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Leela Usha College of Computer Science

(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)


Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

B.C.A. 1ST SEMESTER SYLLABUS


Paper No-102 PC Software

UNIT-1 Introduction
1.1 Introduction to Personal Computer s, Characteristics of Computer, Types of Computer
1.2 Overview of Basic Operating System, Introduction of DOS and Windows operating system
1.3 DOS- Internal and External Commands
1.4 Windows Environment- Desktop, File, Folders, Icons, Windows Explorer, Control Panel,
windows Accessories
1.5 Introduction to Editors – Edit, Notepad, WordPad

UNIT-2 Word Processing:


2.1 Introduction to Word Processing, Examples of some popular WP packages
Uses of Word Processors, Word Processor- Example- Uses of WP, Creating, Editing,
Formatting of Documents, Global search & replacement of text

2.2 Special Printing features


2.3 Mil Merge facilities
2.4 Spelling Checker, Table facility, Templates, advanced features.

2.5 Inserting Pictures, Drawing and Equation, Macros

UNIT-3 Spreadsheet - I
3.1 Introduction to Spreadsheet

3.2 Example of some popular Spreadsheet packages

3.3 User of spreadsheet packages

3.4 Building Spreadsheet using Formulas, conditional calculations, and built-in-function

3.5 Writing macros and spreadsheet menus to build a user-interface

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

UNIT-4 Spreadsheet- II
4.1 Graph-plotting facilities.

4.2 Using externally created data lies in the spreadsheet packages.

4.3 What-if analysis, protection facility, Pivot Tables, Operation on tables.

4.4 Macros with its all options ( Creating, Running, and Saving in the worksheet (s) with data with
spreadsheets

4.5 Application of spreadsheet

UNIT-5 Presentation Tools


5.1 Prepare the presentation, Formatting Slides

5.2 Slide transition & adding special effects

5.3 Inserting Pictures, Sounds, and Chart

5.4 Slide Design

5.5 Animation in Slide

Reference / Text books / Additional reading:


1) Office-2007 – BPB Publication
2) Office-2007 Bible : john Walenbach. Herb Tyson
3) Teach yourself Visually MS Office-2007 – Sherry kinkoph

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

Unit-1 Introduction
1.1 Computer Introduction
➢ Computer is an electronic machine that receives data, processes the data and then
generates an output.
➢ “ A Computer is an Electronic device which converts raw data into the
meaningful information under program control”
➢ A Computer is an Electronic Device that can perform a variety of operations in
accordance with a set of instructions called Programs
➢ Computers can access and process data thousands of time faster than human can. A
Computer can store data and information in its Memory, process them and produce
the results.
➢ Computer is a device that receives some kind of data, analyses it, and then applies a
pre-defined set of instructions to it to produce some kind of output.
➢ Computer is an electronic device which accepts instructions from user, process it and
generates meaningful results.

✔ Raw Data
 All the inputs given to the computer, are called Raw Data
✔ Processing
 A set of various actions by which one or more things are converted
into a new thing is called Process
• Program
 A Program is a set of instructions given to the computer to solve a
problem. Program is always given in a coded language that the
computer understands easily, BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL,
C++ are some popular programming languages.
 A set of different programs is known as a Software or Package.

 Characteristics of Computer

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

Now a days computer is playing a main role in everyday life. It solves the human
problems very quickly as well as accurately. It works in a way very similar tour brain
but it scores over the brain in some aspects.

1. Speed :
➢ Present day computer operate at very high speed.
➢ Because of the high speed of the computer, the work of weeks or months
can be done within a few hours.
➢ A computer can perform several million instructions (calculation) in one
second.
➢ Different computers have different speed.
➢ For ex: computer can add or multiply 20 lacks numbers in a second.

1. Accuracy :
➢ A Computer gives accurate Results.
➢ It gives accurate output result provided that the correct input data and et of
instructions are given to the computer.
➢ It means that output is totally depended on the given instructions and input
data.
➢ If input data is in-correct then the resulting output will be in-correct.
3. High storage capacity :
➢ A computer can store a huge amount of data in its memory. Computer can
store any type of data such as letters, pictures, sounds etc..
➢ We can recall the stored data from the computer whenever we need.
➢ The information can be stored in computer’s memory for several years.
Even when you recall the information after several years, it will be 100%
accurate and complete.
➢ A computer has two types of memories or storage places, called Internal
and External Memories.
➢ The internal memory is that storage place which is provided on the silicon
chip. It is fixed on the main circuit board of the computer.
➢ Another big storage place is a disk. The disk is an External Memory. It
holds a lot of data that can be preserved for a long-time. There are many
types of disks like Floppy disk, Hard Disk, Compact Disk, and Digital
Versatile Disk but the most important his the Hard Disk which is fixed in
the system unit.
4. Diligence :

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(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
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Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

➢ When human being is required to work continuously for few hours, they
become tired and start losing concentration.
➢ A Computer can continue to work for hours (or even days) at same speed
and accuracy.
➢ It does not show any sign of tiredness or lack of concentration when made
to work continuously.
➢ For ex: Preparing the salary slip for 1, 00,000 employee or to print cheques
for 1 Cr. share holder for a large company.
5. Versatility :
➢ Computer are very versatile, The same computer can be used for various
application.
➢ For Ex: You can use a PC to prepare letter, Document, Spreadsheet,
Presentation etc…
➢ If you want a computer to perform ha new task, you need to install a
program.
➢ A Computer can be used for engineering, scientific, graphics, commerce
and other works by changing its software, so a computer is a versatile
machine.
6. Dumb Machine:
➢ A Computer is dumb machine. It has no intelligence of its own.
➢ It can not think or apply its judgment.
➢ It gets its power from the program that its run.
➢ It will do only what it ask to do and in what sequence.
➢ So it can not take its own decision.
7. No Emotion:
➢ Computers are not living beings. So they do not have any emotions.
➢ They do not have any heart or soul.
➢ Human beings often take decisions based on emotions, taste, feelings
etc… On the other hand computer take decisions based on program that
they run.

