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Process Diagnosis Handbook Actualization Date: Nov 04

Chapter III: Clinker

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Part 1- Clnker. Its design and kiln processes.............................................................................................................3

1.1 Description of the clinker production process................................................................................................................5
Part 2- Combustion, Flame and Heat Balance..........................................................................................................23
2.1 Combustion...............................................................................................................................................................23
2.1.1 Solid Fuels...................................................................................................................................................................................24
2.1.2 Liquids........................................................................................................................................................................................30
2.1.3 Gases..........................................................................................................................................................................................31
2.1.4 Alternates....................................................................................................................................................................................31
2.2 Flame and burner......................................................................................................................................................32
2.3 Heat Balance.............................................................................................................................................................39
Part 3- Operation and Kiln Control at Regime..........................................................................................................42
3.1 Kiln parts and their functions.....................................................................................................................................42
3.1.1 Cyclones towers...........................................................................................................................................................................42
3.1.2 Calciner or fuel burning in the smokes chamber.............................................................................................................................44
3.1.3 Kiln Tube.....................................................................................................................................................................................48
3.1.4 Coolers........................................................................................................................................................................................51
3.1.5 Production Level..........................................................................................................................................................................58
3.1.6 Operational Usage........................................................................................................................................................................59
3.1.7 Electrical Power Consumption.......................................................................................................................................................59
3.2 Control Variables.......................................................................................................................................................60
3.2.1 What speed does the kiln must have?...........................................................................................................................................61
3.2.2 What draft level does the kiln must have?.....................................................................................................................................65
3.2.3 What fuel level is the required one?..............................................................................................................................................67
3.2.4 What feeding level does it admit?..................................................................................................................................................68
3.3 Control Parameters....................................................................................................................................................69
3.3.1 Torque or rotation moment (motor amperage)...............................................................................................................................70
3.3.2 NOx............................................................................................................................................................................................71
3.3.3 O2 and pressures..........................................................................................................................................................................71
3.3.4 TV camera, zone temperature, and hot stage temperature.............................................................................................................72
3.3.5 Analytical.....................................................................................................................................................................................72
3.3.6 Exit gas temperature....................................................................................................................................................................73
3.3.7 Kiln view......................................................................................................................................................................................73
3.3.8 Weight/Liter.................................................................................................................................................................................73
3.4 Control.....................................................................................................................................................................73
Part 4- Kiln control and operation under Special conditions...................................................................................80
4.1 Cooling, heating and kiln start up...............................................................................................................................80
4.1.1 Starting up. Establishment level, and regime recovery....................................................................................................................86
4.1.2 Starting up abacus and kiln recovery.............................................................................................................................................88
4.2 Kiln with a low production..........................................................................................................................................89
4.3 Process protection interlocks......................................................................................................................................95
Part 5- Refractory and Kiln Repairs Protocol ..........................................................................................................96
5.1. Refractory coating....................................................................................................................................................96
5.1.1 Benefits.......................................................................................................................................................................................96
5.1.2 Types..........................................................................................................................................................................................96
5.1.3 Refractory Brick...........................................................................................................................................................................97
5.1.4 Bricks formats............................................................................................................................................................................101
5.1.5 Refractory brick placing systems.................................................................................................................................................102
5.1.6 Refractory life campaign..........................................................................................................................................................104
5.1.7 Hot spots...................................................................................................................................................................................105
5.2. Refractory Concrete................................................................................................................................................107
5.2.1 Refractory concrete drying..........................................................................................................................................................109
5.3. Refractory Specifications.........................................................................................................................................110
5.3.1 Chemical request chemical wear...............................................................................................................................................111
5.3.2 Thermal request thermal wear.................................................................................................................................................114
5.3.3 Mechanical request mechanical wear........................................................................................................................................116
5.3.4 Kiln tube corrosion.....................................................................................................................................................................119
5.4. Ovalness and kiln aligment......................................................................................................................................122
5.4.1 Kiln aligment..............................................................................................................................................................................123
5.5. Prolonged shut down of an installation (greater than 2 months)................................................................................124
5.6. General repairs protocol..........................................................................................................................................125
5.7 Refractories consumption and campaign durations....................................................................................................131
Part 6- Emissions....................................................................................................................................................133
Appendix A Part I. Potencial composition statement by Bogue.............................................................................143
Appendix B Pare I. Calibration of FRX and DRX equipments.................................................................................154
Appendix A Part II. Combustion.............................................................................................................................160
Appendix B Part II. Heat Balance...........................................................................................................................164
Appendix C Part II. Flame Calculations..................................................................................................................167
Appendix D Part II. System Temperatures Calculation.........................................................................................169
Appendix E Part II. Thermal Conductivity and Insulation.....................................................................................170
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Chapter III: Clinker
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Part 1- Clinker. Its design and kiln processes

The main objective of this chapter is to expose in a simple and operative way, all those basic concepts
to design clinker and to operate kilns in a satisfactory way.
Regarding the clinker design, it can not be disconnected from the cement design or the availability or
characteristics of the raw materials, but otherwise, as it will be seen ahead, from the raw materials
nature a range of possible raw meal / clinker designs will arise, which tested in the cement desing will
provide an optimal produced clinker for the cement quality to be commercialized and a total plant cost.
The calculation tools which will be described are thought, as in the rest of the chapters, to be simple,
of minimum data and easy to obtain, and giving results which allow planning and/or designing. That is
why approaches, which can not be seen from a total inoperative point of view, are used, as well as not
bibliographical equations empirically obtained which try filling dangerous emptinesses.

Kiln Balance Tool

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General Repairs Tool

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1.1 Description of the clinker production process

The diagram exposes the main processes involved in clinker production in a dry method kiln.
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All the phase formation processes which happen in the kiln are solid-solid reactions (schematized in
the previous picture) which will depend on the diffusion speeds. The fastest to diffuse is the calcium,
in Ca2+ form, then the aluminum and iron, in form of Al 3+, Fe3+ and, finally, the silica, in SiO 42- form.
Without iron or aluminum, the C 2S + CaOL solid-solid reaction which gives C3S is produced over
2000C. Given the relation between the CaO and SiO 2 molecular weights, it is established that the
optimal lime, corresponding to saturation without excess or shortage for the C 3S generation, is:
3 Mw CaO VS 1 Mw SiO2 (Mw = Molar weight) and therefore:
Optimal CaO = [3.Mw CaO / 1.Mw SiO2]. SiO2 = 2.8 SiO2

The aluminum presence favors the solids diffusion in this flux, lowering the temperature, which takes
place over 1470C, being the relation for optimal lime:
Optimal CaO = 2.8 SiO2 + 1.18 Al2O3

Finally, the iron incorporation lowers the clinkering temperature again to a value around the 1450C,
being the optimal relation between elements:
Optimal CaO = 2.8 SiO2 + 1.18 Al2O3 + 0.65 Fe2O3

The 1.18 y 0.65 values are empirical as the phases are not the pure ones which are formulated by Bogue (see
Appendix A, p.129)

In this way a relation between the total real lime and the optimal one is established, denominated
saturation degree which expresses the lime saturation with respect to the rest of elements.
LSF (Lime Saturation Factor) = 100 * CaO / CaO optimal.
LSF = 100 * CaO / (2.8 SiO2 + 1.18 Al2O3 + 0.65 Fe2O3)

As greater the LSF level seeked, more energy will be required for a greater amount of carbonates to
be decarbonated, excepting the CaO which comes from other minerals different to carbonates.

The inclusion of other elements modifies this Lea&Parker module; so:

The magnesium presence rises this degree when incorporated (up to 2%) or substituting the
calcium in crystal lattices, forming analog compounds to the C3S, C2S, etcetera (M3S, M2S...)
In the other hand, the presence of calcic sulphate in the clinker lowers the lime for the clinkering
reactions, so it has to be considered in its stoichiometric relation CaO/SO 3.

In this way, the LSF is corrected to the expression:

LSF = 100 * [CaO* + 0.75 MgO* - 0.7 SO3 excess] / [2.8 SiO2 + 1.18 Al2O3 + 0.65 Fe2O3]
*Note: Just up to 2% of MgO, since the rest is not incorporated to the clinker phases. If to the total
CaO the generated free lime is eliminated, an operative LSF is given, the one the kiln enjoyed. The
excess SO3 with respect to the alkali.
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This relation between the common elements in all the phases, the CaO, and the rest, can not be
characterized by its own, a raw meal or a clinker, being necessary more information relative to the
easiness (temperature) to be combined. Then other two modules arise:

Silica Module (MS): is the relation between the solids and liquids which favor their diffusion, and
therefore will reduce the clinkering temperature.

Solids C S C2 S SiO2
MS 3
Liquids C 3 A C 4 AF Al 2 O3 Fe2 O3

It is an indirect measurement of the liquid phase porcetange which will be seen ahead.
Inferior MS to 2.0: generate an excess coating thickness, burning easiness and liquid phase
Superior MS to 3.0: generate a little coating thickness, little liquid phase and high thermal load in
order to burn.
Therefore the MS is much related with the kiln temperature at which the clinkering will happen.

Alumina Module (MA): is the relation between the two main fluxes, the alumina which melts at high
temperatures and the iron which does it at low temperatures
MA = Al2O3 / Fe2O3
Therefore the MA is much related with the section of the kiln where this liquid phase will happen
specified by the MS.
Superior MA to 2.3: the liquid phase begins too late (towards the kiln material discharge), the
liquid phase will be a viscose one.
Inferior MA to 1.3: the liquid phase begins too soon (towards the kiln material entrance), the liquid
phase will be a fluid one.

Summarizing the modules concepts which characterize a raw meal / clinker and the operation in its
chemical part (later mineralogy and granulometry will be seen), we get:
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Therefore (without dealing with deatails which will be seen ahead) if the flux (Fundente) usage at low
temperatures is abused like the Fe 2O3 and it is compensated with a lowering of Al 2O3 the same L.P. %
can be obtained, but gotten at the rear, which will produce premature clinkering with rings formation
at the middle of the kiln, and clinker overburning which will rest benefits. As the L.P. expression will
show other minority elements are fluxes (Fundentes) at low temperatures, as MgO, K 2O, Na2O and

The formulation of maximum and expected amounts, or phases POTENTIAL, is due to Bogue, who
portioned the sotichiometric relation of pure compounds. Knowing how to formulate them and getting
to the potential expressions is very important, since the inclusion of new compounds (for example the
fluorite) and the compounds which will form, will vary the Bogue formulas and the modules
formulation, therefore they will not have an operative validity; this defect is secured raising the new
reactions. In the Appendix A part 1, is detailed the development until reaching the Bogue POTENTIAL
expressions, as well as an operative formulation for the fluorite inclusion case (F 2Ca), a very high
capacity flux(Fundente) which forms a mineralizing pair with the sulfur, speeding up or favoring the
C3S formation. Calculations of these potential phases and other behavior data can be calculated in the
Raw Meal Design tool.

Calculus sheet example Raw Meal design.XLS Sheet: Desing and loading plan
C3S = 4.071 [ CaO CaO(L)] 7.6 SiO2 4.48 Al2O3 2.86 Fe2O3 + Correction by othersC2S = 2.867 SiO2 0.754 C3SC2F = 1.7 Fe2O3 2.67 Al2O3C4AF = 4.77 Al2O3PORTLAND CLINKER (MA<0.64)

LSF + 10 MS 3(MgO + K2O + Na2O)Cooking aptitude (BF)AW = C4AF + C3A + 0.2 C2S + 2 Fe2O3Coatingability coefficient (AW)T(C) = 1300 + 4.51 C3S 3.74 C3A 12.64 C4AFRegarding the minimum clinkering temperature

Cooking aptitude (BF) (With the new modules)AW = C4AF + C3A + 0.2 C2S + 2 Fe2O3 + 3C2S3CaSO4CaF2Coatingability coefficient (AW)Clinkering T(C) = 1300 + 4.51 C3S 3.74 C3A 12.64 C4AF 12 (3C2S3CaSO4CaF2)
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0.53 Fe2O3 + 5.4 SO3 4.59 K2O 6.93 Na2O 2.541 Al2O3 C3A = 2.65 Al2O3 1.696 Fe2O3 10.13 SO3 + 8.61 K2O + 13.06 Na2OC4A3SO3 = 7.62 SO3 6.48 K2O 9.83 Na2OC4AF = 3.04 Fe2O3SULFO-ALUMINOUS CLINKER
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2.85 SO3 + 3.05 MgO* C3S = 4.071 [ CaO CaO(L)] 7.6 SiO2 6.7 Al2O3 1.43 Fe2O3 + Correccin_por_otrosC2S = 2.867 SiO2 0.754 C3SC2F = 2.65 Al2O3 1.69 Fe2O3 C4AF = 3.04 Fe2O3CLINKER PORTLAND (MA>0.64)

2.95 Al2O3 + 2.2 Fe2O3 + MgO* + K2O + Na2O + SO3; For MA>0.64 = 8.2 Al2O3 5.22 Fe2O3 + MgO* + K2O + Na2O + SO3; For MA<1.38LP1338 C = 6.1 Fe2O3 + MgO + K2O + Na2O + SO3 For MA>1.38Liquid Phase

C3S = 4.07 [ CaO CaO(L)] 7.6 SiO2 6.7 Al2O3 1.43 Fe2O3 + Correction by others C2S = 2.86 SiO2 0.754 C3S 0.515 (3C2S3CaSO4CaF2)C3A = 2.647 Al2O3 1.69 Fe2O3C4AF = 3.04 Fe2O3WITH MINERALIZING PAIR
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It is important to clarify that the evaluation must be done based on the clinker analysis, since this is
where other compounds, with no relation with the raw meal, take part, as the fuel ashes.
By a natural homogeneity, the marls (tending to the natural raw meal) are more appropiate for the
burning than using pure raw materials. This is, for the same material used as a silicic component:
Better burning
Limestone marl + little clay
High limestone + much clay Worse burning (because of its little natural initial homogeneity)

To talk about a clinker analitycal is to talk about its three modules (LSF, MS, and MA) and also about
its phases POTENTIAL. The real phases knowledge and their amounts through X Ray Difraction (DRX)
allow to connect the kiln with grinding in order to anticipate and calculate grinded cement strength
resistances (chapter 4: Cement).

Although the range of working values for the modules is based on an industrial strip, the reality is that
the clinker design does not begins with its chemical part, but mineralogical, this is (and saving the
costs) according to the mineral which constitutes the raw materials for the raw meal, that is how the
combination range of modules for getting a quality and operative clinker for the kiln will be. The
granulometry will be the last set in order to save the minerals problems, remembering that the kiln
processes are physical-chemical, solid-solid, therefore the particule size is especially important, and
even determinant. This CHEMICAL-MINERALOGICAL-GRANULOMETRICAL set is summarized in the
BURNABILITY or COOKING APTITUDE, which will express how easy or difficult clinkering will result, to
a given resultant free lime and a given temperature. Of the two more used methods, one is theorical
(F.L.S. method) which corresponds to correlations with empiric data, and other is purely empirical
(Polysius method). Both use the free lime concept obtained in a kiln laboratory at a TC temperature
during 30 minutes in order to express its burnability, being the Polysius a several temperatures

Generalized F.L.S. method (not available in bibliography):

CaOF (TC) = aT * (LSF LSFT) + bT * (MS MST) + cT * SiO2 +45 + dT * CaCO3 +125 + eT * Aq

Chemical factor mineralogical and granulometrical factor

Chemical part:
Note: the MA does not influence significantly in the cooking aptitude, as will be seen later.
LSF = raw meal or clinker LSF
LSFT = LSF reference to temperature TC: LSFT = 25 + 0.05 T
aT = temperature adjustment coefficient TC: aT = 1.71 0.001 T
MS = raw meal or clinker MS
MST = MS reference to temperature Tc: MST = 0.40 + 0.001 T
bT = temperature adjustment coefficient TC: bT = 10.44 0.0059 T
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Mineralogical and granulometrical part:

a) 20 g. of sample are taken (raw meal) and sieved at 125 m. The retained is evauluated as in its
percentage as well as its nature in the following way:

Retained % = R 125 CaO % in that R 125

It is analyzed
125 Seive m
by FRX

Obtaining the Calcium Carbonate percentage OVERSIZED, this calcite which has an excessive size will
difficult its decomposition;
CaCO3 +125 = ( %R125 / 100 ) * [ (100/56) * % CaO in R125 ]

b) 5 g. of sample are taken (raw meal) and sieved at 45 m, evaluating the percentage that is
retained (R45.) The retained is tried to dissolve with a chloridric acid dissolution (100 ml water + 20 ml
HCl.) It is let boiling for 20 minutes with agitation and then it is filtered. What left as insoluble
residue (RI) in the filter is dried for 1 hr. at 105 C and it is weighted to obtain the %RI, and it is
analyzed by RX in order to determine the SiO 2 porcentage (it will be the quartz) and the rest (other
minerals which are difficult to decompose).


%R45 %RI % SiO2
Seive 45 m Rest Rest =
(soluble) 100 SiO2

The oversized quarts that by its stability and overdimension will difficult its intervention into the
%R 45 % RI
SiO2 = * * % SiO 2 inRI
100 100

Being stables and oversized the rest of the minerals:
%R 45 % RI
Aq = * * (100 % SiO 2 inRI )
100 100
And finally the adjustment coefficients are:
cT = 5.35 0.0033 T
dT = 1.87 0.0011 T
eT = 3.98 0.0026 T
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With all these, for example at 1500C, the burnability will be:
CaOF 1500 = 0.21 * (LSF 100) + 1.59 * (MS 1.9) + 0.40 * SiO2 +45 + 0.22 CaCO3 +125 + 0.08 Aq

If fluorite (F2Ca) is being used, the form calculation can be corrected (empirical not bibliographical):
CaOF with F2Ca = (1 0.5 * %F2Ca) * CaOF without F2Ca

As an example, if a raw meal has:

LSF = 95, MS = 2.3
%R45 = 22.6 with RI = 5% (100% SiO2 Aq = 0)
%R125 = 9.1 with CaO = 46.15
Its theorical burnability is:
1500C = 1.6 1450C = 2.8 1400C = 4.3 1350C = 6.0 1000C = 26.1

Polysius Method:
Uses as a burnability factor (BF) the following relation between burnabilities (Free lime) tested at
different temperatures:
CaO1350 CaO1400 2 * CaO1450 3 * CaO1500
BF = 3.73 *
(CaO1350 CaO1500 ) 0.25
Using the previous example, a BF of 53 will be obtained.
An approximation of the relation between BF and CaO1500 could be:

BF 45 + 14.45 * CaO1500
From the evaluation of the different raw meals it is observed that the importance of the different
parameters regarding the burnability is the following:
1) What most affect are the oversized quartz followed by the LSF and the oversized calcite and finally
the MS, except this implies quartz movement.
2) The oversized quartz is not reduced significantly with overgrinding, this is, trying to lower this
oversized quartz will become uncostable.
3) If the oversized calcite is reduced considerably when overgrinding the raw meal.
4) The Alumina Module (MA) does not affect the burnability, just when there is a low MS has an
effect, burning better if the MA is low. Note: the relation alumina/iron (MA) does not affect the
burnability in a laboratory kiln (discontinuous operation) but it affects in an industrial one, where
the time implies movement (position) along the kiln.
5) The raw meal fine particules just affect a premature nodulation if they are highly contained by
clays. The anticipated nodulation would require a greater kiln speed in order to avid ring
formations, while the rest of products will require a slower one for their nodulation, having a
conflict with the fact that the kiln only has one transmission.
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It is important to clarify that in the laboratory test is observed how from a 5 minutes burning to a 10
minutes one, there is a free lime lowering of 50%, being the tested temperature of 1200 to 1450C,
but from there the change is small, chosing 30 minutes as a secure point for the burnability evaluation.
In the bibliography other expression can be found to evaluate the burnability as well as the Ludwig
cooking aptitude.
CaOF 1500C = 0.01 * T Ludwig + 0.7

Where the Ludwig T has the following expression:

T Ludwig = 55.5 + 11.9 * R96 + 1.56 * (LSF 90)2 0.43 * FL2
CaO 0.75MgO
With LSF = 100 *
2.8SiO 2 1.18 Al 2 O 3 0.65Fe 2 O 3

R96 = raw meal retained at 96 m.

LP (Liquid Phase) = 1.56 * ( 3 Al2O3 + 2.25 Fe2O3 + MgO + K2O + Na2O + SO3 )
All the previous for the Ludwing calculation is based on the raw meal analitycal and not on the clinker

From the practical point of view, it is needed to watch the kiln and to study it stage by stage, but not
to the control parameters depth.

Z1 Drying zone: The raw meal humidity degree will affect on the fuel consumption and will be seen
when studying the kiln energy balances.

Z2 Clays dehydration zone: The energy (heat) consumed at unbinding the water from the clays, is a
small problem as they are easy to decompose and to react. In other words, the SiO 2 parts from the
clays are more reactives than the quartz SiO2, as it has already seen at the Quarrys chapter

Z3 Calcination zone: The decarbonation is the most expensive process, thermally talking, of those
which happen in the kiln, so all the CaO contributed which does not come from carbonates is an
important saving. The decarbonation process can finish before entering the kiln tube in the case of
kilns with calciner, keeping in its hot stage very high temperatures ( 900C) which, except in towers
with a lot of stages, will derive in a high escape gas temperature and therefore in a thermal
inefficiency. In the conventional kilns it happens otherwise, but the decarbonation consumes a lot of
kiln meters, leaving less kiln for the rest of the processes, so its production levels are clearly lowered.
LOI= 0.786CaO + 1.08 MgO

Z4 Nodulation zone or liquid phase formation zone or fusion zone: As its name indicates is the zone
where the compounds (C3A, C4AF) are formed and when they are fused will form the liquid phase
which will favor the CaOF and C2S solids diffusions for their combination in C 3S. In this zone C2S is
formed and C3S begins to appear, as nodules which size will depend on the zone length. A
bibliographical definition of sintering is, process which converts melted dust into solids. The sintering
efficiency (Clinkering) is higher when it happens as nodules, so it is very important to nodulize before
getting into sintering temperatures. As smaller this zone (small diameter kilns) the nodulation begins
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before so it is easier to find clinker as balls in small kilns, than in those with a bigger diameter, which
are very prone to generate clinker dust and also very sensible to MA module changes.
Therefore, high flux (Fundentes) levels at low temperatures (Fe 2O3, K2O, Na2O, MgO, SO3) cause early
nodulation which can derive in thick coating and large clinker balls formation, and because of this
obstruction they can end being enormous, jumping the obstacle and moving forward with danger of
damaging the burner. For these reasons, and when these elements levels rise, for example the SO 3
with the pet coke usage must be compensated lowering other element as the Fe 2O3.
Thus, the MA relation becomes smaller so the Liquid Phase % must be evaluated at 1338C and
moving the individual element levels according to their relative influences which are contemplated in
that expression. For example the relation in clinker of Fe 2O3 with respect to SO3 is 6.1 Fe2O3 vs 1 SO3.
The alkali (K2O and Na2O) effects are even more delicated since they are flux (Fundentes) at 800C, so
they can generate selective nodulation at very low temperatures.
The inclusion of other fluxes (Fundenetes) as F2Ca must be taken into consideration in the same line,
since it seems to work towards the Al2O3 line and, therefore, towards kiln zones closer to the kiln exit.

Z5 Clinkering zone: The formed C3S amount will depend on every factor which affects the extension
T C (lquid )
of its solid-solid reaction in a liquid medium (C2S(s) + CaOL(s) C3S(s)), this is:

1) Relation between the elements (Modules): at higher modules (LSF, MS) higher the C3S potential but
worse burnability, so in some cases it is convenient to lower the LSF in order to combine better and
rise the C3S.


MS 96/2.5


2) Residence time: is defined as the necessary permanence time for the obtention of a free lime equal
to 2%. This residence time is defined by some authors as:
t(min) = 19 * L /(n * D *i)
L = kiln length (m)
D = effective internal kiln diameter, without considering the refractory (m)
i = inclination in %
n = rotation speed of the kiln in rpm
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Other more complete expressions will be seen later.

3) Reaction speed, which depends on:
3.a) Clinkering temperature, being the minimum theorical:
Minimum clinkering T = 1300 + 4.51 * C3S 3.74 * C3A 12.64 * C4AF
In the appendix A it is presented an alternative when F 2Ca is used.
It is important not to forget than when the thermal load is very high it results difficult to keep oxidant
conditions, being possible to become a reducing condition (Fe 2+) with low strength resistances in

3.b) Liquid phase viscosity. The viscosity increases when the Al 2O3, Na2O, K2O, and MnO are increased
and when the F2Ca y Fe2O3, MgO y SO3 is reduced. A viscosity decrement favors the solid diffusion for
the C3S formation, but raises the danger of refractory infiltrations. The low surface tension of the liquid
phase also favors, being lower as the MgO and the SO3 becomes higher.

3.c) Liquid Phase %. A high L.P. % improves the medium for the C3S formation, so it is improved
when raising the Fe2O3, Al2O3, MgO, K2O y SO3.

3.d) The particle size and, therefore, the raw meal granulometry. The size must be the adequate one
to the raw materials mineralogy, just as it was seen in cooking aptitude, this is, it will be possible to
control by sizes as long as they are not quartz or calcite. The normal values are:
Seive () % Retained % Passed Through

297 0.5 99.5

200 0.5 5 99.5 95

125 5 15 95 85

90 10 20 90 80

75 15 25 85 75

45 25 35 75 65

Note: being the more recommendable, the finest values of these intervals.

Understanding that one thing is to control by the most operative sieves and other thing is that they are
not binded at 45 and 125 m towards the cooking aptitude. In other words, with the complete curve
the two sieves which control the raw meal and its relation with 45 y 125 m are determined in order to
go from its desired values into equipment control values in other sieves. Therefore the resuides at 45 y
125 m can be controlled, controlling a specific sieve, usually the 75 or 90 m. As an example it is
shown common relations of raw meal:

P45 = 0.077 * P751.55 P45 = 0.0018 * P902.37

P125 = 12.2 * P750.46 P125 = 3.88 * P900.71

In the other hand, the relation between liquid phase or flux(Fundente) and the raw meal avergae size
is very importat in order to characterize the expected at nodulation.
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Raw Meals Behavior

A: Effective nodulation (Nodules)
1.- FL1338 = -0.0450 + 28 % F.F. D
2 B: Incomplete nodulation (Dust)
2.- FL1338 = -0.0250 + 30 C D
1 C: Sticky Raw Meal
3.- FL1338 = 0.007550 + 8 A
3 D: Paste or suspension
4.- FL1338 = 0.043550 -1.75 B E E: Melted raw meal

8 40 200 500 50 (m)

6.1 Fe2 O3 MgO K 2O Na 2O SO3 MA 1.38

Note: FL 1338 = 8.2 Al O - 5.22 Fe O MgO K O Na O SO MA 1.38
2 3 2 3 2 2 3

Having a raw meal with a 50=21 microns which generate a clinker with LP 1338 = 26% will be between the
curves 1 and 3, and therefore, in the area A of Effective nodulation.

Note: Seive that retains and let pass a half of raw meal.
50 = e(50-)/By RRSB approximation
b = Rx a*Ln (x)
a = R y - Rx
Ln(y) Ln (x)
Seive Y (m) > Seive X (m)
Rx = retained in X m Ry = retained in Y m
If there is not a granulometer, the approximation for the raw meal can be:
50 = R75 2 = R90 + 2

The raw meal use to have an average diameter of 10 to 25 , in the white raw meals around 10 and
in the gray ones 15 to 25 , so, in order to get an effective nodulation, their liquid phase must be
around 23 and 28 %.

With all these it can be seen that the election of an adequated chemistry for a given mineralogy, is not
something limited in selecting the three modules, or electing it trying to get a maximum Bogue
potential, since there is a point where the LSF relation, for a given MS, with the calorific kiln
consumption becomes exponential, needing to know the economic limit for the C 3S (which use to be a
LSF of 95 to 99) and in that search it is important to clarify that movements in MS decimals are
equivalent, in burning hardness, to LSF points. This is, as some authors have described the chemical
burnability as: AS (Sintering aptitude) = LSF + 10*MS 3*(MgO + K 2O + Na2O), between 100 and
120 with ideal 108. So in order to keep the same burnability, if a MS decimal is incremented 1 LSF
point must have to be decreased.
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In the other hand, it is important not to forget that in all these movements, the coating profiles may
vary in thickness and position, being important, the coating and the assurance of the kiln campaing, at
the time of selecting the modules. So, a MS above 2.5, besides difficulting the burnability by flux
shortage and generating a dusty clinker (which effects will be seen ahead), causes a little coating. This
high thermal load which forces a high MS is less important in calciner kilns, since the works between
tube and tower are better distributed. Despite the kiln operation with high MSs becomes more
difficult. For the cases on wich there is a flux shortage at the zone and require to operate with higher
LSFs and MSs, it is recommended to use fluorite, which added in very small amounts, will generate
great liquid phase as it will be seen ahead.

On the contrary, low MS modules (< 2.0) besides favoring the operations at low thermal load, produce
a very granulated clinker, or even with big balls formation, hard to grind and a lot of coating which not
only uses free tube section and therefore production capacity, but also the coating weight lowers the
refractory life and the kiln gets instable due to continuous coating formation-falling cycles.

In bibliography is commonly used as coating coefficient (AW), the following expression:

AW = C3A + C4AF + 0.2 C2S + 2 Fe2O3 (*note: C2F in case of MA < 0.64)

Being normal AWs between 20 (less becomes a shortage) and 35 (higher forms excessive coating).

Or the Turbain coating index ic:

ic = 2.8 (SiO2 20) + Fe2O3
If ic < 7 it is difficult to generate coating, being the optimal between 10 and 15.
The coating formation aptitude is a relation binded to the MA because it is very influenced to the
refractory material adhesion at the Fe2O3 level. Therefore a low MS and a little Fe 2O3 (high MA)
produce a greater kiln instability since any MA movement will generate a great change to the material
amount which incorporates or leaves the coating.
Therefore the MA plays a very important role, being its recommended levels close to 1.63 since at that
relation is when all the Fe2O3 and Al2O3 melt at the lowest temperature of 1338C when constituting
the EUTETIC. Above 1.63 all the Fe 2O3 melts at that temperature, but not all the Al 2O3, and under that
value the opposite happens.

Z6 Cooling zone: The importance of an effective cooling at the freezing of the reversible reaction of
C3S formation has already been seen. Lowering the formed clinker temperature as fast as possible
until 1170C will allow cristallizing the liquid phase and catching C3S phases formed and the C2S and
CaO without combine, not letting the reaction to be inverted. If there is a very slow cooling the
decomposition will be done and secondary C2S and CaO will be generated, in the C2S case it will not
be in a structure with resistances potencial, as in the (beta) phase, but it will be transforme into
(gamma) which is stable under that temperature and does not have hydraulic properties. According
the bibliography, this cooling speed is more critical in the case of actived clinkers with fluorite.
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It is industrially assured, excepting operations cases extremely punctually rarified, as in grates coolers
as well as in satellites ones the freezing is effective, being more risky in the satellites ones since the
exchange is worse and because the cooling begins before already at the kiln tube.

