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10 Things You Should Know About Massive MIMO

Single-User MIMO Multi-User MIMO Coefficients a1-4 and b1-4 are

1 2 3
Multiple spatial channels for higher data rates Precoding data for multiple users calculated with knowledge of
Massive MIMO is multi-user MIMO S0
h00 r0 ... ^S S0 X0
h00 r0 ... ^S Multi-user MIMO a1 h1n, h2n to maximize x and y at
the two locations.
0 RX 0
where the number of base station antennas Base h01 User Base h01 User uses beamforming a2 h11
is much larger than the number of users. station TX
r1 ...
RX H-1
terminal station
r1 ... ^S
terminal to improve signal to a3 h12
RX 1 RX 1 k1.x + ~0.y
h11 h11 interference ratio a4 h13
for a user by forcing the h14
r0 h00 h01 S0 X0 W00 W01 S0 ^S
0 h00 h01 X0 desired signal from each b1

r1 h10 h11 S1 X1 W10 W11 S1 ^S

1 h10 h11 X1 antenna to add in phase b2 h21
and the signals for all other

a b
b3 h22
~0.x + k2.y
In single-user MIMO, all of the processing In multi-user MIMO, all of the processing of users to add out of phase. b4 h23
By convention the
of calculating channel state information and calculating channel state information and Precoding receiver location is h24
decoding of the downlink data is performed precoding of the downlink data is performed A number of precoding
placed first in
the h notation.
in the user terminal based on the known in the base station. The user terminal in a techniques may be used with
Uplink additional processing to mange the
pilot or preamble sequence. multi-user MIMO system has no additional peak/average of the signal.
50 Element Linear Array 200 Element Linear Array
a4x 8-Port Butler Matrix
b2y a1x
M b3y
1R 4L 3R 2L 2R 3L 4R 1L


b4y 1-of-8 fixed beam selection plus combinations

The massive MIMO base station
needs to know the channel state

Simple precoding beam steering


4a 5 6
from each antenna to each user

before transmitting data to allow will not work for massive MIMO Massive MIMO provides spatial multiplexing The performance of massive MIMO improves with adding
the signals to add in the correct as it only provides approximate since each user only receives their own signal, more antennas, without limit. More antennas allow the
phase for each user. To control the beamforming and will not provide allowing all users to share the same energy to be increasingly focused at a specific physical
shape of the beam, you need to spatial multiplexing. time/frequency resources. antenna location, reducing overall transmitted power by
control both the amplitude and The Butler matrix is a type of beamforming network.
reducing power transmitted in non-useful directions.
Depending on which N input is accessed, the antenna beam
phase of the antenna feeds. is steered in a specific direction in one plane. Time to Move Wavelength
Speed 2 GHz 28 GHz 60 GHz 256 Element (64x4) Antenna Array

3 km/h 45 ms 3.2 ms 1.5 ms Patch antenna Planar array size

30 km/h 4.5 ms 320 s 150 s Frequency Width Height Height Width Area

7 8 9 10
2 GHz 23 mm 40 mm 225 mm 4730 mm 1063 mm2
Users that are In a TDD system, the channel state 120 km/h 1.125 ms 80 s 37 s
28 GHz 3.56 mm 2.44 mm 16 mm 338 mm 5.42 mm2
too close together information is calculated in the base 500 km/h 27 s 19 s 9 s
60 GHz 1.66 mm 0.87 mm 7.5 mm 158 mm 1.18 mm2
for spatial multiplexing Time station by having all of the users transmit
The channel state information is
can be assigned to a sequence of orthogonal pilot signals at Massive MIMO is well suited for millimeter wave
only valid for the duration of the
different time Frame structure the same time. The channel state information frequencies due to the small antenna size but is
channel coherence time. Massive
frequency blocks. Uplink Uplink Downlink is valid over a specific amount of time also practical at existing mobile frequency bands
Bc MIMO will work best in low mobility
data pilots data
(coherence time) and over a specific amount as significant performance gains can be realized
scenarios and performance will
of frequency (coherence bandwidth). with 10s to 100s of antenna elements.
Tc decrease as mobility rates increase.

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Product specifications and
descriptions in this document
Reference Solution subject to change without notice.
Keysight Technologies, Inc. 2016
Printed in USA, March 25, 2016