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CBSE Class XI
Subject Physics

## Time: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 70

e
General Instructions

## (a) All questions are compulsory.

b s
c
(b) There are 26 questions in total. Questions 1 to 5 carry one mark each; questions 6 to 10 carry two marks

/
each, questions 11 to 22 carry three marks each, question 23 carry four marks and questions 24 to 26
carry 5 marks each.

m
(c) There is no overall choice. However, internal choices have been provided in some questions.

o
(d) Use of calculator is not permitted.

. c
(e) You may use the following physical constants wherever necessary.

h
Question 1: The mass of an object on moon is 10 kg, what is its mass on earth?
Solution:
10 kg.

j o s
velocity?
Solution:

r n
Question 2: Which physical quantity is represented by the product of the moment of inertia and the angular

a
j a g
Product of I and represents angular momentum.

w .
Question 3: Can a quantity have dimensions, but still have no units?
Solution:

w
No, a quantity having dimension must possess some units

Question 4: How are pitch and least count of a spherometer are related?
Solution:
pitch
Least count
total number of division on the circular scale

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CBSE Class 11 Physics Solved Practice Paper

## Question 5: Why a player lowers his hand while taking a catch?

Solution:
As, force acting on a body = rate of change of momentum = (change in momentum) / (time taken)
By lowering his hands, he increases the interval in which the catch is taken. This increase in time interval
results in the less rate of change of momentum. Therefore, in accordance with Newtons second law of
motion, less force acts on his hands and he saves himself from being hurt.

s e
b
Question 6: Write some assumptions made in the analysis of a projectile motion?

c
Solution:

/
The following assumptions are made while analyzing projectile motion:
(i) Air resistance is neglected

m
(ii) The acceleration due to gravity is assumed to be constant in magnitude and direction at all points of the

o
motion of projectile.

c
(iii) The effect due to rotation of earth and curvature is neglected.

h .
o s
Question 7: Can two vectors of different magnitudes combined to give zero resultant? Will it be possible
with the help of three vectors?

j
n
Solution:

a
No, two vectors of different magnitudes cant have zero resultant. Yes.

g r
a
Question 8: Is it possible that a body is in accelerated motion under a force acting on the body, yet no work

. j
is being done by the force. Give examples.
Solution:

w
Yes. For example, under centripetal force, a body moves uniformly in a circle with centripetal acceleration.

w
But no work is done.

Question 9: What is the work done in blowing a soap bubble of radius r and surface tension S?
Solution:
Work done = surface tension area of soap bubble
= S (4r2) 2 = 8SL.

Question 10: A meteorite burns in the atmosphere before coming to the earths surface. What happens to its
momentum?
Solution:
The momentum of the meteorite is transferred to the air molecules. Thus momentum conservation principle
is not violated.
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Question 11: A solid sphere of radius R made of a material of bulk modulus K is surrounded by a liquid
in a cylindrical container. A mass less piston of area A' floats on the surface of the liquid. If a mass M is
placed on the piston to compress the liquid, then find the fractional change in the radius of the sphere.
Solution:
When mass M is placed on the piston, the excess pressure, p = (Mg)/A. As, this pressure is equally exerted
from all the direction on the sphere, therefore there will be decrease in its volume due to decrease in the
radius of sphere.

## Volume of the sphere, V R

4 3
3

s e
Using derivatives, we have
4
V (3R 2 )R 4R 2 R
3
/ c b
m
V (4R 2 R) R
3

o
V 4 3 R
R

c
3

.
Mg

h
p A
We know that magnitude of bulk modulus is given by, K

s
dV 3 R
V R

j o
R Mg
or .

n
R 3KA

r a OR

a g
Question 11: Define the following terms
(i) Elasticity

j
w .
(ii) Perfectly elastic body
(iii) Perfectly plastic body

w
(iv) Elastic limit
(v) Strain
(vi) Hookes law
Solution:
Elasticity: The property of a body to regain its original configuration when the deforming forces are
removed.

Perfectly elastic body: A body by which regain its original configuration immediately and completely after
the removal of the deforming force from it.