 Application of Computer :

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

A computer is a versatile machine, so it is usable in each


and every field. It is used at home, in Airlines and Railway reservation centers,
Banks, Hospitals, Industries, and Offices etc. Let us now see how it plays important
roles in different fields.
1. Computers at home :
A computer is used at home different purposes, like making home
budget, doing homework, playing audio-video CDs etc. People also use computers to
play games, write letters, make greeting cards and for studying tutorial software.
2. Computers in Schools :
Computers are widely used in the education field. There is
multimedia based tutorial software which help to learn different subjects by audio or
video. Teachers also prepare lessons on the computer to teach different batches, the
same contents in an interesting way. Computers are also used to keep records of
students and teachers, and they are also used for making reports and mark sheets.
3. Airlines and Railway Reservation Centers :
In Airlines and Railway reservation centers, computers are playing
very important roles. They are interconnected with all the stations and show the status
of availability of a seat or berth asked for the passenger in any specific train or flight.
4. Computers in Banks :
Computers are used in banks to keep accounts of the customers.
Each transaction is updated on the computer instantly. It makes it easy to
know the balance without going through ledgers, and thus, time is also saved.
Now-a-days, banks install an ATM card into machine and then, when the
withdrawal amount is less than the balance amount in the customer’s account.
This ATM works with the computer which checks the account and permits the
machine to dispense the cash.
5. Computers in Hospitals :
In hospitals, computers are used for keeping records of patients
and hospital staff. Doctors can keep their patients’ case history on a computer
which helps them to observe the improvement done by the prescribed
medicines. Computers are also used to diagnose diseases and to prepare the
diagnostic reports.
6. Computers in Industries :
Computers are used in industries for different purposes. In
some places, computer controlled robots are also used. Simple computers are
used to keep inventory and other records of incoming raw materials and
outgoing products. In some industries, machines are controlled and guided by
computer. There, where robots are used, man does not have to do any work.

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

The Robots are artificial human being which can do work like a man
using body parts.
7. Computers in Offices :
In Offices, computers are used to type documents and letters
and to send them by E-mail instantly from computer to computer. The
computation of staff salaries is also done on computer, applying the logic of
wages and attendance.
8. Computers in Space Technology :
Computers are vey important tools in space technology. The
computation of data related to space, planet and earth is done in a computer. In
a Space shuttle or rocket, the computer is installed in the lab which instantly
receives and computers the data observed by the scientists.
9. Computers in Desk Top Publishing :
Desktop Publishing is a field in which publication material is
prepared on the computer. Newspapers, Magazines, Books, Posters, Calendar
and Other such things are prepared on a computer after finalizing them, they
are sent to press to print a lot of Copies.
10.Film Editing and Multimedia :
Here, computers are used to make Graphics, Animations, and
Films adding effects. Animated characters are made on computers and added
into the films. The titles of films are also made on the computer. Cartoon films
are created on computers by using multimedia software.

 Types of Computer
Computers are classified according to their data processing speed, amounts of data
that they can hold and price. Generally, a computer with high processing speed and
large internal storage is called a big computer.
Depending upon their speed and memory size, computers are classified into
following main groups:
1. Analog
2. Digital
• Super Computer
• Mainframe Computer
• Mini Computer
• Micro Computer
1. Hybrid
1. Analog :

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

An analog computer is one which can perform multiple


calculations at once. The term analog does not relate to how the
computer is powered hand it is possible to have electronic analog
computers. The characteristics of an analog computer mean hit can be
better than a digital computer at particular tasks.
2. Digital :
Digital Computers are classified on Four Type which as below
• Super Computer :
➢ Supercomputer is the most powerful and fastest, and
also very expensive.
➢ It was developed in 1980s.
➢ Computers with highest processing capabilities,
powerful communication facilities, huge memory and
disk space availability are known as Super Computer.
➢ It is used to process large amount of data and to solve
the complicated scientific problems.
➢ It has large number of processors connected parallel. So
parallel processing is done in this computer.
➢ In a single super computer thousands of users can be
connected at the same time and the supercomputer
handles the work of each user separately.
➢ Supercomputer are mainly used for :
Weather Forecasting
Aircraft design
Nuclear energy research
Online banking
• Mainframe Computer :
➢ Mainframe computers are also large-scale computers
but supercomputers are larger than mainframe.
➢ These are also expensive.
➢ The mainframe computer specially requires a very large
clean room with air-conditioners. This makes it very
expensive to buy and operate.
➢ Large mainframe systems can handle the input
andoutput requirements of several thousand of users.
➢ The large organizations are generally used mainframe
computers. For Ex :Bank, Airlines, Railway etc…
• Mini Computer :

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(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
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➢ These are smaller in size, have lower processing speed


and also have lower cost than mainframe.
➢ These computers are known as minicomputers because
of their small size as compared to other computers at
that time.
➢ These computers are also known as midrange
computers.
➢ The minicomputers are used in business, education and
many other government departments.
• Micro Computer :
2. The microcomputers are also known as personal
computers or simply PCs.
3. Microprocessor is used in this type of computer.
4. These are very small in size and cost.
5. The IBM’s first microcomputer was designed in 1981
and was named as IBM-PC.
6. Microcomputer are generally used in office, education,
cyber café etc…
3. Hybrid :
Hybrid computer is a digital computer that accepts analog
signals, converts them to digital and processes them in digital form.
This integration is obtained by digital to analog and analog to digital
converter. A hybrid computer may use or produce analog data or
digital data. A hybrid computer capable of real-time solution has been
expensive than any equivalent digital computer. An example of a
hybrid computer is the computer used in hospitals to measure the
heartbeats of the patient.

 Block Diagram of Computer


➢ Computers can be classified into number of different types based on their use. The basic
logical structure (block diagram) of a computer was proposed by von Neumann. This
block diagram remains common irrespective of different internal architecture of
computer.
➢ Functions of each unit are described below:

CONTROL
ARITHMETIC
OUTPUT
DATA
DATA
SECONDAY
INPUT
INFORMATION
CONTROL
PRIMARY
FLOW &
FLOW
LOGIC
STORAGE
UNIT
MEMORY
UNITUNIT

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

STORAGE UNIT

1. Input Unit: -
Input unit enables users to interact with the computer system. All data and
instructions need to be entered into the computer system through the input unit. The major
functions of the input unit are as under:

➢ Accepts the data and instructions from the outside world.


➢ Converts the data and instructions in a form that computer can understand.
➢ The converted data and instructions are sent to the computer system for further processing.

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

1. Storage Unit:-
The basic unit of storage in as computer is bit. Bit is a binary digit which can be set
to either 0 or 1. The storage capacity of a computer is measured in terms of bytes; 1 byte is equal
to 8 bits.

1) 1024 BYTE= 1 KB (KILO BYTE)


2) 1024 KB = 1 MB (MEGA BYTE)
3) 1024 MB = 1 GB (GIGA BYTE)
4) 1024 GB = 1 TB (TERA BYTE)

The storage unit basically stores:

➢ Data and instructions required for processing.


➢ Intermediate results of processing on a temporary basis.
➢ Final results needed to be stored permanently or before they are released to an output device.
The storage unit can be further divided into primary storage and secondary storage.

1. Primary Storage (Main memory):-


Main memory stores data, program instructions, intermediate results on which
the computer is currently working. Primary storage is volatile in nature i.e. as soon as the
computer is switched off or restarted there will be no data in the main memory. Primary storage
usually has limited storage capacity (in the order of 1 GB) as it is more expensive. The contents
of the main memory can be accessed by CPU (processor) directly and at a very fast speed.

2. Secondary Storage (Auxiliary memory):-


Second storage stores data, programs and final results on which the computer
is not working currently on a permanent basis. Secondary storage is non-volatile i.e. data remains
in the memory even when the computer is switch off or restarted. It has a very large storage
capacity (in the order of minimum 160GB) and it is cheaper compared to the primary storage.
Magnetic disks are most commonly used as secondary storage device.

