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# MATH 113

LINEAR ALGEBRA
FALL 2017

Homework week 3

Due by the start of class on Wednesday 18th October 2017 (hand in via Gradescope).

## 3. Let V = {a0 + a1 X + a2 X 2 + a3 X 3 : a0 , . . . , a3 R} be the vector space of polynomials over R of

degree at most 3. Let W be the subspace {p V : p(2) = 0}.
(a) Find a basis for W .
(b) Extend this to a basis for V .
(c) Hence, or otherwise, find a subspace U of V such that V = W U is a direct sum.

4. Suppose V is a vector space and U1 , . . . , Um are subspaces of V such that each Ui is finite-
dimensional (however, you may not assume that V is finite-dimensional).
(a) Prove that the sum U1 + + Um is finite-dimensional, and moreover that
dim(U1 + + Um ) dim U1 + + dim Um . (1)
(b) Show that equality holds in (1) if, and only if, U1 + + Um is a direct sum.

## 5. Do 2.C.11, 2.C.12 and 2.C.13 in Axler.

6. Let v1 , . . . , vm V be linearly independent, and let u V be any other vector. Show that
dim span(v1 + u, . . . , vm + u) m 1 .

7. A collection of n people live in a house. Given any two of these n people, they are either friends
or they are not. This is symmetric: if Alice is Bobs friend then Bob is Alices friend also. By
convention no-one is their own friend.
They decide that, in future, everyone should have an even number of friends in the group. To
achieve this, zero or more pairs of people can cease to be friends, but no new friendships can be
formed. The house wishes to know how many ways there are to do this.
For example, suppose n = 4, the people are called A, B, C, D, and the pairs of friends are AB,
BC, CD, AC, AD. Then there are four possible final configurations of friends:
D loses both his friends, so pairs AB, BC, AC survive;
B loses both his friends, so pairs AC, CD, AD survive;
AC is dissolved and AB, BC, CD, AD survive;
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2 MATH 113 LINEAR ALGEBRA FALL 2017

## no-one is friends with anyone any more.

Prove that the number of possible final friendship arrangements is always a power of 2.

8. Q set of positive integers T = {15, 19, 35, 46, 77, 143, 221, 323}. Is there a subset S T
Consider the
such that nS n is a perfect square?

Collaboration. Students are permitted and encouraged to discuss and collaborate on homework
problems amongst themselves. However, the solutions they write down and hand in should be written
by the student themselves, in their own words. In this respect, students are reminded of their obligations
under the honour code.