Economía social de mercado 1

Economía social de mercado
La economía social de mercado[1] fue el principal
modelo económico usado en Europa Occidental durante
la Guerra fría. Fue ideado e implementado
originalmente en la República Federal Alemana, y
recibió la denominación de Soziale Marktwirtschaft en
alemán.

En la Alemania Occidental, la Economía Social de
Mercado fue planeada e implementada por el
democratacristiano Ludwig Erhard, Ministro de
Economía bajo la cancillería de Konrad Adenauer y bajo
Busto de Ludwig Erhard
su propia administración entre 1963 y 1966.
Si bien el concepto original representaba un fuerte acercamiento a las teorías del
ordoliberalismo o neoliberalismo alemán, con el tiempo su significado fue ampliado a
teorías económicas del ámbito socialdemócrata, pese a que sus ideólogos originales eran
contrarios a dichas políticas.

Modelo
Los defensores del modelo de Economía Social de Mercado
sostienen que el sistema económico más eficiente y que genera
mayores niveles de riqueza es la economía de libre mercado, pero
para que esta funcione bien, necesitaría mantener un alto nivel de
competitividad, de tal manera que toda la sociedad resulte
beneficiada del libre comercio; para cumplir con ese rol, el Estado
debería tener una activa política contra los cárteles, monopolios y
oligopolios, ya que esas deficiencias del mercado atentarían
contra la economía libre, y por ende contra el bienestar y la
estabilidad social. En el terreno social, la ESM defendía una
política en ayuda de los ciudadanos más vulnerables socialmente,
Wilhelm Röpke
pero enfocada sólo a paliar las situaciones cambiantes de la vida y
como mecanismo de reintegrarlos a la economía de mercado, que
sería la responsables de devolverles el bienestar; no tenía como fin la ampliación
permanente del Estado ni la creación de un Estado de bienestar como proponía la
socialdemocracia de los años 50'.

La Economía Social de Mercado tiene como objetivo el mantener un equilibrio entre un alto
índice del crecimiento económico, baja inflación, bajo nivel de desempleo, buenas
condiciones laborales, bienestar social, y servicios públicos, por medio de una economía de
libre mercado y políticas públicas tendientes a mantener esa competitividad sumado a
políticas sociales paliativas. Pese a que se le suele relacionar como un punto intermedio
entre socialdemocracia y liberalismo, los mecanismos de intervención económica
propuestas por Erhard y los ideólogos de la ESM no eran necesariamente agresivos con la
propiedad privada como lo serían los socialdemócratas, sino que buscaban utilizar
mecanismos del mismo mercado para distorsionar lo menos posible la realidad.

la ESM mantenía grandes diferencias con el liberalismo tradicional. para quien el Estado no debía ampliar tanto sus funciones.Economía social de mercado 2 Pese a que algunos ideólogos de la ESM como Wilhelm Röpke guardaban relación con la Escuela Austríaca de Economía y fueron parte de la Sociedad Mont Pelerin. Walter Eucken. también se alejan del mismo en muchos temas. crea unas dependencias tales que a la postre sólo produce súbditos. Definir qué países aplican o se acercan al concepto de Economía Social de Mercado es un tema de poco consenso. los contratos colectivos de trabajo están frecuentemente organizados a nivel nacional. Importantes figuras en el desarrollo del concepto son Franz Oppenheimer. pero no entre corporaciones. Es muy común el confundir la ESM con el Estado de bienestar. la renuncia a la responsabilidad humana. quien originalmente acuñó el término Soziale [3] Marktwirtschaft. a un descenso del rendimiento económico del pueblo. la Economía Social de Mercado requiere la observancia y cumplimiento de siete principios fundamentales: •  Sistema de precios cercano a la competencia perfecta •  Estabilidad de la moneda •  Acceso libre a los mercados •  Propiedad privada •  Libertad contractual •  Plena responsabilidad de políticas fiscales •  Transparencia económica Los cuales debían tener como límites. es decir. no solamente porque esta tutela. con la paralización de la voluntad individual de rendimiento. Wilhelm Röpke. sino entre organizaciones nacionales de empresarios y sindicatos nacionales. al punto que Friedrich Hayek diría que no podía haber una economía social de mercado. a la cual pertenecían varios de los personajes citados anteriomente. si bien tienen elementos propios del modelo. y la protección total y general del ciudadano. Diversos países que se declaran como economías sociales de mercado. En una Economía Social de Mercado. Parte importante de la teoría también se debe al trabajo de la Escuela de Friburgo.[4] Ludwig Erhard . también difería de otros autores como Walter Eucken. Franz Böhm y Alfred Müller-Armack. debido a que el mercado ya sería [2] social por si mismo. si bien representaba a un sector de los teóricos del modelo. en la práctica aplican legislaciones sociales o económicas que. pero forzosamente tiene que matar la libre mentalidad ciudadano. sino también porque esta especie de autoenajenación. Para Alfred Müller-Armack. pese a que sus ideólogos eran fuertes críticos de dicho sistema: Nosotros rechazamos el Estado benefactor de carácter socialista. debe llevar. cinco principios reguladores: •  Control estatal de monopolios •  Políticas redistributiva de ingresos •  Reglamentación del trabajo •  Garantía jurídica •  Salario mínimo Es necesario señalar que la postura de Alfred Müller-Armack. al parecer tan bien intencionada.

