You are on page 1of 20

ESE 2017

UPSCENGINEERINGSERVICESEXAMINATION

Preliminary Examination

Paper General Studies and


I Engineering Aptitude

6
Basics of Energy
and Environment
Comprehensive Theory with Practice Questions
As per new syllabus of ESE 2017

Publications

www.madeeasypublications.org
Publications

MADE EASY Publications


Corporate Office: 44-A/4, Kalu Sarai (Near Hauz Khas Metro Station), New Delhi-110016
E-mail: infomep@madeeasy.in
Contact: 011-45124660, 08860378007
Visit us at: www.madeeasypublications.org

ESE-2017 : Preliminary Examination


Paper-I : General Studies and Engineering Aptitude

Basics of Energy and Environment


Copyright, by MADE EASY Publications.
All rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, recording or
otherwise), without the prior written permission of the above mentioned publisher of thisbook.

1st Edition : 2016

MADE EASY PUBLICATIONS has taken due care in collecting the data and providing the solutions, before publishing this book.
Inspite of this, if any inaccuracy or printing error occurs then MADE EASY PUBLICATIONS owes no responsibility. MADE EASY
PUBLICATIONS will be grateful if you could point out any such error. Your suggestions will be appreciated.

All rights reserved by MADE EASY PUBLICATIONS. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form without the
written permission from the publisher.
Preface
The compilation of this book Basics of Energy and
Environment was motivated by the desire to provide a
concise book which can benefit students to understand
the concepts of energy and environment topics.

This textbook Basics of Energy and Environment


provides all the requirements of the students, i.e.
comprehensive coverage of theory, fundamental
concepts and objective type questions articulated in a
lucid language. The concise presentation will help the readers grasp the theory of this subject with
clarity and apply them with ease to solve objective questions quickly. This book not only covers the
syllabus of ESE but also addresses the need of many other competitive examinations. Topics like
Energy & its Conservation, Environment & its Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation,
Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) are given full emphasis, keeping in mind
of our research on their importance in competitive examinations.

We have put in our sincere efforts to present detailed theory and MCQs without compromising the
accuracy of answers. For the interest of the readers, some notes, do you know and interesting facts
are given in the comprehensive manner. At the end of each chapter, sets of practice question are
given with their keys, that will allow the readers to evaluate their understanding of the topics and
sharper their question solving skills.

Our team has made their best efforts to remove all possible errors of any kind. Nonetheless, we would
highly appreciate and acknowledge if you find and share with us any printing and conceptual errors.

It is impossible to thank all the individuals who helped us, but we would like to sincerely thank all
the authors, editors and reviewers for putting in their efforts to publish this book.

With Best Wishes

B. Singh
CMD, MADE EASY
General Studies and Contents
Engineering Aptitude

Basics of Energy and Environment

Chapter 1 2.3 Ecosystem...........................................................................25

Energy & its Conservation 1 2.3.1 Structure of Ecosystem.....................................25

1.1 Introduction......................................................................... 1 2.3.2 Types of Ecosystem............................................27

1.1.1 Types of Energy Resources................................ 1 2.3.3 Ecological Pyramid.............................................28

1.2 Renewable Energy Resources........................................ 2 2.3.4 Food Chain ...........................................................31

1.2.1 Solar Energy............................................................ 2 2.3.5 Ecotone..................................................................31

1.2.2 Wind Energy........................................................... 4 2.3.6 Biological Spectrum.........................................32

1.2.3 Ocean Energy......................................................... 4 2.3.7 Ecological Niche..................................................32

1.2.4 Hydro Energy......................................................... 8 2.3.8 Ecological Footprint...........................................33

1.2.5 Biomass Energy..................................................... 9 2.3.9 Carbon Footprint................................................33

1.2.6 Geothermal Energy............................................12 2.3.10 Biotic Succession................................................33

1.3 Non-renewable Energy Resources.............................13 2.4 Biome


...................................................................................34

1.3.1 Coal..........................................................................13 2.4.1 Types of Biome....................................................34

1.3.2 Petroleum..............................................................14 2.5 Biodiversity.........................................................................35

