Economía social de mercado 1

Economía social de mercado
La economía social de mercado[1] fue el principal
modelo económico usado en Europa Occidental durante
la Guerra fría. Fue ideado e implementado
originalmente en la República Federal Alemana, y
recibió la denominación de Soziale Marktwirtschaft en
alemán.

En la Alemania Occidental, la Economía Social de
Mercado fue planeada e implementada por el
democratacristiano Ludwig Erhard, Ministro de
Economía bajo la cancillería de Konrad Adenauer y bajo
Busto de Ludwig Erhard
su propia administración entre 1963 y 1966.
Si bien el concepto original representaba un fuerte acercamiento a las teorías del
ordoliberalismo o neoliberalismo alemán, con el tiempo su significado fue ampliado a
teorías económicas del ámbito socialdemócrata, pese a que sus ideólogos originales eran
contrarios a dichas políticas.

Modelo
Los defensores del modelo de Economía Social de Mercado
sostienen que el sistema económico más eficiente y que genera
mayores niveles de riqueza es la economía de libre mercado, pero
para que esta funcione bien, necesitaría mantener un alto nivel de
competitividad, de tal manera que toda la sociedad resulte
beneficiada del libre comercio; para cumplir con ese rol, el Estado
debería tener una activa política contra los cárteles, monopolios y
oligopolios, ya que esas deficiencias del mercado atentarían
contra la economía libre, y por ende contra el bienestar y la
estabilidad social. En el terreno social, la ESM defendía una
política en ayuda de los ciudadanos más vulnerables socialmente,
Wilhelm Röpke
pero enfocada sólo a paliar las situaciones cambiantes de la vida y
como mecanismo de reintegrarlos a la economía de mercado, que
sería la responsables de devolverles el bienestar; no tenía como fin la ampliación
permanente del Estado ni la creación de un Estado de bienestar como proponía la
socialdemocracia de los años 50'.

La Economía Social de Mercado tiene como objetivo el mantener un equilibrio entre un alto
índice del crecimiento económico, baja inflación, bajo nivel de desempleo, buenas
condiciones laborales, bienestar social, y servicios públicos, por medio de una economía de
libre mercado y políticas públicas tendientes a mantener esa competitividad sumado a
políticas sociales paliativas. Pese a que se le suele relacionar como un punto intermedio
entre socialdemocracia y liberalismo, los mecanismos de intervención económica
propuestas por Erhard y los ideólogos de la ESM no eran necesariamente agresivos con la
propiedad privada como lo serían los socialdemócratas, sino que buscaban utilizar
mecanismos del mismo mercado para distorsionar lo menos posible la realidad.