The theory establishes that as faster is the mentioned cooling:

The crystal sizes are smaller and with a greater tension accumulation, which will make easier the
clinker grinding.
The C3S mineral is bigger when its formation reaction gets frozen more effectively.
More MgO is incorporated to the clinker phases, leaving less as free expansive magnesia. It is
verified that as a result of a fast cooling, the MgO solidifies in glassy state in very small sizes (<
5) which not generate expansive phenomenons in cement. Otherwise, by slow cooling, will
adquire bigger sizes that will affect.
The C3A is less reactive to the setting, decreasing the fast setting or flash tendency.

Also it is true, that at industrial levels there are few justified differences on the cooling type, while in
laboratory tests, testing different cooling speeds, the informations (provided by articles) are
contradictories even more in terms of C3S amount.
As in the flame, regarding its easiness of transmiting heat by radiation, as well as cooling, regarding
the heat exchange effectiveness between air and clinker, are very affected the dust level in the clinker,
mainly in kiln with satellites coolers, proner to reintroduce in the kiln the clinker dust. That dust does
not only interfere in the kiln making it to consume more fuel, but also inestabilize the coating, trying to
increase the product losses in open warehouses and in this clinker rehandling.

The size or classification by size in the clinker use to be expressed in terms of high dust level,
understanding this as the one formed by particules smaller than 1mm, being a habitual classification:

% passed through 1 Clinker type

<1 Very coarse
6 Coarse
28 Fine or with little dust
50 Very dusty
> 80 Only dust
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Being an optimal clinker, under this premise, the one that pass through 1 mm in the order of 15 to
20%. From the clinker grindability point of view, the bibliography is very contradictory, just agreeing in
a general rule: At higher quality, beter grindability. This is, the grindability improves when increasing
the C3S % and decreasing the C2S %, when reducing the alite (C3S) and belite (C2S) size and when
reducing the liquid phase, some bibliography indicates that the MgO is a grindability facilitator. The
clinker density (if porouser better) and the pores distribution (as more distributed better) play an
important role, and in this aspect a wrong raw meal homogenization will cause clinkers to be harder to
grind. An excess of liquid phase will increase the density and with it the grinding will be harmed, also
the overburning and larger and weaker flames which enlarge the belite and CaO (F) crystals forming
fewer alites and with a bigger size.
According the bibliography the alite particles size is smaller when the lime content in the raw meal is
higher and when it is finely grinded. Not confirming in all cases that the cement strength resistances
increase when decreasing the alites size, and if happens, is at early ages and not at late ones.

Regarding the duration and temperature at the sintering zone, the crystals usually become bigger
since they have greater residence times and greater temperatures, the term usually is used since
other authors, the duration (greater residence time) at the preparation zone (800 C 1300 C)
generate big crystals, but in the sintering zone (1300 C 1450 C) are generated small ones,
therefore a balance is constituted. For all these aspects the microscopy has generated much

Microscopy and crystals size. Ono Method.

Operative parameter
Heating speed: by alite size Fast: 15 to 20 m Slow: 40 to 60 m
Burning time: by belite size Long: 25 to 40 m Short: 5 to 10 m
Burning temperature: by alite High: 0.01 to 0.008 Low: 0.005 to 0.002
Cooling speed: by belite color. Fast: light Slow: amber

Definitely, in order to get quality and grindability it is needed to control the following points:
1. Intense and short flames, difficult and unnecessary in big diameter kilns with calciner,
therefore it is better to say: There is no interesting in too large and loose flames, There
is no interesting in too slow heatings and coolings.
2. High LSF and MS modules (LSF > 95 y MS > 2.2) and relatively low MA (< 1.6). %
grindability f( C3S %)
3. Small raw meal particule sizes (50 < 25), Savings on the raw meal mills will reflect on
expenses in the kiln and cement mills
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The microscopy technic gives and excellent investigation work to specific problems, but not, for the
control of the calcining procces for which, technics as the DRX give more benefits.

Concluding this section, it not easy to determine a priori which is the more convenient clinker to
produce in a specific installation in a given geographical point, here is a scheme that might help:

It is important not to forget the importance of the chemical part, mineralogical and granulometical
stability chosen finally (LSF < 1, MS < 0.05,MA < 0.05, P75 < 1, constant minerology)

To accentuate the importance that the mineralogy has in the cooking aptitude, it is presented the
following study done by RDX vs. Cooking Aptitude Test, on which the different hardness are shown
based on the presence of different minerals, as: the ordered calcic albite, which as not being
considered bibliographically as a hard mineral towards the calcinations process, opens a whole
investigation line through the minerals identificaction and quantification.
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So, the new way to talk about (new language) a raw material, will not only be by its
chemical composition, but also mineralogically, as the following phrase: silicic component
denominated Sandy Mud,
of chemical characteristics:
SiO2 = 61.76
MS = 2.78 withouht harmful components;
and of mineralogical characteristics:
Tufa with a %x of ordered calcic albite (from the Feldspar family) which confers a high
burning hardness. (Note: being x the semiquantitative percentage that will determine the
DRX equipment software)
With this information, this silica corrector not only will not allow reaching high MS
modules without other corrector, and besides it will contribute to the raw meal a bad
cooking aptitude.
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Regarding the mineralizers: are those which, besides being normally fluxes (lowrering the fusion
temperature of the liquid phase), are capable of activating or accelerating the formation of the C3S
mineral, being one of its mechanisms to lower the liquid phase viscosity favoring the solid-solid
reaction, this is, CaO F C2S (the binds with K, Na favor the penetration attacking the brick at
temperatures around 1450C, causing corrosion at the high transition). Some of these mineralizers are
fluorides CaF2 (1350C, shellphous), MgF 2 (1350C), SrF2 (1190C), BaF2 (1285C), alkalines or
alkaline-terreous (see periodic table), P 2O5, Cr2O3, MnO and also seem to be the sulfides (BaSO 4,
CaSO4- CaF2) and chlorides (CaCl2, 773C). That is where the mineralizer pair F 2Ca+ CaSO4 rises,
which in a 8:1 proportion (in clinker) allows that little amounts of F 2Ca be mixed with CaSO4 and C2S,
forming compounds with a high molecular weight and therefore generators of great liquid phase

From these, the most used, because of its abundance, is the CaF 2 or fluor-spar, which added to raw
meal with a liquid phase deficit, in low proportions (0.2 % 0.4 %) they generate new phases
(3C2S 3CaSO4 CaF2, C11A7CaF2) which give a great liquid phase amount, facilitating a higher
conversion to C3S, being of great utility for raw meals with a high LSF and MS as well as quartz
presence (see appendix A part 1).

The CaF2 behavior is not linear, this is, below the 0.2 % does not offer benefits and neither above 0.6
% (Except with high SO3 levels), besides being detrimental above the 0.6 %, it instables the C 11A7F2Ca
phase in the clinker and generates low strength resistances and cracks the dough as a Crocodrile

There are other mineralizers which on the contrary are detrimentals, as the phosphates. The El P 2O5 is
a mineralizer which stables the C2S being difficult its transformation to C3S.
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Part 2- Combustion, Flame and Heat Balance.

In this section, it is tried to expose briefly the most essential conepts and to give a calculation tool,
which will only ask for simple data of easy obtentainment, leaving the appendixes to describe the
calculation models.

2.1 Combustion
It is the combination of fuel with a combustive agent or oxidant (typically air) in order to generate
heat. The main involved reaction is the carbon oxidation to carbon dioxide, always passing through
carbon monoxide.
C + O2 CO2 94 Kcal/mol (Exothermic)
The reaction might not be completed by different causes as:
Oxigen shortage:
C + O2 CO 26.4 Kcal/mol (Exothermic)
This reaction is a low exothermic one and may have an explosion risk. An excess oxigen may suffocate
the flame and generate CO presence.

Contact of the incandescent carbon (activated) with other compounds generated at the combustion or
present in the environment:
Combustion gases:
C + CO2 2CO -41 Kcal/mol (Endothermic)
C + H2O CO + H2 -31 Kcal/mol (Endothermic)
Calcium carbonate to be decarbonated:
C + CaCO3 CaO + 2CO -84 Kcal/mol (Endothermic)
These last three reactions, as being endothermic, entail an energetic efficiency lost.

The other 2 combustion reactions which follows in importance are the hydrogen ones (H 2 + O2
H2O 58 Kcal/mol) and the sulfur ones (S + O2 SO2 71 Kcal/mol), which are exothermics.

The fuels used in the cement industry are derived from organic compounds (Coal) and petroleum
(Coke, Fuel Oil and Gas) and they are divided by their physical state in Solids, Liquids and Gases
where the different alternate fuels will be included. The hydrocarbons amount and therefore the C/H
relation is determinant in order to classify the combustion difficulty:
Solids C/H >> 8 (more difficult to combust)
Liquids C/H 8
Gases C/H 3 (less difficult to combust)
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Having each one different flame characteristics:

Fuel Particule Size Length Luminosity Emisivity
Natural Gas Amstrng Short 15 m Little Low
Fuel Oil Microns Medium 20 m Much Medium
Coal/Coke Microns Long 25 m Very Much High
In the other hand the air has a main composition of 79 % N 2 and 21 % O2 in volume percentage and
77 % N2 and 23 % O2 in mass percentage.

2.1.1 Solid Fuels

a) Coal
The coals are composed of an aromatic part (High carbon percentage) and other hidrocarbonic part
called Bitumen, which binds the aromatic part.

As the coal gets older, it loses its Bitumen through the following process described by Mackenzie &

Wood: CH4 lost in acid and anaerobic medium Turf Lignite Soft Coal Anthracite
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In order to difference them, 2 types of analyses are done:

Ultimate analysis: Determination of the coal chemical compostion analyzing the carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen and sulfur percentage. From this analysis the Low Heat Value can be obtained according
reception (LHVSR) through the following formula:

PCISR = 7838 (%C/100) + 28899 (%N2/100) + 2218 (%S/100) 584 (%H2O/100) (Kcal/kg)

A coal with the next compositon:
% C = 69.0
% N2 = 1.44
% S = 1.29
% H2O = 5.0
% Ashes = 23.27 (ashes: inorganic not combustible components: CaO, SiO 2, Al2O3,P2O5, etc.)
Will have an approximate Heat Value LHV = 5824 Kcal/kg.
Proximate analysis: Determination of the humidity percentage and once the material gets dry the
ashes, volatile and fix coal amounts can be determined. This kind of analysis is complemented with the
sulfur percentage (by its effect in the process), the hardness (by Hardgrove method) and the calorific
power evaluated in a calorimetric pump

Soft Coal or Bituminous Coal

Lignite greasy greasy Greasy Anthracite Coke
Total Humidity 10 - 25 26 2-6 26 <2 <1
Hygroscopic Humidity 10 - 30 10 - 20 10 - 20 10 - 20 5 10 <1
Volatile 40 - 50 25 - 40 10 - 25 5 - 10 <5 < 15

These analyses are identified in dry method or according reception. In the Heat Value case it is
specified if its High (H) or Low (L), since in the High it is included the needed heat for the water
evaporation formed by the hydrogen oxidation and the hygroscopic humidity contained in the fuel,
which was incorporated (at molecular level) in the coal formation process and therefore it is inherent
to the fuel. The subscripts DB and AR mean Dry Base and As Recieved respectively.
LHVDB = 8200 [1.8*(15 - % Volatile)2 * (100-% ashes)/100] (Kcal/kg)
LHVDB = PCIDB +[70*(%Volatile)0.4] (Kcal/kg)
LHVAR = PCIDB*(1-%H2O/100) (Kcal/kg)
LHVAR = PCSDB*(1-%H2O/100) (Kcal/kg)
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Coal Calculations
(dry base)
C (weight %, DB) 66.6 LHVDB = 8200 [1.8*(15 28.3)2 * (100-18.4)/100
H (weight %, DB) 3.99 LHVDB = 7940 Kcal/kg
N (weight %, DB) 1.07
S (weight %, DB) 1.22 HHVDB = 7940 +[70*(28.3)0.4]

O (weight %, DB) 8.85 HHVDB = 8207 Kcal/kg

Ashes (weight %, DB) 18.4 18.4

Total elemental Analysis 100 LHVAR = 7940*(1-2.35/100)

LHVAR = 7741 Kcal/kg
Volatile (weight %, DB) 28.3
Fix carbon (weight %, DB) 53.3
HHVAR = 8207*(1-2.35/100)
Total immediate Analysis 100
HHVAR =8002 Kcal/kg
H2OTOTAL (weight %) 2.35

b) Coke
The coke is the concentrated residual in fixed carbon from the thermal cracker of the petroleum
destilation residual (concentrated in fixed carbon) in which it is seeked to extract the rest of volatile
compounds and of high petroleum value (Gases and gasolines). During the petroleum destilation the
more volatile compounds are being liberated until the destilation residual is obtained (tars), for finally
elevate its temperature to liberate the rest of volatile and to obtain the solid residual or coke. The coke
also can be obtained by coals pyrogenicity (Heat breakage), normally anthracites. The same analyses
as the coals can be applied.
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Coal Calculations
(dry base)
C (weight %, DB) 89.5 LHVDB = 8200 [1.8*(15 10)2 * (100-0.5)/100
H (weight %, DB) 3.08 LHVDB = 8155 Kcal/kg
N (weight %, DB) 1.71
S (weight %, DB) 4.0 HHVDB = 8155 +[70*(10)0.4]

O (weight %, DB) 1.11 HHVDB = 8331 Kcal/kg

Ashes (weight %, DB) 0.5 0.5

Total elemental Analysis 100 LHVAR = 8155*(1-1.5/100)

LHVAR = 8033 Kcal/kg
Volatile (weight %, DB) 10.0
Fix carbon (weight %, DB) 89.5
HHVAR = 8331*(1-1.5/100)
Total immediate Analysis 100
HHVAR =8206 Kcal/kg
H2OTOTAL (weight %) 1.5

These fuels by their solid nature will have a different behavior in their combustion depending on their
granulometry. Before grinding these fuels they need to be dried, but leaving their hygroscopic
humidity, since this process requires a heat amount which could ignite the fuel. That is why it is
recommended that the residual humidity of the ground product to be approximately equal to the
hygroscopic humidity:
H2O residual = H2O hygroscopic
In a practical way the coke will not be dried above the 1.5%.

The order of greater sensitivity to the cokes grindability in the different mills is the following one:
Vertical centrifugal (Williams) >> Vertical Roller Mill >> Balls Mills
That is why the balls mills complied better with cokes or coals changes.

According to the kiln combustion a grinding fineness will be seeked in function to the volatile (which
are the first to burn) with the following approximation:

% passed through 90 microns = 100 0.50 * % volatile

% passed through 75 microns = 100 0.85 * % volatile
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The combustion process is a physical chemical process, where the speed on which the heating
liberation and volatile ignition happen and the coke or coal combustion depend on the particule size.

Ignition Pyrolisis1
The bitumens Volatile
are liberated burn
Heating as gases (volatile) Tignition = 300 C Coal combustion
50 100 ms 100 ms 1s

The burning time is a direct function of the average particule diameter (d 50), wich oscillates between
20 and 30 (m). Since the obtention of fine fraction is difficult in cokes, it is recommended to use as
working sieve, one not superior to 75 microns, being recommendable to observe the particule d 50 as a
fineness indicative.
The solid fuel grindability depends on, the coal age and the cracking process from which the coke was
obtained. In the coal, as getting older, the bituminous part begins to be lost, until reaching the
anthracites with low content of volatile and high hardness. In the coke case, these can be produced by
batches (Delayed), giving as result a varied result, depending on the cracking time, with HGI
hardnesses (Hardgrove Index) between 35 and 70. The fluid coke (or Flexicoke) is produced
continuously and it is harder, with a HGI below to 40.
The fuel composition is important to define the oxidant amount to be used in order to obtain a
complete combustion (stoichiometric O2, stoichiometric air);
a) By elemental analysis
% MassDB Kg Minimum air/Kg fuel Nm3 Minimum/Kg fuel
%C 11.42*%C/100 8.83*%C/100
%H2 34.33*%H2/100 26.55*%H2/100
%S 4.28*%S/100 3.31*%S/100
%O2 - 4.29*%O2/100 -3.31*%O2/100
Amin Sum Sum

b) In an approximate way by low heat value in dry base (Expressend in Kcal/kg)

Minimum air or stoichiometric (Nm3/kg fuel):
Amin = 1.01*PCI/1000 + 0.05
Gases volume of stoichiometric combustion (Nm3/kg fuel):
V0R = 0.89*PCI/1000 + 1.65 (With a composition of 18 % of CO2 + SO2)
The excess air with respect to the stoichiometric minimum one (Lamda, ) varies the total amount of
available air for the combustion:

Pyrolisis: heat breakage
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Total Air
Atotal = * Amin

Total volume of combustion gases

VRtotal = * V0R

With an approximate density of the combustion gases of 1.5 0.01*(%O 2) (Kg/Nm3)

= 1/[1-(79*O2)/(21*N2)] (Requires orsat analysis N2 = 100 %CO2 %CO - %O2)
= 1+0.09*(%O2) (%O2 = Oxigen excess, there where the is being evaluated.)

In order to expose them in terms of clinker kilograms, the relation between the fuel calorific power
and the kiln specific consumption must be multiplied:

VR (Nm3/kg clinker) = VR (Nm3/kg fuel) * (CEH/PCI) (Kg clinker/kg fuel)

CEH = specific heat consumption (kcal/kg clinker)

Finally, and as a necessary heat balance data, the specific heat under constant pressure (Cp) for coal
and coke is:
Cp = 0.262 + 390x10-6 T(C); Kcal/kgC
T = coke temperature/coal fed to the burner

Also, the dew points for the combustion gases vary, because of the hydrogenated volatile levels, of 50
C for lignites and 30 C for anthracites and coke; and for the last ones less temperature will be
required at the collector to avoid condensations.
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2.1.2 Lquids
The most common is the fuel oil. They are hydrocarbons of very close composition for diesel, light and
heavy oil.
% C 86, % H 12, % S 2.
The densities have important variations which not differ a lot with the temperature:
Deisel oil 0.88 g/cm3
Light oil 0.9 g/cm3
Heavy oil 0.95 g/cm3
However the heat value of different types can be related according their density through the following
LHV (Kcal/kg) = [12400 (2100* 2)] 800
Regarding the minimum air, even if it is too close to the 11 Nm3/kg fuel it can be expressed as:
Amin (Nm3/kg fuel) = 10.8*(LHV/9750)
= 0.85*(LHV/1000) + 2
V0R (Nm3/kg fuel) = 1.11*(LHV/1000); with an approximation of 14 % CO2 + SO2
The ignition viscosities and temperatures are very bound:
Viscosity (Cst)2 Ignition T C
Deisel oil < 10 < 30
Light oil 10 60 30 50
Medium oil 60 150 50 60
Heavy oil > 150 > 60
Being very important the viscosity variation with the temperature towards a good atomization and
therefore a good combustion. Then, if a heavy oil at 120 C has a viscosity (3E 23 Cst) in the range
of the light oils, which allow to be transported and injected at a working pressure of 35 40 Kg/cm 2
will generate, by an adequate atomization, an adequate flame for the kiln.
Other characteristic of other fuel kinds is the dew point of their combustion gases very close to 50 C.
The specific heat under a constant pressure Cp is approximately:
Cp = (0.403 + 0.008*T)*(1/ 0.5), (T = Temperature in C and = density in g/cm 3 at 15 C)

Cst: centi-stockes
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2.1.3 Gases

The most used are the natural gases, which in this case vary highly in composition and properties.
Regarding the composition this can be expressed in:
%CH4 (Methane) (80 % 95 %)
%C2H6 (Ethane) (2 % - 10 %)
%C3H8 (Propane) (0 % 3 %)
%C4H10 (Butane) (0 % - 2 %)
Being their heat values, expressed in Kcal/Nm 3 gas, in the order of 7000 10,000 Kcal/Nm 3 (Natural
Gas 8450 Kcal/Nm3). The minimum air is in a range of 10 14 Nm 3/Kg gas, being able to be calculated
in function of its low heat value in the following way:
Amin = 1.09*LHV/1000 + 0.25 Nm3/kg gas
And its volume of stoichiometric combustion gases
V0R = 1.14*LHV/1000 + 0.25 Nm3/kg gas; (With a CO2 percentage in the smoke
gases in the order of 10 % and a approximate dew point of 60 C.)

Finally and as a simple rule (not very precise), valid for solids, liquids and gases, the stoichiometric
minimum air and combustion gases for each 1000 Kcal is:
Amin/1000 Kcal = 1.4 Kg/Kg fuel or 1.1 Nm3/Kg fuel
V0R/1000 Kcal = 1.5 Kg/Kg fuel or 1.2 Nm3/Kg fuel
Natural gas density at 20C and 1 atm is 0.694 g/cm 3

2.1.4 Alternative Fuels

The alternative fuels judgment entails not only thecnological and economical aspects, but also the
enviromentals (Legislation) and socials (Communities), as it will be seen in part 6.
a) Liquid Alternative Fuels
The main points to consider are:
Heat Value
o Motor oils 9600 Kcal/kg
o Dissolvents 9000 Kcal/kg
Viscosity: must be below 300 cst, depending on the transport method and nebulization
o Water percentage: Must not surpass 0.0005 Kg water/MW of burner
o Particles in suspension.
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b) Solid Alternative Fuels

Size Substitution % LHV
(mm) Max. (Kcal/kg)

Polyolephines (Polyethylene and polypropylene) <7 20

Synthetic gums (Poly-isopropene and <7 20


Plastic or expanded polystyrenes <7 18 8000 - 9600

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) <3 5

Acrylics (Fibers y plastics) <7 9

Cellulose plastics <7 5

Wood/paper/cardboard <7 20 3600

Polyester <7 15

Phenolic or Epoxy resins <2 12

8000 - 9600
Polyamides (Nylon, synthetic wool) <2 12

Polyurethane <7 9

Triturated tires < 100 10

6700 8000
Tires (Not shredded) - 5

2.2 Flame and burner

The clinkering process requires to obtain at some kiln point that temperature at which sintering is
obtained, transforms a combustion problem into other one, the flame.
It is known, since long time, that even the flame is obtained with only one fuel, really it is not only
one, there are 2 flames in this concept. The fuel, once out of the burner, is heated rapidly and
adquires its ignition temperature, and the combustion with the available oxigen in this stage begins,
which is the primary and transport air (If it is a solid fuel). Later the combustion products surround the
fuel decresing the O2 diffusion towards the fuel, therefore delaying the combustion. So that is why
there is a zone where the combustion becomes slow and in consequence the generated heat is
lowered. Once the particule finds O2 again the combustion is reactivated. That is why the flame has 2
temperature peaks, being visible only the first one.
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The decrease of the zone saturated with combustion products and therefore the decrease of flame
total length will depend on:

1. The burner technology

a. Generated turbulence. (by radial air or swirl and its approximate angle of 40)
b. Internal air as 3rd channel. (Recirculation of hot unburned material)
c. Primary air total flow. (Push or impulse)
d. Primary air speed. (Push or impulse)
2. The fuel to be burnt
a. Injection speed. (Push or impulse)
b. Granulometry (smaller size of atomatization drop or solid particle)
c. Mixture or not of several fuels. (Multiple flame)
3. Free space for the flame
a. Kiln diameter
b. Free section losses by
- Production level
- Coating/obstcules
- Apparent density (Kiln producing clinker or material almost raw)

It will be derived from the flame quality:

1. The clinker quality
2. Volatile drain (sulfur cycle)
3. Refractory duration
4. NOx emissions
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Towards improving the contact between the oxidant and the fuel, the burners are designed to have
parallel and concentric flows. So even 3 air types are defined (radial, axial and internal) each one will
be radial, axial or internal regarding each fuel channel. The following picture shows a multichannel



The flame maximum position will be very influenced by the flow amount of radial air or swirl and by
the internal air, as well as the burner position and the fuel kind. This dependence is of the type:
Flame Max Position2/Flame Max Position1 = %Radial13/%Radial23
If well the aggressiveness on the refractory is increased as increasing the radial air %.

3rd generation burners = Hollow conic flame

The IDF draft displaces the combustin gases,
allowing the renovation of the flame air.
Secondary Air.

Radial air
Fuel The radial air opens the the axial flow in a
Internal air conic way (Its rosettes must be in the
Axial air rotating direction)

Secondary air.
The flame opening creates a pressure at the
center, reintroducing hot unburned material
which stabilize the flame. The slower internal air
Turbulence created by the speeds difference of favors this effect.
the primary and secondary air.
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The turbulence created by the radial air, intensifies the combination between oxigen and fuel, being
this turbulence the one which shortens the flame (And decreases the residence time) and intensifies it,
favoring the C3S formation and decreasing its crystals size (Better reactivity and grindability) in order
to favor an aprubt change during cooling and therefore freezing better the C3S formation reaction.
Several concepts are used to calculate the primary air suitability (including transport air) towards the
flame stability.
Burner push or impulse = Force in Newtons of the total primary air. Is the most common and
effective for calculation, as it will be seen later.
Impulse I = mass flow (Kg/s) * speed (m/s), [N]
Kinetic energy or flame moment = Energy in Joules of the total primary air.
Kinetic energy = mass flow (Kg/s) * speed 2 (m/s) [Watts]
As it has been mentioned the most effective, is the total primary air impulse or push, to which the one
generated by the fuel is added. Next it is shown an example of a burner push calculation with the
following characteristics:
Burner point Passing area A m2 Mass flow M Kg/s Speed V m/s Impulse I (N)
Axial Air 0.0153 3.5 210 735.8
Radial Air 0.0201 3.91 184 719.5
Interno Air
Transport Air
Total I = 1455.3
Conversion formulas of volumetric flow to mass flow:
Flow in Nm3/hr: M = (Nm3/hr) * 1/3600 (h/s) *1.293 (Kg/Nm3) result in Kg/s
273 13.6 760 e
Flows in m3/hr: M = (m3/hr) * (Kg/m3) * 1/3600(h/s) result in Kg/s
273 Tf 10333

Speeds V (m/s) = (m3/hr) / (A (m2)* 3600 (s/h))

Impulse (N) = M * V
H = Height in m SNMM
Tf = fluid temperature in C
LHVpq = Fuel calorific power at burner point 8,180 Kcal/kg
TPH = fuel T/h burner output 13 Coke 6 8
I Coal 5 6
Specific impulse = LHV TPH/1000 13.7 N/(Gcal/hr) Oil fuel 4 5
pq Gas < 4
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According the transport air of the solid fuel, this should not be too high (< 2% of the Amin),
decreasing primary air to hold the flame (if dust injection speed is needed to avoid deposits DUNES-
in the duct, approximately 23 m/s), not as low, causing PISTON flow with PULSANT flame, which is
avoided lowering the injection speed (approximately 20 m/s).
The speed which the fuel must be injected is very bound with the transport air amount, in order to
avoid causing piston flow.
V (m/s) = 6* dust Kg/air Kg + 17

In primary air percentage terms (See calculation Appendix A part 2). The relation between the primary
air % and the speed (m/s) in order to get a good combustion, with CO absence is:
Vap (m/s) = f*236*%Ap-0.4 ; being f = 1 for old burners and 1.5 for modern ones
(working at high pressures (from 200 to 250 mbars)).
Therefore each Ap % is associated with a speed for the impulse maintenance (Represented by (Vap) *
(% Ap)) which holds the burner flame. If adjusted in an unbalanced way a CO presence will appear:
% CO = 2617 * %Ap-2.21 * Vap-1.09
So if Ap% is 10 % with respect to the minimum combustion air, the speed of the primary air should be
at least 93 m/s. If a lower speed is used, for example 50 m/s, a CO increase of 0.23% will be

At a greater impulse a greater hold of the burner flame. It is important to remember that the kiln draft
and the fuel granulometry displace the flame backwards, being the impulse the one wich holds it,
therefore the flame is holded:
- At a greater fuel amount
- At a greater primary air %

If well specific values might not be given for the different airs, since they depend on the burner type,
values of 10% of radial air for gas and 30% for coke, with 5% of internal air and the rest of axial air,
are very operatives. In kilns with a large diameter the radial level can become 50%. On which it is
possible to be specific in its total primary air (expressed respecting the minimum air), not lowering it
from the 10%, if well cold air is saved and therefore kiln specific consumption and emissions (Mainly
NOx), the combustion is clearly disturbed, even in the low primary air kilns where the manufacturer
offers the possibility to have 6% of primary air with respecto to the minimum one.

The burner position also is very important, as in its penetration, as well as in its centering with respect
to the kiln tube area.
a) Penetration. The ideal is that the secondary air gets to the position where the burner point is, with a
laminar flow (In order to keep the flame straight). That is why in grates kiln it is only needed a few
penetration centimeters, while in the satellites ones it must be inserted from 4 to 5 meters.
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b) Centering. In grates kilns, because its proximity to the secondary air entrance, it will be seeked the
position which, close to be centered, modifies the flame inclination tendency, so in this way the flame
will not touch directly the refractory, or in the raw meal layer, remembering that while the secondary
air gets hotter the flame tends upwards. If it is a satellites one, it is totally centered or at the most
inclined 2% downwards to the material layer.

From the calculation point of view, the kiln balance tool, gives approximate information (With little
additional data to the heat balance). The essential flame parameters: length, secondary air maximum
position and its level; similarly the expected values for the secondary air, hot stage gas and maximum
(with flame or without) temperatures at the calciner are calculated. Also, the tool calculates (see
appendixes) the probable profiles for the gas, material and refractory hot side meter by meter, which
are important at the time of selecting refractories by their Ts (softening temperature). The calculations
are presented in the appendixes.
Calculus sheet example KilnBalance.XLS Sheet: Temperature profiles

So the refractory hot side temperature can be calculated in function of the kiln shell temperature.
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Sheet: Hot Side

Calculus sheet example KilnBalance.XLS

And with this, estimating the refractory thickness, estimate the coating thicknes, being very important
when rings or thick coatings are presented which disturb the kiln operation.

Calculus sheet example KilnBalance.XLS Sheet: Brick Thickness

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2.3 Heat Balance

The transmission mechanisms of generated heat by the combustion differ on the installation point
which is being considered.
Installation Section
Transmission medium Figure Kiln Calc Tower Cool.
Radiation X X
It is transmitted by
electromagnetic waves
generated by high temperatures. Flam
It is transferred from the flame
to raw meal, refractory, coating
and from them to the free space.
The transmited energy is
function of the emissivity and of Q = 4.88x10-8 * * (T14 - T24)
the temperature raised to the (Kcal/hm2)
fourth power. At higher = emitter body emissivity (0-
emissivity higher transference 1)
(The flame is more radiant) so
T1 = emitter body temperature
the radiation order is: (K)
Coke (1)
T2 = receiver body temperature
Coal ( 0.95) (K)
Fuel oil ( 0.8)
K = C + 273
Gas ( 0.3)

Convection flows by temperature
Heat transferece from gas to the Gas

Q= hconv * (T1-T2) Kcal/hrm2

hconv = heat transference
coefficient by convection
Kcal/h m2 C
T1 = hot body temperature
T2 = cold body temperature
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Conduction X X X
Contact between masses at
different temperatures.
Transference from the hot side
to the material (cooling the
refractory), or from the material
to the kiln shell or the the
satellites through the refractory.

