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TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING DOC No.

: 29040-PI-UFR-0005

Rev. : R1
PIPING ELEMENTS SPECIFICATION,
Uhde India Limited CODES AND STANDARDS Page : 1

CONTENTS

Page

0.0 Cover Sheet 1

1.0 Piping Elements and Specification 2

2.0 Piping Elements 3

3.0 Selection and Design 35

4.0 Codes and Standards 5 16

Applicable Revision: R1
Prepared: NNG Checked: AKB Approved: RUD

Date: 15.01.2001 Date: Date:


First Edition: R0
Prepared: DNL Checked: AKB Approved: RUD

Date: 13.09.2000 Date: 20.09.2000 Date: 31.10.2000


File Name: C-5 Server: PUNE: KUMUS 207 VKO: KUMUS 209

Directory: PUNE: Refer \ Pi \Training Manual VKO: Refer \ Training Manual


TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0005

Rev. : R1
PIPING ELEMENTS SPECIFICATION,
Uhde India Limited CODES AND STANDARDS Page : 2

1.0 PIPING ELEMENTS & SPECIFICATION:

The Piping System involves pipes, pipe fittings, valves and specialities. These are collectively
termed as Piping elements. Main items are as under :

Pipes

Flanges

Fittings

Gaskets

Bolting

Valves

Specialities

Piping Specification is a document specifying each of the elements. Different material


specifications are segregated in different Piping Classes. Identification of Piping Classes
depends on each designer.

The basic material of construction is specified by Process Licenser / Process Engineer for all
process fluids depending upon,

Corrosion Properties of fluid.

Pressure Temperature Conditions of Process.

Nature of Service.

The Piping design criteria originates from medium list (process line list), which gives normal
and design conditions with respect to pressure and temperature, pipe size and material.
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Rev. : R1
PIPING ELEMENTS SPECIFICATION,
Uhde India Limited CODES AND STANDARDS Page : 3

2.0 PIPING ELEMENTS:

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION

METALLIC NON-METALLIC LINED

MSGL MS MS MS MS MS
Ferrous Non-Ferrous PTFE PP Cement Lead Ceramic
Materials Material MSRL Lined Lined Lined Lined Lined

FRP
PP
Lined

Copper Aluminium. Nickel Lead


+Copper +Aluminium. + Nickel
Alloys Alloys Alloys

Cast Carbon Alloy Stainless PVC PP HDPE FRP GLASS


Iron Steel Carbon Steel
Steel

3.0 SELECTION AND DESIGN:

The selection or design of the elements is based on :

Yield Strength.

The Ultimate Strength

Percentage elongation

Impact Strength

The Fatigue Endurance Strength

The following are to be considered for strength calculation

Design Pressure as 10% higher than anticipated maximum operating pressure.

Design Temperature as 25 C above the maximum anticipated operating temperature.

When operating temperature is 15 C and below, the design temperature is minimum


anticipated operating temperature.
TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0005

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PIPING ELEMENTS SPECIFICATION,
Uhde India Limited CODES AND STANDARDS Page : 4

The design should meet the requirements of relevant piping design standards of ANSI /
ASME or BSI.

The material used shall be in accordance with latest revisions of standards. If ASTM
materials are suggested, materials adapted by ASME / ANSI are preferred.

Carbon Steel shall be used upto 425 C.

Low temperature Steel shall be used below 20 C.

Alloy carbon steel shall be used above 425 C

For corrosive fluids recommendation from Process Engineer to be followed.

PIPE:

The pipes are designated by nominal bore. Corresponding outside diameters are as per
Table. ANSI standard have no metric pipe sizes and equivalent metric sizes are widely
followed.

PIPE SIZE EQ. METRIC PIPE OUTSIDE DIA. (INCH) OUTSIDE DIA.
NB (INCH). SIZE (MM)
1/8 6 0.405 10.3
1/4 8 0.540 13.7
3/8 10 0.675 17.1
1/2 15 0.840 21.3
3/4 20 1.050 26.7
1 25 1.315 33.4
*
1 1/4 32 1.660 42.2
1 1/2 40 1.900 48.3
2 50 2.375 60.3
*
2 1/2 65 2.875 73.0
3 80 3.500 88.9
*
3 1/2 90 4.000 101.6
4 100 4.500 114.3
*
5 125 5.563 141.3
6 150 6.625 168.3
8 200 8.625 219.1
10 250 10.750 273.0
12 300 12.750 323.8
14 350 14.000 355.6
16 400 16.000 406.4

The outside Dia of pipes 14 NB and above are same as nominal bore.
*
Non - preferred sizes.
The Dimensional Standard will be as per ASME B 36.10.
TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0005

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PIPING ELEMENTS SPECIFICATION,
Uhde India Limited CODES AND STANDARDS Page : 5

Standard thickness of pipes are specified by schedule numbers.

