tall (which is not to imply that mean
people are short). But then a lot of us want to be tall, while we dont seem to
want to be considered rich.

Maybe its always been like that. Wealth generates hostility so theres
nothing to be gained from drawing attention to it. Get it quietly, as they
say in poker. But I dont think thats the whole story. What happened to
greed is good, to conspicuous consumption, to Labour grandees being
intensely relaxed about people getting filthy rich, to the whole Thatcherite
dream of the promise of wealth driving ambition, invention and hard work,
to Britains entrepreneurs being lured forward in slavering pursuit of
commerces golden bra, and the whole of society benefiting from any
consequent trickle down?

Im not saying I miss all that bombast, but there was something coherent
about it. It was a bold rebuke to the Communist bloc, an explicit elevation
of liberty over equality. In a free society, the idea goes, people must be able
to improve their circumstances, they must be offered the potential reward
of riches. Which unfortunately means you have to have rich and poor. But
rich and poor beats poor and poor and, in a land of capitalist opportunity,
at least the poor have hope.

In that world, theres no shame in being called rich. Many would be proud
of it and, as with tallness, lay claim to it when its only marginally justified.
In the society Thatcher was supposed to have ushered in, rich and
successful would be synonyms and the phrase well deserved success a
tautology.

Thats why last weeks scuffle to pin on others, or tear off oneself, the label
rich is interesting. Its become a term of abuse, like aristocrat in the
French Revolution. Far from assuming the rich deserve their wealth, were
now assuming the contrary. The rich are the bad guys so, being called
rich, whether or not you are, is to be called bad. Societys all wrong and
youre why! is what it means. This is unfair because its a generalisation.
But that doesnt make it an unfair generalisation.

I suspect very few people feel rich, either in the neutral sense of having lots
of money, or the contemporary one of being a profiteer of injustice. All of
us, except Bill Gates on the one hand and some poor sod whose name
posterity will never record, and wholl be dead by the time you read this, on
the other, are aware of people richer and people poorer than we are. So,
subjectively, were all the squeezed middle. And, in these unnerving times,
even if you know youre loaded, you probably still wont feel particularly
safe or lucky. Hardly any of us think were part of the problem, which is
part of the problem.

For Thatchers divisive concept to work even on its own terms, it required
Britain to continue to become more meritocratic. Not fairer necessarily
because theres nothing inherently fair about the distribution of merit but
a country where success is based on what you do, not the circumstances you
were born in. If youre holding a rat race, the prize must go to the fastest
rat.

No ideological alternative has really caught on enough to sweep aside


Thatchers vision of Britain, but the fact that high earnings are now a source
of social shame demonstrates how tawdry and discredited it has become.
Lets bear that in mind as our current prime minister exhorts us to vote for
it again.
FORMAL INVITATION
FORMAL INVITATION
ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION TEXT

. The Importance of Breakfast

Why is breakfast important? Breakfast like a King, Lunch like a Prince and Dine like
a Pauper Its a well known phrase, but do you follow it?

Breakfast provides many benefits to our health and wellbeing. Breakfast provides the
body and brain with fuel after an overnight fast thats where its name originates,
breaking the fast! Without breakfast you are effectively running on empty, like trying
to start the car with no petrol!

Breakfast support cognitive function. Breakfast also restores glucose levels, an


essential carbohydrate that is needed for the brain to function. Breakfast provides
energy, studies have shown how eating breakfast can improve memory and
concentration levels and it can also make us happier as it can improve mood and
lower stress levels.

Breakfast provides energy needs. Peoples energy needs vary depending on activity
levels and life stage but typically men require more energy than women. Growing
children require a lot of energy, as an example boys aged 7-10 years should
consume approximately 1970 kcals per day, and girls aged 7-10 years should
consume approximately 1740 kcals.
Arti: Pentingnya Sarapan

Mengapa melakukan sarapan itu penting? Sarapan seperti seorang raja, makan
siang seperti Pangeran dan makan malam layaknya seperti orang yang tidak punya
itu adalah frase yang cukup terkenal, tetapi apakah Anda memahami pentingnya
sarapan?

Sarapan memberikan banyak manfaat bagi kesehatan dan kenyamanan kita. Makan
pagi memberikan tubuh dan otak asupan bahan bakar setelah berpuasa (tidak
makan) selama satu malam dari sini nama breakfast itu berasal (break = berbuka,
fast = puasa) Tanpa sarapan Anda secara bagaikan berlari dalam keadaan lapar,
seperti mencoba untuk menyalakan mobil tapi tidak ada bensin.

Sarapan juga mendukung daya kognitif juga mengembalikan kadar glukosa, yaitu
karbohidrat penting yang dibutuhkan otak untuk bisa berfungsi. Makan pagi
menyediakan tenaga, penelitian telah menunjukkan bagaimana makan pagi dapat
meningkatkan tingkat memori dan konsentrasi, juga dapat membuat kita merasa
lebih bahagia karena dapat meningkatkan mood dan menurunkan suasana stres.

Sarapan menyediakan kebutuhan energi yang dibutuhkan. Kebutuhan energi setiap


orang itu berbeda tergantung pada pada kegiatan dan tahapan hidup. Meski begitu
secara umum laki-laki membutuhkan energi lebih banyak dari pada permepuan.
Pertumbuhan anak-anak juga membutuhkan banyak energi, sebagai contoh, anak
laki-laki berusia 7-10 tahun harus mengkonsumsi sekitar 1970 kkal per hari, dan
anak perempuan berusia 7-10 harus mengkonsumsi sekitar 1740 Kkal.
ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION TEXT

DANGEROUS SMOKING
Smoking is dangerous. Smoking has its first prey around 1859, when the first death
related to tobacco was first reported. Smoking has almost 50% chances of killing an
addict.