3. Central Processing Unit (CPU):-


CPU is responsible for activating and controlling the operations of other units
of a computer system. It is also referred to as the brain of computer. CPU consists of the control
unit (CU) and arithmetic logic unit (ALU) of a computer.

4. Control Unit (CU):-


The CU coordinates and controls all activities the computer. Based on the
program instructions in the main memory, the CU passes control signals to the other units of the
computer for their execution. It is the CU that tells the input unit to accept data from outside

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

world and pass it on the storage for further processing. Hence we can say that the CU acts like
the central nervous system of the computer.

5. Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU):-


The ALU of the computer is responsible for carrying out all arithmetic and
logical operations. The data and instructions stored in the main memory are transferred to the
ALU as and when needed. In the ALU all the operations are performed. The intermediate or final
results are transferred back to the main memory.

6. Output Unit:-
Output unit is responsible for transferring the processed data to the user. The
processed data must be in the form that user understands.

The major functions of the output unit are as under:-

➢ Accepts results from the processing unit of computer.


➢ Converts those results into human acceptable from.
➢ Provides the result to outside world.

 Components of the Computer :


Computer is a one type of electronic device. There are many parts
which are working together and these parts are called as components. It make a
computer, that’s part are as follows-

A typical pc consists of the Following Units.


1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
2. Keyboard
3. Mouse
4. Video Display Unit (VDU)
5. Floppy Disk Drive (FDD)
6. Hard Disk Drive (HDD)
7. Compact Disk (CD)
8. Digital Versatile Disk (DVD)
9. Pen Drive
10. Printer
11. Scanner

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

1. KEY-BOARD
Keyboard is the most common and essential input device. Keyboards
usually contain keys/buttons with some characters and numbers written on
them. When you press any key, it makes contact between the two points of
a circuit and generates an electronic signal which is interpreted by the
software for processing. Apart from these keys there are some additional
keys that carry out some specific function in computer. For e.g. the F1
function key is generally used for help. It is through this keyboard that all
the data entry is done in computers. Today keyboards are available in
many different models. In each model the total number of keys need not be
same.

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

There are two types of into the keyboard device it known as:

1) serial keyboard
It sends data bit by bit in a serial way.
1) Parallel keyboard

The whole word of binary code is transmitted simultaneously.

Keyboard has various types of keys which are as follows:-

1) Numeric keys- its 10 numeric keys in key board for typing digits.
2) Space bar- space bar it helps in document for putting space while typing.

1. MOUSE

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

Mouse is a pointing device. Mouse is a small hand-held device that easily


fits into a user’s palm. Most of the mouse will have two buttons and a wheel
between. Mouse needs to be placed on a flat surface and then can be
moved in any direction. There is a pointer also known as a cursor which
appears on the monitor and moves in the direction of the mouse. A mouse
is usually made of a hard plastic case, having some electronic sensors
(detectors) and a solid rubber ball, supported by two rollers and wheels.
When we move the mouse on the mouse pad, the ball rotates. This rotation
is detected by the sensors and electronic signals are sent to move the
pointer.

There are two types of into the Mouse it known as:

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

1) Mechanical mouse- this type of mouse works with rubber ball.

2) Optical mouse- this type of mouse works with light without ball
andThis type’s device is very light in weight.

1. SCANNER
Scanners are the eyes of the computer which see (scan) the image or
printed text and interpret them into computer codes.

The scanner reads data by observing which areas are light and which areas
are dark. They comprise a camera which is built up of thousands of tiny
cells, called CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES (CCDs). Each CCD detects
even a small bit of the image if it is either light or dark. It finally, sends the
coded information to the CPU.

These are types of the scanners which are as follows:

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Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
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Bhavnagar-364001

1) Magnetic ink character reader (MICR) - magnetic ink character reader is


a character recognition system that uses special ink and characters.
When a document that contains this ink needs to be read, it passes
through a machine, which magnetizes the ink and then translates the
magnetic information into characters.
MICR technology is used by banks. Numbers and characters found on
the bottom of cheques (usually containing the cheque number, sort
number, and account number) are printed using magnetic ink. To print
magnetic ink need a laser printer that accepts MICR toner.
MICR provides a secure, high-speed method of scanning and
processing information.
MICR (Magnetic ink character reader) is a technology used to verify the
legitimacy or originality of paper documents, especially cheques. Special
ink which is sensitive to magnetic fields is used in the printing of certain
characters on the original documents. MICR technology is a
Also used to speed up the sorting of cheques.

2) OPTICAL CHARACTER READERS (OCRs) - Computers are also used


to check the answer sheets filled by the examinee and to prepare the
result of examination, in a computerized manner. For this kind of work,
where one needs to read the cross or tick in the multiple choice boxes,
the OCR is used as an input device.
The OCR works by scanning the characters on the page, one by one,
and then compares them with characters stored in the computer’s
memory. This is called matrics matching.

3) BARCODE READER (BCR) - when alphanumeric data are coded in the


form of small vertical lines they are known as barcodes. This vertical line
will be different thickness and the spacing between them we also be
different. A barcode reader also called a price scanner or point- of – sale
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(pos) scanner is a hand-held or stationary input device used to capture


and read information contained in a bar code.
A barcode reader works by directing beam of light across the bar code
and measuring the amount of light that is reflected back. (The dark bars
on a barcode reflected less light than the white spaces between them.)
The scanner converts the light energy into electrical energy, which is
then converted into data by decoded and forwarded to a computer.
Barcode readers are generally found in super markets and large
departmental stores.

1. MONITOR - Monitor display the output to the user in soft copy form. As
the user enter some data user can view data being entered on the monitor.
Most common monitors work in the same way as television sets.

1) CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)- The CPU sense electrical signals

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representing to the adopter circuit. Adopter converts into the three


beams of electron representing BLUE, GREEN and RED (rgb) colors
electron beams pass through metal plate called shadow mask. The
mask keeps beams on target so they hit the screen on a particular
position. Electron heated dot called a pixel on the inner side of the
screen.
Each pixel is made up of 3 color spots of chemical (phosphorus is yellow
colored) which glows when hit by electron.

For example- strong red+ strong blue+ weak green= purple color.

2) LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) MONITOR- The liquid crystal display


monitors are very light in their weight and work on a different technique.
LCD screen is fill with molecules (tiny particles) of a liquid which reflects
light when the screen is scanned by the computer some molecules twist
to shut out the light. The inactive molecule causes a pixel to go dark and
thus generate a part of the image on the screen. All laptops have LCD
screen.

3) PLASMA- Television with plasma are much thinner than CRT an are
usually of higher definition. Plasma screens are made of two glass
sheet with two gases. They fill thousands of tiny chamber or spaces

Behind each space are series of red, blue and green phosphorus.
When electricity connects to the plasma chamber the colored

Phosphorus produces right color on your screen. Plasma technique is


very old. It’s almost launched in 1964.