Stainless steel pipe schedules as per ASME B 36. 19 are 5 S, 10 S, 40 S, 80 S.

Carbon steel pipe schedules a per ASME B 36.10 are 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100,120, 140,
160.

Carbon steel pipes are specified as STD, XS and XXS.

Normally the thickness of Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel pipes for same schedule number
matches except as under :

10 SCH80 / SCH80S
12 SCH40 / SCH40S
12 SCH80 / SCH80S
14 SCH10 / SCH10S
16 SCH10 / SCH10S
18 SCH10 / SCH10S
20 SCH10 / SCH10S
22 SCH10 / SCH10S

The pipes are normally available in standard length of 20 ft.( 6 m ).

Type of Pipe based on Pipe Ends

Bevelled Ends.
Plain Ends
Screwed Ends.
Flanged Ends.
Spigot / Socket Ends ( lead cock joint ).

Type of Pipes Based on Manufacture

Seamless

Welded.
Electric Resistance Welded ( ERW).
Electric Fusion Welded ( EFW ).
Spiral Welded.
Furnace Butt Welded.
Double Submerged Arc Welded.
Forged and Bored.

4.0 CODES AND STANDARDS:

For scientific design of the piping systems, selection of proper material of construction and to
detail out the material specification, knowledge of codes and standards are essential. Each
country has its own codes and standards. On global basis, American National Standards is
undoubtedly the most widely used code and compliance with its requirements is accepted all
over. Other than the American Standards, British Standards and Indian Standards are also
used for the design and selection of piping system.
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Rev. : R1
PIPING ELEMENTS SPECIFICATION,
Uhde India Limited CODES AND STANDARDS Page : 6

In American National Standard, material standards are covered under ASTM (American
Society of Testing Materials) and dimensional standard under ANSI (American National
Standard Institute). Most of these Standards are adapted by ASME (American Society of

Mechanical Engineers) and are specified alongwith.

The American Standards referred by Piping Engineers are mainly the standards given below:

American Petroleum Institute ( API ).


The American Iron and Steel Institute ( AISI ).
The American National Standard Institute ( ANSI ).
The American Society of Testing Materials ( ASTM ).
The American Welding Institute ( AWS ).
The American Water Works Association ( AWWA ).
The Manufacturers Standardization Society of Valves and Fitting Industry - Standard
Practices MSS - SP )
The American Society of Mechanical Engineer (ASME)

4.1 API STANDARDS :

The generally referred API Standard by the Piping Engineers are :

API 5L - Specification for line pipe.


API 6D - Pipe line valves, end closures, connectors and swivels.
API 6F - Recommended practice for fire test for valves.
API 598 - Valves inspection and test. R1
API 600 - Steel Gate Valves.
API 602 - Compact Design Carbon Steel Gate Valves for Refinery use.
API 607 - Fire test for soft seated ball valves.
API 609 - Butterfly valves
API 1104 - Standard for welding pipe line and related facilities.

4.2 AISI STANDARDS :

The American Iron and Steel Institute Standards specifies the material by its chemical and
physical properties. When specific model of manufacture of the element is not to be specified,
then the material can be identified by the AISI standards. The most commonly used ANSI
specifications are:

AISI 410 - 13 % Chromium Alloy Steel

AISI 304 - 18 / 8 Austenitic Stainless Steel.

AISI 316 - 18 / 8 /3 Austenitic Stainless Steel.


TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0005

Rev. : R1
PIPING ELEMENTS SPECIFICATION,
Uhde India Limited CODES AND STANDARDS Page : 7

4.3 ASME STANDARDS:

The ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B 31 are as follows:

ASME B 31.1 - Power Piping.

ASME B 31.2 - Fuel Gas Piping

ASME B 31.3 - Process Piping.

ASME B 31.4 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for


Liquid Hydrocarbons and other Liquids.
ASME B 31.5 - Refrigeration Piping.

ASME B 31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distributor Piping


System.
ASME B 31.9 - Building Services Piping.

ASME B 31.11 - Slurry Transportation Piping System.

Of the above, the most commonly used code is B 31.3. All Process Plants viz. Refineries
Chemical and Petrochemical Plants are designed based on the same. All power plants are
designed as per ASME B 31.1.