Q = K * T

With these mechanisms, their heat transmission models and approximations which facilitate the
obtention of new needed data the heat balance is constituted (See appendix B part 2). Next the
KilnBalance.xls tool screens are presented in the section where the data is captured (Heat Balance
Sheet) and the distribution of heat inputs and outputs in the system is obtained. The second sheet
(Balance Results) shows specific data of each section such as material and heat flows.

Calculus Sheet Example KilnBalance.XLS Sheet: Kiln Balance

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Calculus Sheet Example KilnBalance.XLS Sheet: Balance Results

The main balance objectives are listed next:

Calculating the fuel consumption. (The fuel data does not harm the balance beyond its latent
heat and therefore in 2 Kcal/kg)
Identifying opportunity areas mainly based in benchmarkings (diagnoses).
Being able to install it in the distributed control and therefore getting the specific kiln
consumption online, with the purpose of verifying scales.
Supporting the people in charge of production to avoid the outphasing in the real inventories,
mainly supporting the calculation for operations under low productions.
Getting fast flow levels and data in general which are need by the Engineering department.

Insert sheet with the diagnosis (Real vs Ideal)

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Part 3- Operation and Kiln Control at Regime

The objective of this section is to show the concepts and calculations for a kiln control and also a
recovery after a start up.

3.1 Kiln parts and their functions

Before studying it, first on a given installation it is needed to raise, the Bottle Necks and for that first
it is needed to describe what is being asked to each part.

3.1.1 Cyclones Tower

The cyclones tower must reach and effective gas material heat exchange. Therefore the gases
temperature at the cold stages must be coherent with the number of total stages. The temperature
demand for the hot stage and the draft level (excess oxigen), is described in the following empiric

Tgas (cold stage) [0.66-(Number of stages*0.06)]*(1+O2exit/100)*Tgas (hot stage)

The heat recovery by the cyclone tower will depend on the cyclones and gases chambers sizing of the
mentioned stages, and also if they have or not a vortex (or inmension tubes) and air lock flap valves
which avoid the short circuit without preventing the constant raw meal flow.

Using the gases temperatures along the tower and calculating their differences
anomalies or exchange shortage can be detected; so for hot stages, usually without
vortex, difference in the order of 100 are found, while in the cold stages, prepared
for the maximum separation efficiency, values of 180 to 250C are found.
T 1

Therefore, analizing the difference for the entire tower, this is between hot stage
and cold ones, the heat recovery efficiency can be calculated throuhg the next
expression proposed:

ReC %ReC %ReC Normal

t t f
% Re C 1.6 c
N 1
5, Excellent

% Re C Normal
145 If , ReC is 0, Good
5, Bad

where, tc y tf are the hot and cold stages temperatures (C) (in the case of having several cold stages
use the gases temperatures average), and N is the number of stages in the tower.
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The cold stage vortex, must reach a lower point than the gas-dust entrance to the
LE LV cyclone:

LV 1.1 a 1.5 LE

On the other hand, the gas-dust entrance area or surface (m 2) to a cyclone is calculated as follows:
2 Flow
Entrance Surface LE PE 2 PE
Flow 1 2
Speed 15 3600 2 15 3600
Normal design speed 15 m/s
d body 4 PE
d vortex 0.5 d body
Lvortex LE ( normal LV 1.1 to 1.5 LE , for cold stages)
Lvortex LE ( normal LV 0.5 to 0.7 LE , for hot stage)
The tower surface in function of the wished heat recovery can be calculated in an empiric way as:

50 Tpd
S (m 2 ) 2.6 10 5 Tgas hot stage Tgas cold stage
1 O 2

The sections where the exchange is more effective are the transitions from one stage to another (with
speed 18 m/s), more than the cyclones bodies, so the point where the material fall in these gases
ducts should be the lower possible and must be taken care in order to take the most advantage of the
distance of these gas-dust exchange ducts, and taking care if the cyclone has an immersion tube
(Vortex) or not.
The load lost at the tower, measured as the difference of pressure between one stage entrance and
the exit must be rational (in cold stages 180mmca and in cold stages 100mmca), pointing a normal
sections sizing. From these the electrical consumption of the IDF will depend. Which must have the
capacity to move:

50 Tpd
Nm 3
/ h , for white clinker multiply by 1.54
1 O2
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The dust level or percentage which come out with the kiln gases, which will depend on the pressure
level generated at the cold stages exit, will be reflected as in the heat consumption as well as in the
possible distorsion in the clinker desired modules, with respect to the tower feeding modules.

The contribution of air by the tower cleaning air blasters does not represent a considerable volume (56
cannons of 100l discharging every 20 seconds just represent 18 m 3/h)

3.1.2 Calciner or fuel burning at the smoke chamber.

a) Calciner
The calciner existence or not and its disposition determine the preheater tower scheme, see page 45.

In the calciner are essentials the following considerations:

i. The transversal section, since it will determine the fuel speed ascent (from 20 to 30 m/s), see
picture in page 46.
ii. The heigth along with the transversal section will determine the fuel residence time, it must be
coherent with the fuel percentage which for design it has to be burnt in the calciner with little
CO amount (< 300 PPM). This residence time is in the order of 1.5 to 3 seconds.
iii. The relation between the velocity seal areas (a) or gases narrowing originated in the kiln and
the tertiary duct (b), will be the one which delimits the air pass through these 2 routes (under
the supposition of having the tertiary air 100% open). As greater (a) area vs. (b) area there
will be less air tendency through tertiary and greater through the kiln.
In the previous case, along with a high calciner fuel % burning, the b

necessary air for this combustion will have to be provided through the
kiln, which would affect the flame stretching and cooling it a lot, with a
effective kiln meters loss. Therefore, it is very important to take care
of the relation between the (a) and (b) areas to assure venting
through the tertiary duct and which will be regulated through its gate.
Normally they are designed to allow burning the 60% of the fuel even
though they are often taken to other level and the tertiary air can be
closed so the kiln tube is obligated to have oxigen levels of 1 % 5
%. From the result of this balance, a decarbonation level can be
consented which will be in syntony with the hot stage temperature. The decarbonation
percentage can be estimated with the following formula:
% decarbonation 0.38 Tgas ( hot stage ) 650
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Flow after the last fuel burning:

1.25 Calciner
Q2 100 ; [Nm3/Kg ck]
1 2 Calciner Exit
2 21
Q 2 TPD 1000
f 24 3600
V2 ; [m/s] V2 between 20 25 m/s


Nm 3 273
f Factor 3
e 0.0001255H
m 273 T
4 T = TCalciner; To be used in the f calculation.

Tertiary Air: Speed 25 30 m/s.

CEH Calc
100 ; [Nm3/Kg ck]
Q Amin Calc Calc
PCI Calc

Calc 1 0.09 O 2 Calc

Amin = Formulas in function of the fuel type; [Nm3/Kg Comb]

Speed seal: Speed 25 30 m/s.

Q = Q1
Smokes chamber: Speed 16 18 m/s.
Q = Q1

Flow after the main burner:

1.25 main
Q1 100 ; [Nm /Kg ck] 3

O 2 Tube
11 1
Q1 TPD 1000
f 24 3600 ;
[m/s] V2 between 12 14 m/s
TBack End = 1.25 THot Stage ; To be used in the f calculation.
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(continue iii.) The result of these formulas can differ from different installations, so it depends, besides
on the ubication of the gas measurement thermocouple, on the material discharge height of the
previous stage to the calciner and on the difficulty which the narrowing (a) offers to the kiln direct raw
meal pass or to its ascent from the calciner to the hot stage.

iv. If the calciner does not have a tertiary air, the fuel level which usually can be burnt will not
exceed the 20% of the total, obtaining hot stage temperatures in the order of 830 840 C
with CO absence (< 300 ppm). If there is tertiary air the obtained temperatures will reach 910
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v. Even though it is obvious, it is important to mention that the production increase, by preparing
more the raw meal which enters the kiln (high hot stage temperature), decreases the
generated heat recovery since there are more losses by the escape gas, except additional
stages are incorporated or the gas-dust transfer areas are increased.
vi. The oxigen in excess at the calciners exit is between 2% - 3 %.
vii. The material discharge to the calciner could be above or below or a combination of both,
always having present the residence time to capture the heat at the ascent and the possible
last stage short circuit passing directly to the kiln. Normally this discharge is handled in 70%
above and 30% below, for the greater impact of the material short circuit.
viii. The fuel vs. temperature regulation at the hot stage has to be the one which guarantees a
maximum variation of 5C for the mentioned temperature. For each 10C increase in the
material preparation exigence in the calciner 5 percent points will be decreased to the fuel at
the main burner.

THot Stage
% CaloriesMain Burner = 27

b) Burning fuels at the smoke chamber.

i. The base is the same as the calciner without tertiary air, differentiating the transversal section
and the length with lower residence times at one second. In theses cases usually the fuel for a
CO < 300 ppm is not greater of 10 15 %. The O2 above the smokes chamber usually is
above 3 %.
ii. In the other hand, the gas temperature level at the hot stage will be limited by the volatile
cycles. If the SO3 level in the hot stage material rises from a certain level (normally 6%) there
are cyclones clogs risks, so the standard temperature must be lowered. A bad combustion at
the calciner or smokes chamber, if not in other points, will cause high volatile cycles, so when
decreasing this thermal demand at the hot stage will change the fuel level and therefore there
will be a better combustion.
iii. Whichever the system is, it is recommended several fuel entraces to distribute the heat better
in all the calciner section or smokes chamber.
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3.1.3 Kiln Tube

Towards the design and to evaluate our installation as a just kiln tube, the following formulas are

CT thermal load (Gcal / hm 2 ) 0.23 Tpd 0.2 ( main %) 0.34

where : main % calories percentage in the main burner.
CT design estimated thermal load

10.28 Di
Tpd production level (for white clinker multiply by 0.65)
0.06 ( main %) 0.72
where : Di is the internal armor diameter

CR Specific refractory consumption (gr/ton) Brick Concrete 17.5 CT 2.2 100

DC Normal campaign duration (months) 770 CT 2.64

Note1 : The usual relation Length/Diameter (L/D i ) is of 14 to 17 for kilns with preheater without calciner
and of 10 to 15 with calciner.
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a) Main burner
Regarding the fuel amount, this, if well is determined by the design (with or without calciner) and the
raw meal burnability (as better the raw meal burnability, less necessity of main burner), should not
generate a thermal load superior to 6 Gcal/h m2.

Regarding the total air at the kiln tube, the excess O2 should not surpass the 4% because of
everything seen in the calciner section 3.1.2-iii, however, it will not be very adjusted since it would
generate reducing atmosphere (CO presence > 500 ppm) even when the oxigen is not close to zero,
which can cause refractory problems, sulfur draining and lowering the production. A bad combustion
might be due for an excess air as well as excess fuel, being possible in both cases to choke the flame.
For this oxigen measurement the probe must be inside the tube, being able to pass the kiln seal, if not
the seal must be in good shape and the kiln position (up/down) becomes critical and must be taken
into consideration as a part of the measurement reliability.

Assuring a good amount of primary air becomes more important as higher the excess oxigen which is
desired to work in the kiln tube, since an excess air extends the flame, being a primary air increase the
one which holds it.

So in order to keep the flame in a specific position after increasing the kiln draft and fuel, must be
accompanied with a primary air increase which keeps the stoichiometric primary percentage (minimum
air % for combustion), being able to calculate the needed primary levels in function of the tower exit
pressure (as a draft level indicator) once the adjustment values for the a and b coefficients have been

Primary Air a dp btower exit

Usually the primary air is 10% above its respective stoichiometric air. Inferior values to the 10%
increase the process thermal efficiency but raise the already mentioned risks, being necessary to
balance the effects of this primary at each case.

Finally regarding the proportion between primary airs, Axial (jet) and Radial (swirl), it is recommended
little radial air if it is burnt with low O2 and vice versa, this is, more radial if it has a high excess air
which can enlarge the flame. In general words (as seen in part 2 Combustion-), a 70/30 distribution
for Axial/Radial, is very recommended by burners manufacturers, who do not recommend to surpass
the 40% of radial air, since increases the refractory risk and clinker quality, and also the SO3 drain. An
exaggerated intensity difficults the coating formation since it melts it. Naturally all of these will be also
modified for the raw meal burning easiness or difficulty. Therefore, a soft raw meal, allows having
lower oxigens, with low radial (15% - 20%) and not having a flame too intense since it is not required.
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One way to increase the refractory campaign duration is to distribute the refractory harm through all
the campaign, beginning with an axial/radial relation and finishing with other one. For example, if it is
started with a 30 % radial (punishing the inferior transition), through time the campaign will be
evolving to a lower radial until reaching, at the end of the campaign, a 10%. The same can be stated
with the primary air percentage, but however, this never constitutes fixed rules, but, alternatives to
situations of little campaing durations.

In the other hand, in kilns where the maximum production capacity is already reached, and besides
limited, by the air amount which can pass through the satellites or by the main fans capacities, or by
the kiln diameter, could obtain a load increase through the liquid oxigen injection (12m3/ton of
clinker), by means of a lance just made for that and placed under the burner, which intensifies the
flame close to the material and away of the refractory. With this it is obtained to increase the
efficiency from 5% to 7% but will not improve substantially the heat specific consumption, and the
cost of the product is too expensive.

b) Kiln drive.
The kiln drive (speed and amperage) must allow reaching the speed required by the process, being
this, a function of the raw meal preparation degree at the kiln tube entrance (hot stage temperature)
and its burnability, playing an important role the fluxes level. In this way a raw meal:
- Too prepared, will advance little in the kiln until reaching the viscosity which requires
rotation, therefore it will demand a higher speed. The obstacles level at the kiln interior
(coating, rings, etc.) increases this speed necessity as will be seen in the control variables
- Too easy to burn, requires little residence time and therefore higher speed, even more when
this burnability is accomplished based on the fluxes levels, on which case a lower speed favors
the premature nodulation, with coating and/or rings in the kiln, and even the dangerous
clinker balls formation for the burner.
In the other hand, the motor has to have enough power to rotate the kiln at minimum RPMs when it is
loaded with weight (Raw meal + irregular coating).

c) Draft Factor
This factor evaluates the draft level in the kiln tube. Values above 5 indicates a overdraft in the kiln
tube, which will be accompanied with gases speed increases worsening the heat transfer and high
specific consumptions to compensate the flame cooling, also the production lost by effective tube
disminution by flame displacement. The optimal levels are in the order of 4 to 4.5.

1 0.09 O2 Ki ln Tube
Tpd CEH main comb. %

FDraft 24 1000 100
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Another way to express it, is directly as gas speed in kiln:

Q Tpd * 1000

V (m / s ) 3600 24 (must be lower than 15 m )

where : Q kiln tube flow expressed in m and evaluated
kg clinker
at back end temperatu re.
Note : this flow can be found in the Kiln Balance tool.

3.1.4 Coolers
The kiln discharge capacity must allow not only the material to go out, but also to allow introducing
secondary air to the kiln tube, this secondary air must recover the maximum possible temperature
from the clinker which goes out from the kiln, all of these is the coolers job. Satellite (Planetary) Coolers

The function of obtaining secondary air with enough amount and heat is compromised mainly in the
satellites kilns. In these type of kilns, the lower the satellite number, the greater cross section area and
greater production capacity. In this point, a thickness optimization in the refractory at the discharge
zone allows balancing duration and production capacity.
For the material filling in satellites the following must be fulfilled:

The cross section area must be:

N Sat . d satllite
And the satellites volume must be:
N Sat . LSat . d Sat

And the total cross section area could be calculated from the kiln production:
Atotal 10 , from which Tpd can be solved
and where Atotal is the sum of the satellites shell areas in m2.
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The cooling in the satellites is very conditioned by the already exposed subjects, the relation between
material layer and free air cross section, determining the maximum capacity and clinker temperature.
The satellites area will determine the clinker and air pass and therefore conditions the satellite thermal
load, and also the kiln production level, but not its cooling efficiency, which will depend on its length
and on the internals design. In the cases where the satellites become jeopardized in its Thermal Load,
they can be injected with water, and when this does not cool their hot part it can be considered the
exterior water injection on their hot zone. Also the dust return to the flame will be increased by the
reduction of cross section area increasing air speed through it. The normal exit temperature of the
planetary cooler, usually surpass 200C. In kilns with grates coolers the scheme is more complex. Grates Coolers

Starting from the concept of recovering the maximum clinker heat to the kiln (Secondary and Tertiary),
the position of the tertiary air duct and the air regulation of the first grates section becomes critical, as
much in flow as well as in grate design, and also in the clinker layer above them, translating all the
effects in flow and residual air temperature and therefore in thermal inefficiency, and as it is common,
the false air entrances (which in a cooler are understood as the air which has not have contact with
the clinker layer) will increase these inefficiencies. An economic distribution is as following:
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For cooling the clinker, the grates needs too much air (ex: 2.4 Nm 3/kgclk <> 3 m3/kgclk) with respect to
the one demanded by the kiln as secondary and tertiary air, an excedent of residual air is generated
(ex: 1.3 Nm3/kgclk) which entails a lot of kcal/kg as losses (ex: 100 kcal/kg). To avoid this an excellent
work of the first grates is needed, working with high layers (550 600 mmCA equivalent to 55 60
cm of layer) to capture the greater possible heat as secondary and tertiary air, and more speed for the
last grates or compartments, therefore a smaller material layer (200mmCA equivalent to 20 cm of

When concentrating the material layer and the grates entrance, usually it is used a paulatine reduction
arrangement for the static grate, where pressures of 100mmCA are obtained superior to the 1 st mobile
control grate.

The theroical speed of the first grate or control grate can be estimated in the following way:
70 Tpd
V (cycles )
min A e P L (100 slip)
where :
A Maximum cooler width in meters.
P Maximum operation pressure of the contol compartment (mmCA)
L Advance length of the mobile grate (displacement in meters)
Slip Material compression effect when pushed by the mobile grate,
which makes them to be compressed instead of advancing in order to do it later.
typical value of 15%
e apparent density or liter weight (kg/liter)

In this way, for a kiln of 2800 tpd, with A=3.6m, P=450mmCA, L=0.12m, e =1.25 kg/L, and slip of
15%, represents a control grate speed of 9.5 cycles/min. Being normal advancing values of 10
cycles/min. The next grates to the control one usually have speed increases of 30 and 60% with
respect to the first one.

Regarding the linear advancing speed of the material in the cooler, this can be calculated in a theorical
way with the following expression:
0.7 Tpd
V (m )
min P e A
where :
A maximum cooler wide in meters
P maximum operation pressure in the control compartment (mmCA)
e apparent density or weight liter (kg/liter)
Which for the previous example it is translated in V= 0.97 m/min, which for a grate with a length of
20m, would suppose 19 minutes of residency.
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Regarding the slopes, the static one usually is placed in 15 and the mobile ones below 10.

For a kiln operation togheter with the cooler, is important to recognize the optimal level of the material
layer on the grates, translated as pressure in one or several compartments, this compartments
pressure, is result of the clinker layer (consequence of the grates speed and clinker flow) and of the air
level which enters the cooler through the fans of each compartment, and also the clinker
granulometry, being the dusty clinker (or raw) the one which most difficults the air pass. A disturbance
in the grate will interfere in the kiln by flow and by secondary air temperature, ussually the
disturbances in the grate are caused by kiln inestabillity. A good tunning of the regulatory pressure
loop at the hood with the residual IDF, will help to reestablish the stability by avoiding the cooling
stabilization to interfere in the kiln tube.

How to know which is the optimal air level in a cooler?

As it has been said, the economical and ideal level of operation at a grates cooler is of 1.75 Nm 3/kgClk,
of which 1.1 Nm3/kgClk would be portioned between secondary and tertiary, and the rest (0.65
Nm3/kgClk) as residual, however, the previous one is the ideal and therefore should act in this sense
Secondary air temperature
Tertiary air temperature
Residual air temperature
Clinker temperature at the cooler exit
Each compartment pressure
Plates temperature
The secondary air temperature is an indicator of the heat exchange at the cooler (at least of the part
which corresponds to the secondary air), and it can be said: that at higher secondary air temperature,
better energy recovery (kcal) and our cooler is closer to the optimal point.

In the other hand, and it is important to mention it, the clinker temperature at the cooler exit does not
indicate a thermal efficiency, since this can be obtained through the last fans and not having a good
heat recovery in the first grates as will be indicated by the secondary air temperature.

The clinker heat recovery is given mainly by the layer thickness and the efficiency of the air which
passes thorugh this one, that is why, the conventional grates coolers are handled with material layers
of ~ 450 mm (Secondary Air T. ~950C) and in coolers with fix grate technology and fans with higher
pressure, with layers of ~ 650mm (Secondary Air T. ~1200C). The efficiency of the air pass through
the material layer on the grates will depend on: the flow and pressure which the fans can be capable
to generate, as well as the plates techonoloy which direct more efficiently the air through themselves
(with special grooving, valves, etc.)

The cooler width is very determinative to obtain a good material layer and avoiding the air to pass,
there where less clinker is. This width usually is 77% of the kiln diameter. The static grate % in a
cooler usually is in the order of 9% of the total grate surface.
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Not matter the pressures, the distance between the material layer and cooler roof or arch (dove
chest) has to be taken care of, which will allow the secondary flow to have a speed of ~ 12 m/s. That
is why, always will be necessary to place the tertiary air in the hood, as well as a correct sizing. The
set of secondary air, tertiary air and residual air must guarantee the evacuation of all the air injected
to the grates, since in a cooler with positive pressure by lack of injected air evacuation, generates a
heat atmosphere which prevents the cooling of the clinker and all the mechanical elements of the

The desired is that the grate design allows to obtain the clinker temperature below T amb + 90C by
means of an air provision 1.7 to 1.9 Nm 3/kg Clk compatible with a specific flow by grates square meter
of 0.8 a 0.9 Nm 3/s m2. That mentioned flow will be distributed between the different fans, being good
to begin with values of 0.8 for the first fans and 1.2 for the last ones, even in some cases, defects in
the layer or design force to inverse this efficiency relation, being very important to evaluate the real
temperatures of the plates in order not to cool them, keeping them at a normal working temperature
of 60 to 80C. Average values of more than 1.5 Nm 3/s m2 must force to reconsider the design or
current grate work. Towards the design the fans will be oversized to generate 2 m 3/s m2 for the
static grate and 1.3 m3/s m2 for the rest, as well as in pressures, the pressure working at regime will
be oversized of a 20 to 30%.

As is described in the following table, greater grate areas with respect to the necessary one worsen its
efficiency. The plates surface of plant 2 is bigger than the required for production tonnage, in other
words, using the design equation proposed of 0.025*TPD (equivalent to 40 tpd/m2plates), in the
plant 2 case would be of 83.7 m 2, this is, there are 49.3 m2 more of the recommended for the kiln
production level, so this cooler will demand a greater air consumption (kcal/kg and kWh/ton) given the
plates surface, causing with that mentioned oversizing greater false air entrances and heat transfer
inefficiency to the air, by wrong clinker distribution on it.

Kiln TPD Nm3/kg clk Surfplates Tempclinker Tempresidual Nm3/s m2 M2/T

Plant 1 2856 1.72 69.8 125 280 0.81 0.024
Plant 2 3350 2.56 133.7 125 280 0.74 0.039
Plant 3 2700 1.77 65.6 185 385 0.84 0.024
Plant 4 2784 1.86 75.47 200 420 0.80 0.027
Plant 5 1800 2.20 73 130 350 0.63 0.04
Plant 6 1920 2.43 60.5 140 248 0.89 0.031
Plant 7 7100 2.36 200 110 268 0.97 0.028
Data compiled from the plant balances.

On the other hand, in plants 3 and 4 can be observed that even with more adjusted oversizing of
plates surface vs. clinker production, high levels of residual temperature are obtained, which shows a
thermal inefficiency in the cooler, which forces to review the work distribution of the fans.
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Regarding the clinker crusher it is recommended the one with rollers vs. the one with hammers, since
they have more capacity, higher working temperature, less dust generation, longer duration and work
at a lower speed.
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As it has to be mentioned, is fundamental

that the injected air leaves through channels
in the plates and not by defects, this is, by ar
places not designed to canalize the air and as
where it does not recover heat. In this sense,
is fundamental to take care of the false air clk E
entrances mainly by the material discharge of
the dust hoppers which go through the
plates. A high demand of the clinker
temperature may cause greater heat losses
by residual air with an unfavorable global clk S
balance, besides of increasing the milling
energy because of colder clinker. That is why
a good cooling efficiency must no be a
confused with a good thermal efficiency.

( clkE a ) ( at as ar p clk S )
Yield or Efficiency (%) *100
clk E a

Replacing the obtained results of the KilnBalance.xls tool in the formula of a cooler efficiency or yield
percentage we get:

% Ef
366 16 (7 38 50 4 24) *100 67.8%
(366 16)
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Note: the clk E was obtained through the formula: Cp * T (Clinker temp. at the cooler entrance, supossed 1400C), the CP
has been calculated based on the values exposed in the Appendix B part II.
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Finally, the exterior surface of the cooler can be estimated (by effects of the heat losses), as:
External Surf. (m 2 ) 2 Tpd 0.68

3.1.5 Production level

Finishing this descriptive section of the demanded to each installation part, the productive level of the
installation will depend on:
- The capacity to add air

Flow, evaluated as pressure drop at the cyclones tower. P P2 P1

- The burning degree (fixed by the excess O 2) for that air flow, to allow clinkering can be expressed by
the following relation:

Burning degree =
21 O2 100

- Therefore a way to express the Gcal/h which has been given for the clinkering would be:
P Burning Degree

- The raw meal burnability, expressed as burning chemical hardness:

D 0.476 LSF 10MS
Therefore the efficiency can be expressed in the following way:
21 O 2
P (Tpd ) a P b
Where : a, b, c y d are adjustment coefficients to find for each installation
being of the following order : b 0.7, c 0.3 y d 2.5

Just as an informative help the relations between production and thermal load are proposed next:
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10.28 Di
0.06 %main.

Tpd 1000
CEH main.
CT (Gcal / hm 2 ) 24 10 6
Where :
De effective kiln diameter without considering
2 (cm)
the refractory. De Di -
main %. calories % in main burner

CEH kcal/kg in the kiln tube

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3.1.6 Operational Utilization

The operational utilization in a kiln can be qualified, given its level, as following:

< 88% Bad

88 90 Regular
3.1.7 Eletrical Power 90 92 Good Consumption

92 94 Very Good
Is very important to verify the > 94 Excellent electrical power consumption in
the kiln global system, however, this must be sectioned to
racionalize the participation of each part in the kiln specific (kWh/ton), the sections by which the
equipments set must be subdivided in the calcination process are shown next.

Normal in Normal in
kW KWh/ton

Homogenization and raw meal feeding 0.12Tpd 2.88

Fuel feeding and primary airs 0.14Tpd 3.36

Dust Transp. + Filter + VTF 0.18Tpd 4.32

Clinker Transp. 0.04Tpd 0.96

Main motor 0.14Tpd 3.36
Main IDF 0.44Tpd 10.56

Total for satellites kilns 1.06Tpd 25.44

Residual IDF in grates 0.05Tpd 1.2

Fans and grates impulse 0.10Tpd 2.4
Cooling Grates filters. 0.10Tpd 2.4

Total for kilns with grates cooler 1.31Tpd 31.44

It is very important to have the power installed information of each machine which integrates the kiln
installation, so consumed power values which do not coincide can be discriminated.
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3.2 Control Variables

The kiln control, at the margin of the desired raw meal and fuel maintence flows, and the raw meal
burnability (modules, mineralogy and granulometry), is based in the rawl meal design and its flow, the
heat adjustment and its distrubtion (excess O 2) and the material residence time. For all the previous
the points to be immediately adjusted are:
o Raw meal flow (TPH)
o Total fuel flow (TPH)
o Draft (rpm IDF or dampers %)
o Kiln turn speed (main drive RPM)

Evidently everything is influenced by the desired cooling conditions. The basic instrumentation for the
operation adjustment is as follows:

Tower instrumentation Cooler instrumentation

Plates temperatures.
Gas and material temperature in all the
cyclones and if possible at the smokes Speed of the different grates
chamber and/or back end. Compartments pressure
Pressure measurement in all cyclones
Flows of each fan
cones and in all gas exits of stages, mainly
the cold and the hot ones, as well as in the Clinker temp. at the cooler exit and
smokes chamber and calciner exit. secondary, tertiary and residual airs temp.
O2 and CO analyzer after each Clinker crusher temperature. Residual
combustion point. NOx analyzer, at least IDFs draft indication, could be variable
after the last combustion point. (rpm) or dampers (%).
IDFs draft indication, could be variable Pressure differential at residual filter or
speed (rpm) or dampers (%). signals at gravel and electrostatic filter.
Raw meal and fuel flows indication.

Tertiary air gate % indication.

Kiln instrumentation

Kiln displacement

Kiln speed and amperage.

Shell temperature continuous scanning.

Burner signals: Fuel, Primary air % (axial, radial).

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The kiln control consists in answering the following questions:

3.2.1 What speed does the kiln must have?

The Sullivan equation, establishes for the residence time the following expression:

1.77 L F
t r [min]
P De N

L = Kiln length from the burner point to the entrance cone (meters)
N = Kiln speed (RPM)
= Natural application slope of material, Clinker = 40 , Raw Meal at 800C = 6 , being in the states
set inside the kiln in the order of = 15.
De = Kiln effective diameter bricks interior (meters)
2 (cm)
De Di - , where, = Bricks thickness in cm.
and Di is the shell interior diameter.
Kiln Inclination
P = Kiln slope in degrees Diameters %
P (Degrees) = ARCTAN (p (%) / 100) (m) p (%)
Note: it is observed that the t r does not depend on the production < 2.8 5
2.8 3.4 4
> 3.4 3

F = Obstacles factor or coatinging factor:

1 Completely coating free F 1 0.01 ecrust , thickness e in cm.
1.5 Very coated
2 Ringed
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The filling degree (%) must not surpass the 13%, in order not to generate uncooked nucleus, even it
depends on the kiln slope.
Re commended Filling Degree (%) 18 2 p(%)

Filling Degree (%) 3.2 3
De N p (%)
Equaling both equations and considering two kilns where just the diameter
differs, it can be found why they have very different speeds, for example:
Tpd=2050, p=3%, brick thickness = 20cm, with diameters (Di) H1= 5.05 and
H2=4.55, it is obtained that the Speed (H) for the Kiln 1 should be of 1.8 rpm
and for the Kiln 2 is of 2.5 rpm. If the same distance between the flame and
the load can be kept.

With all the previous information, the residence time expression is reduced to:
6.9 L F
tr ; [1]
P De N

As there is a kiln part which is traversed by the raw meal without the necessity of turning, until its
transformation into liquid phase makes it viscous ( raises), is very important not to use a faster speed
than the required one, since in that case, with just 0.1 RPM faster, will go from clinkering to not doing
so (increasing the free lime).