Perfectly plastic body: A body which does not regain its original configuration at all on the removal of
deforming force, howsoever small the deforming force may be is called perfectly plastic body.

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Elastic limit: It is the upper limit of deforming force up to which, if deforming force is removed, the body
regains its original form completely and beyond which if deforming force is increased, the body loses its
property of elasticity and gets permanently deformed.

Strain: When there a deforming force applied on a body, there is a change in configuration of the body. The
body is said to be strained or deformed. The ratio of change in configuration to the orginal configuration is
called strain.

Strain
Change in configuration
Original configuration

s e
strain produced in a body.
i.e. stress strain
/ c b
Hookes law: This laws states that within elastic limit, the stress developed is directly proportional to the

m
or stress E strain

o
Where E is a constant and is known as Modulus of elasticity of the material of the body.

h . c
s
Question 12: What is the location of the centre of mass of a

o
(i) Sphere, (ii) Cylinder, (iii) Ring, and (iv) Cube, each of uniform mass density.

j
Does the centre of mass of a body necessarily lie on the body?

n
Solution:

a
In all the four cases, as the mass density is uniform, centre of mass is located at their respective geometrical

r
centres.

g
No, it is not necessary that the centre of mass of a body should lie on the body. For example, in case of a

a
circular ring, centre of mass is at the centre of the ring, where there is no mass.

. j
w
Question 13: Find the force required to move a train of mass 5,000 quintals up an incline of 1 in 50 with an

w
acceleration of 2 m/s2, the magnitude of force of friction opposing its motion is equal to 104 N. (Take g =10
ms-2).
Solution:
5 1
Given, m = 5000 quintals = 5 10 kg, sin , a = 2 ms-2, fr = 104 N.
50
By force balance,
Total force required = mgsin ma f r
1
(5 10 ) 10 (5 105 ) 2 104
5

50
105 106 104
1.11106 N

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## Question 14: What are laws of limiting friction?

Solution:
The laws of limiting friction are as follows:
(i) The magnitude of the force of limiting friction (F) between any two bodies in contact is directly
proportional to the normal reaction (R) between them i.e. F R.
(ii) The direction of the force of limiting friction is always opposite to the direction in which one body is at
the verge of moving over the other.

s e
(iii) The force of limiting friction is independent of the apparent area of contact, as long as the normal
reaction between the two bodies in contact remains same.

b
(iv) The force of limiting friction between any two bodies in contact depends on the nature of material of the

/ c
surfaces in contact and their roughness or smoothness.

o m
Question 15: The spin angular velocity of a star is greatly enhanced when it collapses under gravitational

c
pull and becomes a neutron star. Explain the reason?
Solution:

h .
On collapsing under gravitational pull, the size of the star decreases. Therefore, its moment of inertia

increases.

j o s
decreases. As angular momentum (L = I ) is conserved, and I decreases, therefore, spin angular velocity

r a n
Question 16: What are conservative and non-conservative forces? Give examples?

g
Solution:

a
Conservative forces: A force is said to be conservative if work done by or against the force in moving a

. j
body depends on the initial and final positions of the body and not on the nature of the path followed
between the initial and final positions. This means, work done by or against a conservative force in moving

w
body over any path between fixed initial and final position will be the same.
Example: Gravitational force, electrostatic force.

w
Non-conservative force: A force is said to be non-conservative, if work done by or against the force in
moving a body from one position to another, depends on the path followed between these two positions.
Example: Frictional force.