en este mismo periodo. quienes buscaban idear un modelo económico capaz de ser una alternativa al -entonces desprestigiado. el concepto comenzó a ser utilizado para denominar a muchas de las políticas llevadas a cabo por administraciones socialdemócratas. A mediados de los 50'. el modelo ganó popularidad en Alemania Occidental y en Austria. desarrollando la Tercera Vía. Historia El origen de la Economía Social de Mercado se encuentra en los trabajos de diversos economistas e intelectuales alemanes de los años 30' y 40' como Wilhelm Röpke. pues éstos obedecen a diferentes criterios. las que no siempre guardaban relación con la teoría original y que llevaría a una confusión que perdura hasta el día de hoy con respecto a los límites entre el Estado benefactor y Economía Social de Mercado. debido a que en Alexander Rüstow ambos países se le identificó con sus respectivos milagros económicos. .[6] Se puede encontrar un artículo referente a la economía social de mercado en la proyecto de Constitución de la Unión Europea. mientras que un sector de la socialdemocracia sufrió un cambio similar. al modificar sus objetivos. especialmente de Ludwig Erhard.Economía social de mercado 3 La política financiera pública del viejo estilo se convierte en un socialismo fiscal que socializa cada vez más la utilización de los ingresos. no sólo se convierte en una de las fuentes de la constante presión inflacionaria. al gobierno de la República Federal. se hace cada vez más patente.De esta forma. El éxito de la Economía Social de Mercado en Alemania haría que sus políticas fuesen una poderosa influencia para buena parte de los gobiernos de Europa occidental durante la década de los 60'.[5] Wilhelm Röpke No debe confundirse con el concepto de la economía social ni de los mercados sociales.liberalismo tradicional y a las economías centralizadas de moda en aquella época. la mayoría de los partidos de democratacristianos lentamente se movieron a favor de políticas económicas de corte más liberal. en varios casos incluso reprimidos. sino que a la larga ya no podrá conciliarse con un sistema de economía de mercado. por desgracia. Este fenómeno dio origen a un nuevo interés por estudiar la Economía Social de Mercado y buscar respuestas en dicho modelo para las necesidades del mundo globalizado de hoy. Pese a que en esos años fueron ignorados y. Alexander Rüstow y los miembros de la llamada Escuela de Friburgo. sin embargo. con la llegada de los democratacristianos. Posterior a la caída del Muro de Berlín el 9 de noviembre de 1989. sus teorías serían una de las principales influencias en las políticas del nuevo gobierno. que esta expansión de la economía estatal que. avanza decididamente en una orientación socialista.

1994 •  Horst Friedrich Wünsche: "Ludwig Erhards Soziale Marktwirtschaft: Eine Bilanz".und Sozialpolitik. A. Más allá de la oferta y la demanda (Unión Editorial). php? oldid=21223306 Contributors: AlGarcia. Carl J. mx/ conferencias03/ ConferenciaKlausShaffler. American Political Science Review 49 (2): 509-525. Irus. wikipedia. Despree. para significar que se trata de una determinada escuela de economía. de/ ) Source: http:/ / es. "The Political Thought of Neo-Liberalism". tendente al pleno empleo y al progreso social. S. (http:/ / countrystudies. doc) •  Initiative Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft (en alemán) (http:/ / www. com/ articulos/ print/ 1997/ feb/ 26/ la-econom-a-social-de-mercado-es-v-lida-hoy/ ) Bibliografía •  Ludwig Erhard: Economía social de mercado : su valor permanente. [4]  Erhard. p. Lnegro. de/ ) •  Economía de mercado con responsabilidad social: La experiencia alemana (http:/ / www. Miotroyo. Madrid: Rialp. 208 [5]  Röpke. de/ webroot/ sp/ spsba01_W98_1/ germany1b.89 Véase también •  Estado de bienestar •  Estado Social •  Keynesianismo •  Ordoliberalismo Enlaces externos •  Ensayo sobre la Economía Social de Mercado Alemana (http:/ / tiss. Wilhelm. Hayek. cka. una economía social de mercado competitiva. Tratado por el que se establece una Constitución para Europa Referencias [1]  Los teóricos alemanes insisten en que se deben utilizar las máyusculas. uni-tuebingen. 47 [6]  Centenario de Ludwig Erhard.. Pablo Paredes N. Política económica de Alemania (Ediciones Omega). org/ w/ index. com. 81. ludwig-erhard-stiftung. chancenfueralle. htm) Biblioteca del Congreso de los Estados Unidos. 13 anonymous edits . (1955). p. 112 (Juni 2007). The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism (University of Chicago Press. en Orientierungen zur Wirtschats. zdv. el artífice del "milagro alemán" (http:/ / www. 1991). •  Página principal de la Fundación Ludwig Erhard (http:/ / www. 117 [3]  Friedrich. edición y presentación Ignacio Miralbell. p. Art. y en un nivel elevado de protección y mejora de la calidad del medio ambiente. Nihilo. [2]  F. us/ germany/ 136. Ludwig. aceprensa. I-3. htm) •  La Economía Social de Mercado. Sanctus119.Economía social de mercado 4 La Unión obrará en pro del desarrollo sostenible de Europa basado en un crecimiento económico equilibrado y la estabilidad de los precios.

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