Therefore, the residence time which is needed by the material which enters to the kiln tube, with its
preparation degree Gp, for clinkering it until a determined level G clk, will be dependent of these other
concepts, and can be evaluated with the following expression:
t r (min) 1.2 P GClk ; [2]
Tmat Hot Stage
G P Preparation Degree (%) 100 ,
Tminimum for clinkering

T minimum for clinkering =1450 Gray Clinker and 1500 White Clinker
C3S Free Lime
GClk is the clinkering degree (100=1) = relation between corrected Bogues C 3S
C3S Free Lime 0
discounting the free lime and considerating it as zero.
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With both residence time equations [1] and [2], equaling them and solving for the speed, it is gotten,
for =15, the following expression of speed necessity:
L F Tminimum for clinkering C3S CL0
N (rpm) 5.7
De THot Stage Material C3S CL

Thus, for example, a effective kiln length, from the burner point to the entrance cone, of 63 m, with
an internal diameter of 4.55m and a brick thickness of 20 cm, with a slope of 3% ( =1.72), without
obstructions (30cm coating F=1.3) and with a raw meal at hot stage has a temperature of 810C,
with a Bogues corrected Potencial C3S (CL=0) of 64 and a wished free lime of 1.5 with C 3S=58.7, and
with a minimum clinkering temperature of 1433C, needs a speed of:
63 1.3 1433 64
N ( rpm) 5.7 2.3 ; t r 34 min
4.15 1.72 810 58.7

while with calciner could reach 870C (hot stage material), will need:
N (rpm) 3.6 ; t r 21 min

If from the speed expression, the C3S is cleared, the quality vs. Kiln speed will arise:
L F Tminimum for clinkering C3S CL 0
C3SC L 5.7
De THot Stage Material N

and for example, with the first case if the speed would be increased in 0.2 rpm and therefore N=2.5
rpm, will be obtained: C3SCL = 54.6, instead of 58.7, result of a free lime greater than the 1.5 desired
value because the faster kiln speed.

All these proposed equations, suppose a certain clinkering degree, if not, this is, after a stop the
average angle is not in the order of 15, but it would be of 6 and also the material inside the kiln
would not correspond to a hot stage material temeprature of 810C but of 700C, because of all these
the required speed would be:
63 1.3 1433 64 6
N ( rpm ) 5.7 0.6rpm
4.15 1.72 700 58.7 15
Also, the resident material can be retained (kept) in the tube which is calculated as following:
Filling deg ree(%)
Tons Resident De2 1.1 L
100 4
where 1.1 is the average apparent density of the material along the tube.
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The kiln has symptons of going at an excessive speed when its behavior is instable, any disturbance
(smokes chamber cleaning, etc.) affects it, so the kiln cools. Also the flame becomes closer to the
burner, when decreasing the free section due to that less prepared raw meal and therefore presents
less apparent density (occupies more space inside the kiln). On the contrary, low speeds with respect
to the ones required are manifested in the kiln with flames too streched causing premature clinkering,
with coatings and/or rings.

Therefore, if well the filling degree must be taken care of, being this parameter which consider a
certain Raw Meal/Speed synchronism, also it is true that the speed evaluated is the external one and
will differ of the real one in the kiln interior depending on the raw meal preparation degree, and the
obstacles height, that is why it is recommended not to bind the exterior speed with the level of raw
meal fed since it does not depend mainly on the amount.

Because of the previous, it is recommended to set the speeds individually (manual), mainly in kiln
recoveries, for later, if it is wished calculating them by synchronism; but always deciding about the
speed and with that calculating raw meal feeding, and not otherwise.

There are cases on which the primordial conduct is about the kiln speed, following 2 cases are

1st case: in order to solve a problem, as the adherences in the entrances of satellites kilns. In these cases it is
essential lowering the speed momentarily; either by overheating or by overspeed, so this material which is
trying to stick can be retained, cool the entrances zone, lowering the fuel so the flame moves away and the
cooling zone is enlarged (letting to rise the O 2 = flame cooling) and adding or eliminating raw meal in
function of the causing reason of the product stickiness. Once the entrances have been opened, the speed is
adjusted to the necessary one.

2nd case: in order to solve problems of rear rings, the speed must be increased and with it, the raw meal will
pass the obstacle but will advance too much kiln, leaving little clinkering length. In other words, the need of
speed by rear rings is due mainly to a heat adjustment and speed problem, which ends in a hot kiln and little
clinkering, and the difficulty to introduce air by the transversal aerea descrease.

Finally and as an illustrative way, the timing of each stage for kilns with or without calciner are given:
Calciner Time in Minutes
Calciner Tower Transition Sintering
Calcination Zone Total
decarb. % Zone Zone
With 95% 2 15 12 29
Without 40% 28 5 10 43
The low speed that a kiln needs without coating coming from a refractory repair, generates little turn
and therefore difficults the encounters delay for the reactions, so it is important to coat as soon as
possible protecting the bricks and favoring these encounters.
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3.2.2 What draft level does the kiln must have?

As mentioned previously, the differential pressure at the tower indicates or is related with air flow
which is introduced to the system, considering constant raw meal flow, which affects the tower
pressure levels. The measurement point of the lower part pressure must be above the habitual coating
zone. This differential pressure can be related with kiln production as with introduced air to the
system, which exhausted as an excess O2 %, gives a Kcal/hr amount, capable of clinkering certain
TPH level. Therefore, if it is considered as a flow aproximation:

3 1.25 1000
Q( Nm escape gas) Tpd
h O 24 ; and adjusting to: k p, with p dp2 - dp1
1- 2
density (kg Nm 3 ) 1.4 0.005 O2
dp2 = Pressure at the tower higher point, ususally cold stages exit.
dp1 = Pressure at the tower lower point. In satellites or grates kiln without tertiary air, the smokes
chamber is used. In kilns with tertiary air the calciner pressure above the tertiary entrances is used.
Anyhow, it will be placed above the coatinging area.

In the other hand the efficiency can be expressed as: P (TPD) = f ( P, O2, Hardness), if the load
losses at the stages are in the order of 110 mmca and for the cold stages of 220mmca, the normal as
a load loss at the tower will be in the order of:

P 110 N stages 1 220

and if the pressure at the smokes chamber (dp 1) is in the order of 80-100 mmca, the pressure at the
cold stage exit (dp2) will be of:

dp towe exit P 100 mmca

If the dp1 rises, but the dp2 does not do it proportionally, the obstructions are increased in some
section below point 1; and in this case P decreases and therefore the production capacity, since it
will force lowering the fuel flow to keep the excess oxigen.
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If the dp2 rises, but dp1 does not do it proportionally, caused by a draft increase, and with this P
increases, the production capacity will rise. But there is a limit, if the draft is continuously increased,
the cold stages recollection efficiency decreases and the dust which is being taken out is increased,
diminishing the effective raw meal which enters the kiln tube, and speeding up the gas at the tower
difficulting the heat exchange to the material, trying to pull the flame, displacing the heat backwards
(high temperature at cold stages) and decreasing it, except it is compensated with primary air, kiln
effective meters, and therefore a production descent.

The optimal draft must be found for the maximum kiln capacity, and fixing
it as a concrete value of the pressure at the cold stages exit and it must be
kept, compensanting the variation caused by other inline IDFs (raw meal
mills or coke IDF on gases line), something that is relatively easy, if the
pressure at the kiln IDF exit is measured continuously, and is forced,
through movements over a mix aspirator, to keep a certain range through
a regulator loop. The disturbances that over the kiln pull cause the stops
and starts of these mills are minimized.

In kilns with calciner and tertiary air, the set of the last one must secure an adequate gas speed
through the kiln tube, since the heat exchange will depend on the relative speed between gas and

Therefore finding the regime dp for the kiln, for a O 2 level, the draft movements for other production
levels are simple:

P1 (TPD) dp 1 Draft1
, Draft = IDF RPM or Gate %.
P2(TPD) O2 constant
dp 2 Draft 2

Thus, if a level production is desired and it is in other one, the movement would be:

dp New
Draft New Draft Actual
dp Actual
Finally, the fan power consumption will be in the same proportion.
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3.2.3 What fuel level is the required one?

Given a draft level (Air flow), and therefore a P, the fuel level will be given by the desired oxigen
level, exhausting the air through combustion.

Naturally this excess oxigen is referred exiting the calciner, usually at the tower exit, and therefore its
result gives the total fuel and not the individual ones (burner + calciner). So the next statement will be
the the oxigen level at the kiln tube and in total at the tower exit.

The seeked oxigen levels for both cases are those which assure CO close to zero (<300 PPM at the
tower exit and < 500 PPM at the kiln tube). At the exit tower the false air entrances must be taken
into consideration, which must not raise the O2 more than 1 percent after the last burning fuel
point. In kilns with calciner values of 4 % 5 % at the exit are usually used (if the raw meal transport
is neumatic it is incorporated 1% to the O 2) and of 2 % - 3 % in the kiln tube burning coke (with fuel
oil the value could be lower). In the case of calciners are considered good values of 3 % - 4 % at the
exit and 2 % - 3 % in the tube, since the main false air entrance, the kiln seal, does not affect too
much, because of the posterior combustion. The O2 level can be adjusted by 2 ways:

a) The fuel movement for O2 adjustment can be expressed as the following simple way:
TPH fuelCurrent
TPH fuelCalculated , O2 = O2 standard O2 current.
1 0.009 O 2

b) The draft movement for O2 adjustment can be expressed in a similar way:

Draft Calculated Draft Current .(1 0.009 O 2 )

With all the already exposed, the kiln capacity can be expressed as follows (with empiric coefficients):

21 O2

P (TPD ) f P 0.7 ,

The fuel distribution will be made in function of: the installation, the desired O2 levels, the desired
thermal load in the tube (in kilns with calciner and tertiary air approximately 4 Gcal/hr m2) and volatile
evaporation problem, essentially sulfur, as it has already discussed at the beginning of this chapter.
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There is an important consideration to be fulfilled when it is operated with a low production: For
clinkering it is necessary a zone with enough temperature, but with a low production, this zone must
be displaced backwards, since if not, the kiln is not shortened naturally, so it will ask for a greater raw
meal feeding. Therefore, with a low production, the excess O2 level must be greater in the kiln tube
for the case of kilns without tertiary air and of less raw meal preparation for kilns with calicner (lower
hot stage temperature), see section 4.2.

Finally and trying to control the O2, the response time of O2 and CO response time by fuel
movementes depends on the gas speed, so in the starting up conditions the final response will be
seen slowly by the low gas speed, being able to take more time in these cases, compared with the
time under regime conditions (normal kiln capacity around its nominal).

3.2.4 What feeding level does it admit?

Previously it has been seen that a certain introduced air flow, characterized by the differential pressure
and exhausted by the combustion at a certain oxigen degree, provides a heat which allow negiotating
a certain production level:

0.7 21 O2

P(TPD) f P ,

But will also depend on the raw meal hardness (its burnability). Therefore for a D1 hardness expressed
D1 = LSF + 10 MS (Without considering minerology and granulometry)

The kiln capacity can be expressed as:

21 O2
P (Tpd ) a P 0.7


Being important to obtain the adjustment factor (a), and with it the efficiency variation can be known
approximately for each draft change, excess O2 or raw meal hardness.

Thus, for a kiln with a 2500 tpd capacity, if the clinker to be obtained is modified, and just that, from
LSF=97 (and MS=2.5) to LSF=98, the efficiency loss will be of 2%.
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Towards the raw meal scale adjustment in order to calculate the clinker production, several
considerations must be done:

1. The raw meal scale might not be the only material entrance which exits with the clinker, also it
could be the dust which enters with the coke, caused by the fuel milling with kiln drying gases
( dust % 4-12%), depending on the dust concentration in the kiln gas.

2. Some of what enters at the tower superior part will not end entering the kiln tube, since it will
exit with the escape gas caused by the higher or lower cold stages inefficiency, and very
dependent on the draft level (dust recovery levels of 10% are habituals), and where does the
recovered dust go (to the kiln or to the homogenization silo).

3. The weight relation (raw meal/clinker), will depend also on the carbonates level, humidities
(free and/or combined), etc., sumarized by the lost on ignition.

4. Others: alkali by-pass, oxidants compounds, the recovered dust in the the filter returns to the
tower without passing through the scale, etc.

For all the previous, what it could be a weights relations raw meal/clinker in the order of 1.56 by a
normal lost on ignition of 34%, will be transformed in the scale into a different relation, so if this
physical clinker weighing is evaluated it becomes just a calculation factor Scale Indication clinker
Tpd, not confusing when declaring the raw meal consumptions, and from this to raw materials

Finally, and towards the raw meal flow control and possible decalibrations, the gas temepratures level
of the cold stages helps a lot to discriminate scale situations. Therefore, a high temperature with
respect to the habitual one may indicate, if nothing has been touched, a lower raw meal flow with
respect to the one indicated by the scale. Likewise it is very important the seals condition, as in the
material entrances as well as in the discharge, the first one supposes cold air which cools the zone but
mainly asphyxiates the kiln, while the second one cools the flame.

3.3 Control Parameters

In the instumentation there are signals to indicate the Operator that the kiln is in conditions for
admitting one or other raw meal amount, or in general to diagnose and decide what the kiln IS
ASKING. These parameters can not be considered individually, but as a whole; to seek the given
values logic or ilogic by that mentioned instrumentation, which must be enough and reliable.
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3.3.1 Torque or rotation moment (motor amperage)

Torque motor 976636 kW

kg m
Torque = f( Shell + Satellites + Coating + Burning + Raw Meal + Mech. Problems)

Variable Effect on the Torque

Shell Is constant (weight) and does not affect in Torque changes

Satellites Is constant and does not affect in Torque changes excepting in entrances stickiness conditions which
decompensate the satellites, by being different the clinker amount in them, in this case the torque
strip is widened.

Mechanical For example, kiln contact with the still joint of the tower (entrance seal), by kiln up and lubrication
Problems failure generate aditional efforts which are translated in sudden Torque rises, and to be kept later in

Coating The symmetrical coating part does not generate torque movements, but in the contrary, if it is
irregular, cyclic rises and drops will appear in the torque, according the coating position.

When the coating falls, the torque rises, generated by the fall effort against the turn, and then
lowering when it is incorporated to the raw meal flow, this makes that the present torque, on its
average value, an increase for then lowering, consequence of the cooling which this material adds to
the flow.

Burning When clinkering the material, it nodulizes, raising with the turn and
dropping against the motor, consuming higher amperage. In the Sube

extreme case of fusion by overheating, the motor effort effect

disappears and the torque suddenly drops. On the contrary if the
material does not clinker, this is behaved as liquid keeping the level.

Raw Meal The amount of resident raw meal in the kiln affects with its weight.

By all the previous, it is very important the TORQUE TIME slope determination, at short term in
order to discern if the movement the Torque is having is by clinkering evolution or by other
circumstances (mechanical problems or coatings falls, mainly).

Heating Coating Falls Mechanical Problems

value <<< value <<< value
amp/min :
In the other hand, the torque value makes reference to the kiln condition 30 minutes before
(approximately), this is, what is evaluated is the last section (clinkering) so the conditions are being
announced 20-30 minutes after the raw meal entered the kiln.
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3.3.2 NOx

The NOx is formed at high temperatures so it can be an indicator of the kiln thermal level and
therefore, the clinkering degree. The NOx may come from the nitrogene in the fuel or air, because it is
very influenced by the excess air level, as will be seen in section 6 Emissions.

Therefore it is a signal that must be taken care of because it can induce errors. The NOx control for
environmental effects will be seen in the emissions section, however, the presence of yellow smokes in
the chimney indicates high NOx and therefore a very hot kiln, and not necessarily detectable at the
kiln peephole. The delay or inerce in the response is about 10 minutes.

3.3.3 O2 and pressures

When the kiln gets cold and the generated clinker results with a low apparent density, this is, it
occupies more space, reducing the free transversal area and limiting the secondary air pass, for these
reasons the following happen:
The O2 level is decreased.
The pressures rise as at the cold stages as well as at the hood. For the cases of satellites kilns
the larger occupied space by the clinker at the cooling section limits the access of suction of
the air generated by the kiln tunnel.
The flame becomes instable, as stretching by the air speed at the kiln tube and by the raw
meal dust interference, by which the kiln begins to blow causing pressure variations at the
smokes chamber.
When the kiln is heated the contrary occurs.

This support guide to the diagnose has to be questioned, mainly to not be confused with a ring
formation, for which, the continuous temperature monitoring at the kiln Shell (scanner) helps to clarify.

Also it has to be clarified that the movements had not been due to start ups or stops of inline
equipments with the kiln (coke or raw meal mills) since them, or their operation irregularities, might
alter the pressures, oxigen levels, etc., in the kiln. A way to insulate the kiln from that mentioned
installations is placing a pressure measurement at the kiln IDF exit and fixing a safe level for the
mentioned pressure and controlling it through a inline IDF, it can be the kiln filter one or other which
recollects the hot gases as: the inline raw meal or coke mill.
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3.3.4 TV camera, zone temperature and hot stage temperature.

The flame pyrometry, even it does not give the real reading of this one, it is an excellent measurement
of the kiln condition on its final section. To assure that this situation concerns the rest of the kiln, the
hot stage gas temperature must be observed and controlled, since assuring a constant raw meal
preparation value for the kiln, an excellent kiln control can be kept with the flame pyrometry (Zone
temperature). The kiln control base is an excellent control for the raw meal preparation.
Note .- The zone temperature may be substituted by the flame luxometry (Measurement of the light
intensity in the flame).

3.3.5 Analytical
Is the less precise, since depends on the raw meal stability.

Free lime - As it depends on the entrance saturation, the LSF must be known and bound (of the
clinker) so there will not be an error with the free lime and therefore discerning if this, is caused by the
kiln condition or is caused by the high lime saturation in the raw meal.

And towards the clinkering degree calculation (GK), here is proposed two ways to quantify it:

with :
C3 S C 3 S evaluated by corrected Bogue
a ) GK (%) 1 100 For the cases in with th e LSF 100, will be used :
C3 S
C 3 S CaO L 1 CaOTotal 4.07
CaO total CL For the cases in with the LSF 100, will be used :
b) GK (%) 100 C 3 S CaO L 4.07
CaO total CL E

with :
CL Analyzed free lim e
CL E Stoichiometric free lim e
CaO Total 2.8 SiO 1.65 Al 2 O 3 0.35 Fe 2 O 3 0
If 0 CL E 0

Volatile The kiln volatile retention or exit (SO3, K2O, Na2O), and therefore their levels in the clinker,
might help to decide if the kiln is being heated or cooled. If it is being heated, these values begin to
decrease by volatilization; if it is being cooled, the values tend to rise, but in the case of wrong raw
meal burning it does not drain since the volatile just escape if it becomes clinker.

The delay time of this control is of approximately 45 minutes to one hour, since the analysis time is
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3.3.6 Exist gas temperature

The temperature level lowering or rising at the cold stages exit, may warn that the heat and raw meal
are being decompensated, announcing that kiln will end cooling or heating. Naturally this does not
apply when draft movements are made intentionally or standards for the calciner or any other
movement with flame displacement.

3.3.7 Kiln view

The flame view, as by TV as well as in field (kiln tunnel or hood) facilitates the understanding of the
kiln situation, and complements the diagnostic.

3.3.8 Weight/Liter
It is not a good control parameter since the clinker density depens on its modules, therefore a clinker
well clinkered with a higher MS (less fluxes) weights less than other one.
Ex. LSF=99 MA=1.7 MS=2.1, a normal value of the P/L =1474
MS=2.4, a normal value of the P/L =1261
...and in both cases it will be clinkered correctly. Therefore the white clinker P/L is lower than the gray

3.4 Control

There are several ways to regulate a kiln and they are between this 2 regulation extremes:
1. Changing the fuel and draft, keeping the raw meal feeding and kiln speed constants.
2. Chaning the raw meal feeding and kiln speed, keeping fixed the fuel and draft.

The control reality makes the operator to change more the raw meal and speed than the fuel and
draft, since the second one creates problem in the O2 adjustment level. It is important not to forget
that when it is said that the kiln is cold (by the control variables of the previous section), the kiln is not
only cold but its tendency is to become colder, in other words, a kiln is cold when it has to be done
cold kiln actions, since it can be hot at its final part (clinkering), but its tendency to become colder (the
material that comes from the back) will take that in a short time to stop being hot. With this criteria
the operator must see not only the current flame zone, but by tendency, how is it going to be in a time

In the other hand, if well there is a excess O2 in the normal operation, for the combustion and volatile
drain, when the kiln gets cold, this level drops and it is when some more fuel has to be introduced, as
much as the little O2 reserve allows, so, burning well, the kiln is recovered, even it is assumed in that
little time it has been forgotten a perfect sulfur drain.
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The combinated action of fuel increase (without additional draft), lowers the raw meal and the speed
in order to give residence, will allow to recover the desired condition. All of these is relatively easy if
the tower is kept normalized, this is, if the kiln has a calciner, keeping a material preparation degree
(gas temperature at hot stage as the best signal for this) and if it does not have a calciner, keeping a
gas temperature overlevel at the cold stages exit by raw meal decrease, which will be fixed according
the cooling degree and will allow to decompensate raw meal and heat, assuming that this thermal
inefficiency is very important to recover the kiln.

By the mentioned previously, it is very important to have a reliable O2 and CO indication in order not
to work blinded, that is why it is recommended to keep analizers in parallel (2 or 3) taking gases from
the same point but not from the same probe.

The actions by hot kiln must be taken even more dynamically, since they can derive in clinker and
coating fusion, ending in refractory fusion, or other previous problems, satellites entrances adherences,
cooling zone coating, rings, etc.

It must be always present that the kiln control is divided, and it has to be divided, in the tower control
and the tube control, and to be very conscious that until the tower does not get stabilized at the
desired level, the kiln tube can not be controlled, since with material of different preparation already
placed in different kiln places will force to a very different operation, and can not operate well in
contrary situations. Also, very different actions in a short time, wil affect the tower instability, except if
there is a calciner, where benefits will appear.

Draft actions have not been mentioned, excepting very aggressive cases, it is best not touching it,
because of its flame length and O2 effect, as well as in the gas and raw meal speeds at the tower, and
the level of not recovered dust at the cold stages will vary the effective material flow to the kiln tube.
The draft decreases raise the possibility of a certain raw meal by-pass at the hot stage which comes
from the previous stage.

Summarizing, a model for the calculation of stepped adjustments is proposed next:

dp Exit ( desired )
Draft New
dp Exit (current )

dp (desired ) 21 - O 2 Desired
Tph Raw Meal H New H Current . Exit .
dp Exit (current ) 21 - O 2 Current
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And to obtain that O2 Desired, first the O2 level is calculated (hypothetical) which will be obtained when
the current draft (dp) is modified by the dp (desired):

dp Exit ( Current )
O2 Hypothetical 21 21 O2Current
dp Exit ( Desired )

And therefore, the fuel (tph) to exhaust it until O2Desired:

21 O2 Desired
Fuel new Fuel New
21 O2 Hypothetical
And finally the kiln speed, supposing it will not vary in the raw meal preparation degree:
C 3 S Current F . L.
N ( rpm) New N ( rpm) Current
C 3 S Desired F . L.

In case of having controlled the quality to its desired one and therefore
C 3 S Desired F . L. C 3 S Actual F . L. , will not imply the speed modification. If the raw meal preparation
degree is not gotten, then:
Tgas hot stage ( Desired ) C 3 S Current F . L.
N (rpm) Nuew N ( rpm) Current
Tgas hot stage (Current ) C3 S Desired F . L.
Which represents if the hot stage current temperature is lower of the desired one the other
movements will adjust it (or if it has a calciner, this will adjust it) and therefore, the speed will be rised
accommodating that better raw meal preparation.

The acting order is very important. But this previously exposed model should not be confused, which is
for a rise or drop in steps, as a recovery after shut downs or regime lower conditions by different
necessities; with the movements by the kiln condition, which will be called ADJUSTMENTS, on which, if
the draft must be adjusted, this will be the one to be done. After that it will be the raw meal feeding
movement, keeping the tower conditions (if there is a calciner, it must be adjusted). Finally with a
small delay in time will be the fuel one and finally the speed adjustment. When these are not
adjustments to reach the regime (nominal load) but, by the kiln condition, the order changes, must
differentiating the adjustments in: TOWER and KILN TUBE.

Both adjustments might be found, first the tower conditions must be secured if the kiln tube has to be
stabilized. This is specially critic after a shut down. Once started, the 1 st objective is to normalize the
tower, sacrificing the kiln tube as possible towards the tower benefits.

When talking about adjustments by kiln thermal state, it is not talked about its final state or burner
zone state, but of the kiln GLOBAL state. How to define a global state, if almost all the control
parameter values are just talking about the final kiln section?
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A control parameter value, for example the Torque, is indicating how it is clinkering, but not how the
material which is advancing at the back is doing. Therefore, this signal tendency in time is the one
which will indicate it. So, it will be a set between the current signal and the tendency the one which
will diagnose, towards adjustments if the kiln is cold, hot or well.

The kiln would have a hot kiln torque but a strong tendency of torque decrease, which will
conceptualize the kiln from global into cold, so the adjustments will be to heating it up. This is
evaluated with rationalized values in the following way:
(a Current State ) (b Tendency - at the chosen term-)
Global State

Where: a and b will be the weighing of the current state and its previous evolution.
3 examples are shown next:
a) a=1 and b=0, not normal it would imply a kiln which by its instable behavior just interests the
current value looking forward the desired value.
b) a=0 and b=1, would be more irrational since it will not imply the current state which is equivalent
to its desired value, and only interests the current value towards the desired value.
c) a=0.5 and b=0.5, a normal weighing will be gotten which will be corrected according the current
situation and the tendency.
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* For: ** Considered time: short,

VVm; VR=-1
medium, or long term or a
combination of them.
V VS 1
Vm < V < Vs1; VR
VS1 Vm
Vs1 V Vs2; VR=0

V VS 2
Vs2 < V < VM_; VR
V VM ; VR=+1

With the result of the global evaluated state for each control parameter and averaging according to
their reliability, it is established a definitive global state, which will take to the adjustments of a very
hot, hot, little hot, well, little cold, cold very cold kiln, deriving in adjustmens on:
Raw meal
Raw meal and speed
Fuel, raw meal and speed
Fuel, raw meal, speed and draft
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Always if possible the kiln speed will be kept, understanding that it has been found its optimal point for
the raw meal and draft preparation degree, on which there is a good zonification. However, if by
variation on the raw meal preparation degree (hot stage temperature) or by coating incorporation to
the raw meal (coating fall), the speed should be touched, it will be the minimum essential in order to
assure a minimum quality loss.

Regarding the fuel, this should not risk the kiln in order to save its quality; having a bad raw meal
preparation has remedy, melting the refractory, not without stopping.

The draft, as it has been mentioned it is preferable not to touch it expecting an urgen necessity (CO
presence), since adjusting the kiln to a low draft, will force to a new adjustmen regarding other draft,
and stabilizing the tower is the priority and it is difficult.

What adjustmens should be chosen? Before answering this question the consequences of each one
should be analyzed, knowing that it is always important to think about the heat exchange.

Speed Adjustment

If there is a calciner, the TgasH.S. will be kept constant but with other fuel level.

Raw Meal Feeding Adjustment.

If there is a calciner, the TgasH.S. will be kept constant but with other fuel level.
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Fuel Adjustment (Without Draft Adjustmen)

Draft Adjustment (without fuel adjustment (O2))

If there is a calciner, the TgasH.S. will be kept constant but with other fuel level.

Taking this into consideration, the adjustment or adjustmens more coherent for the kiln situation will
be seeked, as long as it is not being conditioned with the presence of a CO level above normal, on
which case will be more important to correct the CO presence than any other consideration, but if it
can be done trying to make it compatible with the kiln state:
1. If the kiln is hot or very hot: fuel reduction, as the desired O 2 is incremented (O2) to lower
the CO:

Fuel New FuelCurrent
1 0.09 O2

2. If the kiln is not hot or very hot: draft increase, as the desired O 2 is incremented (O2) to
lower the CO:

1 0.09 (O2Current O2 )
Draft New Draft Current
1 0.09 O2Current
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Part 4- Kiln control and operation under special conditions

The objective of this section is to show the concepts and calculations for the 2 more significative
cases: operations related with a kiln shutdown and working under a forced operation with low

4.1 Cooling, heating and kiln start up.

When a kiln stops or it is stopped, there are some questions that have to be raised, for which this
section pretends to give a calculated answer.
In order to plan a cooling, first the cooling behavior in time has to be modeled for the different draft
conditions. From this study the kiln thermal state forecast will born for any cooling time, not mattering
how it is done. Thus, a kiln that is going to be stopped for inventory or it is going to start soon, it
requires to keep all possible heat. In the first case, not wasting energy while cooling it before time,
and not harming unnecessarily mechanical parts or refractory. In the second case not losing calories
that will have to be compensated later with fuel. Doing so, how do we know that the kiln is losing as
little heat as possible? When does the primary air can be turned off to protect the burner? When does
the kiln need to be rotated? All this questions have an answer when its behavior has been modeled
Similarly, if it is needed to cool it as soon as possible in order to immobilize it, how does it have to be
cooled without any damage? And when could it be immobilize?
The cooling time depends on the urgence, and if this is the situation, the rule of cooling at the rate of
40C per global hour could be applied, which leads to 0.02**D*L in hours, all of these measured at
the hot stage. The tool handles the next turn frequency concept and the next immobilization criteria:

Minimum _ Turn 1 of turn each T 145 T minutes

where, T hot stage Tgas or scanner Tmaximun

Kiln can be stopped, when :

hot stage Tgas Tambient 40, and
Shell kiln Tmax. 130C
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The available file in the Repair protocol application, helps to answer automatically this questions,
choosing as a reference the kiln thermal state, the gas temperature of the hot stage, as being an
available instrumentation in the distributed control (scadas) and the scanner which, in addition of
having other consideration, do not have signals for the calculation. As a special warning it is
recommended not to exceed 180C between the ring temperature and the shell temperature.

Calculus sheet example GENERAL REPAIRS.XLS Sheet: COOLING

Cooling curve without the main IDF (Induced Draft Fan) use, in this case the only consideration is: to
have the dampers opened in order to favor this natural draft.
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Calculus sheet example GENERAL REPAIRS.XLS Sheet: COOLING

Cooling curve using the main IDF with a draft level expressed as an exit depression of the tower.

In addition, at any time during the cooling, it is required to know if it could start immediately or if it
requires heating, and in this case, how many hours and the cost (fuel amount). For a kiln that comes
from a repair, the heating hours are given by the amount of recfractory placed, if it is brick or
concrete, and of the kiln span (diameter and length), and by this simple general form:

Heating hours a D L
0.02 if only bricks were placed (or mostly bricks were placed )
with a
0.03 if a lot of concrete was placed
D and L in meters.
.... and if the installation is totally new, is the manufacturer who determines it.
Finally, the internal inspections of the tube state will or will not corroborate that the plannings made
have not harmed the kiln. The time to get inside the kiln depends on the temperature in which the
people can work and if the work admits kiln turns due the heat.
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On the other hand, if it is needed to keep the kiln in a determined thermical level (letting it cooling
until a given point and keeping it until the heating permission is given), how much fuel is needed to
keep it in that state? To answer this question it is just needed to use the Heating file available in the
Repair protocol application.

