Data Analytics Concept

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Data Analytics Concept

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Introduction

English Spanish

Data analytics (DA) is the process of examining data sets in Anlisis de datos (DA) es el proceso de examinar conjuntos de

order to draw conclusions about the information they contain, datos con el fin de sacar conclusiones sobre la informacin que

increasingly with the aid of specialized systems and software. contienen, cada vez ms con la ayuda de sistemas

especializados y software.

English Spanish

What is the relationship between Mathematics and Statistics with Data Analytics?

English Spanish

As in statistics, data analysis (DA) is the process of examining Al igual que sucede en estadistica el anlisis de datos (DA) es el

data sets in order to draw conclusions about the information proceso de examinar conjuntos de datos con el fin de sacar

they contain conclusiones sobre la informacin que contienen

How it works

In the editor on the right you should type R code to solve the exercises. When you hit the 'Submit Answer' button, every line of code

is interpreted and executed by R and you get a message whether or not your code was correct. The output of your R code is shown in

the console in the lower right corner.

R makes use of the # sign to add comments, so that you and others can understand what the R code is about. Just like Twitter!

Comments are not run as R code, so they will not influence your result. For example, Calculate 3 + 4 in the editor on the right is a

comment.

You can also execute R commands straight in the console. This is a good way to experiment with R code, as your submission is not

checked for correctness.

Instructions

Add a line of code that calculates the sum of 6 and 12.

Click 'Ctrl + R' and have a look at the R output in the console.

Script.R RConsole

# Calculate 3 + 4 [1] 7

3+4 [1] 18

# Calculate 6 + 12

6 + 12

Arithmetic with R

In its most basic form, R can be used as a simple calculator. Consider the following arithmetic operators:

Addition: +

Subtraction: -

Multiplication: *

Division: /

Exponentiation: ^

Modulo: %%

The last two might need some explaining:

The ^ operator raises the number to its left to the power of the number to its right: for example 3^2 is 9.

The modulo returns the remainder of the division of the number to the left by the number on its right, for example 5 modulo 3 or 5

%% 3 is 2.

With this knowledge, follow the instructions below to complete the exercise.

Instructions

Type 2^5 in the editor to calculate 2 to the power 5.

Type 28 %% 6 to calculate 28 modulo 6.

Click 'Ctrl + R' and have a look at the R output in the console.

Note how the # symbol is used to add comments on the R code.

Script.R RConsole

# An addition [1] 10

5+5

[1] 0

# A subtraction

5-5 [1] 15

# A multiplication [1] 5

3*5

[1] 32

# A division

(5 + 5) / 2 [1] 4

# Exponentiation

2^5

# Modulo

28 %% 6

English Spanish

Arithmetic operation consisting of removing one amount (the Operacin aritmtica que consiste en quitar una cantidad (el

substrate) from another (the minuend) to find out the difference sustraendo) de otra (el minuendo) para averiguar la diferencia

between the two; is represented by the - sign. entre las dos; se representa con el signo -.

Variable Assignment

A basic concept in (statistical) programming is called a variable.

A variable allows you to store a value (e.g. 4) or an object (e.g. a function description) in R. You can then later use this variable's name

to easily access the value or the object that is stored within this variable.

You can assign a value 4 to a variable my_var with the command

my_var <- 4

Instructions

Over to you: complete the code in the editor such that it assigns the value 42 to the variable x in the editor. Click 'Ctrl + R' and have a

look at the R output in the console. Notice that when you ask R to print x, the value 42 appears.

Script.R RConsole

# Assign the value 42 to x [1] 42

x <- 42

X

Suppose you have a fruit basket with five apples. As a data analyst in training, you want to store the number of apples in a variable

with the name my_apples.

Instructions

Type the following code in the editor: my_apples <- 5. This will assign the value 5 to my_apples.

Type: my_apples below the second comment. This will print out the value of my_apples.

Click 'Submit Answer', and look at the console: you see that the number 5 is printed. So R now links the variable my_apples to the

value 5.

Script.R RConsole

# Assign the value 5 to the variable my_apples [1] 5

my_apples<- 5

my_apples

Every tasty fruit basket needs oranges, so you decide to add six oranges. As a data analyst, your reflex is to immediately create the

variable my_oranges and assign the value 6 to it. Next, you want to calculate how many pieces of fruit you have in total. Since you

have given meaningful names to these values, you can now code this in a clear way:

my_apples + my_oranges

Instructions

Assign to my_oranges the value 6.

Add the variables my_apples and my_oranges and have R simply print the result.

Assign the result of adding my_apples and my_oranges to a new variable my_fruit.