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Question 17: A block of mass 2 kg is placed on the floor. The coefficient of static friction is 0.4. A force F
of 2.5 N is applied on the block as shown in the figure given below. Calculate the force of friction between
the block and the floor.

s e
Solution:
Given, m = 2 kg, s 0.4 , F = 2.5 N
/ c b
m
The limiting force of friction, fs = s R = s mg = 0.4 2 9.8 = 7.84 N.

o
As, F < fs

c
Hence, the block will not move. The value of static friction will be 2.5 N only.

h .
s

o
Question 18: Determine the vector which when added to the resultant of X 3i 5j 7k and

j

Y 2i 4j 3k gives unit vector along y-direction.
Solution:

r a n
Given, X 3i 5j 7k and Y 2i 4j 3k

g

Resultant vector, R X Y (3i 5j 7k) (2i 4j 3k)
5i j 4k

. j a
The unit vector along y direction = j
5i 2j 4k.
Hence, required vector = j (5i j 4k)

w w
Question 19: What is system of units? Also explain various types of units?
Solution:
A system of units is the complete set of units, both fundamental and derived, for all kinds of physical
quantities. Each system is named in terms of fundamental units on which it is based. The common systems of
units used in mechanics are given below:

(a) F.P.S. system: The f.p.s. system is the British Engineering system of units, which uses foot as the unit of
length, pound as the unit of mass and second as the unit of time.

(b) C.G.S. system: The c.g.s. system is the Gaussian system which uses centimeter, gram and second as the
three basic units for length, mass and time respectively.

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(b) M.K.S. system: The m.k.s. system is based on meter, kilogram and second as the fundamental units of
length, mass and time respectively.
(c) C.G.S. system: The c.g.s. system is the Gaussian system which uses centimeter, gram and second as the
three basic units for length, mass and time respectively.
(d) International System of units (SI): The name SI is an abbreviation of "Le Systeme International d' unites",
which is French equivalent of International System of units. This system was introduced in 1960, by the
General Conference of Weights and Measures. This system of units is essentially a modification over the

e
m.k.s. system and is, therefore, called rationalised m.k.s. system. This rationalisation was essential to obtain

system could be used to obtain the units of physical quantities in mechanics only.

b s
the units of all the physical quantities in Physics as the fundamental units of mass, length and time on m.k.s.

/ c
The SI is based on the following seven fundamental units and two supplementary units:

m
Basic Physical Quantity Fundamental unit Symbol used

o
1. Length metre m

. c
2. Mass kilogram kg
3. Time second s
4. Temperature
5. Electric current
kelvin
ampere

s h K
A
6. Luminous intensity
7. Quantity of matter

n
candela
mole
j o cd
mol

## r a Supplementary unit Symbol

g
1. Plane angle radian rad

a
2. Solid angle sterdian sr

. j
w
Question 20: The displacement as a function of time is given by, x = 5 + 2t + 3t2. Calculate the value of

w
instantaneous acceleration.
Solution:
d2x
Instantaneous acceleration is given by, a 2 .
dt
dx d2x
Now, 2 6t, 2 6.
dt dt
a 6 units.

Question 21: A bullet when fired at a target has its velocity decrease to 50% penetrating 30 cm into it. What
is the additional thickness it will penetrate before coming to rest?
Solution:
Initial velocity (u) = u; final velocity (v) = u/2; acceleration = a; displacement (s) = 30

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2 2
Using, v = u - 2as
(u/2)2 = u2 2a 30
u2 = 80a.

## If x is additional distance moved by bullet before coming to, then

2
2 u 80a
0 = (u /4) 2ax or x 10cm.

e
4 2u 8a

b s
/ c
Question 22: A body starts moving from a position of rest under a constant acceleration. If it travels a
distance x in t seconds, what distance will it travel in next t seconds?

Solution:

o m
c
Given, initial velocity = u = 0; displacement = s = x; time taken = t

.
1 2

h
As, s ut at
2

s
1 2 1 2

o
x 0 at or x at ...(i)

j
2 2

y). Therefore,

r a n
If the body travel a distance y in next t seconds then, the total distance travelled in (t + t) seconds will be (x +

g
1 1
x y a(2t) a 4t 2 ...(ii)
2

a
2 2

j
Dividing (ii) by (i), we have,

.
xy
4 or y 3x.

w
x

w
Question 23: Shyam found the wheel getting detached from her fathers van. He took it to the workshop and
got it repaired. He informed his father about this matter.
(a) What according to you the values displayed by Shyam?
(b) What is the relation between torque and angular momentum of a rigid body?
Solution:
(a) Good observational skills. Shyam takes care of things and has concern for others.