Calculus sheet example GENERAL REPAIRS.XLS Sheet: COOLING

Important: first the installation temperature must be allowed to decrease in order to apply the fuel
that will recover the losses; this will avoid keeping the kiln hot in a similar level as the operational one.

Thus, for example, if the kiln has to be stopped and it can not be heated until x hours, how cold would
it be until that given hour? How much fuel would be needed to keep it in that level and how much time
would be needed to heat it in order to be ready to produce again?

In what it respects to the level of raw meal needed when starting up, as it has been told, it will
depend on the kiln thermical level by the moment of taking the decision. In this section a calculation of
the levels of each control variables is offered (efficiency, speed, draft and fuel) in function of the hot
stage temperature without draft (this is the only way in which the hot stage level is not influenced by
heat displacements and weakens its correspondence with the real thermical level in the kiln tube). This
starting up level is called establishment level, because it establishes the safe plataform by which, the
kiln, before or after, will grow.
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It is importat to clarify, that when a kiln has just stopped is not good to apply maintance heating, since
the kiln is ready to produce and the fuel needed only to keep the losses would not be as exact,
deriving in heating something ready. In which it is needed to let the temperature low a little bit
(around 600-650C) and keep it hot over this safe level, waiting the moment to heat it and feed it.
This safe level is a level that lets, if it is needed, do a direct start up without jeopardizing the refractory
and the mechanical parts due the thermal load.
The heating planning implies several questions:
How much fuel is needed to start?
At which refrigertation level of the flame (O2)?
How many hours and which ramp?

According to the answers of these questions, a fuel amount will appear for all the heating, and
therefore also a fuel level for the final, that can or can not be compatible with the maximum
permissible thermal load, for an empty kiln with slow turn. The program proposes, according to the
initial and final heating temperature, a refrigeration flame level (O 2 excess) giving the option to plan it
by heating ramp, C/hr, or by hours. Finally it will be the tube thermal state (defined by the scanner
approach to the normal operation) the one that will determine if the kiln is or is not ready to receive
raw meal. Hurrying the start up might be possible, as long as the fuel fed (in order to increase
thermically the kiln and also to clinker the received raw material) is compatible with the thermal load
(permissible < 6 Gcal/h m 2). The assistance program for this matter, having the understanding that
the more a start up is hurried the less of raw material will be fed.

In the previous chart, the areas under the curve indicate the amount of energy required, so in order to
minimize the used energy to heat up the installation, the heating time must be decreased to the
exclusively necessary through a good programming.
It is necessary to indicate that if a certain heating ramp is not beign watched, but the same fuel level
is kept during all the heating process, although it will be ready, the flame will be placed in the same
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position all time, so it will be always affecting the same zone and will entail to the refractory
destruction of that particular zone.
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So that is why a good ramp (both in fuel level and in O 2 excess level) will assure a progressive
displacement of the flame to its maximum point, and a accurate heat distribution to all the installation.
The primary air will be according to the fuel level in each period, being especially important in the first
moments, having the flame with little fuel and not asphyxiating it.

Calculus sheet example GENERAL REPAIRS.XLS Sheet: HEATING CURVE

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4.1.1 Start up. Establisment level and regime recovery

Draft percentage (% dp):

3.7 T gas h.s. hot stage temperature

Tgas h. s .
%dp 3.3 10
100 20 just after starting up ( without draft ).
800 dp N pressure , at cold stages exit,
%dp under kiln regime or " nominal" conditions,
Draft : dp (mmca) dp N
in mmca units.

Fuel percentage (% calories):

%calories 25 %dp

Fuel : O2 O2 ( regime " no min al" value)

Fuel (T/h) Fuel Normal

Feed percentage (%Production):

%Production 8.5 %calories %dp


% Pr oduction
Raw meal Raw meal Normal

Speed percentage (% Speed):

% Speed 10 5 %calories

% Speed
Speed Speed Normal
Note: do not start up unless %dp = 30, so Tg hot stage= 570C, that corroborates the calculation of the
minimum starting up Tghot stage.

But if it comes from a heating or ignition, a fix %dp = 30 will be applied, and the rest according to
this until levels are stabilized and then change the value of %dp to the one if %dp > 30 with a hot
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The kiln recovery speed (ramp) until it reaches the production regime will depend on the starting up
level and on the kiln state, always watching the mechanical aspects (dilatations, etc.). Here the next
ramp is proposed in mmWC/h:

Draft (mmWC )
dp N (at regime ) dpout (at start up)
h hre cov ery
with, h recovery hours needed for re cov ery 1.2 1012 Tgas h.s .

(fast calculation = 0.6shutdown hours)

Example: dpregime = 650

dp Start up 650 295
Tg 680C 100
hre cov ery 7 hours

ramp (650 295) 50 mmWC h


If a calciner is available, the exigency ramp for the hot stage gas will be:

C Tgas regime - Tgas h.s. without calciner

h hre cov ery
The next movements to every DRAFT change are formulated in Part 3 Kiln at Regime, of which the
next metioned criteria must be taken into consideration:

P1 (TPD) dP1 Draft1

, Draft = RPM FAN or % Damper.
P2(TPD) O2 constant
dP2 Draft 2

Draft New Draft Present

Verify the ignition resultant scanner, with the normal expected profile, in order to detect possible
refractory anomalies or damages.
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4.1.2 Start up abacus and kiln recovery

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4.2 Kiln with a low production.

By its design principle, a kiln is not desgined to work at a low efficiency respect to its nominal, taking
care of the operation under a low regime trying no to harm it. Here the concepts are exposed.

The only ways to produce at low regime respect to its nominal, is to move the flame (unbalalncing fuel
versus draft), or if there is a calciner, lower the raw meal preparation. If not, the kiln will ask the
corresponding raw meal to the installation, or the flame will not be able to clinker.
a) with Calciner:

Preparation P1

Decarbonation ends
P2 <<< P1 (Production level)
Tc2 <<< Tc1 (Hot Stage Temp.)

Preparation P2

Decarbonation ends

b) with flame displacement:

O 2 (1)
Enough T. for
Effective Kiln

P 2 <<< P 1

O 2 (2) >>> O 2 (1)

O 2 (2)

Effective Kiln
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In the (a) case it is possible to get the new production from a kiln (with calciner or precalciner) to a
conventional kiln (without calciner), with a better heat specific consumption. In the (b) case it will
always have a greater consumption and a greater kiln risk, because the operator, as not seeing the
flame (because it has been moved away from the hood) it becomes hotter (where he does not see it).
That is why he has to watch that higher O 2 and not the flame, as high or less production is wished,
and in the fact that the clinker will be produced within specifications. The kiln regime can not be lower
because of the risk mentioned previously, and because in (b) case, the kiln cooling zone could be as
long, that is, it will become a clinker reheating zone of clinker already produced, with the risk of
fusioning it, due to rock formation (mainly on the dumps: entrances or brim), and refractory fusion.
For that reason it is highly recommended not to speed down a kiln that is operating under a low
regime, or if it is required, to be as low as possible.


O2 Excess
1 8

A kiln with a low production is more prone to generate undesirable volatile cicles, although of having
high oxigen levels, since this do not guarantees the mentioned volatile control.
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A special case of opeating the kiln under a low regime is the presence of rings, where the kiln control
operation becomes more complicated because of the need of speed, due the ring, to the margin of the
needed for clinkering. This is agravated by avalanches generated due to raw meal retention / liberation
and due to the raw meal spilled from the seal, which makes to raise the draft (lowering even more the
production) and complicates even more the operation. When the ring, even big, is irregular, there is a
margin to try bringing it down, but for this the speed does not have to be very high, since if it is, the
gap where the raw meal is escaping only stays for a little time, this is, as we were talking about the
dampers of a dynamic separator. Before declaring that the kiln is spilling from the entrance seal due a
ring in a determined meter, it is good to make calculations if possible.

d H Will spill from the seal if :

Length L(m) Inclination (%)
H d sen 0.45 (%) L

Besides seeking the main causes that produced the ring and correcting them (SO 3 in the system, raw
meal hardness that requires high fuel flow with a high sulfur, or low hardness, due low modules
accompanied of high flux), in order to try bringing them down while working there are some
alternatives to try together:
1. Lowering the sulfur addition switching fuel for 24 hours.
2. Making sure that drains, not to accumulate more, by which there is the need of clinkering.
3. Moving the flame in order to destabilize the ringed zone thermal clash.
4. Hardening a little bit the raw meal so the lacking of flux will instabilize the ring.
5. Having no other compromise than clinker, draining the sulfur and bringing down the ring,
without considerating the efficiency.
6. If it is needed, after 24 hours, suddenly stop the kiln, let them cool for 3 hours and then start

If the ring has a regular thickness, this is, there are not gaps (the scanner shows it without a 360
temperature strip); there is no other solution than to stop, cool and bring it down.

In the zones prone to generate rings is estimated, by the results obtained, to install basic refactory
(spinel) without iron, instead of aliminous silica (acid), since the thermal conductivity of the basic one
makes the hot side to get colder, decreasing the attaching tendency, and if it happens, it will
frequently detach while functioning.
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Other recommendations to drain the sulfur (others than setting up a by-pass) are:
1. Search for raw materials with less sulfur or more alkali. The SO 3 introduced by raw materials
affects less than the one that comes form the fuel, since in the first case it is going to be
incorporated into the phases and in the second case it will become directly a gas.

S=Coke SO3Coke Contribution ratio Raw meal Contribution ratio 1:1.6 Clinker Total SO3
10:1 SO3
5 12.5 1.3 0.8 1.3 1.3+1.3=2.6 without problems
7 17.5 1.8 0.3 0.5 1.8+0.5=2.3 with problems

2. Grinding very fine the coke

a. Through 75 100 0.85% volatile
b. Through 90 100 0.50% volatile
and for the calciner, 2 more points.

3. Grinding more the raw meal, so the specific heat consumption will decrease, therefore the
addition of sulfur from the fuel will decrease.
4. Assuring and oxidant atmosphere at the kiln entrance, in order to assurance the formation of
sulfates, which will come out with the clinker. It is pursued to have a CO < 500 ppm, with O 2
2 not being necessary to exaggerate the O2 level, since in extreme, it rarifies the flame
(cooling it).
5. Centering well the burner so the clinker, under the flame, will vaporize the CaSO 4 as less as
6. Placing more inside the burner, if the secondary air arrives without regularize itself at the
burner point and directs the flame into a preferential direction.
7. Smooth flame, which obtains clinkering but not vaporizing the CaSO 4, by means of the total set
of primary air, radial % and O2 excess.
8. Adjusting well the kiln speed to the residence need of the material, an excess in residence
favors the volatilization, since is a time temperature combination at that temperature.
9. If the filter dust goes enriched with SO 3, do not reintroduce it directly to the kiln, but take it to
homogenization, and if possible: to hoppers for cement milling.
10. Assuring continuous and stable flows at the cyclones tower, adjusting well the unloading
counterbalance valve.
11. Contributing with limestone to the coke grinding, in a 17% in order to get the vaporized SO 3.
It has been tested and the results give a 40% efficacy.
12. Contributing with additives, based in micrometric magnesium, wich forms stable composites
with vanadium (1600 ppm) and nikel (350 ppm) from the coke (wich favors SO 3 evaporation).

The ratio
Mg 3 must be met; this implies 1 per thousand in coke proportionings, as a
flame additive proportioning.
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Inspecting the rings composition is fundamental in order to determine their origin. The sulfur in
the coating along the kiln is on the order of:
% SO3 ( position) 0.15 position (meters)
Finally, it is very important to indicate if high sulfur cycles are being handled, we have to watch
very carefully the cyclone premature crammings (or bars) diagnostics and if they are produced,
cleaning very well in order to leave no residues. The canons number and arrangement is
fundamental for the continuous functioning (air pressure 6.5 kg/cm2), as their shot sequence so,
what a canon cleans will fall where another one will clean later and not otherwise.
Also is fundamental not to suffer fuel flow faults, without raw meal cuts, that will cool abruptly the
tower, falling the already sticked (normally at the hot stage end) formed as a cram.

The fast detection of an incipient cram is fundamental, since the easiness and mainly the risk to
solve it, depend on the stored raw meal in the stage. For the automatic stage cramming detection
(by menas of PLC logic), the pressure measurements in the cones and the differential
measurement between the gas and the material temperatures can be used. A crossing between
both temperatures, and a cone pressure elevation, are not enough to declare with assurance a
cramming, since they depend on the instrumentation localization, and where the material is being
held. This has to be complemented with temperature and pressures movements in the rest of the
stages, so:

A cramming at the hot stage will raise the pressures above it at the tower, and will raise the gas
temperature of the previous stage, since the tube originated gas will not cool with the material
that should come out from this hot stage.

A cramming at the previous stage from the hot one, will raise mainly the gas temperature of the
hot stage, since material is not falling, therefore, not cooling the gas which rises from the
ascendant. In kilns with calciner, the temperature is controlled by the fuel of it, a strong difference
between the fed fuel and the normal one will be watched.

Crams at the colder stages than the last one, are anormal, but if they occure the same philosophy
will apply.
Briefing, any sustancial pressure (relative to the exit pressure, since the production level can
change) and/or temperature movements, between gases and material and between stage gases,
must warn of a possible cram or clog, warning the field personnel and acting with diligence on
the verification, otherwise, to stop. The fast tower stabilization during a kiln start up is
fundamental as well as the fuel cuts due to raw meal feeding failures.
Although not frequent, other volatile cycles have to never be minimized, mainly Chlorine, because
of its highly evaporation, as it is showed at the next table.
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Evaporation and volatile valves. K2 O Na2O Cl- SO3

0.2 0.1 0.35
Evaporation (E): % evaporated (being 1 to 100%) that becomes gas. a a 0.99 a
Depends on the flame conditions. 0.4 0.25 0.8

Valves (V): % not condensed (being 1 to 100%), therefore escpaes

from the condensating conditions zone. Depends on the conditions
zone (Temperature and O2).
KEV 0.15
K E In Kiln + Precalciner (VH) 0.15 0.4 0.05
E KE(1V)

K(1E) K
1 Base de clculo:
1 unidad de In Raw Mill (VM) 0.36 0.56 0.35 0.17
1E(1V) volatil en la

In cooling towers (VT) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

In filter (VF) 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.8

Flow (K): how many times the calculation base unit circulates.

By=% by-pass (being 1.2 1.1 1.5

1 a 100%) Sup. m=1 a a 66 a
(0%) by=0 1.6 1.3 3
(10%) by=0.1 (*) (*) 9 (*)
(*) decrease a llitle bit.

a0= (1-E)k a4= (1-VH)a3 a8= (1-VM) a6

a1= Ek a5= VHa3 a9= VMa6
a2= bya1 a6= ma5 a10= a9 + a7

a3= (1-by)a1 a7= (1-m)a5 a11= (1-VF) a10

m= % kiln gases (being 1 a 100%) that goes to the raw mill.

a12= VFa10
BALANCE: 1= a0 + a2 + a12
Resulting in:
(1 E) by E VF ( VH ) E (mVM m 1)
In absolute values Ai = Aai

where A= % Volatile at the entrance set.

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Example: chlorides balance.

Chlorine data Entrance = A = 0.021 + 0.01
In raw meal feeding: 0.021
= 0.021 + 0.06 0.01 = 0.0216
Limestone: 0.007 (80%)..... 0.0056
Clay: 0.021 (19%)..... 0.0040
Iron: 0.031 ( 1%)..... 0.0003
by 0
Raw Meal: 0.0099 (93%)..... 0.0092
KTerico 66
m 1
Dust : 0.16 ( 7%).... 0.0112
In Coke = 0.01 Raw Meal 0.0204
In Clinker = 0.007

Kreal ?
Ao = A ao = 0.0216(1 - 0.99) K
Ao = 0.007/1.6 in % reference to the raw meal
So Kreal = 20.4 << 66 ok
Circulant Concentration = 0.0216 * 20.4 = 0.4% Cl
By less evaporation or more Valve

4.3 Process protection interlocks.

At the margin of the normal machinery sequential start up interlocks and the corresponding ones to
the mechanincal and electrical protections, process protection interlocks must be defined, wich avoid
functioning in anormal conditions, like:
a) Under CO presence and O2 absence: alarm levels are fixed for maximum CO and minimum O 2.
b) Fuel feeding functioning without raw meal feeding: the feeding failure detection by
temperature increment has to act over the fuel flow and/or over its shut down.
c) Raw meal feeding functioning without fuel feeding: the significative decrease detection of
temperature at the tower has to be solved immediately to avoid later clogs due to slices falls
by an abrupt tower cooling. This situation may happen for fuel flow failures (an increment of
O2 will show it) and for raw meal overfeeding (an increment at the cold stage pressure will
show it).
d) Functioning with an obstructed or clogged stage: the automatic detection of a stage clogging
must warn the OPR (Operations Room) control (panel) and if the alarm continues after a
while, the kiln must be stopped.
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Part 5- Refractory Kiln Reparations Protocol

This section tries to establish a protocol for the kiln reparations attack, which entails plannings about:
Resources and materials.

5.1. Refractory coating.

Solid materials with a high fusion point and with mechanical and chemical benefits, and low heat
transmission, which protect and insulate the structural component, the steel, from the high
temperatures that the process demands.

5.1.1 Benefits
Mechanical resistance (N/mm2)
Chemcial resistance (to the operation process)
Abrasion resistance.
Refractory strength (temperature and conductivity)
Volume stability.
Thermal changes stability wich are interpretated in specifications of:
Chemical composition
Mechanical resistance (N/mm2)
Ta Refractavility (softening temperature, in C)
Density and porosity (% volume)
Thermal conductivity (W/mK or kCal/m h C)
Thermal expansion (% vs temperature C)
Temperature changes resistance, elasticity (cycles)

5.1.2 Types
Conformed = Bricks or prefabricated pieces
Not conformed = Concretes and mortar (they are made in situ)
The advantages and disadvantages of each type (what and where to use them) are summarized as
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Characteristic Bricks Concretes

Preparation Already formed In place
Properties Constants According to preparation and
Mounting Difficult Fast with projection technics
Storage Good Caducity
Drying need Little Much
Aplication zones Simple geometry Complicated geometry
Joints (possible infiltrations 1/Break (bad) 1/zone (expansion) (good)
Structural characteristic weak: a piece fails = the rest Strong (monolithic)
Demolition Simple Expensive

That is why one or another method will be applied, according to this and other possible questions.
Except the kiln tube and the first satellite meters, the rest usually is mounted with concrete according
to high efficient projection technics (few resistance losses).

5.1.3 Refractory Brick

Reviewing the fusion temperatures for different oxides in nature:

Oxide Fusion Comment

ThO2 3200
HfO2 3050
MgO 2800
ZrO2 2700
CaO 2580
UO2 2500
SrO2 2430
Cr2O3 2400
Al2O3 2020 Al2O3 () = corundum
BaO 1923
SiO2 1470 Goes from tridymite (870 C) to cristobalite. At 1710 C obtains melted
Fe2O3 1400

We find that when eliminating the few abundants (Thorium, Hafnium, Uranium, Strontium and Barium)
just left: MgO, ZrO2, CaO, Cr2O3, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2, which will be the components of the different
refractories, which have to be added to others from the carbide family, as the Silica Carbide (SiC, with
a fusion point of 3,000 C), which comes from the steel industry, or nitrates as the Si 3N4. Notice that
SiC has to be used where it is known that the vitrification temperature will be reached (> 1000 C).
Fulfilling the different requeriments in the clinkering operation, two distinctions are made:
Basic materials: thermal and chemical resistance is seeked.
Neutral or acid materials: Resistance to abrasion and/or mechanical resistance are seeked.
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Bricks behavior according to their composition


% MgO % Al2O3 % SiO2

MgO Al2O3 Al2O3 SiO2



Basic Neutral Acid Basic bircks (MgO base)

Since the MgO is very abundant in nature (MgCO 3), and its refractavility is higher, as its chemical
stability (attacks) is higher than the CaO (the CaCO 3 is more abundant than the MgCO 3), the
magnesium is the base of the basic bricks, called that way because of its MgO basic behavior.
The basic bricks technology begun with natural o MgCO3 T
synthetics dolomites (MgO.CaO, product of the T = 700 1000: Calcination = no refractory
carbonates baking), but since this type of bricks T = 1500 2300: Sintering = refractory
presents little elasticity*, elastic refractories T > 2800 C: Electrofused = high quality refractory
were begun to add, in order to resist ovalness
The dolomites eutectic has a fusion point at 2370C
and deformations problems in the kilns. Next
these are related and written down the problems
they entail, but before it has to be indicated that Nomenclature %MgO %CaO
this elements are introduced in one of the more Magnesium >94% +1%
stable forms that the nature presents: the spinel Dolomite/magnesia 40% 57%
structure AB2O4 (in the MgAl2O4 nature). Magnesia/Dolomite 58% 38%

*Note: By temperature cycles or by mechanical problems, as being a rigid brick it breaks.

Basicity ratio (B/A) = (MgO + CaO + Fe2O3 + Na2O) / (SiO2 + Al2O3 + TiO2)
B/A > 1 Basic
B/A < 1 Acid / Neutral
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Magnesia spinel: MgO + MgAl2O4 Al2O3 attackable by alcali watch corrosion
2800C 2135C (MgO . Al2O3) Al2O3 attackable by clk liquid phase watch corrosion
Magnesia chromite: MgO + MgCr2O4 Cr (III) attackable by alcali watch corrosion
2180C (MgO . Cr2O3) Note: not recommended by hexavalent chrome toxicity.

Magnesia ferrocrhomite: MgO + FeCr2O4 Cr (III) attackable by alcali watch corrosion

Iron as a coatinginess. (FeO . Cr2O3) Fe2O3 attackable by REDOX watch corrosion
Magnesia hercynite: MgO + FeAl2O4 Fe2O3 attackable by REDOX watch corrosion
(FeO . Al2O3) Al2O3 attackable by alcali and liquid phase watch
Iron as a coatinginess. At the contact zone C 2F y C2AF corrosion
are formed, wich are the higher heat transmission, the
zone cools and more coating is added, and without
spinel structure.

Magnesia zirconite: MgO + ZrO2 MgO ZrO2 attackable by SO3 watch corrosion
The ZrO2, as addition < 5%, contributes refractivity,
clinker attack resistance, mechanical resistance and
REDOX resistnace.

Magnesia galaxite: MgO + MnAl2O4

(MnO. Al2O3)
Corrosion resistance, REDOX stability.

Other combinations less used by less refractivity are:

Magnoferrite: MgO Fe2O3 (1710C)
Enstatite: MgO SiO2 (1550C)
Fosterite: 2MgO SiO2 (1890C)
And other with Zn, Cu, V, Ti, Ge, etcetera.

Must consider that:

In MgAl2O4 spinels the CaO/SiO2 ratio must be between 1.4 (if less it becomes a silicate with a low
fusion point) y 1.87 (if more it corrodes).
The ZrO2 is presented in two forms, the Rutile type (with temperatures from the ambient one to
1100C) and the Fluorite type (for temperatures from 1100 to 2700C), of very different volume
and that is why it is added so little.

This magnesia (MgO) combinations are used and less dolomites (MgO.CaO) because they are delicated
and attackable. By delicated it is understood the need to conserve them in a dry place mainly because
of the magnesia and calcite hidratation:

MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2 : Slow reaction. Volume increase causes destruction

CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 : Fast reaction
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Attackable by:
SO2 (watch corrosion): CaO + SO2 CaSO4 + CaS
SO3 (watch corrosion): CaO C2S (that is why it coats well), however:
SiO 2clin ker

C2S(of clnker) + MgO + SO3 CaSO 4 + M2S (phospherite) :

27% increase compact do not flexes spalling (it breaks)

The more used combinations are as follows, ordered by price, refractivity, plasticity and REDOX and
chemical resistance:
MgO with: Cr2O3
Mg Al Spinel ZrO2
Besides the chemical component, there is the granulometric one, getting higher
resistances to the clinker attack with large grains.
Although this subject will be explained at the formats section, the ones used in basic bricks used to be
VDZ (german standarization).
The basic bricks properties will be explained with the rest.
Note: joining between the different grains may be done with direct bond* or through chemical
bonds. The direct bonding is preferable since the chemical bond is obtained through cementant
composes (C2S belite type), and therefore they result more vulnerable to the chemical attack, as we
saw: C2S + MgO + SO3 Ca SO4 + M2S (phosphorite) Acid or neutral bricks: Al2O3 SiO2

If the bricks are MgO mainly because of the magnesium nature abundance, the base of the acid or
neutral bricks are the alumina and the silicon, they are aluminosilicic or silicoaluminous,
depending on which predomines, the neutral component (Al) or the acid one (Si), which has a low
refractivility but gives high mechanical benefits, it is used where high thermal benefist are not
The habitual elaboration of this brick type is as follows (by 5% in Al 2O3 content):
Type %Al2O3
High alumina > 70
Medium alumina 50 a 65 As higher alumina higher the
refractivility (Ta), higher the
Low alumina 40 a 45 resistance, higher the
fragility (less elasticity),
Silicoaluminous < 35 higher the chemical attack
and higher conductivity (less
insulating strength).
In the other hand the alumina might be, ordered by price and quality (refractivility and mechanical
Corundum base (Al2O3)
Andalusite base (Al2O3SiO2)
Base Bauxita (Al2O32H2O)
Bauxite base
The most recommendable because of its cost and resistance ratio is the andalusite.
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The carbon, except by its oxidability, is the best refractory since it is practically infusible (it begins at
4330 C) and chemically stable, being the base for the steel carbides, and as we have seen at the
already used silica carbide in a 30% of high alumina brick.
Despite as it has been told, is not checmially stable under oxigen presence, since it oxides into CO 2 and
more when 700 C are surprassed. That is why the carbon only can be used if it is included as an
matrix element in order to obtain more benefits and in low temperature and low O 2 level zones. The
carbon (graphite) when getting in touch with O 2 becomes CO2, leaving holes for mechanical resistance
losses and making it susceptible to the chemical agents attack.

5.1.4 Bricks formats

The ISO and VDZ formats differ on how they divide the
circumference in order to define the pieces size (a), leaving the
wedge (b) depending of the thickness (h) wished and the kiln
diameter (). The ISO format is also called /3 since it is
normalized (a+b)/2 = 71.5. Although is more comfortable the
/3 format because it constitutes bigger pieces (and therefore
less pieces by ring), it is left for the acid or neutral bricks
because of their low expandibility, while for the basic ones (more
expandibles) it is better small bricks in (a) to be able of inserting
between them mortar joints or an arranging of natural joints, if
the circular contour is tried to be built better, the VDZ format
should be used.
The length (L) in both cases is normalized to 200 mm (198 mm), 300 mm can be used to cut the
closing line to the size.
The thickness (h) will depend on the kiln diameter with the next strip:
(m) h (mm)*
< 2.8 160
2.8 3.5 160 / 180
3.5 4.2 180 / 200
4.2 4.5 200
4.5 5.0 200 / 220
5.0 5.5 220
5.5 5.8 220 / 250
> 5.8 250

*Note: except for other retention rings thickness.

The nomenclature for the Bh formats, where:
B: is written if it is VDZ format, if it is ISO its omited.
: kiln diameter expressed in whole meters.
h: thickness expressed in cm.
For example, B620 talks about a brick expressed in VDZ format, for a 6 m kiln diameter and a (h) of
200 mm (in other words, 20 cm).
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In order to mount a circumference with a straight base (a) and shut it perfectly, form combinations are
realized for a greater and smaller kiln that the one being calculated, tending to +1, for example, for a
4.55 m kiln the 3 and 6 m (or the 2 and 6) kiln formats are used, it would be if they are mounted with
a 20 cm thickness:
B620 andd B320 VDZ formats + BP-20 y BP+20 shutting pieces.
620 y 320 ISO formats + P-20 y P+20 shutting pieces.
For a well mounting, it is very important that the supplier takes care off his molds state in order to
assurance that all the pieces arrive in the dimentions tolerance, as well as marked in the hot size so,
the normal pieces (with a little wedge) will not be applied other way around and therefore the kiln
when rotating will spit the bricks. With the fast one (greater wedge) does not exist that problem,
but a good piece marking allows to recount the number of each type that the kiln has asked, and in
that way knowing what is their real size relation for future orders, besides of being a good indirect
measure of the shell deformation.

The pieces, could be smooth or grooved, allowing the

last ones (because of the cavity they form), in the
clinkering zone, the clinker penetration, working as a
coating subjection base, but if it is wrong placed in a
kiln zone where is not possible to coat then a lot of
heat will be transmited to the kiln shell.

They can have, or not, a cardboard joint of 1

to 2 mm in its axial side (figure a), and also
they can have or not a radial plate of 1 mm in
a b thickness in order to favor coating (figure b),
considering that in cold zones, an isulator can
be placed between brick and shell.

Mortar or in bone mounting

The mortar usage as a radial joint, from the point of view of piece over piece settlement is better than
without mortar (in bone), but the placing time rises in 20%.

5.1.5 Refractory brick placing systems.

Three types are basically distinguished:
Tensions Glue Circle segments or form
By sections, the brick is fixed to Is the safer and the more used.
the shell and it is rotated.
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0.- If it is a demolished zone, a fastening must be weld to the not demolished brick in order to avoid
moving while rotating.
1.- The kiln shell is cleaned of dust and husks.
2.- If the shell is convex (deformed) it has to be filled up with refractory.
3.- The base line is traced for the lines starting up.

4.- Guide lines are raised (parallels to base line traced) to 1.5 m of the base line. For reference on the
advances at the fronts it may be used each shell section weld lines
The recommended alternative to place the bricks
is the intercalated way (seen from the top):

Kiln axis

5.- There must not be outphasing in the normal bricks

/ fast advance bricks ratio, since if too many fast
bricks are placed together, steps are produced
there and in the normal ones zone that was Steps
pretended to compensate, that is the importance
of not outphasing.
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6.- The pieces are seated well (with rubber hammer) Parallel sides
against the kiln and between them, therefore their
sides always stay parallels and will never rock
against each other. Due to this, if there are rivets
or dents, they must be rectified with refractory
mortar. Mortar

7.- The closing line must not have less piece length Last line
than L/2, so in order to gain consistence they will
be alternated like this: Old brick

8.- The rings locking must be made tensing

first with a jack and then shutting with
30 mm
the locking bricks and some brick cut for
that effect, then ending with iron plates 3 mm
of 190 x 190 x 2 mm sharpened at on
edge (never more than two in the same
joint). It is advised that a closings line 30 mm
will not be generated, in other words, Metallic piece
that the ring locks never coincide. 200 mm
10 mm
pieza metlica

5.1.6 Refractory life campaign

The normal wear measured in grs/ton clinker in the kiln tube might be expressed as a function of the
kiln diameter:

grs/ton clk = 28 x 2

Being estimated by G. Hotz the refractory life days or campaign in:

days = 5840 / 2

It can be reduced by a wrong refractory election according to zones requesting, or by operation

conditions, and to enlarge it for the same reasons.
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At this line is fundamental, in each repair, to write down the revestiment residual thickness, meter by
meter, and to evaluate the wear in cm/million of clinker tons, understanding that a brick (at the
basic zone) with thicknes < 5.6 cm does not have mechanical resistance and therefore it will be a hot
spot reason, not being that residual above 6 cm. In this way if the expected wear of a refractory zone
is known (X cm/million of tons) and the useful thickness is thickness - 6 cm, how many tons each
zone will resist could be calculated and therefore:

Which the campaign would be (tons months)

Where will the failure appear
How compensated are the zones to select zones with whole number campaigns.
Where does the refractory quality has to be improved (or search for specifications) vs. zone

The heating (and drying) and cooling (by programmed shuts or not) will also determine, in the first
case, the campaign, and in the second one, the brick that can be left. All of this will be seen in the
Kiln repairs protocol.