sino también porque esta especie de autoenajenación. la Economía Social de Mercado requiere la observancia y cumplimiento de siete principios fundamentales: •  Sistema de precios cercano a la competencia perfecta •  Estabilidad de la moneda •  Acceso libre a los mercados •  Propiedad privada •  Libertad contractual •  Plena responsabilidad de políticas fiscales •  Transparencia económica Los cuales debían tener como límites. pese a que sus ideólogos eran fuertes críticos de dicho sistema: Nosotros rechazamos el Estado benefactor de carácter socialista. también se alejan del mismo en muchos temas. al punto que Friedrich Hayek diría que no podía haber una economía social de mercado. debe llevar. Wilhelm Röpke. al parecer tan bien intencionada. En una Economía Social de Mercado. sino entre organizaciones nacionales de empresarios y sindicatos nacionales. también difería de otros autores como Walter Eucken. pero no entre corporaciones. si bien representaba a un sector de los teóricos del modelo. a la cual pertenecían varios de los personajes citados anteriomente. y la protección total y general del ciudadano. crea unas dependencias tales que a la postre sólo produce súbditos. Diversos países que se declaran como economías sociales de mercado. debido a que el mercado ya sería [2] social por si mismo. en la práctica aplican legislaciones sociales o económicas que. la renuncia a la responsabilidad humana. Para Alfred Müller-Armack. pero forzosamente tiene que matar la libre mentalidad ciudadano. Parte importante de la teoría también se debe al trabajo de la Escuela de Friburgo. con la paralización de la voluntad individual de rendimiento. Definir qué países aplican o se acercan al concepto de Economía Social de Mercado es un tema de poco consenso. Es muy común el confundir la ESM con el Estado de bienestar. los contratos colectivos de trabajo están frecuentemente organizados a nivel nacional. para quien el Estado no debía ampliar tanto sus funciones. Walter Eucken. cinco principios reguladores: •  Control estatal de monopolios •  Políticas redistributiva de ingresos •  Reglamentación del trabajo •  Garantía jurídica •  Salario mínimo Es necesario señalar que la postura de Alfred Müller-Armack. quien originalmente acuñó el término Soziale [3] Marktwirtschaft. es decir. Importantes figuras en el desarrollo del concepto son Franz Oppenheimer.Economía social de mercado 2 Pese a que algunos ideólogos de la ESM como Wilhelm Röpke guardaban relación con la Escuela Austríaca de Economía y fueron parte de la Sociedad Mont Pelerin. a un descenso del rendimiento económico del pueblo. Franz Böhm y Alfred Müller-Armack. si bien tienen elementos propios del modelo. no solamente porque esta tutela. la ESM mantenía grandes diferencias con el liberalismo tradicional.[4] Ludwig Erhard .

Economía social de mercado 3 La política financiera pública del viejo estilo se convierte en un socialismo fiscal que socializa cada vez más la utilización de los ingresos. por desgracia.De esta forma. avanza decididamente en una orientación socialista. mientras que un sector de la socialdemocracia sufrió un cambio similar. desarrollando la Tercera Vía. la mayoría de los partidos de democratacristianos lentamente se movieron a favor de políticas económicas de corte más liberal. se hace cada vez más patente. Posterior a la caída del Muro de Berlín el 9 de noviembre de 1989. Historia El origen de la Economía Social de Mercado se encuentra en los trabajos de diversos economistas e intelectuales alemanes de los años 30' y 40' como Wilhelm Röpke. sino que a la larga ya no podrá conciliarse con un sistema de economía de mercado. debido a que en Alexander Rüstow ambos países se le identificó con sus respectivos milagros económicos. al modificar sus objetivos. A mediados de los 50'. pues éstos obedecen a diferentes criterios. Este fenómeno dio origen a un nuevo interés por estudiar la Economía Social de Mercado y buscar respuestas en dicho modelo para las necesidades del mundo globalizado de hoy. especialmente de Ludwig Erhard. . las que no siempre guardaban relación con la teoría original y que llevaría a una confusión que perdura hasta el día de hoy con respecto a los límites entre el Estado benefactor y Economía Social de Mercado. el modelo ganó popularidad en Alemania Occidental y en Austria. El éxito de la Economía Social de Mercado en Alemania haría que sus políticas fuesen una poderosa influencia para buena parte de los gobiernos de Europa occidental durante la década de los 60'. el concepto comenzó a ser utilizado para denominar a muchas de las políticas llevadas a cabo por administraciones socialdemócratas. sin embargo. en varios casos incluso reprimidos. que esta expansión de la economía estatal que.liberalismo tradicional y a las economías centralizadas de moda en aquella época. no sólo se convierte en una de las fuentes de la constante presión inflacionaria. al gobierno de la República Federal. quienes buscaban idear un modelo económico capaz de ser una alternativa al -entonces desprestigiado.[5] Wilhelm Röpke No debe confundirse con el concepto de la economía social ni de los mercados sociales. con la llegada de los democratacristianos. Alexander Rüstow y los miembros de la llamada Escuela de Friburgo. sus teorías serían una de las principales influencias en las políticas del nuevo gobierno.[6] Se puede encontrar un artículo referente a la economía social de mercado en la proyecto de Constitución de la Unión Europea. Pese a que en esos años fueron ignorados y. en este mismo periodo.