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 Advantage of plasma- 40 inch plasma TV’s weight is 50 to 80 pounds.


It’s lighter than the CRT. Plasma has Very large screen 40 inch to

150 inches.

 Disadvantages- Constant viewing of one image(more than 20 minutes)


may cause damage to its screen.

PRINT
ERS- Printers are also one of the most commonly used output
devices. Printers are used to obtain the processed data/ output in the
hard copy/ printout form. There are two types of printer which are as

follows-

1) IMPACT PRINTER-
2) NON IMPACT PRINTER

1. IMPACT PRINTER- The printer which print the information. Collision of


the head on the inked ribbon paper are called impact printer.

1) DOT-MATRIX PRINTER- Dot-matrix printers are somewhat similar to the


Typewriters. Dot-matrix printers have a print head consisting of almost 24

To 36 pins. The print had moves horizontally across the paper from left to
Right. The papers moves from top to bottom with the help of a cylindrical

rod. There is a ribbon in between the print head and the paper. When a

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character has to be printed some of the pins are activated and they extend

and strike on the linked ribbon to form a pattern of dots on the paper.
Since the printer prints by hammering the pins on paper it is known as

Impact printer. Dot-matrix printers print one character at a time.

FEATURES-
Dot-matrix printers are capable of printing text as well as graphics. By

putting a carbon paper in between two papers, multiple copy printouts are
possible in case of dot-matrix printers. They are quiet economical as the

initial investment is less and the cost per page of printout is also less.

DRAWBACKS-
Dot-matrix printer print by creating a pattern of dots, hence the quality of text
or graphics printout is not of a good quality. Dot-matrix printers printing
speed is only about 30 to 600 characters per second depending on the
printer. When the printer is printing a paper, it continuously generates a
sound which is disturbing.

APPLICATION AREA-

Dot-matrix printers are mostly used in government offices, educational


institutes, for printing receipts, generating bills etc. where the quality of
printout and the speed at which the printouts are taken is not significant.

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2) DAISY WHEEL PRINTERS- The daisy wheel printer has a plastic


wheel .The characters are embossed on the circumference of the wheel and
the character which is to be printed comes in front of the hammer and
The hammer strikes on the character which prints on the paper through the
ink ribbon, thus the characters are printed onto the paper one by one.

There is a limit of this printer that you can not print graphic designs but only a
limited set of characters can be printed which are embossed on the daisy
wheel.

2. NON IMPACT PRINTERS- In this type of printer collision does not occurred
but thermal, laser beam, inkjet technology is used to take the printouts.

1) INKJET PRINTER-
 PRINTING MECHANISM- Inkjet printers print one character at a time by
spraying ink on paper. Inkjet printers can have two print cartridges one black
and one color. At the bottom of the cartridge there are up to 64 tiny nozzles.
When a character needs to be printed, some of nozzles are heated up through
which the ink will spray on the paper. Printing is done through pattern of dots,
but there can be almost 300 to 600 dots sprayed in one inch. Since printing is
done by spraying ink these printers are non-impact printers.

 FEATURES- Their main feature is the very good quality of printout they
produce. They generate very good quality text as well as graphics printouts.
Moreover if multiple cartridges are used photo quality multicolor graphics
printouts can be taken.

 DRAWBACKS- The initial coast of inkjet printer is much more compared to


that of the dot-matrix printer. Also the coast per page of printout is quiet high.
The speed of printing law west amongst the all other printers.

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 APPLICATION AREA- Inkjet printers are preferred where the quality of


printing is of the highest significance they are mostly used where relatively
less number of printouts is required on a daily basis. They are generally used
by company executives or for domestic applications.

2) LASER PRINTER-
 PRINTING MECHANISM- Laser printers use concept of photo copy
machines (Xerox machines) to print one page at a time. The main components
of a laser printer are laser beam source, a multi-sided mirror, a photo
conductive drum and toner. The laser beam is focused on the electro statically
charged drum by spinning the multi-sided mirror. The toner sticks to the drum
in the place where the laser beam was charged. The toner is than fused on the
paper with the heat and pressure to generate the printout. Hence these
printers are non impact printers. They can have a resolution of 600 dots per
inch.

 FEATURES- Their main features is the very good quality of printout at a


very good speed. Their print quality is extremely good incasing of both text as
well as graphics. Low sped laser printers can print 4 to 12 pages per minute.
 1) CD-RW (compact disk read/write) DISKS- These disks allow
 To users to erase the data which is written on the disk and rewrite
 another set of data. These disks need to be used with CD-RW
 drives. These disks use metallic alloy layer and the laser beam
 changes the chemical property of the layer. They are costlier
 compared to the normal CD-R.

 2) DVD (Digital Video/Versatile disk) - DVD is a relatively new
 Optical disc technology that uses denser recording techniques in
 Addition to layering and to sided manufacturing to achieve very large
disk capacities. DVDs can hold video, audio and computer data. DVD
drives are also able to read CD-ROMs. The original purpose of DVD was
to hold video data. The larger number of data pits on a DVD is
accomplished by shortening a wavelength of the laser used to create the
pits. The average capacity of a single-sided, single-layered disc is 4.7

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gigabytes. DVD disks can also be constructed with two layers. On a


double layered disk, each data layer is half as thick as that used in the
CD-ROM. Data can, therefore, be written in two layers. There are also
double-layered and double-sided DVD’s available having a storage
capacity of almost 17GB.

 What is Hardware ?

➢ The Physical Devices of the computer are known as Hardware.


➢ A Part of the Computer which can See and directly Touch by user is known as
Hardware.
➢ For Ex:- Monitor, FDD, HDD, Keyboard, Printer ,Mouse, Scanner, Speaker etc

 What is Software ?

➢ A set of Program associated with the operation of the compute is called Software.
➢ Collection of logical programs that handle different components of the computer is
termed as a Software.
➢ A part of the Computer which can See but can not Touch by user is known as a
Software.
➢ There are Two Types of Software
I. System Software :-
 System Software directly interacts with the hardware and manages
hardware devices.
 They perform background tasks for application software
 For ex: Operating System, Compilers, Linkers, Borders etc.
I. Application Software :-
 Application Software are the software that user to get specific
functions accomplished from the computer.
 Application software may consists of a single program such as notepad
for writing and editing simple text.
 All application software are controlled by system software.
 For ex: Notepad, Ms-Word, Ms-Excel, Ms-PowerPoint etc.