The accurate coating formation will protect the refractory (see coatinging indices according clinker

5.1.7 Hot Spots

When a kiln shell hot spot appears three questions arise:
Where is it? Because if it is in a zone where there is no habitual clinker coating it will be difficult to
cover (must stop the kiln). If it is in a support zone is particularly dangerous and must stop.
What size is it? Since if it is too large, even it is in a stable coating zone, it will be very difficult to
cover it and the kiln must stop.
What is the hot spot intensity? Since this will indicate at which temperature the shell is:

ShellTemp. (C) Intensity

380 to 420 Fans are required
420 to 480 Little visible at night
480 to 600 Dark red color
> 600 Live red color and shell deformation
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The main factors that benefit or harm the refractory (and with it the hot spot possibility) are:

For totally new refractory or too much concrete: 0.03**D*L Maximum 42 hours.
For parcial repaired refractory or little concrete: 0.02**D*L Maximum 30 hours.
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Kiln Control to stop or not?

In order to take the decision of stopping or not the kiln when a hot spot appears or there is risk of
happening, it is needed to ask:

*Note: A zone that

has a lower
temperature than
the next ones,
shows the later
failure of refractory
and coating falling
that protects it (this
zone show less
temperature by
having a thicker
coating, in other
words, has a thiner

5.2. Refractory Concrete

Just as the conventionals concretes, they are composed of cement + fine aggregate + thick aggregate
+ placing water, but what differs from each other is the seeked refractivity of the following
Cement Aluminous cement
Aggregates Aluminas (bauxites, andalusites, corindium) and other dense components as in
silicoaluminous bricks (ZrO2, SiC, Cr2O3, TiO2). The thicker part surpasses 120 microns and the
thiner part or matrix is below, being the most importat part of the concrete benefits.
Also additives are used in concrete, like elastifiers and plasticizers, and also for a fast setting.
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Taking care of the chemical bonding (the most attackable by the clinker liquid phase and other agents)
the concretes are classified as:

Clasification Cement % CaO %

Ultralow in cement < 3% < 1%
Low cement content 3 to 10% 1 to 2.5%
Conventional or Normal 10 to 30% > 3%
*Note: There are concretes without cement base, like the non hydraulic setting, in which the water is substituted by colloidal
solutions, which flocculate thanks to additives forming structures that bond the arid, simulating a setting letting the temperature
to be the one which will make the ceramic bond.

Taking care of the concrete rheology, these are classified as:

Normal or conventional: they need a great ammount of kneading water to get the required
consistence, thus, that water loss (or evaporation) will rest resistances.
Thixotropic*: they need less water as already having this behavior and acquiring the consistence
with agitation and/or vibration (as the paints).
Autopours: Materials that with a little more water get consistencies, thanks to additives, very soft
(that last) which allow placing without the need of vibrating in order not to leave spaces without
filling up in the mold or form
Compactibles: they are refractory mortar doughs with plastic consistency, which can be molded
by hand.
Taking care of the way they will be applied several technics are distinguished:
Technic Benefits % Rebond
losses %
Porosity, etc)
Vibration 100% 0%
Gunite: The dry concrete is pumped and water and a fixing 50% 20%
additive (accelerator) are added at the toe, which causes
Shotcreting: The already kneaded concrete is pumped (with 80 a 90% 7 a 10%
sufficient water) adding at the point a flocculant (being, more
than an accelerator, a rheology modifier, in other words, of
its elasticity, viscosity and fluidity).
Autopour 90% 0%

Dry concrete High pressure air Shotcreting:

Water The old concrete is fixed. Efficiency of

3 to 10 ton/hr and reaches heights of 60m.
Isolating time < 2 minutes
Mixer Aging time = 2 hours
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The % kneading water influence in hot mechanical resistances, besides the drying problem during the
kiln heating, can be expressed as:

R (N/mm2) = 210 * Ha-0.98 * T0.23

Ha = Water % needed to pour it.
T = Temperature in C at which it will work
Therefore, a concrete that needs a 4.75% of water and another of 3.5% will have, at 1100 C
resistances of 228 y 308 N/mm2 respectively.
Other expression in base of the initial conditions (0 subindex) is:
R1 = R0 * [1 {0.0004 * (T0 T1)} {0.18 * (Ha1 Ha0)}]

In the vibrated concretes there must be selected the needle vibrator type that will be used in order
to get a specific influence zone (Zi):
Zi (m) = 0.02 * fc0.5
fc = centrifuge force, in kg (transmitted force from the vibrator to the dough)
Since normally it is seeked that Zi = 1m we have that fc = 2100 kg, which gives an expression to a
specific needle diameter of the vibrator (in mm):
= (33.33 * fc)0.4
fc = 0.03 * 2.5
That result in an 87 mm diameter for fc = 2100 kg value just metioned.
When vibration is at a mold that does not allow internal vibration, contact vibrators are used, which
are anchor to the mold. In these, higher influence zones are seked (1.5 m), so higher forces (6000 kg)
are required too.

When evaluating a concrete price it is importat to check its density, since the volume that will be
placed will take one or another material ammount, this is, it must be compared:
1 * price1 vs 2 * price2

5.2.1 Refractory concrete drying

The following aspect must be taken into consideration:
1. Matrix: aluminous cement + fine refractory aggregates.
2. Kneading water for rheaology (physical water) and for cement hydration (chemical water).
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3. By thermogravimety (weight vs. temperature) it will be observed until 200 C there is only
physical water loss, but from 200 to 350 C the chemical water from the cement hydrates, as
much as the instables as the stables, and from 325 to 350 C that chemical water is lost very
quickly and might chip when trying to leave.
4. When heating, the heat transmission is not the same along the thickness of the poured
concrete, but in the first 5 to 10 cm (hot side) they are being heated and dried, while in the
cold side is still cold and nothing is happening. When that first layer has completed its drying,
the heat goes through the next and so on.
With all these, what happens when a concrete is heated rapidly?
The first hot layer losses its physical water and the chemcial (200 to 350 C) and because it has
escape, more difficulties are not presented, since there is enough evacuation channels for the rapidly
released chemical water. When the heat is transferred to the next layer, the physical water is lost well,
since its eliminating speed is moderated, but when that layer reaches temperatures between 325 and
350 C, the chemical water is realeased at higher speed than the first layer channels are able to
evacuate, generating a high water pressure and, except having an escape at the cold side (shell),
will reach such a pressure that will explode that 5 to 10 cm of the hot side.
Because of all the previous, there is no problem when heating as long the 200 C are not reached, but
from 200 to 350 C, we must be ver careful. The most recommendable is to have a smooth heating
and to facilitate the water evaporation generating channels when puncturing the dough during its
pouring, and even during kneading adding polipropinele fiber, wich when heating, they will be
destroyed leaving channels.
A way of knowing that the drying has been finished along the thickness is to take an shell pyrometric
reading, if it surpasses 110 C all the water has been eliminated, as physical as much as chemical.

5.3. Refractory Specifications

In order to take care of the diffent exigencies that the kiln operation will make to the refractory, this
must have specific properties that are summarized and quantified as technical specifications, according
to them the technician will choose the optimal refractory, for the zone characteristics to be installed.

5.3.1 Chemical request chemical wear

The refractory attackability by chemical agents or REDOX conditions are denominated as refractory
corriosion (which can derive from shell corrosion) and implies the next specifications:
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Chemical and mineralogical composition

Density and porosity

Sulphate or alkali corrosion

Depending on the imbalance or decompensation (MSO 3) between alkali (Na y K) and sulfur (S) and
chlorides (Cl-) an attack from the remainder will be produced.
That is how the sulphate module is defined MSO 3: MSO3 = (SO3/80) / [ K2O/94 + Na2O/62 2*Cl-/35.8
Which express the compensation between alkali and SO 3 and Cl- in order to give alkaline sulphates and
chlorides, SO3 or alkali being able to remain but not chlorides, since the little level of this one is given
by needs of the own process.

MSO3 Formed Remains Corrosion

>1 K2SO4, Na2SO4, KCl, NaCl SO3 excess By sulphate SO2/SO3
=1 dem Nothing No (see note*)
<1 dem K2Oex, Na2Oex By alkali

*Note: There are no corrosion problems of these types if MSO 3 is between 0.83 and 1.0. It is admissible 0.83
since the clinker might be part of the excess as NaC8A3 y KC23S12, reducing quality.
The alkaline sulphates and alkalineterreous and alkaline chlorides corrosion, happens in very different
zones, due to the different volatilies, therefore even a material is prone to be attacked, for example
alkaline chlorides, if where it is placed is not where it condesantes, it will not be affected.

in gas

The attack of these compounds is not a chemical type but mechanical:

NaCl, KCl, Ca Cl2 are infiltrated in the holes and harden the refractory.
Ca SO4, Na2SO4 y K2SO4 as an incoatingation or ring constitute a risk for the refractory when they
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a) SO2/SO3 corrosion while infiltrating the refracory:

MgO + SO3 + 2 C2S CaSO4 + M2S
The MgO comes from the basic refractory and Volume increase of 27% with respect to
the C2S is the clinker belite. The MgO part SO3+CaO occupying all the pores space,
that forms some of the spinels is more hardening and by temperature changes the
resistant by the chemical stability inherent to attacked thickness is chipped: spalling by sulfur
the spinels. (Note: M2S = 2MgOSiO2).

CaO + SO2 CaSO4 + CaS

CaO + SO3 CaSO4
Therefore it is observerd the close relation between chemical composition and porosity, as a
measurement of attack impermeability.
MgO (f.p. 2800 C) + SO3 + 2C2S (f.p. 2130 C)* CaSO4 + C3MS2 (f.p. 1575 C) + CMS (f.p. 1498 C)

*Note: The belite from silicoaluminous bricks or basic ones chemical bonded by belite.

Because of all the previous, the following will be seeked where is anticipated the presence of SO 2/SO3:
1. Do not use silicoaluminous refractory (C2S presence)
2. A low level of CaO: CaO + SO 3 CaSO4 (not dolomites, except of stable coating zones which will
protect them)
3. A high spinel percentage
4. Low porosity
5. High flexibility (high spinel or with zirconate)

b) Excess alkali corrosion when infiltrating to the refractory.

This kind of corrosion appears at the high transition zone:
MgCr2O4 + K2O ( Na2O) K2CrO4 ( Na2CrO4)
Chromite (Cr3+) Cr6+, yellowish green and toxic.
Volume increase and hardening the attacked
thickness, chipping while changing
temperatures. Spalling by alkaline chrome
Al2O3 + SiO2 + K2O Feldespars K2O Al2O3 x SiO2
Silicoaluminous refractory Of greater volume, causes hardening, chipping
and spalling by alkaline attack.
Therefore, where excess alkali is observed, the use of chromite will be avoided (magnesia chromite
or ferrochromite) as well as silicoaluminous materials with high porosity, being recommendable the
spinels use without chrome.
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On silicoaluminous birkcs, as higher its silica content higher its attack protection, but lower its Ta.

Corrosion by Chlorides
The alkaline chlorides with chrome from the basic bricks form chromates which harden them and
cause spalling. Since this situation happens at the transition zones, the use of this bricks type will be
limit to the clinkering zone, avoiding the use of high belite content bricks.

REDOX Corrosion
The reducing atmosphere, by bad combustion (fix carbon without burning) or by bad burner direction
towards the refractory, causes the iron 3+ to iron2+ reduction with volume reduction, then by oxidant
conditions, to become again iron3+ with a 20% volume raise, causing redox spalling.
Fe2O3 FeO Fe2O3
If this kind of operation happens or it is anticipated, refractories will be seeked, basic or not, iron free
or with a little iron. If coatinging is wanted, the ones with iron in a spinel structure will be preferred
since they are more stable.

Corrosion by CO2 (activating corrosion by sulphates)

Previously it has been shown that:
CaO (dolomite) + SO2 CaSO4 + CaS
With organic compounds infiltrations:
CO + CaSO4 CaS + CO2
Now reacting as:
CaO (dolomite) + CO2 CaCO3
Which causes a volume increase = Spalling.

Corrosion by clinker liquid phase. Eutectic Reaction.

Al2O3 + CaO free clk T 1400 C

Alumina base refractories, placed at the Having a low fusion point (1365 C)
exit zone and having attachments due causing corrosion by eutectic (fusion
clinker melting (usually by a very hot kiln sinking or licked refractory)
due hard to burn raw meal)
This attacks kind is called spinel
The alumina base spinels, because of its corrosion if this one is the one attacked.
spinel structure, present higher resitance
to these attacks than the silicoalumous
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Under SO2/SO3 presence:

Al2O3 + CaOfree* + SO3 C4A3.SO3 (fusion point = 1590 C)
*Note: it can be C3S or C2S if there is overheating.
This kind of reaction also can happen to the chrome, forming calcic chromates with a low fusion point.
The solution is the zirconites usage, which is affected by the reaction; they form calcic zirconate with a
high refractivility.
The refractories properties calculations are seen at the appendix E.

5.3.2 Thermal stress thermal wear

Under the heat, the refractory must resist its level and its changes; that is why the refractivility and
the cycles specifications are incumbent on the refractory. In the other hand it must avoid the heat
reaches the structural shell, incumbent on the thermal conductivity and, for last, the volume
stability with temperature: the thermal expansion, even it is not a decisive element, it is essential its
previous knowledge so, during mounting, placing the expansion joints which allow creating free
spaces, which will be occupied when working temperature will be applied. The thermal expansion, as it
ends being, or not, a tensions problem it will be seen at mechanical wear
In order to count the refractivility specification it is resorted to express it by terms of maximum
working temperature, by which it is resorted to the material test under a 2 kg/cm 2 pressure, and to a
temperatures scaling until it softens (Ta = softening temperature). Ta is used in C to express the
material refractivility.
As the refractivility is an indirect measurement of the material fusion point, it has the previously
described order:
Basic refractories > 1650 C
High alumina 1450 to 1650 (alumina content > 70%)
Med. and low alumina 1350 to 1450 (medium alumina of 50 to 65%, low alumina 40 to 50%)
Silicoaluminous < 1350 (alumina content < 40%)

This factor is determinant, but not unique, when selecting the kiln material and zone.
The abruptal changes resistance is determined with the cooling-heating cycles test, which shows the
material resistance at temperature changes, but now in almost all the refractories the levels are very
similar (100 cycles), even the silicoaluminous, but where those cycles are truly created, at the very
high heat zones and, mainly, at the flame zone, therefore the resistant cycles importance is more at
the basic bricks
Finally, the thermal conductivity (inverse to the insulating strength) is inherent to the composition;
therefore the most insulatings are the ones with higher %SiO 2, then the ones with higher Al2O3 and,
finally, the ones with more MgO. In other words, the insulating order from higher to lower is:
Low alumina
Medium alumina
High alumina
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This order is disturbed with the inclusion of silicon carbide (SiC); its conducting strength makes the
concretes or bricks which contains it, the most conductives.

The importance of the refractory conductivity knowledge is double:

On one hand in order to anticipate possible cracks at the kiln shell if it has been placed at an
inadequated heat zone.
On the other hand, in order to judge hot spots at the shell and being able to define the still
remaining thickness. Therefore a hot spot at the zone of basic may mean nothing, it can be
occasional, while if it appears at the zone of silicoaluminous (very insulating) it almost invites to
think in a hot spot (refractory failure).

A coating loss makes the temperature to rise to 500 C right away at its side that faces fire, while it is
only prepared to rise at 50 C/hr.
The thermal wears are observed by thermal spalling in which it refers to cycles and laminations
referring to:
High thermal load: as an example by raw meal failures or by rings, pulsant flame (irregular fuel
feeding), wrong burner orientation, high flame intensity or flame way too open, and wrong raw
meal design.
Inadequate material (Ta) for the zone in which it has been placed.

Having the support of the length and flame temperature calculation, the anticipated profile can be
calculated and therefore adequate refractories can be placed by zone, for example:

And in a therocial way, being the internal kiln shell diameter, it can be zoned in the next way:
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1.5 2.5 7.5 9.5 11.5

Kiln with satellite cooler

R. Meal

1 0.5 1 5 2 2 Resto
Rest (Approximated total kiln
(longitud aproximada length
total ==
horno 1616 )

0.5 1.5 6.5 8.5 10.5

Kiln with grates cooler

0.5 1 5 2 2 Resto (Approximated

Rest (longitud aprox.
kiln horno 14.5 )

Exit Low Chamber High Safety Calcination zone

tran. (sintering) transition zone

Note: Normally the first two kiln supports are 1 and 5.

This zoning is only illustrative; the physical and scanner inspection will determine the meters which limit each zone
and the most appropriated materials for each one. It must be taken into consideration that any change at the
burner disposition or its airs, fuels or raw meal, production levels, etcetera, will modify the burning conditions and,
with it, will make necessary a new zoning valoration. The specific brick for the clinkering chamber will be limited
to the exclusive zone that has been demonstrated or seen in the kiln which constitutes that mentioned chamber
(stable coating zone).
Consider as a premise that alumina means safety and transition means basic. The decision of where to limit each
zone will also depend on the cost of the refractories that have to be placed, and the possibilities of extending a
zone respect the other, for the different operation general conditions (feasible).

5.3.3 Mechanical stress mechanical wear

These wears can be summarized in:

Wear by displacements
By thermal expansion it only applies to the basic bricks, which dilate a 2% at working temperature,
since the silicoalumous hardly present a 0.5% of expansion or, even, some may contract.
Axial 20 cm
Expansion joint (2 mm
Basic brick with a Cardboard) between lines (only
1.7% which means 3.4 mm the basic one)

Shell at 350 C
with 0.012 mm/m C
5 rings/m
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The shell dilates 0.84 mm/20 cm, so the brick dilation of 3.4 mm is absorbed:
By the cardboard joint: 2.0 mm
By shell dilation: 0.9 mm
Rest (3.4 2.0 0.9): 0.5 mm
Those resting 0.5 mm the own brick must absorb (with its elasticity) occupying pore spaces and by the
natural joint (grain).
In this way, the brick stresses are normal, but if the heating (for example after a shut down) is too
fast, the brick expands but not the shell, by which:
The pressure between lines increase (stress compression) and/or,
There is masonry displacement on the shell, with shearing on the cold side and/or,
The hot side dilates but not the cold one, causing spalling of the hot side (side facing fire)

Considering now a radial expansion of 0.12 mm, this

is compensated by the joint, by basic mortar layer
which only wets the side, or by in bone, since the
grains of the side generate between the two pieces a
natural joint of these mm.

The compression spallings that can be generated in a same ring pieces, by pressure, have their origin
in the assembly ring closure. It can be produced by:
Excessive pressure on the jack (> 30 N/mm2) in order to place the last pieces, and/or
Closing plates in excess, which expand over a few bricks. Never place more than four plates of 2
mm by ring, and never grouped in a small zone. The plates must be put by the hot side in order
not to harm the zone between pieces.

Also a joint excess is very dangerous, since the expansions will not fill up the spaces left by them,
causing masonry displacements.

Axial joint excess

This happens when ring pieces advance and occupies spaces, locking it. The rings must work in an
independent way in order to migrate invidually, as the rolling hoops do.
To avoid this problem the brick must be mounted in staggered formation.
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In this way, the ring will be occupying and distributing the spaces independently, with a little shearing
on the cold side and with a ring advance or retrocession.
It must be taken into consideration, also, that a heating that has been aborted will burn the cardboard,
but will create and axial joint excess.

Radial joint excess

In a same ring the pieces will try to reocuppy the holes or spaces, which can be translated that they
try to separate from the shell or that they try to rotate, in the first case the whole line could fall.

These cases are more frequent in low expansion bricks (silicoaluminous) on which the closure has
been made with low pressure or the assembly of each piece has not be hammered to seat it well with
the previous one.

Push by inclination
The own kiln inclination causes the lines to try resting on the previous one, when this accumulated
push arrives to the previous line the retention ring (or material retention ring) since its bigger size
will not be the one that yields by push. The line which suffers from this push must be very resistant
(high alumina with SiC or elastic spinel), and if the push gets to become too big, how to save the
retention ring must be restated (using conrete) and in a last case more retention rings must be placed.
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Ovalness wear

The kiln ovalness at the rolling zones will create mechanical

tensions on the same type lines, not in intensity (more
perceivable), than the described in radial pressure but all
over a zone. The maximum ovalness W (%) that can be
permitted is calculated as:
W (%) < 0.1 * (expressing the diameter in m)
This means that if a kiln has a diameter () of 4.55 m, the
maximum permissible ovalness is of 0.45% (0.1 * 4.55).
The excessive ovalness may cause spalling and/or spirals
rotating, even more if the assembly was with a wrong tighten
between spirals or at the spirals closure.

Wear by migration failure

The rolling hoop and the kiln tube rotate at the same angular speed but different linear speed, and this
linear speed difference of turn is described as displacement, measured in mm/turn. In this way the kiln
rotates independently to the ring and only seats on its inferior part.

The normal kiln displacement (dh) can be calculated as:

dh (mm/turn) > 2 * (expressing the diameter in m)
This means that if a kiln has a diameter () of 4.55 m, the normal
displacement that must be expected is of 9 mm/turn (2 * 4.55).
The migration failure is presented (also called ring strangling) when the
displacement = 0, this is, the ring and the kiln are adjusted or srtongly
tightened, causing torsion on the kiln tube with brick destruction.

5.3.4 Kiln tube corrision

It can be originated mainly by two causes:
During stops, by condensation and water absorption.
During operation, by high temperatures.

In the other hand, the corrosion also is presented with greater facility in kilns with calciner (tertiary air
usage) than in those that do not have.
With calciner (tertiary ari) Without calciner

10 to 20 m 10 to 20 m
Greater corrosion
Coating zone Coating
zone corrosion
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The corrosion products are:

Oxides and iron sulfides Hematite (Fe2O3) y Magnetite (Fe3O4)
Pyrite (S2Fe) y Pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS)
Iron chlorides FeCl2
Alkali (alkaline chlorides) KCl FeCl2 y NaCl FeCl2
The analytical of the scales of corrosion throw the next proportions:
Fe2O3 60 to 90%
S= 2 to 15%
Cl -
2 to 20%
K2O 0 to 7%

The mechanism by which the O2 enters is

through refractory cracks, joints and
porosities. When it reaches the shell it creates
a very dense Fe2O3 layer that acts even as a
corrosion tranquilizer, causing a little
The SO2 oxides into SO3 consuming the refractory and joint with the shell O 2, condensanting on the
refractory and leaving the zone next to the shell under reducing conditions. The SO 2 is condensated
into Ca and Mg sulphated salts giving Fe 3O4 + FeS2, in a porouser layer that not reflects so much,
causing the penetration to be from notable to moderate.
The Cl2 (g) is the real accelerating agent of corrosion, and four cases are distinguished:
1) Over the shell (Fe0) 2) Over an already existent corrosion layer.

3) Through KCl and SO2 (gas) 4) Combined with K2O from the liquid phase

If the KCl from the raw meal reaches 1000 to 1050 C It corresponds to a hot corrosion. The K2O and Na2O
it evaporates and never gets to the shell, but it gets from clinker liquid phase are merged by the brick.
to the cyclones tower, which is why, in kilns without Above 340C at the shell the hot corrosion begins.
tertiary air the volatilization is more premature than
those with calciner. This corrosion occurs at the
tower; while in the kilns with tertiary air occurs at the
entrance zone.
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If there is a high corrosion there are ways to minimize the problem (special paints, sacrifice plates,
etc.) but what really is important is to identify the Chlorine origin and to avoid its presence

Shell corrosion
In the kiln shell penetrate: K2O, KCl, SO2 y SO3, O2 y H2O, with the following reactions:

Protection mechanisms
a) Oxidating atmosphere, so Fe2O3 will be formed and corrosion lowered and all the SO 2 will become
SO3 consuming O2 at the zone between the bricks and the shell.
b) Contributing with the minimal possible amount of Cl and S, by entrances or placing a by-pass.
c) Impregnating the shell with impermeable to the gas materials and heat resistant.
d) Lowering the burning temperature in order to increase the chloride drain, improving the burning
coefficient or raw meal burnability or adding mineralizers.
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5.4. Ovalness and kilns alignment

The nomenclature presented in the annexed diagram
will facilitate the exposition of ideas in this document.
If the tube kiln temperatures before (T1) and after
(T2) the rolling hoop are too different (due to
variation on the coating or coat thickness) it is
produced what it is called thermal crankshaft.
The tube kiln temperature is measured with a
radiation pyrometer
The rolling ring temperature is measured by a contact
thermometer or gun (the emisivity of the material to
which the temperature will be measured must be

Ovalness calculation:
Absolute W (in mm) = (A B)/2
Relative W = 100 * Wab/(mm)
% Max admissible = (m)/10
% Critical = 1.2 * Admissible

Displacement estimation:
Normal (in mm) = 2 * (in m)
Warning maximum (in mm) = 4 * (in m)
Warning minimum (in mm) = 0.5 * (in m)

The kiln tube ovalness is measured indirectly, based

on the rolling hoop displacement (the rotation
movement between the kiln tube and the rolling
hoop, in a kiln turn), and it is measured as the period
length of the drawn curve (see instrument).
Therefore, for a 4.55 m kiln the displacement must be
around 9.1 mm (not being worrisome between 3 and
20 mm).
Also, the maximum ovalness for this kiln would be of
0.46% and the crictical of 0.54%.

Among the possible causes of a limited displacement (< 3 mm) are, a wrong lubrication or kiln tube
constriction (strangulation).
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The strangulation is presented when the tube temperature

under the hoop is too high because to the coat or coating lost,
expanding the tube until lockin it to the hoop. Ther permanent
deformation by ovalness can be corrected changing the shell

An alternative for the displacement measurement is the measurement with chalk, consisting in drawing
two marks overlapped at the shell and the hoop, and to measure the distance between them through
a specific revolution times, so the displacement will be:
Distance between marks / kiln turns.

5.4.1 Kiln alignment

A recommendation to avoid kiln alignment problems is that the supports must be always in line,
whitout horizontal or vertical divergences, which give irregular loads on the supports and tensions, as
in the kiln tube as in its rollings, which are transmitted to the refractory coat affecting its duration and

An amplified view of these divergences on the kiln would be:

The base for a divergences adequated measurement

consists on the equipment usage as the theodolite
with laser beam, and trangulations that will allow
calculating the needed position values.

These problems can be diagnosed by the temperature of the rollers bearings or by clear spaces
between roller and rim (rolling hoop).
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5.5. Prolonged shut down of an installation (greater than 2 months)

While shutting down
Programmed shut down leaving the installation empty (material silos, air slides and covered
conveyors since the uncover conveyors are left with material so it will protect them), as elevators
and bucket transporters or chain ones.
Cleaning the IDFs (induced draft fans) vanes of the kiln due a thermal clash, since they are hot.
It is recommended that while shutting down the kiln stays in an up position (the tube must be
moved towards the raw meal feeding), so the kiln closure would be as sealed as possible.
Important: The shut down must be help for kiln alignment studies, shell thickness, turbines
balance, etc.

During the shut down

Covering the kiln supports with a phosphoric acid layer in order to avoid rusting. Stopping cooling.
Covering those motors that will not be revised, with plastics, and keep their heating resistance.
Pressurizing the transformers and circuit breakers that will be out of service, taking an oil sample
in order to compare it with the one just before starting again.
Take away the T.V. camera, pyrometers and infrareds.
Avoiding dust and rodents in the MCCs (Motor Control Centers), control room and other
installations that will be out of service, backing up and saving the PLCs memories.
Emptying well all the fuel conducts.
Closing well all the manholes, sluices, kiln outlets, etc., as the satellite entrances.
Loosening the transporter conveyours.
Keeping the filter with heating resistances (avoiding condensations) and starting up the fans and
stricking systems every 15 days.
Rotating the kiln 2 or 3 turns every 15 days, always leaving it at 120 from the last position,
avoiding it goes down.
Moving the transporters whitout material for some hours every 15 days.
Recirculate the fuel oil for 2 to 3 hours every 15 days.
Measuring the ground voltage in big motors.
Disconnecting the gas analyzers.
Calibrating the proportioner scales. If they have dolomitical material cover them with special oils
(ask the supplier) or leave the coating on them.

Previous to the start up

Tests without loads must be done through all the installation. Make sure that the air sliders will not
have coatings on its canvas and start up the fans.
The T.V. must be reconnected, analyzers, pyrometers, infrareds, etc.
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5.6. General repairs protocol.

a) In order to make them we must have previous information:
1. Wear consumptions in cm/million of clinker tons., for:
Kiln tube: meter by linear meter for the brick
Satellite tube: according to zones (entrance, reel, elbow, screen, brick)
Grates cooler: vault, ceiling, walls, stools, arcs.

And in habitual durations in clinker tons for:

Entrance cone
Exit cone
Back end
And in last thicknesses and shell temperatures for:
Smoke chamber
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2. Refractories drawing of all the kiln parts, with it maximum, last and current duration, in
clinker tons, and the placed materials (qualities).

3. Information about the thicknesses, originals for the new ones placed in the last repair, as
the thicknesses left in the kiln zones that were not repaired and also those that were
brought down (in order to know its habitual wear).
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4. Coatings disposition and habitual rings, coupling them to the programmed scans with the

5. Scanning day by day during the campaign, using the last data to locate the maximum
temperatures that had been observed at each kiln point, therefore getting and idea of the
possible refractory harms by zones (considering for how long it has been placed at each
zone). The comparison of the scanner data from the beginning of the campaign with the
current data has a special importance.