A. [4]  Erhard. p. Carl J. American Political Science Review 49 (2): 509-525. para significar que se trata de una determinada escuela de economía. com/ articulos/ print/ 1997/ feb/ 26/ la-econom-a-social-de-mercado-es-v-lida-hoy/ ) Bibliografía •  Ludwig Erhard: Economía social de mercado : su valor permanente.. Art. tendente al pleno empleo y al progreso social. Hayek. "The Political Thought of Neo-Liberalism".89 Véase también •  Estado de bienestar •  Estado Social •  Keynesianismo •  Ordoliberalismo Enlaces externos •  Ensayo sobre la Economía Social de Mercado Alemana (http:/ / tiss.und Sozialpolitik. Tratado por el que se establece una Constitución para Europa Referencias [1]  Los teóricos alemanes insisten en que se deben utilizar las máyusculas. edición y presentación Ignacio Miralbell. de/ ) •  Economía de mercado con responsabilidad social: La experiencia alemana (http:/ / www. 81. mx/ conferencias03/ ConferenciaKlausShaffler. de/ webroot/ sp/ spsba01_W98_1/ germany1b. Política económica de Alemania (Ediciones Omega). doc) •  Initiative Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft (en alemán) (http:/ / www. php? oldid=21223306 Contributors: AlGarcia. com. Pablo Paredes N. [2]  F. y en un nivel elevado de protección y mejora de la calidad del medio ambiente. 112 (Juni 2007). Miotroyo. I-3. Sanctus119. 13 anonymous edits . cka. Nihilo. 1991). uni-tuebingen. 208 [5]  Röpke. Wilhelm. S. zdv. 47 [6]  Centenario de Ludwig Erhard.Economía social de mercado 4 La Unión obrará en pro del desarrollo sostenible de Europa basado en un crecimiento económico equilibrado y la estabilidad de los precios. htm) Biblioteca del Congreso de los Estados Unidos. org/ w/ index. aceprensa. 1994 •  Horst Friedrich Wünsche: "Ludwig Erhards Soziale Marktwirtschaft: Eine Bilanz". p. Lnegro. Irus. htm) •  La Economía Social de Mercado. chancenfueralle. de/ ) Source: http:/ / es. us/ germany/ 136. p. (1955). (http:/ / countrystudies. Despree. Más allá de la oferta y la demanda (Unión Editorial). The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism (University of Chicago Press. el artífice del "milagro alemán" (http:/ / www. en Orientierungen zur Wirtschats. ludwig-erhard-stiftung. wikipedia. •  Página principal de la Fundación Ludwig Erhard (http:/ / www. una economía social de mercado competitiva. 117 [3]  Friedrich. Madrid: Rialp. Ludwig.

Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. or of legal. and continue the rest onto adjacent pages. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. and add to it an item stating at least the title. "Endorsements". "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License. 0.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters. I. year. and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies. 4. November 2002 Copyright (C) 2000. Copying with changes limited to the covers. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words.2002 Free Software Foundation. clearly and legibly. free of added material. year. and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page.) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition. represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public. or with modifications and/or translated into another language.  Include an unaltered copy of this License. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly. because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. H. if there were any. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference. VERBATIM COPYING You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium. D. that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies. as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts. can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects. in the form shown in the Addendum below. together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors. and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. unless they release you from this requirement. that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor. numbering more than 100. a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document. but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License. either commercially or noncommercially. the copyright notices. authors. .  Use in the Title Page (and on the covers. be listed in the History section of the Document). as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions. In addition.  State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version. Preserve its Title. then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence. but not required. all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. C. and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. it can be used for any textual work. commercial. SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available. and you may publicly display copies. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such. the material this License requires to appear in the title page. as the publisher. regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG. you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover. G. which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque". which is a copyleft license designed for free software. LaTeX input format.2001. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software. plus such following pages as are needed to hold. 2. you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy. PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below. 51 Franklin St. SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD. if it has fewer than five). if any) a title distinct from that of the Document. a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics. for a printed book. immediately after the copyright notices. either copied verbatim. and the machine-generated HTML. The "Title Page" means. 1. COPYING IN QUANTITY If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document. PREAMBLE The purpose of this License is to make a manual. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. such as "Acknowledgements". Fifth Floor. Boston. when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity. with or without modifying it. or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document. but changing it is not allowed. Inc. royalty-free license. modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law. you must do these things in the Modified Version: A.  Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License. (Thus. you must take reasonably prudent steps. refers to any such manual or work. A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it.  Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice. It complements the GNU General Public License. legibly. in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. to use that work under the conditions stated herein. below. thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100. XCF and JPG. the title page itself. or "History". You accept the license if you copy. philosophical. The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed. A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. B. and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. create one stating the title. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup. to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public. new authors. preceding the beginning of the body of the text. A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors.Licencia 5 Licencia Version 1. The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated. ethical or political position regarding them. in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide. Secondarily.  List on the Title Page. You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission. "Dedications". this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work. one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version. Texinfo input format. as authors.  Preserve the section Entitled "History". If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none. either commercially or noncommercially. textbook. Any member of the public is a licensee. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. and from those of previous versions (which should. However. has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup. It is requested. provided that this License. with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document. MODIFICATIONS You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above. F.2. and standard-conforming simple HTML.  Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. unlimited in duration. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS This License applies to any manual or other work. while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others. But this License is not limited to software manuals. 3. and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words. you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. You may also lend copies. you must enclose the copies in covers that carry. and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. or absence of markup. This License is a kind of "copyleft". to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.  Include. A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy. The "Document". E. in any medium. if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics. If you use the latter option. You may add other material on the covers in addition. or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it. as being those of Invariant Sections. PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. and is addressed as "you". under the same conditions stated above.

under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions. If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements". this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document." line with this: with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders. previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of. likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements". provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. These may be placed in the "History" section. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works. if any. Preserve the Title of the section. You may extract a single document from such a collection. sublicense. TERMINATION You may not copy. To do this. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version. M. or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. modify. replace the "with.. and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice. You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements. and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document. "Dedications". and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work. then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate. unaltered in their text and in their titles. If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts. to permit their use in free software. provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.Licencia 6 J. provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example. or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.. In the combination. Permission is granted to copy. modify. 7. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents.  Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". parties who have received copies. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles. or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. org/ copyleft/ . provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License. How to use this License for your documents To use this License in a document you have written. in parentheses. COMBINING DOCUMENTS You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License. However. provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents. When the Document is included in an aggregate. given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document. statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself. and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text. in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. L. and any Warranty Disclaimers. or "History". You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements". sublicense or distribute the Document is void. 10. revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Preserve the network location. you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. gnu. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code. but you may replace the old one. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. you may not add another. the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate. with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST. you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version." 6. O. and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection. and no Back-Cover Texts. the original version will prevail.  Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document. the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known. no Front-Cover Texts. and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein. is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. 5. merge those two alternatives to suit the situation. but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. . or some other combination of the three. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate. include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page: Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one. you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents. If you have Invariant Sections. and any sections Entitled "Dedications". forming one section Entitled "History". Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text.  For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications". If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it. unmodified. N. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document. the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.  Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers. 8. TRANSLATION Translation is considered a kind of modification. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. You may include a translation of this License.Texts. and distribute it individually under this License. Version 1. Any other attempt to copy. K. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer. and all the license notices in the Document. with no Invariant Sections. or rights.  Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section. make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it. such as the GNU General Public License. distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. or else a unique number. See http:/ / www. we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. 9. add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.