1.2 Operating System

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➢ An Operating System is a program that acts as an interface between the User


and the Computer Hardware. It provides a friendly interface, between the user
and the computer.
➢ An Operating system like Windows is designed with mechanisms to provide
facilities in a computer system.
➢ The Operating System is a collection of various programs used to operate the
computer. Without Operating System, Computer system is useless.
➢ It is Operating System that operates and controls the CPU memory, Various
Input and Output devices such as keyboard, mouse, Printer, VDU etc…
 Function of an Operating System :

➢ In a multitasking operating system where multiple programs can be running at the


same time, the operating system determines which applications should run in what
order and how much time should be allowed for each application before giving
another application a turn.
➢ It manages the sharing of internal memory among multiple applications
➢ It handles and monitors input and output to and form attached hardware devices, such
as hard disks, printers, and dial-up ports.
➢ It sends messages to each application or interactive user (or to a system operator)
about the status of operation and any errors that may have occurred. It can offload the
management of what are called batch jobs (for example, printing) so that the initiating
application is freed from this work.
➢ On computers that can provide parallel processing, an operating system can manage
how to divide the program so that it runs on more than one processor at a time.
➢ Creating a file system
➢ Copying, deleting, moving files
➢ Multitasking programmes
➢ Starting the computer
➢ Interfacing with the hardware
➢ Networking
➢ Programme intercommunication

 Types of an Operating System :


1. Batch Processing :-
This type of operating system was used for a long time with early
computers. Routing jobs were carried out in a batch one after another.

2. Multitasking :-

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In this kind of operating system CPU switches from one task to


another for reading, processing and giving output. Thus, the idle time of peripherals
minimized drastically.

3. Time-Sharing :-
Many users are connected to the computer using an OS called as time
sharing OS. Here CPU switches from one task to another rapidly. After processing
user’s job, OS precedes to the second, third and so on. Processing each user’s job
within a short interval of time and thus goes in a cycle continuously.

4. Real Time/On Line:-


All resources are accessible round the clock. The computer processes
immediately. It is used at various places like airline reservation, flight control etc.
These OS are generally single application oriented, users are not permitted to prepare
or modify programs, but allowed only to input data or to make enquires or to get
reports.

5. Single User :-
When the processor of a computer does only one job at a time then this
operating system is called single user operating system.The most popular example is
MS-DOS.

6. Multi User :-
The operating system that allows more than one user to work on the
computer, each user performing a different task, is called Multi user operating system.

Example: Windows-NT, LINUX, UNIX

7. CUI and GUI :-


➢ The CUI means Character User Interface.Where users have to enter long
character based commands to get the job done. Most popular examples are
MS-DOS and UNIX.
➢ Similarly on this concept GUI Operating System developed which interact
with the users with the help of pictures rather than writing long character
based commands.
1.2 DOS

➢ Microsoft Disk Operating System (DOS) appeared in 1981 on the IBM PC.
➢ DOS as an single user operating system.
➢ This is Character User Interface OS. So, no Mouse ,no menus, and no Graphical
Components.

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➢ Text Commands to be entered using keyboard. The command is processed and


responded as text on your monitor.
➢ DOS is a single-tasking operating system, which meant that only one program
could be run at a time.
• There are two types of command in DOS.
1. Internal Commands :
➢ The Internal Commands are those commands that are automatically
loaded in the memory of our PC when DOS is loaded.
➢ The Internal Commands are simple and are used for common tasks.
➢ It require less Memory for execution of commands.
➢ For Ex: CD, MD, RD, HCLS, DIR, DEL, REN, VER, DATE etc….
1. External Commands :
➢ The External Commands are required some extra file or resources
for execution of the commands.
➢ The External Commands are used for complex task compare
internal commands.
➢ It requires more memory for execution of Commands.
➢ For Ex: XCOPY, FORMAT, CHKDSK, TREE, DISKCOPY etc….

• How to start a DOS?


➢ There are three ways to start a DOS
1) Start

All Programs

Accessories

Command Prompt

2) Start

Run

CMD/Command
3) Double disk on command prompt I CON display on
the desktop.
 Internal Commands :-
1. CLS
Syntax: CLS

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Purpose: CLS clears all information on the screen, leaving only the
system prompt and cursor.

EX: CLS

2. DATE
Syntax: DATE

Purpose: Date command is use to see or change the current date. The date
format is (mm-dd-yy)

EX: Date

3. Time
Syntax: TIME

Purpose: Time command is use to see or change the current time.

EX: Time

4. Version:
Syntax: VER

Purpose: With the help of the ver command we can displays the windows
XP version.

EX: ver

5. Exit:
Syntax: EXIT

Purpose: This command is used to exit from the DOS.

Ex: Exit

Q: 1 what is system prompt?

➢ when we loading dos the screen displays C :\>, A :\>, D :\> or a


similar message.
➢ The message displayed by DOS is called the prompt or system prompt
➢ Normally default drive is C: \

Q: 2 How to change default drive?

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➢ to change the default drive we have to write new drive name and them press enter
key.
➢ For ex write D: and press enter.

Q: 3 what is file?

➢ File is a collection of text or stored data.


➢ A file that contains instructions written in programming language is called a program
file.

Q: 4 what is directory?

➢ A Directories is nothing but a named section of a storage device such as floppy disk,
hard disk, compact disk, pen drive etc.
➢ To organize files on hard disk or floppy disk, these are divided into various sections
are called directories.
➢ We can store any no of files in a directory.
➢ The directory organizes your files in an efficient manner.
➢ DOS always create a root directory in each storage device.
➢ We can create a new directory in the root directory of hard disk and we can store files
in these directory.
➢ Each directory can also have another directory. The another directory called a Sub-
Directory.
➢ Thus, the files & directory organization in DOS looks like the root of tree.
1. DIR
Syntax: Dir [drive:] [path] [filename]

Purpose: This command is used to display the list of files stored in hard disk.
DIR commands also display filename, file size, date & time of
creation.

It also displays the no of files listed total bytes occupied by the


listed files as well as the free space available on the disk.

• Options with DIR:

We use several options with dir command

• DIR/P
Syntax:DIR/P
Purpose: pause after each screen of information.

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It will display the list with page wise. First page is display then
when we want to see next page of dir press any key.
Ex: Dir/P
• DIR/W
Syntax: DIR/W
Purpose: uses wide list information it will display only filename. It does not
display files other information.
Ex: Dir/W
• DIR/D
Syntax: DIR/D
Purpose: It will display the list of other drive or directory.
Ex: Dir/D
• DIR/S
Syntax: DIR/S
Purpose: Displays Files in specified Directory and all Sub-Directory.
Ex: Dir/S
• DIR/O
Syntax: DIR/O
Purpose: List by Files in Sorted Order, There are Four Types to sorted order
 N - Sorted by Name
 S - Sorted by Size
 E – Sorted by Extension
 D – Sorted by Date & Time
Ex: Dir/ON or Dir/OS or Dir/OE or Dir/OD
• DIR/L
Syntax: DIR/L
Purpose: Uses Lowercase Letters.
Ex: Dir/L
• DIR Filename.*
Syntax: DIR Filename.*
Ex: Dir abc.*
Purpose: It will display all files whose name is abc but extension is different
• DIR *.Extension
Syntax: DIR *.Extension
Ex: Dir *.Doc
Purpose: It will display all files whose extension is.doc and any filename.
• DIR Filename*.*
Syntax: DIR Filename*.*
Ex: Dir ab*.*