Other major ASME Standards referred for the piping elements are :

ASME B 16.1 - Cast iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings.

ASME B 16.3 - Malleable iron threaded fittings.

ASME B 16.4 - Cast iron threaded fittings.

ASME B 16.5 - Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings.

ASME B 16.9 - Steel butt weldings fittings.

ASME B 16.10 - Face to face and end to end dimensions of ferrous valves.

ASME B 16.11 - Forged steel socket welding and threaded fittings.

ASME B 16.20 - Ring joint gaskets and grooves for pipe flanges.

ASME B 16.21 - Non metallic gasket for pipe flanges.

ASME B 16.25 - Butt welding ends.

ASME B 16.28 - Short radius elbows and 180 Degree returns

ASME B 16.47 - Large Diameter steel Flanges R1

ASME B 16.34 - Steel valves, flanged and butt welding ends.

ASME B 18.2 - Square and hexagonal head bolts and nuts.


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Uhde India Limited CODES AND STANDARDS Page : 8

ASME B 36.10 - Welded and seamless wrought steel pipes.

ASME B 36.19 - Welded and seamless Austenitic stainless steel pipes.

4.4 ASTM STANDARDS

The materials of construction and testing are referred under ASTM Standard. Most of the
ASTM Standards are adapted by ASME and are specified in ASME section II. The section
has three parts.

Part-A - For Ferrous materials

Part-B - For Non-ferrous metals and

Part-C - For welding materials.

In Part - II, the material are listed in the Index based on the available forms such as plates,
castings, tubes, etc. and also on the numerical index.

The selection of ASTM specification depends upon the required manufacturer, form of
material, its mechanical strength and the corrosion properties.

The specification number is given on Alphabetical prefix, A for ferrous materials and B for
non-ferrous materials.

STANDARD PIPE MATERIAL SPECIFICATION:

The following ASTM Standards are widely used

ASTM A53 Welded and Seamless Pipe.

ASTM A106 Seamless CS Pipe for High Temp. Services

ATM A120 Black and Hot Dipped, Zinc Coated (Galvanized), Welded and
Seamless Pipe for ordinary use.

ATM A134 Electric Fusion Welded Steel Plate Pipe (Sizes > 16 NB).

ATM A135 Electric Resistance Welded Pipe

ASTM A139 Electric Fusion Welded Steel Plate Pipe ( Size > 4 NB).

ASTM A155 Electric Fusion Welded Steel Pipe for High Pressure Service.

ASTM A211 Spiral Welded Steel Pipe.

ATM A312 Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes.

ASTM A333 Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low Temperature Service.

ASTM A335 Seamless Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for High Temperature Service.
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Uhde India Limited CODES AND STANDARDS Page : 9

ASTM A358 Electric Fusion Welded Austenitic Chrome-Nickel Alloy Steel


Pipe for High Temperature Service

ASTM A369 Carbon and Ferritic Alloy Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High
Temperature Service.

ASTM A376 Seamless Austenitic Steel Pipe for High Temperature Central
Station Service.

ASTM A381 Metal Arc Welded Steel Pipe for High Pressure Transmission
Systems.

ASTM A405 Seamless Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe Specially heat treated for high
temperature service.

ASTM A409 Welded Large Diameter Austenitic Steel Pipe for Corrosive or
High temperature service.

ASTM A424 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for Process Piping.

ASTM A426 Centrifugally Cast Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for High temperature
service.

ASTM A430 Austenitic Steel Forged And Bored Pipe for high temperature
service.

ASTM A451 Centrifugally Cast Austenitic Steel Pipe for High temperature
service.

ATM A452 Centrifugally Cast Austenitic Steel Wrought Pipe for High
temperature service.

ASTM A524 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and low
temperature service.

ASTM A587 Electric Welded Low Centrifugally Cast Carbon Steel Pipe for
high temperature service. ( Sizes 4 NB ).

ASTM A660 Centrifugally Cast Carbon Steel Pipe for High temperature
service

ASTM A671 Electric Fusion Welded Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and low
temperatures ( Sizes 16 NB ).

ASTM A672 Electric Fusion Welded Steel Pipe for High pressure service at
moderate temperatures ( Sizes 16 NB ).

ASTM A691 Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric Fusion Welded for High
pressure service at High temperatures. ( Sizes 16 NB ).

ASTM A731 Seamless and Welded Ferritic Stainless Steel Pipe.

ASTM A780 Seamless and Welded Ferritic / Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe.

ASTM A813 Single or Double Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe.