(b) Torque ( ) acting on a body is measured by the rate of change of angular momentum (L) of the body.
dL
.
dt

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Question 24: A pump motor is used to deliver liquid at a certain rate from a given pipe. To obtain n times
liquid from the same pipe in the same time by what amount (a) the force and (b) power of the motor should
be increased.

Solution:
Let, a = area of the cross section of the pipe, v = velocity of flow of the liquid, = density of the liquid.

## Mass of water flowing out per second is =

dm
dt
av

s e
c b
'
dm dm
To get n times liquid in the same time = n

/

dt dt
a ' v ' ' n(av)
But, ' and a ' a (diameter of pipe will remain same)
v ' nv (i)

o m
(a) As, F v
dm

h . c
s
dt

o
dm

j
nv n
F'

v ' dm dt '
dt
n2

n
F v dm dm
v

a
dt
dt

r
F' n 2 F .

j a g
P ' F' v ' n 2 F nv
n3

.
(b) Also,
P F v F v

w
P ' n 3P.

w
OR

Question 24: (a) Two masses one n times heavier than the other are dropped from the same height. Compare
their momentum just before hitting the ground.
(b) Two masses one n times heavy as the other have same kinetic energy. Compare their momentum.

Solution:
(a). When masses are dropped from the same height, the two masses will hit the ground with the same
velocity (i.e. 2gh ).
Let mass and linear momentum of lighter particle be m1 and p1 and mass and linear momentum of heavier
particle be m2 and p2.
According to question, m2 = nm1

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p 2 m 2 2gh
Ratio of linear momentum = = =n
p1 m1 2gh
or, p2 = n p1

(b). Kinetic energy (K) of a body is related with its linear momentum (p) and mass (m) as,
p2
K

e
2m
p 2mK

b s
c
p2 m2
As K is same, = = n.

/
p1 m1

o m
c
Question 25: State and prove theorem of parallel axis.

.
Solution:

h
Statement: According to the theorem of parallel axes, moment of inertia of a rigid body about another KL

s
passing through centre of mass C of the' body in a direction parallel to AB, plus the product of total mass M

o
of the body parallel to AB, plus the product of total mass M of the body and square of the perpendicular

j
distance between the two parallel axes.

r a n
j a g
w .
w IAB IKL Mh 2
Proof: Suppose the rigid body is made up of n particles of masses m1, m2, m3mn at perpendicular distances
r1, r2, r3rn respectively from axis KL passing through centre of mass C of the body.
If ri is the perpendicular distance of a particle of mass mi from KL, then
in
IKL mi ri (i) 2

i 1
th
The perpendicular of the i particle from the axis AB = (ri + h)
i n
IAB mi (ri h) 2
i 1
in
mi (ri 2 h 2 2ri h)
i 1

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in i n i n
IAB mi ri 2 mi h 2 2h mi ri . (ii)
i 1 i 1 i 1

As the body is balanced about the centre of mass, the algebraic sum of the weights (mg) of all particles about
an axis passing through C must be zero.
in in
i.e. (mi g)ri 0 or g mi ri 0

e
i 1 i 1

s
in
g 0, mi ri 0

b
As
i 1

/ c
in
Also, m
i 1
i M = Total mass of the body.

m
So, from equation (i) and (ii)

o
IAB IKL Mh . 2

. c
OR

h
Question 25: State and prove theorem of perpendicular axes.

s
Solution:

o
According to this theorem, the moment of inertia of a plane lamina (i.e. a two dimensional body of any

n j
shape/size) about any axis OZ perpendicular to the plane of the lamina is equal to sum of the moments of
inertia of the lamina about any two mutually perpendicular axes OX and OY in the plane of the lamina,

a
meeting at a point where the given axis OZ passes through the lamina.

g r
. j a
w w
Suppose the lamina is in XY plane as shown in the figure.
Ix = moment of inertia of the lamina about OX
Iy = moment of inertia of the lamina about OY
IZ = moment of inertia of the lamina about OZ