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Purpose: It will display all files whose file name start with ab and any
Extension
Wild cord character is used most of the dos command. We can copy or move multiple
files by using wildcard.
1. MKDIR OR MD (Make Directory) :
Syntax: MKDIR [drive:] path OR
MD [drive:] path
Purpose: This command is used to create a New Directory.
Ex: mkdir BCA OR
md BCA
2. CHDIR or CD (Change Directory) :
Syntax: CHDIR [drive:] path OR
CD [drive:] path
Purpose: With the help of this command we can change the Directory.
Ex: chdir BCA OR
cd BCA
3. CD.. :
Syntax: CD..
Purpose: This command is used to come back from Child Directory (Sub
Directory) to Parent Directory (Main Directory)
Ex: CD..
4. CD\ :
Syntax: CD\
Purpose: With the help of CD\ command we can direct come back to the
root Directory.
Ex: CD\
11. RD or RMDIR :
Syntax: RD [drive:] path OR
RMDIR [drive:] path
Purpose: RD command is used to removes (Delete) a directory.
➢ This command is use to

Ex: CD\

1.4 Windows

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➢ The Windows software is the most popular Operating System. It


was developed to operates computer programs through a mouse.
➢ In the beginning, 3.1 version was introduced which is still in use.
➢ There were rapid changes in computer software and in this scenario,
Microsoft Corporation, which developed Windows, Introduced another
version named Windows 95, XP
➢ After loading this new version in this computer, instantly comes the
Desktop Screen (Main Screen). Wherever the pointer of the mouse
moves, the folder or program is instantly activated.
➢ Microsoft Windows/Windows XP is a single user and Multi tasking
operating system.
➢ It provides text hand graphics based interface known as “Graphical
User Interface (GUI)
➢ It supports Picture, Graphics, Audio, Video or any Multimedia content.
➢ A user can also work with different languages such as Gujarati, Hindi,
and English etc…
➢ A user can also work with different stylish FONTS.
➢ No need to remember commands and their syntax like Dos.
➢ In windows a File Name can be of maximum 255 character long with 3
character Extension type and “.” Sign as separator.
➢ A Directory name can also be of maximum 255 character long.
➢ A user can use alphabet, number for a File/Directory name. But Space
and Symbols are not allowed.

 Desktop :
➢ When you first open windows what you see on the screen, is called
Desktop. It means the screen that we see on starting windows is called
the Desktop.
➢ Desktop provides an interface between use and the applications.
➢ The Desktop is your work area.
➢ Initially it contains a set of icons arranged on the left, and the taskbar
with the start button across the bottom.
➢ As you work with windows and load application programs, other
objects such as dialog boxes and messages are placed on the Desktop.
➢ The main contents of the Desktop are as shown below :

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Notification
Clock
Internet
Start
Task My
My
Shortcut
Desktop
System
My and
Bar
NetworkIcons
Icons
Documents
Computer
Explorer
Calendar
Button
Areaicon
places
Wallpaper /
Background

Recycle Bin Icon

 Icons :
➢ A small graphical picture that represents a documents h, application, folders,
device, other computer etc.. is called Icon.
➢ Icons can be classified in to two types
i. System Icon :
System icons are icons are set by system and user not
allowed to delete it. Such as Recycle bin, My Computer, My
Document etc…

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ii. Shortcut Icon :


Shortcut icons are provided to open program, document
or folder. It can be identified by a little arrow mark at left hand side of
icon. The name generally begins with “Shortcut to……” This icons
can be designed and delete by user of computer.

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 Task Bar :
➢ It is the bar that located at the bottom of the desktop.
➢ The long horizontal bar at the bottom of the screen is called the Taskbar.
➢ The Taskbar usually stays on the screen all the times.
➢ It consists of a Start Button, Quick Launch, System Clock etc...

 Start Menu :
➢ When you click on the Start Button it open one list of Programs Menu that
menu termed as Pop-up Menu.
➢ You can also open a start menu with the use of Window Key from the
Keyboard.
➢ It is used to start any application program stored in computer.
➢ So all the application and tools available in computer can be access through
the Start Menu.
➢ It includes Run, Find, Control Panel, Help, Log Off, Turn Off etc….

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 My Computer Icon :
➢ The objects that holds the contents of all the items on your computer,
including disk drives, programs, folders, and files.
➢ When you start Windows, My Computer icon appears at the upper left corner
of the Windows Desktop.
➢ To use an item in My Computer, double click on the icon. or
Click the right mouse button. A shortcut menu will appear then click on OPEN
command.

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➢ There are several icons display in My Computer Window Like,


1. Floppy [A:]:- The contents of a Floppy Disk in your computer’s
3.5” drive, if installed, are displayed.
2. [C:]:- The contents of Hard Disk Drive are displayed.

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3. [G:]:- The contents of a CD-RO**************/////////M drive if


installed are displayed.
4. Printers :- The Printer folder lets you set up the printer hand view
the information about your printer
5. [D:], [E:], [F:] :- This Drives are parts of a Hard Disk on which
we can store any type of Data.

 Recycle Bin Icon :


➢ The object that stores the Folders and Files those you delete from your
computer’s Hard Disk or from Secondary Storage Device.
➢ It is the folder (Icon) that stores deleted Files and Folders until they are
finally removed from the Hard Disk.
➢ The Recycle Bin is represented on the Desktop by a Waste Basket Icon.
➢ Files are copied to the Recycle Bin both Directly and indirectly.
➢ You can simply drag a file there or you can send a file to the Recycle Bin by
choosing Delete option from the Pop-up Menu.
➢ When you empty the Recycle Bin, the files it contains are permanently
removed from your Hard Disk.
➢ From Recycle Bin you can restore your files or folders to original location
from where you have deleted those.
➢ For open the Recycle Bin Icon Double click on the Recycle Bin Icon Folder
OR Right Click on Recycle Bin icon then select OPEN command from Pop-
up menu.

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 Control Panel :
➢ The Control Panel is used to control the system.
➢ We can control the behavior of Mouse, Keyboard, Display, Modem, Printers,
Date/Time, Fonts, and User Accounts etc...
➢ To open the Control Panel clicks on Start Button ---------Settings-------
Control Panel from submenu.
➢ Windows display the control panel window that contains several icons.Like,
1. Add/Remove Programs: - Used to Add(install) and
Remove(Uninstall) Application Programs.
2. Add Hardware: - A user can Add(install) any Hardware 1
devices such as Printers, Modem.
3. Date/Time: - The date and Time option lets you to adjust the
date, time, and Time Zone properties.
4. Fonts: - Fonts are basically a characters set of different style
and for languages. So you can use any stylish and
language based fonts on any text based application
program such as Microsoft Word.
5. Mouse: - A Mouse is small hand held pointing device used to
navigate window quickly and easily. You can
customize various aspect of Mouse such as...
You can swap the operations of left and right button.
You can change the pointer speed, shape, button
configuration, Double Click speed etc..
6. Printer: - This control lets you to install new printers using
operating system CD or Driver CD.
➢ To see additional information about any icon click on that icon and window
displays a brief description about the clicked item.
➢ To change the settings for any item, double click on that any icon.
➢ After changing any settings close the Control Panel Window.