6. Every information of events in campaign, as design problems (raw meal modules, fuel
changes), operational (low production, airs, etc.) or mechanical (ovalness due excessive
migrations, hoops and rollers heating, etc.)
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7. Information taken from inspection at some occasional shut down (for example the
inspection of the entrances and satellites at a short shutdown, or rings visualization,
burners, arcs, ceiling, ducts, gates, etc.)
8. Information of the refractory ammount, by qualities, and a catalogue of the different

b) With this information the kiln situation is estimated (thicknesses wanted) and at which points more
refractory must be replaced. If the kiln has not shown refractory failures, when and where a failure
will come out can be estimated, which results very important in order to go ahead of the material
necessities, labor and machinery to confront the future repair. Therefore the steps are:
1. Estimating zones to repair and ammounts.
2. Comparing those necessities with the present inventory and generating the corresponding
3. Defining when it will shut down and warning with anticipation the contractors for demolition
and mounting.
c) With all the previous establish a repair plan. The plan will contemplate the activities sequence and
with what resources it will be done, also their durations. Especially it must be specified when the
inspections at the cooler, tube and tower, will be done, since the main modification of the plan
depend on them. Also it has to be specified how the cooling will be done (annexed to the plan),
and what securities must be followed (annexed to the plan). The heating (after the repair) will be
planned later.
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As the kiln repair is not only of refractory, but usually also mechanical (mainly at general repairs),
it must be defined in the plan, by Production when the Maintenance department would be able to
work with motors and conduits, since can affect the ventilation in the demolition works. In an
inverse way, the plan will contemplate the mechanical necessities for demolition and mounting (for
example, taking out the burner in order to let the mini-excavators get into the kiln tube).
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The master plan must include the total detail of activities, resources and coordination between
areas for a complete repair, trying to eliminate those concepts that in a particual case will not
apply, so addition activities to the already listed (and their consequences) will not be considered.

d) From the inspections made (visuals, measurements, etcetera), the kiln real situation is defined, as
far as zones to be repaired, materials (refractories) and resources (labor and machinery)
When talking about refractory material necessities is not only about the own refractory material
(bricks by qualities and positions, concretes and mortars), but of everything surrounding them:
anchorings, cardboards, wedging plates, isulators and all the elements to make the repair:
scaffolds, cutting discs, neumatical guns and hammers, pointers, mixers, contact and needle
vibrators, wheelbarrows, buckets, beaters, entrance molds, cabins, necks, wooden sticks for the
segments, hoists, cutter, etcetera.
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e) Repair following and its costs.

f) Registering in the linning plans for the new assemblies and, in general, preparing the necessary
documentation (points 1 to 4 from section a) for future repairs, specially the inventory recount.
g) It is concluded defining the kiln starting up process in base on the type and ammount of new
placed refractory.

5.7 Refractory consumptions and campaign durations

The refractory duration, to the margin of mechanical defects and operational irregularities, depends
mainly on the thermal load, the prolonged shut downs (mainly greater than 24 hours) and the silica
module being used.

IN THE KILN TUBE Predominantly brick

a) Silica module and therefore coating thickness
C (g/ton) = 200 * | 2.5 MS |
MS>> 2.5, unprotected refractory
MS<<2.5, big thickness coating, high weight, coating falling with bricks.
Example: MS = 2.8, C = 60 g/ton.
b) Shut downs
- Greater than 24 hours.
C (g/ton) = 20 * NP>24; Where NP>24 is the num. of stops greaters than 24 h.
Example: NP>24 = 3, C = 60 g/ton
- Smaller, counted as an usage % excepting the shut down time due these shut
downs greaters than 24 hours..
C (g/ton) = 7*(100 - % usage)
Example: usage % = 90 %, C = 70 g/ton.
c) Thermal load (CT); is the main
C (g/ton) = 17.5 * CT2.2
Example: CT= 5.0, C = 604 g/ton
Note: These consumptions are evaluated as a mean of 2 years in order to compare them with the real
average consumptions (biannual).
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IN THE REST Predominantly concrete.

The refractory consumption at the cyclones towers and the cooler is close to 100 g/ton

The refractory total consumption by produced clinker ton, may be expressed as:

C (g/ton) = 17.5 * CT2.2 + 200 * | 2.5 MS | + 20 * NP>24 + 7*(100 - % usage) + 100

The campaign duration may be expressed in function of the most important factor, the thermal load
(CT) due to the main burner.
Duration (months) 770 * CT -2.64

Remebering other expressions already given:

C (g/ton) = 28 x 2

Duration (days) = 5840 / 2

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Part 6- Emissions
Although in this section the emissions to the atmosphere subject will be intensely seen, also a global
view of the points that must be taken care of when pollution is being considered, remembering that
the applicable norm must be fulfilled at each case.

a) Pollution signs in materials:

ppm in: Raw Meal Clinker Dust in filter
As (Arsenic) 10 50 10 50 5 20
Be (Beryllium) <1 <1 <1
Cd (Cadmium) 0.5 2 <1 5 10
Cr (Chrome) 20 50 50 75 20 40
Hg (Mercury) <1 <1 15
Pb (Plumb) 5 10 5 10 100 500
Se (Selenium) <1 <1 5 10
Te (Tellurium) 5 10 5 10 10 20
Tl (Thallium) <1 <1 20 100
V (Vanadium) 40 60 60 80 20 40
Ni (Nickel) 10 20 20 40 10 20
By the resident time and the reached temperature at the cement kilns, the fixation percentage of these
materials to the clinker is superior to 99.5% (superior to the incinerators), excepting for the mercury
(Hg) which can be fixated to the clinker in a 60%.
b) Poured to the water:
In the final pouring water to the affluents must be evaluated:
Hardness (content in CaCO3 and MgCO3, evaluated as CaCO3 equivalent to CaO)
i. A french degree = 10 mg CaCO3 equivalent / liter
ii. A german degree = 10 mg CaO equivalent / liter
iii. A amercian degree = 1 mg CaCO3 equivalent / liter
iv. 1 french = 0.56 german = 10 american
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DBO is the biological demand of oxigen. Are the mg O 2/liter that the bacterial poblation uses in a time
(normalized to 5 days, this is, DBO5) in order to degrade the organic material (biodegradable).
DQO is the chemical demand of oxigen. Are the mg O 2/liter that through chemical process
(dichromates) are consumed to oxidate the total organic material (biodegradable or not).
Therefore: DQO DBO = not biodegradable organic (to control in order to keep life in waters).
Measurement of how much the TOC (total organic carbon) has been displaced as a measurement of
the not biodegradable one, since the TOC (CO2 measurement that is lost when burning the organic
material) does not give the oxigen necessity of biodegradating.

c) Atmospheric pollution. Emissions:

These emissions are divided in:
Particuls (dust): that affects the picking up of solar radiation and the raining formation.
Gases: CO, CO2, SO2, SO3, NOx that affect the global temperature and the acid rain formation.
Added to these are the hydrofluoric acid and the hydrochlorate acid.
Smokes: heavy metals, dioxins, furans, etcetera, which affects the human being since they are
Vapors: affecting as smells. The bad smell, even it does not affect the health, it is considerated a
polluting agent.
The human being breathes approximately 20 m 3 air/day, and we must realize that nature produce
pollution by itself:
Particles emissions: by volcanos, meteorites, fires, etc. The nature emits 3 millions tons of dust by
CO2 emission: the living beings emit 1,500 millions tons by day of CO 2; because of their breathing
(just the human poblation emits 2,000,000 m3/day of CO2.)
Despite these, the caring that the industry must have with the pollution emissions does not have to be
minimized, due the effects that are listed next:
Global heating. Greenhouse effect
The greenhouse effect is inevitable, as we
will se next, for the planet life, but It has to
be controlled under certain limits. Thanks to
the atmosphere, and in particular to the
ozone (O3), CO2 y H2O, just the half of the
solar radiation (emited as ultraviolet) comes
to the Earth, being absorbed mainly by the
seas, that will be giving off the heat
gradually and as an infrared way. This
infrared radiation is retained by the gases
(CO2 and H2O) so a mean earthly
temperature could be maintained of
approximately 15C, when whitout this
greenhouse effect it would be 18C.
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The ozone layer disappearance (O3) is more bonded to its consumption (to give O 2) by absortion of
solar radiation at the high Sun energization cycles, although the sprays actions also affects to its
The current overheating of the Earth it is bonded to the CO 2 increases in the atmosphere (mainly by
fuels) and by the apparition of this in compounds of a higher greenhouse effect as the methane (CH 4)
and the CFC (thousand times more powerfull than the CO 2 in greenhouse effect). While the global
temperature has changed a lot in its history through long periodos (thousands of years) due to
variation on its orbit, now the heating is very noticible, around 0.6C/100 years, causing (whitout really
knowing the cause) defrostings at polar zones, with the risk of water levels increase and creating
Year ppm CO2 TEarth (C) Sea level (m)

1850 (reference) 295 0 0

1900 297 0.02 0.00
1950 308 0.10 0.00
2000 350 0.46 0.25

Increasing 0.1C by each increment of 10 ppm in the CO 2 at the atmosphere. Although in nature and
in the industry the main contributor of CO2 is the carbon combustion (fuels), for the case of clinker
fabrication it is the decarbonation, therefore the Ca contribution by other mean but the carbonate is
well received, as technically as the pollution aspect.
Fuel contribution Carbonate contribution bye the
raw meal
Type Kg CO2/Gcal Approximated method in
function of the lost by ignition or
Fuel oil 19.3
by fire. (LxI or Lf)
Gas 14.0
Coal 24.0
LxI kgCO2
Coke 25.0 kgClk
100 LxI
Alternate CAS 25
Alternate CAL 25
Example: Kiln that produces 2100 tpd of clinker consuming 790
kcal/kg, using 100% coke and feeding raw meal with a LxI = 34%.
2100 1000 790
Gcal / day 1659
kgCO 2 / day 41.475; Tpd CO2 41
34 kgCO 2
0.515 2100

100 34 kgClk
Total 1122 TpdCO 2
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Acid rain: NOX and SOX HNO3 y H2SO4.

NOX: NO, NO2 N2O (in kiln gas 90%NO and 10%NO2)... evaluated as NO.
Assuming that in the used raw materials the nitrogen is almost insignificant, the nitrogen contributors
are, by importance order:
The combustive agent (air): approximately 79% of the atmospheric air is molecular Nitrogen (N 2.)
The fuel: nitrogen oxides (NO, N2O, NO2), ammonia (NH3) and cyanided compounds (CN-) are
present in fuels. Thus the coal has around 1.5% of N, being the order from higher to fewer
contributors: coke, coals, fuel oil, and gas.
Therefore there are two kinds of NOX:
Thermal or Zeldovich NOX, due the air N2, high temperatures, the permanency time at this
temperatures, oxigen excess and residency time:
At a very high temperature N2 + O2 2NO (90% NO y 10% NO2)

T C ppm NO

1500 1,000
2000 10,000
3300 20,000
4100 100,000

Note: As they also discompose, and at a higher speed are formed, the values down a lot in respect of
the table ones, which are formation concentrations ( 200C of flame 400 ppm.)

Respect the residence time, in the kiln is of the order of 1 sec.


Residence time at
each temperature

1 sec 10 sec
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The thermal NOX is affected mainly by the excess of O 2. An increment of 0.5% in O 2 increases more of
100 ppm of NOX. The water injection by the burner makes that the steam expels the O 2 at the bottom
of the flame; lowering the NOX (it is enough 700 liters/hr, which represent 5 kcals/kg.)

So the NOX will be influenced by the flame form, being the flame extension (long or short) and its
intensity (strong or weak) which with the excess O 2 determine the NOX level at the kiln tube (the
burners of low primary air help not contributing so much O 2 with the fuel). Outside the tube, at the
calciner there is no temperature for the formation of thermal NO X but there is for the formation of the
fuel one.
Fuel NOX, it has a less importance than the one in the main burner, but fundamental in the calciner,
being this one a point where the escape gas NO X is tried to lower by low NOX designs in which a little
amount of sub-stoichiometric fuel is injected in order to even consuming the excess O 2 from the kiln
tube, it stays with high CO concentrations which increase when reducing NO X to N2, for then find that
the rest of the fuel and tertiary air are enough for a complete combustion.
NOX + CO N2 + CO2
1000 1200 C

70% comb.

Note: the fact of having a calciner will

lower the NOX in the escape gas needing
less combustion at the main (which
30% comb.
generates thermal NOX).

If there is no reduction calciner, also it has been reduced the NO X to N2 by ammonia contribution (NH3)
in a tower zone where there are temperatures of 900 to 1000C. By each 100 mg of NH 3 that is being
contributed by Nm3 of gas, it can lower 7 mg NOX/Nm3.
The treatments against the Nox emissions can be of two kinds mainly:
4NH3+4NO+O2 4N2+6H2O
1. Ammonia reduction in escape gas 350C

it is reduced in a 90% the NOx level

NH 3
proportioning: 1.05 1.10 , no more since the emission of NH3 rises
2. Urea addition CO(NH2)2 at smokes chamber, since it needs from 800 to 1000C to reduce the
NOx, since at lower temperatures the urea oxidizes generating a higher NOx emission. The
presence of a sulphuer cycle can cause ammonium bisulphate (NH 4HSO3) as incoatingations.
3. Adding water to the flame, reducing its temperature.
However the installation is, the NOx level in the escape gas must not be confused with the fixed on by
norm, since the last one is fixed for a exit chimney gas, where it has already been dilution by other
currents (false air, mill gas, etc.) no hay que confundir el nivel de NO X en el gas de escape con el
fijado por la normativa, pues este ltimo lo fija para gas de salida de chimenea, donde ya ha habido
dilucin por otras corrientes (aire falso, gas de molino, etctera) that is why the norm forces to
reference at 10% of O2.
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For example:

Conversion to 10% O2:

21 10 21 10
f10 = = = 1.375
21 O 2 21 13

ppm NOX 10%O2 = f10 * ppm NOX ( to compare with norm)

SOX: SO2 and SO3

Given the clinkering process, in which mainly calcic carbonate is used, is too difficult to have important
concentrations of SO2 and/or SO3, since these are captured by the lime, to become at the mass
currents sulphates (CaSO4) and sulfites (CaSO3). That is why the SO2 and/or SO3 emissions are ussualy
ZERO, excepting that sulfides (S=) or sulfurs (S) are being contributed by the raw meal, that for being
fed at the beginning of the tower, it does not have temperature conditions and time to become
sulphates or sulfites.

If SO2 in escape gas is present may force to inject free lime as a calcic hydroxid (approximately 2 to 14
g. Ca(OH2) / kg clinker) so the SO2 will be captured by the CaO and become sulfite.
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Just as the NOX, the evaluation of SO2 / SO3 it is made on the chimney gas, correcting at 10% O2.

Heavy metals.
The heavy metals concentrations at the chimney gas (expressed at 11% O2) are of the next
magnitude order, being normed the sume levels of them in groups:
Metal mg/Nm3 < a... Limitation of mg/Nm3 according european norm
Cd (Cadmium) 0.0001
Hg (Mercury) 0.001
Tl (Thallium) 0.003
Cd + Hg + Tl < 0.2
Ni (Nickel) 0.001
As (Arsenic) 0.005
Se (Selenium) 0.005
Co (Cobalt) 0.0005
Ni + As + Se + Co < 1.0
Pb (Plumb) 0.008
Cr (Chrome) 0.02
Cu (Copper) 0.002
Zn (Zinc) 0.05
Sb (Antimony) 0.005
Mn (Manganese) 0.01
V (Vanadium) 0.01
Pb + Cr + Cu + Zn + Sb + Mn + V < 5

Dioxins y furans
Are denominated dioxins a big family of derivatives of polichlorinedibenzene-para-dioxin:

Cl O Cl

And are denominated furans a big family of derivatives of polichlorinedibenzenefuran:

Cl O Cl

Both, dioxins and furans, are evaluated altogheter and are expressen in base to factors of international
equivalence (I-TEQ), being the amounts so small that they are expressend in nanograms (1 ng = 10 -9
g = 10-6 mg) or in picograms (1 pg = 10 -12 g = 10-9 mg.) These cancerigenic products are found in dirt,
water and atmosphere, due to forest fires, volcanical eruptions, photolityc reaction, even in the blood
and grease of the human beings, being the feeding ingestion process the one the contributes more,
around 120 pg I-TEQ/day, the OMS establishes a tolerable value of 1 to 4 pg by each kg of corporal
weight and day.
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Respecting the emissions caused by human activity, more of the 75% are produced by the metals
fabrication and processing, the metallurgy, followed by a 15% of energy production, where are
included the incinerators even these destroy more than they emit, the 5% of domestic heating and the
2% or urban traffic, being just the 0.3% the contribution of other industrial thermal processes on
which the cement sector will be. With the PCBs elimination (chlorinebenzenes in transformators) only
the kiln combustion throws dioxins and furans, but in a minimum concentration ( 0.005 ng I-TEQ/Nm 3
at 10% O2) respecting the normative limit (depends on the country but it is around 0.1 ng/Nm 3) so the
cement kiln can not be considered as a polluting agent by dioxins and furans, but otherwise, because
of the elevated working temperatures (1800C when to destroy them it is required 800 to 1000C), the
resident times (higher than 2 seconds) as well as the good combustion and the oxigen excess, are
excellent places for the destruction of toxical and dangerous residues, even more than the
incinerators, on which these conditions are not reached

Particules emission.
The particules in suspension cause distrosions on the solar radiation pick up, on the rain cycles and the
live beings breathing. Naturally the dust displacement by the own Nature is huge, even more than the
human factor, establishing, by the norm, particules emission levels and chimneys dimensions in order
to avoid the concentration on the urban poblations. The allowed levels (in mg/Nm 3) by each country
differ a lot, and even more in kiln chimneys where the exigent is not only limited to punctual emissions
by to accumulative periods, through calculations that is considered by the process idiosyncrasy. On the
same way there are different formularions for the minimum chimney height,which assures its pollution
dispersing work, being one of them the following (must be calculate the height H for each pollution
agent, so the result will be the final H for the chimney focal point ):

A * Q*F 3 n
H= *
CM V * T

H = Chimney height (m)
A = Climatic conditions of the place = 70 * Ic
T1 2 * t 80
where Ic = climatic coefficient (with values from the last 10 years) =
Tm h
T1 = T maximum at a warm period T minimum at a cold period (C)
t = T warmest month T coldest month (C)
Tm = T year mean (if its lower than 10C, then 10C is considered)
h = relative mean humidity of June, July, August and September, taken at 07, 13 y 18
Q = Maximum flow of the mentioned pollution agent, expressed en kg/hr.
F = Sedimentation coefficient, for gases F = 1, for particules F = 2.
CM = Maximum admissible concentration for the mentioned pollution agent, in mg/Nm 3, as:
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CM = C reference C background
C reference = Reference value contributed by the Administration, Ex.: particules=0.3 mg/Nm 3
C backgroudn = Background concentration (if there is any) at the locality (mg/Nm 3)
n = Chimney number, included the one that is being calculated, located at the inferior horizontal
distance of 2*H of the chimney location.
V = Gases emited flow, in m3/hr.
T = Chimney gas T annual mean T of the air at the place (C)

Besides the height the chimney must have a minimum convection impulse, in order to fulfill:

T2 > 188 * * s
T2 = gas chimney T mean T of the maximums of the warmest month (C)
v = Chimney gases speed (m/seg)
H = Chimney height (m)
s = Chimney minimun interior section (m 2)

The big industrial installations, which emit great amount of contaminants to the atmosphere, required
also deep studies based in diffusion models, or even scale models where the emission volumes,
topographic and climatic conditions are reproduced.
To finalize, it is advisable to discriminate the information given by the environmental authorities about
flows (by which the pollution agents will be divided), since they can have direct measurement mistakes
that easily are detected with simple O2 balances, like this one:
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Note: to convert ppm to mg/Nm3 it is just neede to multiply by the gas density in kg/Nm 3, so:
gas * ppm pollution agent = mg pollution agent/Nm3 gas

These balances allow verifying flows handled by fans and relate them with pressures, having by this
way a fast flow estimate with the panel instrumentation. With the gas altitude and temperature, its
pass will be obtained in m3/hr.
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Appendix A Part I. Potential composition statement by Bogue

General Strategy for the stoichiometric statement:

1. Knowing which compounds (phases) will be formed.
2. In what order those mentioned compounds will be formed.
3. Reactions statements:
x A + y B AxBy
3.1 From the product AxBy will be forme as many amount as the minority allows.
Which one will be the minority?
x PmA
It will be A, if A/B is lower than ; otherwise B will be the minority.
y PmB
3.2 Knowing the minority, for example B, formations and consumptions are calculated.

xA + yB AxBy
xPmA + yPmB = PmAxBy

Aconsumed Bexistent AxByformed

Aconsumed= Bexistent AxByformed= Bexistent

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3.3 And what is left for the following reactions:

Brest = Bexistent Bconsumed = 0
x PmA
Arest = Aexistent Aconsumed = Aexistent - Bexistent
y PmB

Portland Type Clinker

Case MA > 0.64.
C4AF formation. As being the Fe2O3 the minority one with respect to Al2O3 (MA > 0.64), C4AF will be
formed as much as the Fe2O3 level allows.
4 CaO + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 = C4AF
4 PmCaO + PmAl2O3 + PmFe2O3 = PmC4AF
4 (56) + 101.96 + 159.77 = 485.66
CaO(Consumed) + Al2O3(Consumed C4AF) + Fe2O3 = C4AF(Formed)
1 Pm C4AF 485.66
C4AF(Formed) = * Fe 2 O 3 = * Fe 2 O 3 = 3.04 Fe2O3 (1)
1 PmFe2O3 159.77

1 Pm Al2O3 101.96
Al2O3(Consumed C4AF) = * Fe 2 O 3 = * Fe 2 O 3 = 0.64 Fe2O3 (2)
1 PmFe2O3 159.77

Al2O3(Rest C4AF) = Al2O3 - Al2O3(Consumed C4AF) = Al2O3 - 0.64 Fe2O3 (3)

4 Pm CaO 4 56
CaO(Consumed C4AF) = * Fe 2 O 3 = * Fe 2 O 3 = 1.4 Fe2O3 (4)
1 PmFe2O3 159.77

CaO(Rest C4AF) = CaO CaO(Consumed C4AF) = CaO - 1.4 Fe2O3 (5)

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C3A formation. It will be formed as much as the Al 2O3 % allows (Rest), which will be the minority with
respect to CaO.
3 CaO + Al2O3 = C3A
3 56 + 101.96 = 269.96
CaO(Consumed C3A) + Al2O3(Rest C4AF) = C3A(Formrf)
1 Pm C3A
C3A(Formed) = * Al 2 O 3(Resta C4AF) = 2.65 * Al2O3(Rest C4AF)
1 Pm Al2O3

= 2.65 * (Al2O3 - 0.64 Fe2O3) = 2.65 Al2O3 1.69 Fe2O3 (6)

3 Pm CaO
CaO(Consumed C3A) = * Al 2 O 3(Rest C4AF) = 1.65 * Al2O3(Rest C4AF)
1 Pm Al2O3

= 1.65 * (Al2O3 - 0.64 Fe2O3) = 1.65 Al2O3 1.05 Fe2O3 (7)

CaO(Rest C3A) = CaO CaO(Consumed C4AF) CaO(Consumed C3A)
= CaO 1.4 Fe2O3 (1.65 Al2O3 1.05 Fe2O3 )
= CaO 1.65 Al2O3 0.35 Fe2O3 (8)

C2S formation. It will be formed as much as the minority compound allows, in this case the SiO 2.
2 CaO + SiO2 = C2S
2 (56) + 60.09 = 172.09
CaO(Consumed C2S) + SiO2 = C2S(Formed)
1 Pm C2S
C2S(Formed) = * SiO 2 = 2.86 SiO2 (9)
1 Pm SiO2

2 Pm CaO
CaO(Consumed C2S) = * SiO 2 = 1.86 SiO2 (10)
1 Pm SiO2

CaO(Rest C2S) = CaO - CaO(Consumed C4AF) CaO(Consumed C3A) CaO(Consumed C2S)

= CaO 1.65 Al2O3 0.35 Fe2O3 1.86 SiO2 (11)

C3S formation. It will be formed as much as the minority compound allows, which can be the rest C 2S
or the CaO.
C2S + CaO(Rest C2S) = C3S
172.09 + 56 = 228.09
Which one is the minority?
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C 2 S (Formed) (9)
C2S mols = = (12)
MwC2S 172.09

CaO (Rest) (11)

CaO mols= = (13)
MwCaO 56

a) Minority C2S (12) < (13) (Very strange)

C2S + CaO = C3S
172.09 + 56 = 228.09
C2S(Formed) + CaO(Consumed C3S) = C3S(Formed)
1 Mw C3S
C3S(Formed) = * C 2 S (Formed) = 1.32 * C2S(Formed) = 1.32 * 2.86 SiO2
1 MwC2S

= 3.8 SiO2 (14)

1 MwCaO
CaO(Consumed C3S) = * C 2 S (Formed) = 0.93 SiO2 (15)
1 MwC2S

CaO(Final Rest) = CaO - CaO(Consumed C4AF) CaO(Consumed C3A) CaO(Consumed C2S) CaO(Consumed C3S)
= CaO 1.65 Al2O3 0.35 Fe2O3 2.79 SiO2 (16)

b) Minority CaO (12) > (13) (Normal)

C2S + CaO = C3S
172.09 + 56 = 228.09
C2S(Formed) + CaO(Rest) = C3S(Formed)
1 MwC3S
C3S(Formed) = * CaO (Rest C2S) = 4.07 * (equation 11)
1 MwCaO

= 4.07 CaO 6.7 Al2O3 1.43 Fe2O3 7.6 SiO2 (17)

1 MwC2S
C2S(Consumed) = * CaO (Rest C2S) = 3.07 * (equation 11)
1 MwCaO

= 3.07 CaO 5.06 Al2O3 1.08 Fe2O3 5.70 SiO2 (18)

C2S(Rest) = C2S(Formed) C2S(Consumed)
= 8.56 SiO2 - 3.07 CaO + 5.06 Al2O3 + 1.08 Fe2O3 (19)
Since the kiln process is statistical of encounters between compounds, CaO (L) will always be formed,
therefore the Bogue expressions are corrected, using (CaO CaO (L)) and the calcium sulphates, which
are formed with the remainding SO 3 of its combination with alkali (K y Na), consuming again CaO and
the Bogue expressions are again corrected.
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SO3 + K2O = K2SO4

80 + 94.2 = 174.2
K2SO4 = (174.2/94.2) * K2O = 1.85 K2O
SO3 + Na2O = Na2SO4
80 + 62 = 142
Na2SO4 = (142/62) * Na2O = 2.29 * Na2O
SO3(Rest) = SO3 (80/94.2) * K2O (80/62) * Na2O = SO3 0.85 * K2O 1.3 * Na2O
SO3 + CaO = CaSO4
80 + 56 = 136
CaSO4(Formed) = (136/80) * SO3(Rest) = 1.7 SO3(Rest)
= (1.7*1) SO3 - (1.7*0.85) K2O - (1.7*1.3) Na2O
= 1.7 SO3 1.44 K2O 2.2 Na2O
CaO(Consumed SO3) = (56/80)*SO3(Rest) = (56/80) SO3(56/80)*(0.85) K2O (56/80)*(1.3) Na2O
= 0.7 SO3 0.6 K2O 0.9 Na2O = 0.7 * (SO3 - 0.85 K2O 1.3 Na2O)

Finally correcting the equation 17 free lime and consumed lime by SO3 we get the following form:

C3S = 4.07[CaO CaO(L) CaO(Consumed SO3)] 7.6 SiO2 6.7 Al2O3 1.43 Fe2O3
C3S = 4.07[CaO CaO(L) 0.7 (SO3 - 0.6 K2O - 0.9 Na2O)] 7.6 SiO2 6.7 Al2O3 1.43 Fe2O3

That algon with the MgO (Up to 2%), givien as magnesium equivalence with respect to the calcium at
the phases (C3S + C2MgS + CMg2S + Mg3S), of 0.75, the C3S Bogue expression is:
C3S = 4.07[CaO CaO(L) + 0.75 MgO 0.7 SO 3 + 0.476 K2O + 0.72 Na2O] 7.6 SiO2 6.7 Al2O3
1.43 Fe2O3
c) Both equal (12) = (13)
C2S + CaO = C3S
56*2 + 60.09 + 56 = 228.09
C3S = (228.09/60.09) * SiO2 =3.8 SiO2
CaOconsumed C3S = (168/60.09) SiO2 = 2.8 SiO2
C3A = 2.65 Al2O3 1.69 Fe2O3
C4AF = 3.04 Fe2O3
C2S = 0
CaO(L) = CaO CaORestC3A CaOConsumed C3S = 0
CaO(L) = CaO 2.8 SiO2 1.65 Al2O3 0.35 Fe2O3 = 0
CaOOptimal = 2.8 SiO2 + 1.65 Al2O3 + 0.35 Fe2O3
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Defining saturation degree (SAT.D) as the optimal CaO approximation:

CaO CaO 100
SAT.D = CaO 100
2.8 SiO 2 1.65 Al 2 O 3 0.35 Fe 2 O 3

As not being pure phases, the founded coefficients, based in experience, change giving place to the
LSF commonly known.
CaO 100
2.8 SiO 2 1.18 Al2 O 3 0.65 Fe 2 O 3

MA Case < 0.64

With the same statement but beginning with the C 4AF until the Al2O3 is consumed and then the C2F
unitl the Fe2O3 does, the following Bogue expressions are defined:
C4AF = 4.77 Al2O3
C2F = 1.7 Fe2O3 2.67 Al2O3
C2S = 2.867 SiO2 0.754 C3S
C3S = 4.071 CaO 7.6 SiO2 4.48 Al2O3 2.86 Fe2O3
Note: If C3S<0; C3S = 5.8 SiO2 and C2S is recalculated.
For liquid phase percentage the expressions are as following:
FL1338 C = 6.1 Fe2O3 + MgO + K2O + Na2O + SO3 For MA>1.38
= 8.2 Al2O3 5.22 Fe2O3 + MgO* + K2O + Na2O + SO3; For MA<1.38
FL1400 C =2.95 Al2O3 + 2.2 Fe2O3 + MgO* + K2O + Na2O + SO3; For MA>0.64
FL1450 C =3.05 Al2O3 + 2.25 Fe2O3 + MgO* + K2O + Na2O + SO3; For MA>0.64
Note: MgO* = MgO up to 2%.
Expressed as phases
FL1450 C = 1.13 C3A + 0.75 C4AF + 0.6(CaSO4 + K2SO4 + Na2SO4)
Respect to the minimum clinker temperature
T(C) = 1300 + 4.51 C3S 3.74 C3A 12.64 C4AF
Sulphates Module
(SO 3 /80)
(K 2 O/94) (Na 2 O/62) (2Cl /35.5)

Equivalent Alkali
Equivalent Na2O = Na2O + 0.659 K2O
Equivalent K2O = K2O + 1.52 Na2O
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Reaction heat (H) Kcal/Kgclinker

HZur Strasse = 7.65 CaO + 6.48 MgO + 4.11 Al2O3 0.59 Fe2O3 5.12 SiO2
HFLS = 7.65 CaO + 6.48 MgO + 2.22 Al2O3 0.597 Fe2O3 5.12 SiO2 10(K2O + Na2O) +
11.6 H2Oraw meal
Note : Oxides in clinker base
Coatingability coefficient (AW)
AW = C4AF + C3A + 0.2 C2S + 2 Fe2O3
Burning FactorAptitud de coccin (BF)
BF = LSF + 10 MS 3(MgO + K2O + Na2O)

A.2 Tentative statement for potential composition with CaF 2 intervention, applied
to clinkers of MA > 0.64 and supossed fluorestelladite composition

