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Chapter:5

Conclusion and Scope of Future Work

5.1 Conclusion

Removal of Chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by adsorption using Gravel and coarse
grained soil has experimentally determined in river bank filtration. Taking the different type of
effective soil parameter characterized by different analysis and test. Column study will be carried
out different conditions to find effect of following operational variables on environmental factors
and important water quality parameters like heavy metals. From our studies it was found that of
these adsorbents are promising material for effective removal of chromium. By adopting this
methodology the following benefits can be achieved:
1. Collection of water sample for one season and aquifer soil sample from the above sites.
2. Analysis of water and soil sample.

The following conclusions are derived from the experimental investigation.

For Cr(VI) removal of 1st soil sample(remed chowk canal,sambalpur)

Based open the column study experiment it can be calculated that percentage removal of
chromium based on the these soil parameter such as effect the % fines, soil particle size and bed
depth of aquifer with 120 minute of time interval. The maximum % of removal of Cr (VI) was
obtained 98.616% at 21.44% fines, 99.005% at fine fraction of soil particle size and 99.954%
at 14 cm bed depth respectively. Increasing of Chromium concentration and does give a
consecutive higher value uptake capacity up to a certain period and then became constant.
Uptake capacity gradually increases with increase of initial time to the final 120 minute.

Analysis with Detention Time Period

Based open the column study experiment it can be calculated that percentage removal of
chromium based on the these soil parameter such as effect the % fines, soil particle size and bed
depth of aquifer with 6hour of time interval. The maximum % of removal of Cr (VI) was
obtained 99.89% at 21.44% fines, 99.41% at fine fraction of soil particle size and 98.23% at 14
cm bed depth respectively . Increasing of Chromium concentration and does give a consecutive
higher value uptake capacity up to a certain period and then became constant. Uptake capacity
gradually increases with increase of initial time to the final 6hr.

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For Cr(VI) Removal of 2nd Soil Sample(Kharala River ,Kuchinda Near
Sambalpur)

Based open the same column study experiment was done in this soil. it can be calculated
that percentage removal of chromium based on the these soil parameter such as effect the %
fines, soil particle size and bed depth of aquifer with 120 minute of time interval. The maximum
% of removal of Cr (VI) was obtained 97.34% at 21.18% fines, 95.8% at fine fraction of soil
particle size and 87.2% at 14 cm bed depth respectively . Increasing of Chromium concentration
and does give a consecutive higher value uptake capacity up to a certain period and then became
constant. Uptake capacity gradually increases with increase of initial time to the final 120
minute. Percentage removal of remed chowk soil is more than the kharala river bank soil.
Because of the % fines of remed chowk soil is more than the % fines of kharala river soil.

Analysis with Detention Time Period

Based open the column study experiment it can be calculated that percentage removal of
chromium based on the these soil parameter such as effect the % fines, soil particle size and bed
depth of aquifer with 6hour of time interval. The maximum % of removal of Cr (VI) was
obtained 96.835% at 21.18% fines, 94.1% at fine fraction of soil particle size and %92 .634 at
14 cm bed depth respectively . Increasing of Chromium concentration and does give a
consecutive higher value uptake capacity up to a certain period and then became constant.
Uptake capacity gradually increase with increase of initial time to the final 6hr.

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5.2 Future Scope of Work

The following recommendation have been made for further studies,

To study the effect of contact time of chromium ions adsorption on fine grained soil.
To investigate the influence of pH on the adsorption of chromium ions.
To find the effect of adsorbent dose and initial concentration on the adsorption of Cr(VI).
To analyses the experimental data of adsorption isotherms through Langmuir and Freundlich
models.
To examine the applicability of column study by Thomas model.
Adsorption studies of Chromium (VI) using other self-prepared or commercial adsorbents.
More detail characterization of self-prepared adsorbents must be perform.
Batch study will be performed.
Chromium(VI) desorption studies will also be perform.

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