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Uhde India Limited CODES AND STANDARDS Page : 10

ASTM A814 Cold Worked Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe.

STANDARD PIPE FITTINGS:

END CONNECTIONS

SOCKET WELD SCREWED BUTT WELD FLANGED SPIGOT/SOCKET

TYPES

BENDS TEES CAPS REDUCERS STUB COUPLINGS SWAGE UNIONS SPECIAL


ENDS NIPPLE FITTINGS ( Olets)

EQUAL REDUCING LONG SHORT ECCENTRIC CONCENTRIC


TEES TEES STUB STUB SWAGE SWAGE
ENDS ENDS NIPPLE NIPPLE

450 900 CONCENTRIC ECCENTRIC


ELBOW ELBOW REDUCERS REDUCERS

FULL HALF REDUCING


COUPLINGS COUPLINGS COUPLINGS
S.R.ELBOW L.R.ELBOW

LATROLET WELDOLET ELBOWLET SOCKOLET THREADOLET SWEEPOLET NIPPOLET

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON END CONNECTIONS:

Socket Welded/ Screwed Fitting

Classification based on the maximum cold non-shock working pressure.

2000 # Class - only in 16.11 for SCRD fittings


3000 # Class
6000 # Class
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SOCKET WELD / SCREWED AS PER STD. ASTM MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS

ASTM A105 Carbon steel forgings for piping Components

ASTM A181 Carbon Steel forgings for general Purpose

ASTM A182 Alloy Steel forgings for High Temperature Services

ASTM A234 Wrought carbon steel and alloy steel pipe fittings for
moderate and elevated temperatures.

ASTM A350 Carbon steel and low alloy steel forgings for pipe
components

Bevelled Weld Fittings

Classification is based on corresponding pipe thickness

BW FITTING MATERIAL AS PER STANDARD ASTM SPECIFICATION.

ASTM A234 Wrought carbon steel and alloy steel pipe fittings for moderate
& elevated temperatures.

ASTM A403 Wrought & Austenitic steel pipe fittings.

ASTM A420 Pipe fittings carbon steel and alloy steel for low temperatures.

Flanged Fittings

Classification based on pressure temperature ratings, same as that of flanges.

FLANGED FITTING MATERIAL AS PER STANDARD ASTM SPECIFICATIONS

ASTM A216 Carbon Steel Castings

ASTM A352 Ferritic & Martensitic Steel Casting for Low temperature services.

Spigot Socket Fittings:

Used mainly in cast iron piping.


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TYPES OF FITTINGS:

Elbow

L.R. Elbows.
S.R. Elbows.
Pulled Bends.
Fabricated Bends.

Tee

Forged Tees
Fabricated Tees
Stub Connections

Minimum size standard reduction Tee / Reducer available is the lower size lower size of
(Major Size / 2).

Reducer

Concentric Reducers
Eccentric Reducers

Stub End

Long Stub Ends


Short Stub Ends
Fabricated Stub Ends

Coupling

Full Couplings
Reducing Couplings
Half Couplings

Swage Nipple

Concentric swage nipple


Eccentric Swage Nipple
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Special Fittings:

As per manufactures standards

Weldolet
Sockolet
Threadolet
Elbowlet
Sweepolet
Latrolet
Nippolet

FLANGES:

The Dimensional Standard from 1/2 inch to 24 inch NB is ASME B16.5. For higher sizes
ASME B16.47 series B is used. R1

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ATTACHMENT TO PIPING.

Slip on
Socket Weld
Screwed
Lap Joint
Welding Neck
Blind
Reducing

4.5 AWS STANDARD

The American Welding Society (AWS) Standards Refer to the welding electrodes. Individual
manufactures have given their own brand names for the various electrodes and are sold
under these names.

4.6 AWWA STANDARDS

The American Water Works association (AWWA) standards refer to the piping elements
required for low pressure water services. These are less stringent than other standards.
Valves, flanges, etc. required for large diameter water pipelines are covered under this
standard and are referred rarely by piping engineers here.

4.7 MSS-SP STANDARDS

In addition to the above standards and material codes, there are standards practices followed
by manufactures. These are published as standards and are widely followed. The most
common MSS-SP standards referred for piping are :

MSS-SP-6 - Standard Finishes for Contact Surface for Flanges.

MSS-SP-25 - Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings and Flanges.


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MSS-SP-42 - Corrosion Resistant Gate, Globe and Check Valves.

MSS-SP-43 - Stainless Steel Buttweld Fittings.

