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Fractionation of oils and fats

Why and How?

John Harris, Process Engineering Group Manager


Loders Croklaan, member of the IOI Group
1
Why? --- eg. Fractions from palm oil
give added value!!
100 POfIV6 5
POfIV56
90
NMR Solids %

PO
80 Hard
Stearines PM F IV4 2
70
PM F IV3 4
60
POsIV3 5
PO
50 Soft POsIV14
40 Stearines POsIV2
30
Mid Fractions
20
10 Oleins
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Temperature deg.C

2
How? --- Fractionation Process principles

Molten
fat

1. crystallisation

Slurry
2. solid/liquid separation

Olein Stearin

3
Importance of Solubility, eg. PPP in Palm

65

60
supercooling
on
Temperature (C)

a ti
55
dific
o
P P -m supersaturation
50 re P
pu o ne
e z
45 stabl
meta
40

35
1 10 100
Concentration PPP (%)
4
Crystallisation Processes

1 nucleation ---- birth of new small crystals

growth ----------- size of crystals increases

agglomeration --- crystals stick together

attrition ----------- agglomerated crystals break


into small pieces, 2 nucleation
5
Theory of crystallisation

Supersaturation Primary nucleation rate


c - c*(T) A np
= dN P (log( 1+ )) 2
c*(T) k np 10
dt
Secondary nucleation rate
K, A, a, b, c: constants,
dN S M: crystal mass
Ks Ma b Nc N: stirring rate and type
dt

Approximate crystal mass growth rate


dm
k *N N: No. of nuclei or crystals per unit volume
dt
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Step-wise cooling
Temperature

Temp slurry
Temp coolant

Time

Step-wise cooling.
Coolant inlet temperature is changed following time program
Crash cooling is with one fixed coolant temp ie. one step!
7
Delta cooling
Temperature

Temp Slurry
Temp coolant

Time

Delta cooling.
Maintain delta between slurry temperature and average
coolant temperature.
8
Pre-cooling
Temperature

Temp slurry
Temp coolant
No pre-cool

Time

Oil feed is pre-cooled near to the temperature of


heat of crystallization
9
Stirred Crystallisers eg.

Lipico
De Smet
Alfa Laval
Tirtiaux / JJ Lurgi
and various other suppliers

10
Coil type crystalliser

11
Tirtiaux style with Thermoplates

12
De Smet concentric crystalliser

13
Stirred crystallising slurry

14
Static or Quiescent crystallisers

De Smet
Oiltek
and others

15
Static crystallisation cooled plates

16
Quiescent crystallising in trays

17
Quiescently grown crystal slurry

18
Separation techniques

Lipofrac with addition of water and


detergent. Use of centrifuges for water (and
crystals) from olein separation
Florentine and rotary drum now obsolete
Membrane filter presses from 6 to 30 bar
New use of centrifuges for crystals from
olein
Solvent slurry, filtration and washing with
clean solvent
19
Separation efficiency (SE)
SPC cake IV stearin IV olein SPC slurry
SE = = x
100 IV slurry IV olein 100

weight stearin SPC slurry


Stearin yield % = x 100 = x 100
weight slurry SE

Separation efficiency strongly depending on


crystallisation process
crystal size / size distribution / entrapped olein
solid phase content of the slurry
For membrane filter presses:
Pressure increase with time / maximum pressure / cake thickness
20
Membrane filter press

21
Membrane filter press
MEMBRANE SQUEEZE
LIQUID

22
Continuous separation with centrifuge
Westfalia Patented Process

23
Separation concept with centrifuge
Westfalia Patented Process

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Solvent Fractionation: What if 75% crystals??

Dry Fractionation with Solvent


Fractionation

75% eg. 7.5 : 1


crystals Solv:Oil

Filter and press Filter and wash


for 75% SE

the
same < 80% yield of high
quality stearine

25
Fractionation is:-

a Natural, Value adding, Physical oil


modification process creating no
undesirable byproducts

From:
Simple, low stearine yields and low
efficiency S/L separation
To:
Sophisticated, high stearine yields and
efficient S/L separation
26
Why? --- eg. Fractions from palm oil
give added value!!
100 POfIV6 5
POfIV56
90
NMR Solids %

PO
80 Hard
Stearines PM F IV4 2
70
PM F IV3 4
60
POsIV3 5
PO
50 Soft POsIV14
40 Stearines POsIV2
30
Mid Fractions
20
10 Oleins
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Temperature deg.C

27