K2SO4 formation
K2O + SO3 = K2SO4
94.2 + 80 = 174.2
K2SO4 = 1.85 K2O
SO3(consumed)= (80/94.2) K2O = 0.85 K2O
SO3(rest)= SO3 0.85 K2O
Na2SO4 formation
Na2O + SO3 = Na2SO4
62 + 80 = 142
Na2SO4 = 2.29 Na2O
SO3(consumed)= (80/62) Na2O = 1.29 Na2O
SO3(rest)= SO3 0.85 K2O 1.29 Na2O

CaSO4 formation
CaO + SO3 = CaSO4
56 + 80 = 136
CaSO4 = 1.7 SO3(Rest) = 1.7 (SO3- 0.85 K2O 1.29 Na2O) = 1.7 SO3 1.445 K2O 2.2 Na2O
CaO(Consumed) = 0.7 SO3 0.6 K2O 0.9 Na2O
CaO(Rest) = CaO (0.7 SO3 0.6 K2O 0.9 Na2O)
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C4AF formation
4 CaO + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 = C4AF
4 (56) + 102 + 160 = 486
C4AF = (486/160) Fe2O3 = 3.04 Fe2O3
CaO(Consumed) = [(4*56)/160] Fe2O3 = 1.4 Fe2O3
Al2O3(Consumed) = 0.638 Fe2O3
CaO(Rest) = CaO 0.7 SO3 0.6 K2O 0.9 Na2O 1.4 Fe2O3
Al2O3(Rest) = Al2O3 0.638 Fe2O3

C3A formation
3 CaO + Al2O3 = C3A
3 (56) + 102 = 270
C3A = 2.647 Al2O3(Rest) =2.647 * (Al2O3 0.638 Fe2O3) = 2.647 * Al2O3 1.69 * Fe2O3
CaO(Rest) = CaO 1.65 Al2O3 0.35 Fe2O3 (0.7 SO3 0.6 K2O 0.9 Na2O)
C2S formation
2 CaO + SiO2 = C2S
2 (56) + 60.09 = 172.09
C2S = 2.86 SiO2
CaO(Rest) = CaO 1.86 SiO2 1.65 Al2O3 0.35 Fe2O3 (0.7 SO3 0.6 K2O 0.9 Na2O)
(3C2S 3CaSO4 CaF2) formation: A little amount of CaF2 (Molcular weight 78) is added with products
which are inevitably formed as C 2S (Molecular weight 172) and the CaSO 4 (Molecular weight 136) in
order to give a big amount of a 3C2S3CaSO4CaF2 flux (Molecular weight 1002)
3C2S + 3CaSO4 + CaF2 = 3C2S 3CaSO4 CaF2
3 (172) + 3 (136) + 78 = 1002

a) Minority determination
CaF2 = (78/408) * CaSO4 = 0.19 CaSO4 = 0.19 (1.7 SO3 1.445 K2O 2.2 Na2O)
CaF2 = (0.323 SO3 0.274 K2O 0.418 Na2O)

F = 0.1583 SO3 0.1346 K2O 0.2 Na2O
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b) If CaF2 is the minority

F- < 0.1583 SO3 0.1346 K2O 0.2 Na2O; F
In this case,
3C2S3CaSO4CaF2 = 12.86 CaF2= 26.37 F-
CaSO4 (Consumed) = (408/1002) * 3C2S3CaSO4CaF2 = 0.40 * 3C2S3CaSO4CaF2
CaSO4 (Consumed) = 0.4 * 26.37 F- = 10.73 F-
CaSO4 (Rest) = 1.7 SO3 1.445 K2O 2.2 Na2O 10.73 F-
CaF2 (Rest) = 0
C2S(Consumed) = (516/1002)* 3C2S3CaSO4CaF2 = 0.515 * 3C2S3CaSO4CaF2
C2S(Rest) = 2.86 SiO2 - 0.515 * 3C2S3CaSO4CaF2

c) If CaSO4 is the minority

F- > 0.1583 SO3 0.1346 K2O 0.2 Na2O; F
In this case,
3C2S3CaSO4CaF2 = (1002/408) CaSO4 = 2.45 CaSO4
3C2S3CaSO4CaF2 = 4.165 SO3 3.54 K2O 5.39 Na2O
CaSO4 (Rest) = 0
C2S(Consumed) = (516/1002)* 3C2S3CaSO4CaF2 = 0.515 (3C2S3CaSO4CaF2)
C2S(Rest) = 2.86 SiO2 - 0.515 * 3C2S3CaSO4CaF2

Note: CaF2 in balance with CaSO4, si CaF2 = 0.32 SO3 0.27 K2O 0.4 Na2O

CaO + C2S = C3S

56 + 172 = 228
C2S(Consumed) = (172/228) * C3S = 0.754 C3S

C3S formation: Same corrected Bogue expression, given that the C 3S is not affected by the C2S
consumption by the mineralized pair, lefting always as an excess.
C3S = 4.07[CaO CaO (L) +0.75 MgO* 0.7 SO3 + 0.476 K2O + 0.72 Na2O] 7.6 SiO2 6.7
Al2O3 1.43 Fe2O3

Remaining C2S: Different to the corrected Bogue

C2S = 2.86 SiO2 0.754 C3S 0.515 (3C2S3CaSO4CaF2)
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In the empirical behavior, this 3C 2S3CaSO4CaF2 phase is behaved as the C3A but in an lower
extension, so in order to include it effect in the modules, minimum sintering temperature, etc., the
equivalent in work Al2O3 can be expressed:
3C 2 S 3CaSO 4 CaF2
Al 2 O 3 Equivalent in work
So, in a tentative way, until the phases bibliography using fluorite come out, the modules can be
corrected as the kiln would feel them:
CaO 100
2.8 SiO 2 1.18 Al2 O 3
3C 2 S 3CaSO 4 CaF2
2.65 0.65 Fe 2 O 3

SiO 2
MS = 3C 2 S 3CaSO 4 CaF2
Al2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3
3C 2 S 3CaSO 4 CaF2
Al2 O 3
MA = 2.65
Fe 2 O 3

Clinkering T (C) = 1300 + 4.51 C3S 3.74 C3A 12.64 C4AF 12 (3C2S3CaSO4CaF2)
Coatingability coefficient (AW)
AW = C4AF + C3A + 0.2 C2S + 2 Fe2O3 + 3C2S3CaSO4CaF2
Burning factor (BF) (With the new modules)
BF = LSF + 10 MS 3(MgO + K2O + Na2O)
CaO30TC = Already seen formulas but using modules calculated with 3C 2S3CaSO4CaF2.

Liquid phase % at 1450 C

3C 2 S 3CaSO 4 CaF2
FL1450 C =3.05 [Al2O3 + ] + 2.25 Fe2O3 + MgO* + K2O + Na2O + SO3
MgO = MgO up to 2 %
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Example: Mineralizing white clinker

1 (Normal) 2 (Mineralized)
CaO 67.8 68 Real results in white clinker kiln. The 2 did not
behave as corresponded to the modules and
SiO2 23.1 24
traditional calculations, but as the new
Al2O3 6.2 2.3 expressions gaining 10% of production,
lowering the specific heat consumption in a
Fe2O3 0.28 0.28 15%, and being a clinker with lower benefits
MgO 0.83 0.40 at early ages (with a longer setting), the result
at late ages was better and with a more
SO3 0.89 3.5 pulverizable clinker.
K2O 0.1 0.1
Na2O 0.1 0.1
TiO2 0.05 0.05
F- 0 0.85
PxI 0.5 0.4
Sum 99.9 99.9
CaO(L) 0.5 0.5 New Formulas
LSF 93.9 97 89.2
MS 3.56 9.3 3.09
MA 22.1 8.21 26.7
C3S 54.3 67.1 67.1
C2S 25.3 18.2 11.2
C3A 16 5.6 (5.6 +13.7) by 3C2S3CaSO4CaF2 effect

C4AF 0.9 0.9 0.9

FL1338C 3.6 5.8 5.8
FL1450C 21.15 11.6 27.2
Coating Coeff. 22.4 10.7 23
BF Factor 125.2 186 118
Clinkering T 1475 1571 1406
Resistance 2D 33.3 26.6 Lowers when C3A lowers

Resistance 7D 57 58.2 Equal for same C3S + C3A

Resistance 28D 67 75.1 Raises for higher C3S

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Appendix B Part I. Calibration of FRX and DRX equipments

Adjustment of process equipment (FRX) to process control (Automatic or Manual):

1. Simple: Calibration method.
2. Reliable: Handling by menus Without Error

1. Method of FRX Calibration (by melted pearl) SIMPLE

A. Strategy:
a) Having the main 9 channels (Ca, Si, Al, Fe, Mg, S, K, Na, Ti) and if there is just a little of
anyone in the raw materials, for example the Ti, a fix value can be left and not use the
channel. If there is one very correlated with other, for example the Na with the K, this
relation can be fixed, not needing that channel, and materials with sodium can be used as a
flux (borate) and as antiadherent (iodide) while making the pearls.
b) Working with high dilutions samples vs. flux so:
Melts well
Linearize the curves which cause the interelementary matrix effects.
Keep lineal the losses of volatile.
The most effective is the dilution at 10%, this is, 0.5 gr of sample: 5 gr of flux.
c) Minimizing the number of calibrators, the best is to have only 2 calibrators:
Calibrator for raw meal: built with all the materials which form the raw meal.
Calibrator for Clinker and Cement: built with all the materials which form the different
d) Rationalized Patterns. They must meet that the sum of the 9 oxides + the lost lost of
ignition, gives a value very close to 100, in order to rationalize them definitely to 100%.
e) The straight line must be natural. The compounds with extreme elements indicate how the
natural slope is.
(element %)

Pivot Previous Strategy.

Family curves, using
minimum squares
resulting in not
natural straigth

Intensity (I)
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B. Calibration method
In both straight lines (for raw meal and cement) and for all the oxides, a point on the line will be
THE TARGET PRODUCT (raw meal/clinker) of the Plant, this is, the straight lines WILL PIVOT
always on the raw meal analysis, or clinker, that is wished to always be obtained at the mill or
kiln. In this way the analysis will very precise since it has accomplished what was looked for, that
target raw meal and clinker.
The other point with which the straight line is built (each one) will depend on the element, having
the material which offers the higher range with respect to the product (raw meal, clinker). Thus:


Ca Si Al Fe Mg S Na K Ti

LOI = 0.786CaO
Reference Raw Meal X X X X X X X X X
High Limestone X (X)

Silica Corrector *
X (X) (X) (X) (X)
Alumina Corrector* X
Iron Corrector X

Gypsum (X)
(*) Usually the same material (clays.....)
(X) the one that is more appropriate
When calibrated, all these materials are analyzed by the calibrator and the rationalized
analyticals are given as definitives (OPERATIONAL ANALYTICALS)


Ca Si Al Fe Mg S Na K Ti
to additions, seek relation
0.5 flow for clinker + LOI due

Reference Clinker X X X X X X X X X
Puzolane X X X X X
Gypsum X
Others of support:
(*) Iron Mineral X
(*) High Alkali Mineral X X
(*) Even not being own materials of cements.
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Adjustment to procces equipmet (DRX) to process control (Automatic or Manual)

1. Simple
2. Reliable
1. DRX simple calibration method
(non purist explanation, but for automatization practical use). Impulsesde los
impulso en
counting at
Mximo Pico
Maximum peak
donde it
where lo is
Example: For the C3S at and angle of 2 = 41.15 found

41.05 41.15 41.25

1. 1st Straight Line: drawn with and

For corrected Bogue: C 3S 1

Clinker (the closest wished)
2 Dilutin the clinker With a 60% of the
By dilution C 3S : C 3 S 0.4 mayority in cements, grinding
All togheter until finesse equal to

Impulses (counts)

2. Certification of cement primary patterns

The two more extreme cements made are taken (in
clinker %) and are introduced to the straight line,
and the resulting values, for the phase, constitute
the PRIMARY PATTERNS. The monitor intensity will
allow the auto correction by progressive exhaustion
of the tube by time.

3. Analysis: the samples to be analyzed will be introcued in

the Primitive Straight Line (straight line made with the
primary patterns), and its values will be corrected by the
exhaustion factor (derives from the tube, this is the relation
between the counts of the day monitor and the ones when
the equipment was calibrated).
C 3 S CEMENT C 3 S By Curve f exhaustion
I monitor ( at calibration)
f exhaustion
I monitor (today)
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Note: It is very recommendable to eliminate the background noises mainly by additions, that is why it
is important to find a free peaks point which reperesents the background (example: angle 17) to
disconnect that background noise at the peak intensity which represents the phase that is going to be

Error situation (by background noise):
I(34.2)80/20 >>> 0.8 *100

((80%Clk / 20% Poz)


C3S (34.2)

Corrected situation (by background noise):

I I(34.2)80/20 - I(17)80/20 = 0.8 * (I(34.2)100 - I(17)100 )



((80%Clk / 20% Poz)


Background (17) C3S (34.2)
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And so on for the other angles (phases). The selected peaks must have a enough curvature for the
detection (and counting) of the maximum point. Very intense and narrows peaks, are not interesting,
facing stability and reliability.

In the other hand, the peaks (2 ) selected for the phases must be free of interferences by the
additions and the gypsum, that is why it is recommended the following angles (for tubes with a copper

C3S : 34.2 Y 41.2

C3A : 33.2
C4AF: 33.8
C2S : 30.9

For the free lime (DRX vs. chemical method), the primitive straight line is built with kiln clinkers, taking
andvantage of kiln situations of bad burning, for the high point and the objective clinker as the low
Cx (free lime): 37.3

VERY IMPORTANT NOTE: through time, the equipment will displace the diffractograph, that is why it
has to be accompanied with a displacement of the angle that is going to be measured.

41.1 41.2 41.3 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.2 41.3 41.4


Other commentaries:
In case of cements added with limestone, the CaCO 3 quantification by DRX (calibrating previously
intensity vs. lost of ignition) allows having LOI of the produced cement without needing the adquisition
of other fast evaluation equipment (for example: LECO).
Note: CaCO3 at 43.1 / 47.4 / 48.5 / 39.4 angles.
For the gypsum case, what refers to quantify the dihydrated, hemhydrated and anhydrite percentage,
DRX constitutes a good support for antincipating (before grinding or during) or antincipating for false
setting problems.
Dihydrated: 11.7
Hemihydrated: 14.7
Anhydrite: 25.8.
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Appendix A Pare II. Combustion

Calculations for the stoichiometric air
Table 1
FUEL AIR CO2 H 2O SO2 N2 Total
ELEMENT WEIGHT % Stoich. gas
C 86.0 9.818 3.154 7.542 10.696
H2 10.5 3.605 0.945 2.765 3.71
S 3.5 0.1502 0.07 0.1152 0.1852
TOTAL 100 13.5732 3.154 0.945 0.07 10.422 14.59



C + O2 CO2

12 Kg C + 32 Kg O2 44 Kg CO2
Kgmol C Kgmol Kgmol CO2

Dividing between 12 for reducing in carbon base, we have:

1 + 2.667 Kg O2 3.667 Kg CO2

Kg C Kg C

Multiplying by the percentage in weight of the carbon in the fuel, we find:

O.86 Kg C X 3.667 Kg CO2 = 3.154 Kg CO2

Kgcomb Kg C Kg comb
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Using air instead of O2:

O2 + N2 AIR

% MASS 0.233 0.767 1

O2 BASE 1 3.29 4.2918

C + 2.66 (4.2918) AIR 3.66CO2 + 2.66(3.2918) N2

C + 11.4168 AIR 3.66 CO2 + 8.77 N2


11.4168 X 0.86 = 9.818 Kg air

Kg comb.

8.77X 0.86 = 7.542 Kg N2

Kg comb.


H2 + 1/2 O2 H2O

2 Kg H2 + 16 Kg O2 18 Kg H2O
Kgmol H2 Kgmol O2 Kgmol H2O

Dividing between 2 to reduce in hydrogen base, we get:

1 + 8 Kg O2 9 Kg H2O
Kg H2 Kg H2
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Multiplying by the percentage in weight of hydrogen in the fuel, we find:

O.105 Kg H2 X 9.0 Kg H2O = 0.945 Kg H2O

Kgcomb Kg H2 Kg comb

Using air instead of O2:

O2 + N2 AIR

% MASS 0.233 0.767 1

O2 BASE 1 3.29 4.2918

H2 + 8 (4.2918) AIR 9 H2O+ 8(3.2918) N2

H2 + 34.334 AIR 9 H2O + 26.334 N2


34.334 X 0.105 = 3.605 Kg air

Kg comb.

26.334 X 0.105 = 2.765 Kg N2

Kg comb.


S + O2 SO2

32 Kg S + 32 Kg O2 64 Kg SO2
Kgmol S Kgmol O2 Kgmol SO2

Dividing between 32 to reduce in sulfur base, we have:

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1 + 1 Kg O2 2 Kg SO2
Kg S Kg S

Multiplying by the percentage in weight of sulfur in the fuel, we find:

0.035 Kg S X 2.0 Kg SO2 = 0.07 Kg SO2
Kgcomb Kg S Kg comb

Using air instead of O2:

O2 + N2 AIR

% MASS 0.233 0.767 1

O2 BASE 1 3.29 4.2918

S + 1 (4.2918) AIR 2 SO2+ 1(3.2918) N2

S + 4.2918 AIR 2 SO2 + 3.2918 N2

4.2918 X 0.035 = 0.1502 Kg air
Kg comb.
3.2918 X 0.035 = 0.1152 Kg N2
Kg comb.


The total of the 3rd column represents the stoichiometric air amount needed to burn 1 kg of fuel oil.
While burning the fuel oil transforms totally into gases (CO 2, H2O, etc.), 1 Kg of fuel oil produces 1 Kg
of gases.
The Kg of gases are added to the 13.57 Kg of stoichiometric air, finally, the total amount of
stoichiometric combustion gases (GT) is: table 1, column Total.

GT 13.57 1kg fuel 14.57 Gases
kg Fuels

Appendix B Part II. Heat Balance

The heat balance is based on the heat flows of the the different components that leave and enter the
system starting off the base Incomes = Outcomes. Next it is presented a table with the calorific
capacities of the main compounds based on the next formula:
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Cp = a + b * 10-6 * T + c * 10-9 * T2 (Kcal/kg C) (T in C)

A b C
CO2 0.196 118 -43
H2O 0.443 39 28
N2 0.244 22 0
O2 0.218 30 0
Air 0.237 23 0
Escape Gas (T in K) 0.306 58 7.96
Raw Meal 0.206 101 -37
Clinker 0.186 54 0
Coal/Coke 0.262 390 0
Note: The temperatures are always in C unless other is indicated.
Heat losses
QLosses = QClinker + QCooler + QTower + QKiln + QDuct 3 + QEscape Gas+ QExcess Air + QDust + QReaction + QCO + QResidual Air
Clinker Latent Heat (Kcal/hr)
QClinker = mClinker*CpClinker*TClinker
Radiation and Convection (use T in Kelvin degrees)
A = exterior Areas which will be evaluated in m2.
Temperatures in Kelvin degrees T = T C + 273
Radiation (Kcal/hr m2):
hRadiation = 0.000000042*(TSuface4 TAmbient4)
Convection (Kcal/hr m2):
hConvection = 80.33*(( TSurface + TAmbient)/2)-0.724 *( TSurface - TAmbient)1.33
Cooler (Kcal/hr)
QCooler = ACooler * (hRadiation + hConvection)
Cyclones Tower (Kcal/hr)
QTower = ATower * (hRadiation + hConvection)
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Kiln Shell (Kcal/hr)

QKiln = AKiln * (hRadiation + hConvection)

Tertiary Air Duct (Kcal/hr)

QDuct 3 = ADuct 3 * (hRadiation + hConvection)
Latent Heat of:
Escape Gas (Kcal/hr) (Including Excess Air)
QEscape Gas = mEscape Gas*[CpEscape Gas*(1-(%Excess Air/100)) + CpAir*(%Excess Air/100)]*TEscape Gas
mEscape Gas (Kg/hr)= Escape Gas * VEscape Gas
Escape Gas (Kg/ Nm3)= 1.4 (0.005*%O2) (Tower Exit)
VEscape Gas (Nm3/hr)= 1.25 * mClinker / (1 - %Excess Air / 100)
mClinker in Kg/hr
%Excess Air = %O2 (Tower Exit) / 0.21
Excess Air
QExcess Air = mExcess Air*CpAir*TEscape Gas (Kcal/hr)
mExcess Air = Air * VExcess Air
Air = 1.29 kg/Nm3 -air normal density-
VExcess Air = VEscape Gas * %Excess Air /100
Escape Gas (Kcal/hr) (Without Excess Air)
QEscape Gas without excess air = QEscape Gas - QExcess Air

Dust Latent Heat not recovered by Cold Stages (Kcal/hr)

QDust = mDust*CpDust*TDust
MDust = mClinker * (HC/Ck) * (1+ %Dust/100) * (%Dust/100)
%Dust= % of raw meal that escapes to the cold stages
Where (HC/Ck) is the conversion from raw meal to clinker stoichiometrically.
Heat reaction (Kcal/hr)
QReaction=(7.646*%CaO+6.48*%MgO+2.22*%Al2O35.116*%SiO20.59*%Fe2O310*%K2O+Na2O +11.6*%H2O)
Residual Air Latent Heat(Kcal/hr)
QResidual Air = mResidual Air CpAir*TResidual Air
mResidual Air = Air * VResidual Air
VResidual Air = VTotal Air - VTertiary Air + Secondary
VTertiary Air + Secondary = VExcess Air + VStoichiometric Air
VExcess Air = VEscape Gas * %Excess Air /100
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VStoichiometric Air = 1.09 * CEH / 1000

Note: CEH is the specific kiln consumption iterating from 800 Kcal/kg for gray clinker and 1500
Kcal/kg for white clinker.
CO presence at the precalciner exit (Kcal/hr)
QCO = 32 * %CO * mClinker
Heat Incomes
Raw Meal Latent Heat (Kcal/hr)
QRaw Meal = mRaw Meal*CpRaw Meal*TRaw Meal
mRaw Meal = (TPDclinker * 1000 / 24) * 1.56 Note: 1.56 for raw meal of habitual LOI.
Fuel Latent Heat (Kcal/hr)
QFuel = mFuel*CpFuel*TFuel
mFuel = (CEH/PCI dry base) * (TPDclinker * 1000 / 24) , Note: CEH (Kcal/kg) to iterate or a
approximated value of the installation, since the contribution of Q Fuel to the balance is too small.
Total Air Latent Heat (Kcal/hr)
QTotal Air = mTotal Air*CpTotal Air*TTotal Air
MTotal Air = Total Air * VTotal Air
Return Dust to the Cyclones Tower Latent Heat (Kcal/hr)
QReturn Dust = mReturn Dust*CpReturn Dust*TReturn Dust
Combustion Heat (Kcal/hr)
Qcombustion = QLosses QRaw Meal QFuel QTotal Air QReturn Dust

Calculation of the relation Nm3 a m3

Nm3 = m3 * (273 / (273+T)) * 13.6 * 760 * e-0.0001255 * H /10333
Where, T in Celsius degrees
H in meters over the sea level
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Appendix C Part II. Flame Calculations

Minimum air (Nm3/Kg fuel)

AminSolid = 1.01*PCI/1000 + 0.5
AminLiquid = 0.85*PCI/1000 + 2
AminGas = 0.875*PCI/1000
Stoichiometric Relation
= 1 + 0.09 * %O2 Kiln
Mass Flow of Stoichiometric Air Kg/s
Mst = Amin * Air * (%Fuel QP / 100) * (CEH / PCI )* (TPHClinker / 3.6)
Mass Flow of Primary Air Kg/s
Mpa = Mst * (% Primary Air / 100)
Mass Flow of Secondary Air Kg/s
Msa = * Mst - (% Primary Air / 100) * Mst
Primary Air Speed m/s
vpa = f * 236 * % Primary Air
; where f = 1.5 for modern burners and 1 for the rest.
Primary Air Flow m3/s
Vpa = Mpa / Primary Air
Diameter Relation Burner (Dq) / Kiln(Di)

v pa
Dq/Di 2 *
Di 0.4
Thring Newby coefficient
M pa M sa pa
Dq/Di , Maximum value = 0.94
M pa
Fuel Mass (Kg/s)
Mb = (% Fuel QP / 100) * (CEH / PCI )* (TPHClinker / 3.6)
Burner Push (Newtons -Kgm/s2-)
G = (Mpa * vpa) +[23*(Mb + Mc)]
Mc ashes mass in Kg/s = (% Ashes /100) * Mb
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Flame length

M pa M b M st M b

L 7.95 (Thring - Newby coefficient)

G Flame

Flame = 0.181 (Kg/m3)

Maximum Flame Position = Burner Position + 0.42 * L (Empirical)

Note: the maximum temperature position of the flame.

Final Position of the Flame = Burner Position + L

Burner Position = Distance from the dump to the burner point.
Nota: in satellites kiln the dump is the entrances middle point.
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Appendix D Parte II. System Temperatures Calculation

Secondary Tertiary Air Temperature

Q Clinker = Q Air

Q Clinker = (TPD/24) * CpCk * (TIncome TOutcome)

Q Air = Msa * Cp * ( T3+ 2 TAmbient)
TIncome = Theroical sintering temperature 50 * Burner position
T3+ 2 = (Q Clinker + Msa * CpAir * TAmbient )/( Msa * Cpsa)
T2 = T3+ 2 + 100
T3 = T3+ 2 - 100
Main Flame Temperature
PCI (=) Kcal/kg
Q Fuel = mFuel * Cp Fuel * TFuel
Q Secondary Air = (Kiln * Amin - Amin*(% Primary Air / 100)) * Air * CpAir * T2
Q Primary Air = Amin*(% Primary Air / 100) * Air * CpAir * TAmbient

PCI Q Fuel Q Secondary Air Q Primary Air

TFlame 1.1
0.393 1.5 0.01 Primary Air VoR

Calciner Flame Temperature

TCalciner Flame = (Q Kiln Gases + Q Tertiary Air + QFuel) / (mEscape Gas * CpEscape Gas)
Calciner Temperature
TCalciner = (Q Kiln Gases + Q Tertiary Air - Q Raw Meal )/ (mEscape Gas * CpEscape Gas)
Hot Stage Temperature
THot Stage = 153 * T0.25
Q Raw Meal = mRaw Meal * CpRaw Meal * (TCalciner Flame TPrevious Stage)
TPrevious Stage = 700 + 2 * %Calciner Fuel
Q Kiln Gases = VKiln Gases * Kiln Gases * Cp Kiln Gases * Tback end * mclinker
Q Tertiary Air = Calciner * air normal AminCalciner * CEH * %KcalCalciner * Cpair * T3
Q Fuel = CEH * mclinker * %KcalCalciner
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Appendix E Part II. Thermal Conductivity and Insulation

Thermal Conductivity
The conductivity can be expressed in different units, and according it is distinguished by the letters W
and K:
Conductivity W, is expressed in units W/m K:
W = Watt
K = Kelvin degrees temperature (by nomenclature, the is not written)
m = meters
Conductivity k, is expressed in units kCal/h m C:
kCal = kilo Calories
h = hours
m = meters
C = Temperature in Celsius degrees

The approximate relation between both expressions is:

1 W/m K 0.86 kCal/ h m C

The conductivity calculation at 1000 C for a refractory with different oxides proportions is:
K 1000 C = (%Xi/100) * Ki 1000 ]

Oxide I Wi 1000 Ki 1000

W/m K kCal/h m C
MgO 3.1 2.7
Al2O3 2.3 2.0
SiO2 0.0 0.0
Cr2O3 1.2 1.0
CaO 0.4 0.3
Fe2O3 0.0 0.0
ZrO2 0.0 0.0
SiC 10.4 9.0
Others 0.0 0.0

The thermal conductivity at any other temperature (expressed in C) is obtained by:

1000 T C
KT C K1000C 0.73

Refractivity Ta (C)

% xi
Ta Ta j
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Oxide i Tai

The Tai temperature must not be TiO2 7000 confused with the fusion point,
although there is some relation. SiC 2000
ZrO2 1750
*Note: If in the composition a Cr2O3 1750 100% of oxides is not comepleted
due to other elements not MgO 1750 considerated, the 1000 C value is
taken for that shortage. Al2O3 1700
SiO2 1200
Cold Resistance (N/mm2)
CaO 825
% xi Fe2O3 750
R Ri Others* 1000

Oxide i Ri
Cr2O3 190
For concretes the same equation ZrO2 170 will be used, but the result will be
multiplied by 1.55 to obtain the SiC 150 resistance value at 1000C.
Al2O3 80
Density(g/cm3) MgO 45
% xi Fe2O3 30
i SiO2 2
100 CaO 2

Oxide i i
SiC 4
Dilatation (%) ZrO2 4
MgO 3
It is mainly presented in low Al2O3 3 density oxides, and it is practically
zero in those of high density. It Cr2O3 3 must be considered that this
factor affects the dimensions (L) as the (h).
CaO 3
% xi Fe2O3 3
D1000C Di 1000C TiO2 3
100 SiO2 1

Oxide i Di 1000C
At other temperatures:
ZrO2 80
D TC =D 1000C + 0.0014 * (TC MgO 1.6 1000)
CaO 1.6
Cycles SiO2 1.6
Cycles = Xi * Cycles i ] Al2O3 0
Fe2O3 0
3 i Cycles
0 i

SiC 0
TiO2 110
Al2O3 80
Cr2O3 80
ZrO2 80
TiO2 80
SiC 80
Rest 0
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Placing of isolators in smokes chamber.

Ta 15 C Ts 300 C Ta 15 C Ts 300 C

12 mm

200 mm 200 mm

The isolator plate its placed easily (the placing cost does not rise)

The heat losses by convection and radiation (Kcal/hr m2) are described with the following formulas:
T Tair
* Ts Tair
hconvection 80.33 * s

hradiation 4.2 x10 8 * Ts4 Tair

Example for shell temperature of 300 C:

300 25
* 300 25
hconvection 80.33 * 1831.6

hradiation 4.2 x10 8 * 300 273 15 273
4 4
q Kcal
1831.6 4238.6 6070.2
A hr m 2
With shell temperature of 200 C:
200 25
* 200 25
hconvection 80.33 * 1127 .3

hradiation 4.2 x10 8 * 200 273 15 273
4 4
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q Kcal
1127 .3 1813.3 2940.6
A hr m 2

Total saved energy:

q Kcal
6070.2 2940.6 3129.6
A hr m 2
Coke PCI = 8200 Kcal/kg coke, coke savings = 0.38 kg coque/hr m 2
Coke cost = 0.65 $/kg, Savings in $ = 0.25 $/hr m2,
So a 100 m2 section where isolation is installed will save each year (7,800 operation hours)
$200,000.00 in radiation losses. For a kiln of 2000 TPD of clinker with a heat consumption of 820
Kcal/kg of clinker:

2000TPD * 1000 * 820 Kg Kgcoke
916 * 8200
Specific consumption = 8200 day Kcal/kg of

2000TPD * 1000
The saving will be of 3.8 Kcal/kg of clinker.