Script.R RConsole

# Assign a value to the variables my_apples and my_oranges [1] 5

my_apples <- 5

my_oranges <- 6 [1] 6

My_apples + my_oranges

# Create the variable my_fruit [1] 11

My_fruit <- my_apples + my_oranges

R works with numerous data types. Some of the most basic types to get started are:

Natural numbers like 4 are called integers. Integers are also numerics.

Boolean values (TRUE or FALSE) are called logical.

Text (or string) values are called characters.

Note how the quotation marks on the right indicate that "some text" is a character.

Instructions

Change the value of the:

my_numeric variable to 42.

my_character variable to "universe". Note that the quotation marks indicate that "universe" is a character.

my_logical variable to FALSE.

Note that R is case sensitive!

Script.R RConsole

# Change my_numeric to be 42 [1] 42

my_numeric <- 42.5

my_numeric <- 42 [1] universe

my_character <- "some text"

my_character <- "universe"

my_logical <- TRUE

my_logical <- FALSE

Do you remember that when you added 5 + "six", you got an error due to a mismatch in data types? You can avoid such embarrassing

situations by checking the data type of a variable beforehand. You can do this with the class() function, as the code on the right shows.

Instructions

Complete the code in the editor and also print out the classes of my_character and my_logical.

Script.R RConsole

# Declare variables of different types [1] 42

my_numeric <- 42

my_character <- "universe" [1] universe

my_logical <- FALSE

[1] FALSE

# Check class of my_numeric

class(my_numeric) [1] numeric

class(my_character)

[1] logical

class(my_logical)

Create a vector

Feeling lucky? You better, because this chapter takes you on a trip to the City of Sins, also known as Statisticians Paradise!

Thanks to R and your new data-analytical skills, you will learn how to uplift your performance at the tables and fire off your career as

a professional gambler. This chapter will show how you can easily keep track of your betting progress and how you can do some simple

analyses on past actions. Next stop, Vegas Baby... VEGAS!!

Instructions

Do you still remember what you have learned in the first chapter? Assign the value "Go!" to the variable vegas. Remember: R is case

sensitive!

Script.R RConsole

# Define the variable vegas [1] go!

vegas <- go!

Let us focus first!

On your way from rags to riches, you will make extensive use of vectors. Vectors are one-dimension arrays that can hold numeric data,

character data, or logical data. In other words, a vector is a simple tool to store data. For example, you can store your daily gains and

losses in the casinos.

In R, you create a vector with the combine function c(). You place the vector elements separated by a comma between the

parentheses. For example:

character_vector <- c("a", "b", "c")

Once you have created these vectors in R, you can use them to do calculations.

Instructions

Complete the code such that boolean_vector contains the three elements: TRUE, FALSE and TRUE (in that order).

Script.R RConsole

numeric_vector <- c(1, 10, 49)

character_vector <- c("a", "b", "c")

boolean_vector <-

English Spanish

The purpose of the Extended Boolean Model is to overcome the El propsito del Modelo Booleano Extendido es superar las

disadvantages of the Boolean Model that has been used in desventajas del Modelo Booleano que ha sido utilizado en

information retrieval. The Boolean Model does not consider the recuperacin de informacin. El Modelo Booleano no considera

terms weights in queries and the response set of a Boolean los pesos de los trminos en las consultas y el conjunto

query is often too small or too large. respuesta de una consulta booleana es con frecuencia

demasiado pequeo o demasiado grande.

After one week in Las Vegas and still zero Ferraris in your garage, you decide that it is time to start using your data analytical

superpowers.

Before doing a first analysis, you decide to first collect all the winnings and losses for the last week:

Tuesday you lost $50 Tuesday you lost $50

Wednesday you won $20 Wednesday you won $100

Thursday you lost $120 Thursday you lost $350

Friday you won $240 Friday you won $10

You only played poker and roulette, since there was a delegation of mediums that occupied the craps tables. To be able to use this

data in R, you decide to create the variables poker_vector and roulette_vector.

Instructions

Assign the winnings/losses for roulette to the variable roulette_vector.

Script.R RConsole

# Poker winnings from Monday to Friday

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <-

Naming a vector

As a data analyst, it is important to have a clear view on the data that you are using. Understanding what each element refers to is

therefore essential. In the previous exercise, we created a vector with your winnings over the week. Each vector element refers to a

day of the week but it is hard to tell which element belongs to which day. It would be nice if you could show that in the vector itself.

You can give a name to the elements of a vector with the names() function. Have a look at this example:

names(some_vector) <- c("Name", "Profession")

This code first creates a vector some_vector and then gives the two elements a name. The first element is assigned the name Name,

while the second element is labeled Profession. Printing the contents to the console yields following output:

Name Profession

"John Doe" "poker player"

Instructions

The code on the right names the elements in poker_vector with the days of the week. Add code to do the same thing for

roulette_vector.