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 Windows Explorer :
➢ Windows Explorer is a utility that represent the contents of your comuter in
Graphical Form.
➢ It allows you to Create, Rename, Copy, Move, and Delete Files and Folders.
➢ It is the quickest way to get a complete view of your Computer.
➢ The Windows Explorer window contain two Parts (Panes).
➢ The left pane of the window displays all Drives and Folders of our system.
➢ The right pane displays the contents of the selected Drive or Folder.
➢ To open Windows Explorer click on the Start Button----------
Accessories----------Windows Explorer or Start Button-----------------
Run--------Explorer.
➢ Here all items like Folders and Drives are display in a Hierarchical Structure
(Tree Format)
➢ The window displays "+"(Plus sign) or "-"(Minus sign) sign to the left pane
of Folders and Drives.
➢ The "+" sign indicates that there are some Subfolders under the selected
Folder/Drive, which are not displays at the moment.
➢ On the other hand the "-" sign indicates that windows explorer displaying all
Subfolders of the selected Folder/Drive.
➢ To see Subfolders click on the "+" sign and to hide the Subfolders click on
"-" Sign on the left pane.

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 Windows Accessories :
➢ It can be access from “Start => Program =>Accessories.
➢ Windows Accessories is inbuilt in Computer with the Operating System.
➢ When u installed Operating System Accessories are automatic installed in
your PC.
➢ In Windows Accessories there are many different programs are available
such as Notepad, WordPad, Paint, System Tools, Command prompt,
Calculator etc… which has different uses.

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 Arranging Icons :
➢ You can reposition Icons on the Desktop to your liking.
➢ You may like to move those icons that you use frequently near the top or the
bottom of the window.
➢ You can arrange icons manually or ask windows to automatically arrange icons
when you add or Delete icons.
➢ Right Click the mouse at any blank area on the Desktop Screen and Windows
displays a menu that contains ‘Arrange icons’ beside other commands.
➢ The Arrange Icons Submenu has Five Options
 By Name :- It Arrange the Icons By Name such as A to Z order.
 By Size :- It Arrange the Icons according there Size of data
 By Type :- It arrange the Icons by there Type like all Folders , All Word
Files, All Excel Files etc…
 By Date:- It arrange the icons by Date when it was created ec..

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 Auto Arrange ;- It Arrange Icons Automatically line by line. If there is


tick mark on the left side of ‘Auto Arrange’ in the submenu, it indicates
that the auto arrange option is on. If so, we have to turn it off.
If the auto arrange option in the submenu is checked, then click
Auto arrange to turn it off. If the Auto Arrange option is not checked
then you can put your icon on anywhere on the Desktop and if Auto
Arrange icon is checked then it will arrange your icons automatically
line by line on your Desktop.

 Arranging Windows :
➢ For arranging Windows Right click on taskbar.
➢ It will a display a Pop Up Menu. There three options for
arranging a window.
 Cascade Window: It will arrange your windows by the title
bar.For Ex: First we open three window of different programs such
as Paint, WordPad, Notepad and after arranging that on cascade
window style it look like as below screen,

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Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

Tile Window Horizontally: It will arrange your window at


horizontal on a screen after choose that option your windows look
like, as shown below

 Tile Window Vertically: It will arrange your window at


Verical on a screen after choose that option your windows look like,
as shown below

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

 File :
➢ File is a collection of different types of data.
➢ Data may be in Text Format, number, Images, Sound, Video, Animation etc…
➢ File is a collection of data text or data stored on a storage device, such as a
Floppy Disk or Hard Disk.
➢ Each file is given a name so that it can be referred to later. This name is called
filename.
➢ A File name can be of maximum 255 character long with 3 character extension
type and “.” Sign as separator.
➢ Extension : Extension in file is indicate the file type of application software.
Extension is automatically given by the software and generally it contains three
character.
➢ For Ex:
Notepad: .txt
WordPad: .rtf/.doc
Ms Paint: .bmp
Ms Word: .doc
Ms Excel: .xls
Ms PowerPoint: .ppt
FoxPro: .dbf

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

 Folder :
➢ A Folder is a collection of Files or Sub Folders.
➢ We can store documents and applications in a folder.
➢ A Folder can contain another Folder.
➢ A Folder name can also be of maximum 255 character long.
➢ A user cans user alphabets, number for a File/Folder name. But Space and
Symbols are not allowed.
✔ How to create a Folder on Desktop or any other Path
➢ To create a new folder on the Desktop or any other Path follows the steps.
1. Right click on Desktop at any blank area

Move the mouse pointer on new command and click on NEW

Click on FOLDER option from Submenu

➢ Window creates a new folder on the Desktop and By default its name is New
Folder. Name is highlighted we can change it. Just type a new name.
✔ How to Open a Folder name
➢ For Opening a Folder there are Three Methods
 1st Double click on Folder
 2nd Right Click on Folder then select OPEN command From
submenu
 3rd Select a Folder and then press Enter key from Keyboard

✔ How to Rename a Folder name


➢ Rename means change a file or folder name and give other name
➢ To rename a file or folder, Right Click the mouse on the file or folder to be
renamed; then select (choose) the RENAME command or press F2 function
key; then type the new name and press Enter key.

1.5 Editor:
➢ Editor is one type of program in which we can insert text, delete and update
an existing text.
➢ In any editor we can use copy and paste command to write the same text
many time.

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

➢ Some editors are also provides text format facility like Bold, italic, Underline,
Font Size, Font Color, Background color, Bullets and Numbering, Alignment
etc…
➢ For Ex: Notepad, Word Pad, C Editor, Java Editor, FoxPro Editor, Dos Editor
etc....
 Notepad :
➢ Notepad can be access from Start => Program => Accessories => Notepad OR
Start => Run (Window + R) => type notepad
➢ It is simple text based editor that can be used to create and edit text file that do
not require Formatting.
➢ Files larger than 64KB can not be created or edited using Notepad.
➢ It opens and save text in ASCII (text only) format. So always have .txt file
Extension
Title Bar
Menu
Work
Task Area
Bar

➢ It also support Cut, Copy, Paste operation on text.