MSS-SP-44 - Steel Pipe Flanges

MSS-SP-45 - Bypass and Drain Connection

MSS-SP-61 - Pressure Testing Of Valves.

MSS-SP-67 - Butterfly Valves.

MSS-SP-70 - Cast Iron Gate Valves.

MSS-SP-71 - Cast Iron Check Valves.

MSS-SP-72 - Ball Valves.

MSS-SP-78 - Cast Iron Plug Valves.

MSS-SP-80 - Bronze Gate, Globe and Check Valves.

MSS-SP-83 - Pipe unions.

MSS-SP-85 - Cast Iron Globe Valves.

MSS-SP-88 - Diaphragm Valves.

MSS-SP-89 - Pipe Hanger Supports.

4.8 BRITISH STANDARDS

In many instance, it is possible to find a British standard which may be substituted for
American Standards. For example, BS 3351 - British standards specification for piping system
used for the design of piping system is similar to ASME B 31.3

There are certain British Standard referred by Indian manufactures for the construction of
piping elements such as valves. The most commonly referred British standards in the piping
industry are :

BS 806 - pipes and fittings for boilers

BS 916 - black bolts, nuts and screws

BS 970 - steel for forgings etc.

BS1414 - Gate valves for petroleum industry.

BS1560 - Steel pipe Flanges.

BS1600 - Dimensions of steel pipes.

BS1640 - Butt welding fittings.

BS1868 - Steel check valves for petroleum industry.


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BS1873 - Steel globe valves for petroleum industry.

BS2080 - Face to face / end to end dimensions of valves.

BS2598 - Glass pipe lines and fittings.

BS2995 - SW and screwed valves - 2 and smaller.

BS3059 - Steel boiler and super heater tubes.

BS3351 - Piping system for petroleum refineries.

BS3381 - Metallic spiral wound gaskets.

BS797 - SW / Screwed Fittings.

BS4504 - Flanges.

BS4146 - Inspection and testing of valves.

BS5155 - Butterfly valves.

BS5158 - GI plug valves.

BS5351 - Steel ball valves.

BS5352 - SW and screwed valves - 2 and smaller.

BS5353 - Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel plug Valves

4.9 INDIAN STANDARDS

Bureau of Indian Standards ( BIS ) have so far not developed an Indian Standard for the
design of piping systems. Hence, ASME standards B 31.1/31.3 are widely referred for the
design. These standards also accept materials covered in other standards as well. Unlike
American Standard, Indian Standards cover dimensions and material specifications under
the same standard number. There are no groupings also done based on the series/ Branch of
engineering as well. Some of the most commonly referred Indian standards by the piping
engineering are :

IS - 210 - Gray Iron Castings.


R1
IS - 554 - Pipe Threads.

IS - 778 - Specifications for G.M Valves.

IS - 780 - Specification for sluice valves-up to 300 NB

IS - 1239 - Part I & II specification for pipe and pipe fittings.

IS - 1364 - Bolts and Nuts.

IS - 1536 - Centrifugal Cast Iron pipes.

IS - 1537 - Vertically Cast Iron pipes.

IS - 1538 - Cast Iron fittings.


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IS - 1539 - Compressors of Indian and overseas standards.

IS - 1978 - Line pipe.

IS - 1979 - High test line pipe.

IS- 2002 - Steel plates.

IS - 2016 - Plain washers.

IS- 2062 - Weldable structural steel.

IS- 2379 - Colour code for pipelines.

IS - 2712 - Compressed Asbestos joints.

IS - 2825 - Unfired pressure Vessels.

IS- 2906 - Specification for sluice valves( 350-1200 )

IS - 3076 - Specification for LDPE Pipes.

IS - 3589 - Specification for ERW pipes.

IS- 4038 - Foot valves for water works.

IS - 4984 - Specification for HDPE pipes.

IS - 4985 - Specification for PVC pipes.

IS - 5312 - Specification for swing check valves.

IS - 6392 - Steel pipe flanges.

IS - 7240 - Code of practice for cold insulation.

IS - 7413 - Code of practice for hot insulation.

IS - 8008 - HDPE Fittings.

There are certain other international standards also referred in the piping industry. They are
the DIN standards of Germany and the JIS standards of Japan. DIN standards are more
popular and equivalent British and Indian standards are also available for certain piping
elements.

Periodic review of the standards by the committee are held and these are revised to
incorporate the modified features based on the results of research and feed back from the
industry. Hence, it is necessary that the latest editions of the codes and standards are
referred for the design and year of publication also to be indicated alongwith.