If you want to become a good statistician, you have to become lazy. (If you are already lazy, chances are high you are one of those

exceptional, natural-born statistical talents.)

In the previous exercises you probably experienced that it is boring and frustrating to type and retype information such as the days of

the week. However, when you look at it from a higher perspective, there is a more efficient way to do this, namely, to assign the days

of the week vector to a variable!

Just like you did with your poker and roulette returns, you can also create a variable that contains the days of the week. This way you

can use and re-use it.

Instructions

A variable days_vector that contains the days of the week has already been created for you.

Use days_vector to set the names of poker_vector and roulette_vector.

Script.R RConsole

# Poker winnings from Monday to Friday

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",

"Thursday", "Friday")

poker_vector

names(poker_vector) <-

names(roulette_vector) <-

Now that you have the poker and roulette winnings nicely as named vectors, you can start doing some data analytical magic.

How much has been your overall profit or loss per day of the week?

Have you lost money over the week in total?

Are you winning/losing money on poker or on roulette?

To get the answers, you have to do arithmetic calculations on vectors.

It is important to know that if you sum two vectors in R, it takes the element-wise sum. For example, the following three statements

are completely equivalent:

c(1, 2, 3) + c(4, 5, 6)

c(1 + 4, 2 + 5, 3 + 6)

c(5, 7, 9)

You can also do the calculations with variables that represent vectors:

a <- c(1, 2, 3)

b <- c(4, 5, 6)

c <- a + b

Instructions

Take the sum of the variables A_vector and B_vector and it assign to total_vector.

Inspect the result by printing out total_vector.

Script.R RConsole

A_vector <- c(1, 2, 3)

B_vector <- c(4, 5, 6)

total_vector <-

Now you understand how R does arithmetic with vectors, it is time to get those Ferraris in your garage! First, you need to understand

what the overall profit or loss per day of the week was. The total daily profit is the sum of the profit/loss you realized on poker per

day, and the profit/loss you realized on roulette per day.

In R, this is just the sum of roulette_vector and poker_vector.

Instructions

Assign to the variable total_daily how much you won or lost on each day in total (poker and roulette combined).

Script.R RConsole

# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",

"Thursday", "Friday")

names(poker_vector) <- days_vector

names(roulette_vector) <- days_vector

total_daily <-

Based on the previous analysis, it looks like you had a mix of good and bad days. This is not what your ego expected, and you wonder

if there may be a very tiny chance you have lost money over the week in total?

A function that helps you to answer this question is sum(). It calculates the sum of all elements of a vector. For example, to calculate

the total amount of money you have lost/won with poker you do:

total_poker <- sum(poker_vector)

Instructions

Calculate the total amount of money that you have won/lost with roulette and assign to the variable total_roulette.

Now that you have the totals for roulette and poker, you can easily calculate total_week (which is the sum of all gains and losses of

the week).

Print out total_week.

Script.R RConsole

# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",

"Thursday", "Friday")

names(poker_vector) <- days_vector

names(roulette_vector) <- days_vector

total_poker <- sum(poker_vector)

total_roulette <-

total_week <-

Oops, it seems like you are losing money. Time to rethink and adapt your strategy! This will require some deeper analysis...

After a short brainstorm in your hotel's jacuzzi, you realize that a possible explanation might be that your skills in roulette are not as

well developed as your skills in poker. So maybe your total gains in poker are higher (or > ) than in roulette.

Instructions

Calculate total_poker and total_roulette as in the previous exercise. Use the sum() function twice.

Check if your total gains in poker are higher than for roulette by using a comparison. Simply print out the result of this comparison.

What do you conclude, should you focus on roulette or on poker?

Script.R RConsole

# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",

"Thursday", "Friday")

names(poker_vector) <- days_vector

names(roulette_vector) <- days_vector

total_poker <-

total_roulette <-

Vector selection: the good times

Your hunch seemed to be right. It appears that the poker game is more your cup of tea than roulette.

Another possible route for investigation is your performance at the beginning of the working week compared to the end of it. You did

have a couple of Margarita cocktails at the end of the week...

To answer that question, you only want to focus on a selection of the total_vector. In other words, our goal is to select specific elements

of the vector. To select elements of a vector (and later matrices, data frames, ...), you can use square brackets. Between the square

brackets, you indicate what elements to select. For example, to select the first element of the vector, you type poker_vector[1]. To

select the second element of the vector, you type poker_vector[2], etc. Notice that the first element in a vector has index 1, not 0 as

in many other programming languages.

Instructions

Assign the poker results of Wednesday to the variable poker_wednesday.