## According to the theorem of perpendicular axes, Iz = Ix + Iy ..(i)

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Proof: Suppose the lamina consist of n particles of masses m1, m2, mn at perpendicular distances r1, r2, r3
,rn respectively from the axis OZ. Suppose the corresponding perpendicular distances of these particles
from axis OY are x1, x2, x3 xn and from axis OX are y1, y2, yn respectively.
in
Ix m1y12 m2 y22 m3 y32 .....mn yn 2 mi yi 2 . (ii)
i 1
in
I y m1x12 m2 x 2 2 m3 x 32 .....mn x n 2 mi x i 2 . (iii)

e
i 1

s
in
and Iz m r m2 r2 m3r3 .....mn rn mi ri .(iv)
2 2 2 2 2

b
11
i 1

/ c
Adding equations .(ii) and (iii), we get
in in in
Ix + Iy = m y +m x 2 2
= m (x 2
yi ) 2

m
i i i i i i
i 1 i 1 i 1

o
From the figure given above,

c
ri 2 x i 2 yi 2
in
I x I y mi ri 2 I z

h .
s
i 1

o
Hence, Iz Ix I y .

n j
r a
Question 26: What is terminal velocity? Derive an expression for it?

g
Solution:

a
It is the maximum constant velocity acquired by the body while falling freely in a viscous medium.

. j
When a small sphere falls freely through a viscous medium, three forces act on it.

w
(i) Weight of the body acting vertically downwards (W),
(ii) Upward thrust due to buoyancy equal to weight of liquid displaced (FT),

w
(iii) Viscous drag acting in the direction opposite to the motion of body (FV). According to Stokes law,
FV v i.e. the opposing viscous drag goes on increasing with the increasing velocity of the body.

As body falls through the medium, its velocity goes on increasing due to gravity. Therefore, the opposing
viscous drag which acts upward also goes on increasing. A stage will come when the true weight of the body
is just equal to the sum of upward thrust due to buoyancy and the upward viscous drag. At this stage, there is
no net force to accelerate the body. Hence, it will start falling with a constant velocity, also known as
terminal velocity.
Let be the density of the material of the sphere or radius r and o be the density of the medium.
True weight of the body,
W volume density acc. due to gravity
4 3
r g
3
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## Upward thrust due to buoyancy,

FT weight of the medium displaced
FT volume of the medium displaced Density of the medium acc. due to gravity
4 3
r o g
3

e
If v is the terminal velocity of the body, then according to the Stokes law,

s
Upward viscous drag, FV 6rv

## When body attains terminal velocity, then FT FV W

4 3 4 3
r o g 6rv r g
/ c b
m
3 3

o
4 3
or 6rv r ( o )g

c
3
2r ( o )g

.
2

h
or v
9

j o s OR

n
Question 26: What is critical velocity? Derive an expression for it?

a
Solution:

r
The critical velocity is that velocity if liquid flow, upto which its flow is streamlined and above which flow

g
becomes turbulent.

j a
The critical velocity vc of a liquid flowing through a tube depends upon

.
(i) Coefficient of viscosity of liquid ( )

w
(ii) Density of the liquid ()
(iii) The radius of the pipe or tube (r).

w
Using the methods of dimension, we can obtain the expression for critical velocity.
Let vc Ka b r c ..(i)
Where K is a dimensionless constant and a, b and c are the dimension of v c in terms of , and r.
In dimensional form, the equation .(i) can be written as
[M0 LT1 ] [ML1T1 ]a [ML3 ]b [L]c
a b a 3b c a a
[M L T ]
Applying principal of homogeneity of dimensions, we have
Power of M, a + b = 0 or b = -a (ii)
Power of L, - a 3b + c = 1 or 2a + c =1 (iii)

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Power of T, - 1 = - a or a=1
From (ii) b = -1
From (iii) c = 1 2a = 1 2 1 = -1
Putting these values in equation .. (i), we get
1 1 K
vc K r or vc .
r

s e
/ c b
o m
h . c
j o s
r a n
j a g
w .
w

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