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

➢ In Notepad there are 5 menus such as File, Edit, Format, View and Help

• File menu commands

1. New: This command is used to create a new file.The shortcut of new


command is CTRL+N.
2. Open: This command is used to Open a old file which is already saved
on your PC. The shortcut of Open command is CTRL+O.
3. Save: This command is used to save a Current file on your PC. The
shortcut of Save command is CTRL+ S.
4. Save As: This command is used to save a Current file a second time on
other name or other Place on your PC.
5. Page Setup: This command is used for set a Page size, Orientation,
etc…
6. Print: This command is used to take print of your current page. The
shortcut of Print command is CTRL+P.
7. Exit: This command is used to close a Notepad Window. You can also
close a window with the use of CLOSE button from title bar.

Page 48 of 56
Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

• Edit menu command

1. Undo: Undo command delete a last command process. The shortcut


key of Undo command is CTRL+Z.
2. Cut: Cut command used for delete a selected text from there place and
paste it on another place where you want. The shortcut key of Cut
command is CTRL+X. For this command use you must have to select
a Text which you want to cut. Then apply Cut command and Paste
command for paste that text to another place.
3. Copy: Copy command used for copy a selected text from there place
and paste it on another place where you want. The shortcut key of
Copy command is CTRL+C. For use this command you must have to
select a Text which you want to copy. Then apply Copy command and
Paste command for paste that text to another place.
 Note: In comparison of cut and Copy command Cut deleted the
selected text from its original place and Copy command create a
duplicate text to another place and not deleted from its original
place.
1. Paste: Paste command is used to paste a selected text to
another place which is Copy or Cut by the user using Cut or
Copy command. The shortcut key of Paste command is CTRL+V.
2. Delete: Delete command is used to a selected text from your
file. The shortcut key of Delete command is press Del key.

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Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

3. Find: Find command is to find a particular word or character


from your current file. The shortcut key of Find command is
CTRL+F.
4. Find Next: This command is used to go a next word or
character which you want to find on your current file. The
shortcut key of Copy command is press F3 Function key.
5. Replace: This command is used to change a word or character in
your current file. The shortcut key of Replace command is CTRL+H.
In this command you have write a new word which you want to
change.
6. Go to: This command is used to go next or previous line from your
current line. For this command just type a line number and then click
on go to button. The shortcut key of Go to command is CTRL+G
7. .Select All: This command is used to select all text of your file at a
time. The shortcut key of Select all command is CTRL+A.
8. Time/Date: This command is used to insert a current Date and Time in
your file. The shortcut key of Time/Date command is F5 Function Key.
• Format menu command

1. Word Wrap: This command is gives a facility for typing a text till to
the window screen.
2. Font: This command is allows to change a Font size and Font Style.
• View menu command

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(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

1. Status bar: This command is gives a help of any command or give a


status of your mouse pointer. We can also Show or Hide (On or off)
status bar.
 Word Pad :
➢ Word pad can be accessed from Start => Program => Accessories => Word Pad OR
Start => Run (Window + R) => type WordPad
➢ WordPad can be used for files larger than 64KB, it supports all the features of
Notepad.
➢ A File created using WordPad is known as “Document File”, it supports .rtf (Rich
text Format) and .doc (Document) file format.
RulerBar
Title
Menu
Work
Task
Standard
Formatting
Area
Bar Toolbar
Toolbar

➢ In WordPad there are 6 menus such as File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, and
Help

Page 51 of 56
Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

➢ Word pad allows a Standard Toolbar and Formatting Toolbar Facility.


➢ By using Standard Toolbar shortcut you can easily run some command Such
as New, Save, Open, Print, Date/Time etc..
➢ By using Formatting toolbar you can easily change font Style, Size, Color,
Bullets, Alignment etc…
➢ File menu commands

1. New: This command is used to create a new file.The shortcut of new


command is CTRL+N.
2. Open: This command is used to Open a old file which is already saved
on your PC. The shortcut of Open command is CTRL+O.
3. Save: This command is used to save a Current file on your PC. The
shortcut of Save command is CTRL+ S.
4. Save As: This command is used to save a Current file a second time on
other name or other Place on your PC.
5. Print: This command is used to take print of your current page. The
shortcut of Print command is CTRL+P.
6. Print Preview: This command is used to show a preview of current
page before you print that page.
7. Page Setup: This command is used for set a Page size, Orientation, etc
8. Exit: This command is used to close a Notepad Window. You can also
close a window with the use of CLOSE button from title bar.

Page 52 of 56
Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

• Edit menu command s

1. Undo: Undo command delete a last command process. The shortcut


key of Undo command is CTRL+Z.
2. Cut: Cut command used for delete a selected text from there place and
paste it on another place where you want. The shortcut key of Cut
command is CTRL+X. For this command use you must have to select
a Text which you want to cut. Then apply Cut command and Paste
command for paste that text to another place.
3. Copy: Copy command used for copy a selected text from there place
and paste it on another place where you want. The shortcut key of
Copy command is CTRL+C. For use this command you must have to
select a Text which you want to copy. Then apply Copy command and
Paste command for paste that text to another place.
 Note: In comparison of cut and Copy command Cut deleted the
selected text from its original place and Copy command create a
duplicate text to another place and not deleted from its original
place.
1. Paste: Paste command is used to paste a selected text to
another place which is Copy or Cut by the user using Cut or
Copy command. The shortcut key of Paste command is CTRL+V.
2. Clear: Delete command is used to a selected text from your
file. The shortcut key of Delete command is press Del key.
Page 53 of 56
Leela Usha College of Computer Science
(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

3. Select All: This command is used to select all text of your file at a
time. The shortcut key of Select all command is CTRL+A.
4. Find: Find command is to find a particular word or character
from your current file. The shortcut key of Find command is
CTRL+F.
5. Find Next: This command is used to go a next word or
character which you want to find on your current file. The
shortcut key of Copy command is press F3 Function key.
6. Replace: This command is used to change a word or character in
your current file. The shortcut key of Replace command is CTRL+H.
In this command you have write a new word which you want to
change.
• View menu command

1. Toolbar: This command is used to Show or Hide (On or Off) the


Standard Toolbar.
2. Format bar: This command is used to Show or Hide (On or Off) the
Formatting Toolbar.
3. Ruler: Ruler is used to show a perfect alignment of work area. In
computer it works as a Scale which we use in manually work. Using
this command we can Show or Hide (On or Off) a Ruler.
4. Status bar: This command is gives a help of any command or give a
status of your mouse pointer. We can also Show or Hide (On or off)
status bar.

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(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

• Insert menu command

1. Date and Time : This command is used to insert a current Date and
Time in your file.

• Format menu command

1. Font: This command is allows to change a Font size, Font Style, Font
Color and you can also give a underline. When we run a Font
command from format menu it will display one Dialog Box on that you
can change Font style, Size, Color, Underline, Strike Through etc..
2. Bullet Style: By using this command you can gave a bullets to your
such as

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(Affiliated to Bhavnagar University)
Opp. Parsi Agiyari Street, Behind Mukta Lakshmi School,
Navapara,
Bhavnagar-364001

3. Paragraph: This command allows you to change your paragraph


alignment such as Left, Right, Center
4. Tabs: This command is used to change TAB key setting using Ruler.

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