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")

names(poker_vector) <- days_vector

names(roulette_vector) <- days_vector

poker_wednesday <-

# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",

"Thursday", "Friday")

names(poker_vector) <- days_vector

names(roulette_vector) <- days_vector

poker_wednesday <-

How about analyzing your midweek results?

To select multiple elements from a vector, you can add square brackets at the end of it. You can indicate between the brackets what

elements should be selected. For example: suppose you want to select the first and the fifth day of the week: use the vector c(1, 5)

between the square brackets. For example, the code below selects the first and fifth element of poker_vector:

poker_vector[c(1, 5)]

Instructions

Assign the poker results of Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday to the variable poker_midweek.

# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",

"Thursday", "Friday")

names(poker_vector) <- days_vector

names(roulette_vector) <- days_vector

# Define a new variable based on a selection

poker_midweek <-

Vector selection: the good times (3)

Selecting multiple elements of poker_vector with c(2, 3, 4) is not very convenient. Many statisticians are lazy people by nature, so they

created an easier way to do this: c(2, 3, 4) can be abbreviated to2:4, which generates a vector with all natural numbers from 2 up to

4.

So, another way to find the mid-week results is poker_vector[2:4]. Notice how the vector 2:4 is placed between the square brackets

to select element 2 up to 4.

Instructions

Assign to roulette_selection_vector the roulette results from Tuesday up to Friday; make use of : if it makes things easier for you.

# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",

"Thursday", "Friday")

names(poker_vector) <- days_vector

names(roulette_vector) <- days_vector

roulette_selection_vector <-

Another way to tackle the previous exercise is by using the names of the vector elements (Monday, Tuesday, ...) instead of their

numeric positions. For example,

poker_vector["Monday"]

will select the first element of poker_vector since "Monday" is the name of that first element.

Just like you did in the previous exercise with numerics, you can also use the element names to select multiple elements, for example:

poker_vector[c("Monday","Tuesday")]

Instructions

Select the first three elements in poker_vector by using their names: "Monday", "Tuesday" and "Wednesday". Assign the result of the

selection to poker_start.

Calculate the average of the values in poker_start with the mean() function. Simply print out the result so you can inspect it.

# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",

"Thursday", "Friday")

names(poker_vector) <- days_vector

names(roulette_vector) <- days_vector

poker_start <-

Selection by comparison - Step 1

By making use of comparison operators, we can approach the previous question in a more proactive way.

> for greater than

<= for less than or equal to

>= for greater than or equal to

== for equal to each other

!= not equal to each other

As seen in the previous chapter, stating 6 > 5 returns TRUE. The nice thing about R is that you can use these comparison operators

also on vectors. For example:

[1] FALSE FALSE TRUE

This command tests for every element of the vector if the condition stated by the comparison operator is TRUE or FALSE.

Instructions

Check which elements in poker_vector are positive (i.e. > 0) and assign this to selection_vector.

Print out selection_vector so you can inspect it. The printout tells you whether you won (TRUE) or lost (FALSE) any money for each

day.

# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",

"Thursday", "Friday")

names(poker_vector) <- days_vector

names(roulette_vector) <- days_vector

selection_vector <-

Working with comparisons will make your data analytical life easier. Instead of selecting a subset of days to investigate yourself (like

before), you can simply ask R to return only those days where you realized a positive return for poker.

In the previous exercises you used selection_vector <- poker_vector > 0 to find the days on which you had a positive poker return.

Now, you would like to know not only the days on which you won, but also how much you won on those days.

You can select the desired elements, by putting selection_vector between the square brackets that follow poker_vector:

poker_vector[selection_vector]

R knows what to do when you pass a logical vector in square brackets: it will only select the elements that correspond to TRUE in

selection_vector.

Instructions

Use selection_vector in square brackets to assign the amounts that you won on the profitable days to the variable

poker_winning_days.

# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",

"Thursday", "Friday")

names(poker_vector) <- days_vector

names(roulette_vector) <- days_vector

selection_vector <- poker_vector > 0

poker_winning_days <-

Advanced selection

Just like you did for poker, you also want to know those days where you realized a positive return for roulette.

Instructions

Create the variable selection_vector, this time to see if you made profit with roulette for different days.

Assign the amounts that you made on the days that you ended positively for roulette to the variable roulette_winning_days. This

vector thus contains the positive winnings of roulette_vector.

# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:

poker_vector <- c(140, -50, 20, -120, 240)

roulette_vector <- c(-24, -50, 100, -350, 10)

days_vector <- c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday",

"Thursday", "Friday")

names(poker_vector) <- days_vector

names(roulette_vector) <- days_vector

selection_vector <-

roulette_winning_days <-

What are the conclusions of this workshop? What does it give to your training?

English Spanish

Data Analytics in R (Basics) by Ethan Eastwood

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