1.3.3 Natural Gas............................................................14 2.5.1 Extent and Magnitude of Biodiversity........35

1.3.4 Nuclear Energy....................................................14 2.5.2 Biodiversity Regions of India:.........................36

1.4 Chemical Sources of Energy.....................................15 2.5.3 Loss of Biodiversity............................................36

1.4.1 Fuel Cells................................................................15 2.5.4 Biodiversity Hotspot..........................................37

1.4.2 Hydrogen...............................................................15 2.5.5 Conservation of Biodiversity..........................41

1.4.3 Biofuels...................................................................16 2.5.6 Environmental Movements and

1.5 Energy Conservation......................................................16 Personalities.........................................................42

1.5.1 Some Energy Conservation Techniques.....17 2.5.7 Environmental Institutions in India..............42

1.5.2 Energy Conservation in India.........................17 2.5.8 Wetlands................................................................43

Objective Brain Teasers....................................................18 2.5.9 Mangrove..............................................................44


2.5.10 Coral Reef..............................................................45

Chapter 2 2.6 Environmental Degradation........................................46

Environment & its Conservation21 2.6.1 Bioremediation....................................................46

2.1 Introduction.......................................................................21 2.7 Conservation of Environment.....................................47

2.1.1 Nature of Relationship between 2.7.1 Indian Organisations for Conservation

Man & Environment...........................................21 of Environment ...................................................47

2.1.2 Environmental Factors......................................22 2.7.2 International Conventions on

2.2 Ecology................................................................................24 Conservation of Environment.......................48

2.2.1 Ecological Principles..........................................25 2.8 Environmental Events....................................................51

2.2.2 Significance of Ecology ..................................25 Objective Brain Teasers....................................................52


Chapter 3 4.4 Causes of Climate Change............................................87

Environmental Pollution and 4.4.1 Natural Causes.....................................................87

Degradation58 4.4.2 Anthropogenic Causes.....................................88

3.1 Introduction.......................................................................58 4.4.3 Terrestial Causes..................................................89

3.1.1 Pollutant.................................................................58 4.5 Evidences of Climate Change......................................89

3.2 Classifications of Pollution............................................58 4.6 Conventions on Climate Change...............................90

3.2.1 Air Pollution..........................................................59 4.6.1 United Nations Framework Convention

3.2.2 Water Pollution....................................................66 on Climate Change (UNFCCC)........................90

3.2.3 Soil Pollution........................................................71 4.6.2 Kyoto Protocol.....................................................91

3.2.4 Noise Pollution....................................................73 4.6.3 Durban Summit...................................................92

3.2.5 Bio Pollution.........................................................74 4.6.4 COP-21....................................................................93

3.2.6 Radiation Pollution............................................74 4.7 National Action Plan on Climate Change................94

3.3 Environmental Laws for Controlling Pollution......75 Objective Brain Teasers....................................................94

Objective Brain Teasers....................................................76


Chapter 5
Chapter 4 Environmental Impact Assessment
Climate Change81 (EIA)98
4.1 Introduction.......................................................................81 5.1 Introduction.......................................................................98

4.1.1 Difference Between Climate 5.2 EIA Regulations.................................................................99

and Weather.........................................................81 5.3 Steps in Environmental Impact Assessment

4.2 Greenhouse Gases...........................................................82 Process.............................................................................. 100

4.2.1 Types of Greenhouse Gases............................82 5.3.1 Environmental Appraisal Committee

4.2.2 Effects of Greenhouse Gases..........................83 (EAC)..................................................................... 101

4.2.3 Largest Emitters of Greenhouse Gases.......84 5.4 Roles of Parties in EIA Process ................................. 102

4.3 Global Warming................................................................84 5.5 Forms of Impact Assessment.................................... 103

4.3.1 Possible Effects of Global Warming..............84 5.5.1 Strategic Environment Assessment

4.3.2 Approaches to Deal with (SEA)..................................................................... 103

Global Warming..................................................85 5.6 Benefits of EIA................................................................ 103

4.3.3 Ozone Layer..........................................................85 5.7 Limitations of EIA.......................................................... 104


Objective Brain Teasers................................................. 104

nnnn

(vi)