You are killing 11 minutes of your expected life span with every cigarette you smoke.
So be cautious if you want to live longer.

Every cigarette carries 70 chemicals that are a cause of cancer. There are more than
4500 different chemical in a cigarette. It contains arsenic, formaldehyde, lead,
hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia and many other
carcinogens.

Cancer is mainly caused by tobacco and alcohol. 30% relief from this deadly disease
can be seen, if people quit smoking and alcohol.

A whopping number of cigarettes are smoked worldwide every day. And the tally
reaches 15 billion. Yeah, its almost double the total population of the world which is
around 7.2 billion at this time in 2015.

If you were found smoking near an Apple computer, you may not be entitled to claim
warranty for the product, in case the need be.

The facts above tell us one thing. Smoking is dangerous.


Artinya
BAHAYA MEROKOK
Merokok itu berbahaya. Merokok memiliki korban pertama sekitar tahun 1859, ketika
kematian pertama yang terkait dengan tembakau dilaporkan pertama kali. Merokok
memiliki kemungkinan hampir 50% membunuh pecandu.
Anda mmperpendek 11 menit rentang harapan hidup Anda dengan setiap batang
rokok yang Anda merokok. Jadi berhati-hatilah jika ingin hidup lebih lama.
Setiap batang rokok membawa 70 bahan kimia yang menjadi penyebab kanker. Ada
lebih dari 4500 zat kimia yang berbeda dalam rokok. Ini mengandung arsen,
formaldehid, timbal, hidrogen sianida, nitrogen oksida, karbon monoksida, amonia
dan banyak karsinogen lainnya.
Kanker terutama disebabkan oleh tembakau dan alkohol. 30% bantuan dari penyakit
mematikan ini bisa dilihat, jika orang berhenti merokok dan alkohol.
Sejumlah rokok mengisap rokok di seluruh dunia setiap hari. Dan penghitungannya
mencapai 15 miliar. Ya, itu hampir dua kali lipat jumlah populasi dunia yang sekitar
7,2 miliar saat ini pada tahun 2015.
Jika Anda ketahuan merokok di dekat komputer Apple, Anda mungkin tidak bisa
mengklaim garansi untuk produk ini, jika nanti diperlukan.
Fakta di atas memberi tahu kita satu hal. Merokok itu berbahaya
Simple Perfect Tense

1. I have told you not to disturb my girl friend


(aku sudah memberitahumu agar tidak menggangu pacarku)
2. You have worked so hard today, you had better take a rest
(kamu sudah bekerja keras hari ini, sebaiknya kamu istirahat)
3. She has drunk three bottles of wine, she must be get headache now
(dia sudah minum 3 botol anggur, dia pasti sakit kepala sekarang)
4. The students have finished their examination, now they are waiting for the result
(para murid sudah menyelesaikan ujiannya, sekarang mereka tinggal menunggu hasilnya)
5. I have been gone to Bali island for three times
(saya sudah pernah pergi ke pulau Bali 3 kali)

Simple Past Tense

1. I could not drop in because I was in hurry


(Aku tidak bisa mampir karena aku sedang terburu-buru).
2. She was there waiting for me alone
(dia di sana menungguku sendirian).
3. My son was curious why I didnt go home yesterday
(Anakku penasaran mengapa kemarin aku tidak pulang).
4. They were one of the best football team at that time
(Mereka adalah salah satu tim sepak bola terbaik pada waktu itu)
5. When we were kids, we were always together
(ketika kita masih kecil, kita selalu bersama-sama).
Simple Perfect Tense

1. oh my God, I have not turn the stove off.


(ya Allah, aku lupa belum mematikan kompor)
2. The meeting has not begun yet, you are not late
(meetingnya belum mulai kok, kamu tidak terlambat)
3. She has gone, where as she has not paid her purchase
(dia sudah pergi, padahal dia belum membayar belajaannya)
4. I dont know why they have not arrived, they should have been here now
(saya tidak tahu mengapa mereka belum datang, seharusnya mereka sudah di sini)
5. I have not watched the newest movie in 21
(Aku belum nonton film terbaru di 21)

Simple Past Tense

1. She crossed over the bridge by motorcycle last night


(ia menyebrangi jembatan dengan sepeda motor kemarin malam)
2. I sent you a letter a month ago
(aku mengirimimu sebuah surat sebulan yang lalu)
3. They left me alone in the middle of the jungle yesterday
(mereka meninggalkan aku di tengah hutan kemarin)
4. Michael Jackson sang in his last concert at 2011
(Michael Jackson bernyanyi di konser terakhirnya pada tahun 2011).
5. My mother cooked fried chicken for my birthday party last week
(Ibuku memasak ayam goring untuk acara ultahku minggu yang lalu)
TUGAS BAHASA INGGRIS

DISUSUN OLEH :

NAMA : ERLINDA ZAGITA

SONIA OKTAVIA

KELAS : XI IIS 5

SMA NEGERI 2 PANGKALPINANG

TAHUN AJARAN 2017/2018


TUGAS BAHASA INGGRIS

DISUSUN OLEH :

NAMA : ERLINDA ZAGITA

SONIA OKTAVIA

KELAS : XI IIS 5

SMA NEGERI 2 PANGKALPINANG

TAHUN AJARAN 2017/2018