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TECHNICAL INFORMATION

AND TABLES
CONTENTS

Used oil analysis 2

Classification of lubricants 7

Marine fuels 11

Guide to emission limits 18

Glossary 20

Appendix 27

Gravity and density conversions 28

Relative density corrections 30

Viscosity comparison table 32

Conversion tables 33

All reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of the publication. However, Castrol Marine does
not accept responsibility for any loss, damage or expense arising from any act or error of whatever nature,
or any inaccuracy or advice of whatever nature.

1
USED OIL ANALYSIS

AN ENGINEERS GUIDE TO THE INTERPRETATION


OF USED OIL ANALYSIS RESULTS.

INTRODUCTION
Analysis of samples to determine the condition of both the oil and the
machine is not a new concept, but modern, rapid and computerised analysis
equipment has made regular routine sampling economically viable. Hence
the use of analysis has become an important and widely recognised aspect of
condition monitoring as part of a planned maintenance programme.

Regular testing of lubricants during their use in service provides valuable


information on the suitability of the oil for continued service. It is therefore
necessary that the essential tests are conducted rapidly to provide maximum
information in a minimum time. To ascertain these requirements a certain
range of routine tests is conducted on every used oil sample.

The most important aspect of sample analysis is the interpretation of results.


The quantification of single parameters in isolation can be misleading but
may also be dangerous because the true condition of the oil in service will
not be established unless the total analysis "picture" is known. Regular
sampling to produce a trend provides a more accurate and realistic picture.

2
ROUTINE TESTS ROUTINE TESTS

THE BASIC PARAMETERS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCES ARE:


KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
The viscosity of a liquid is its resistance to flow and is directly affected by the temperature of the
liquid. An oil's viscosity decreases with increase in temperature and increases when the
temperature is reduced. Kinematic viscosity is expressed in centistokes (cSt) and is usually measured
at 40C, for a typical industrial grade oil or, at 100C for an engine oil.
Increases in viscosity may indicate the onset of oxidation of an oil but may also be caused by
residual fuel leakages, or an admixture with a heavier grade of oil. The most common reason for
a viscosity increase is the build up of the quantity of total insolubles present in the oil.
Contamination by water may also increase the viscosity of an oil, if emulsions are formed.
Decreases in viscosity are usually due to distillate fuel dilution but may also be caused by an
admixture with a lighter grade of oil.
The maximum increase, or decrease, of viscosity tolerated is usually taken as 25% of the
viscosity of new oil, or when the viscosity of the oil has increased or decreased into the adjacent
SAE grade.

VISCOSITY INDEX
The VI of an oil is calculated from its kinematic viscosities at 40C and 100C and the resultant
value indicates the temperature/viscosity relationship of that oil. An oil with a high VI experiences
smaller decreases in viscosity as the temperature at which it is working increases than does an oil
with a lower VI. Conversely as the ambient temperature decreases, the viscosity of a high VI oil will
increase at a lower rate than that of an oil with a lower VI.

FLASH POINT
The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a vapour above a liquid will ignite when a
flame is applied under standard conditions. This can be expressed (usually in degrees Celsius) as
"Closed" or "Open" depending upon whether the Pensky-Marten Closed Cup (PMCC) or the
Cleveland Open Cup (COC) test method is used.
In an engine oil, decreases in flash point (either Closed or Open) are usually due to distillate fuel
dilution but in extreme conditions may also be a symptom of thermal cracking of the oil.
Contamination by residual fuel may not appreciably depress the flash point but can, if the flash
point of the fuel is naturally low.
Flash points (PMCC) well in excess of 190C are normal, but if the flash point is depressed to
less than 170C, then remedial action such as partial or total replenishment of the oil charge,
should be carried out.

3
USED OIL ANALYSIS

TOTAL INSOLUBLES
This is the total amount of extraneous matter, expressed as a percentage of the quantity of the
oil, which is mainly derived from products of combustion blown by the piston rings into the oil
wetted areas of the engine. It also includes burnt lubricating oil and additive ash, rust, salt, wear
debris and abrasive matter.
Increases may be due to the amount of blow by and sudden increases may indicate piston ring
collapse or breakage.
The limiting values for total insolubles that are set by the engine manufacturers are dependent
upon many factors which may include:
Engine construction. Operating conditions. Fuel in use.
Purification facilities. Size of oil charge.

BASE NUMBER
The Base Number (BN) - expressed as milligrams of potassium hydroxide per gram of oil (mg
KOH/g) - is the alkaline reserve incorporated into an oil to neutralise acidic products of
combustion derived from sulphur in the fuel. It also gives some measure of the relative detergency
of the oil.
Decreases in BN are normal since these indicate that neutralisation of acids is being effected.
Depletion to 50% - 60% of the oil's original BN (depending upon the engine type) is the point
at which make-up with new oil is usually recommended. Many engine manufacturers specify
minimum levels below which the BN should not be allowed to fall.
If the rate of BN depletion is too great and the oil charge requires replenishment at frequent
intervals, consideration should be given to replacing the charge with an oil with a higher initial BN.
The actual rate of BN depletion can be apparently reduced by high lubricating oil "top up" rates.
Thus a high rate of BN depletion may be hidden if the oil consumption rate (and hence the
quantity of new oil used to top up the system) is also high.
Excessive piston ring blow by, in addition to increasing the total insolubles level, can also accelerate
the rate at which the BN is depleted due to the amount of acids from combustion products
entering the crankcase. Similarly, if this results in oxidation of the oil charge, acids produced will
increase the BN depletion rate.
The size of the oil system (i.e. the sump capacity) can also affect the depletion rate because the
smaller the quantity of oil in circulation, the faster the alkali will be neutralised by acids.
Sometimes the BN increases. In the crankcases of crosshead engines this can usually be attributed
to contamination by the cylinder oil.

4
ROUTINE TESTS ROUTINE TESTS

WATER
This contaminant may be due to leakages from the jacket, cylinder liner, piston cooling water or
purifier. In some cases, condensation inside the crankcase, or ingress via the tank top, filling
lines or air vents may be the cause.
In general, no water at all should be present in the lubricating oil especially salt water. The
maximum level tolerated before corrective action is required varies from one engine type to
another, but is generally in the range 0.1 - 0.5%.

CONDITION
The presence of water or other contaminants may be seen in a sample and its condition may be
described as being "Cloudy", or the presence of foreign matter may be remarked upon.

ACIDITY (mg KOH/g)


Acid Number (AN) is a total acidity test normally used to indicate relative changes that occur in
an oil during use under oxidising conditions. Typically the acid number is monitored for gear oils,
hydraulic oils and turbine oils.

COLOUR
With used engine oil samples, the natural colour of the oil will invariably be darkened by products
of combustion. In other cases, however, the colour - or deviation from the "normal" colour of a
particular oil - may be indicative of changes taking place in the oil. For example the onset of
oxidation will usually be indicated by a darkening of the oil.

DENSITY
Density is the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume. Absolute density is usually expressed
as kg/m3, kg/litre or as g/litre. Relative density (or specific gravity - SG) is the comparison of the
density of a substance with the density of freshwater - both are quoted at the same reference
temperatures - and is a dimensionless ratio. The density value is required for the selection of the
correct purifier gravity disc.

5
USED OIL ANALYSIS ROUTINE TESTS

WEAR METAL MEASUREMENT


The elements quantified are usually referred to as "wear metals" but this is something of a
misnomer since they are not all metals. For example, silicon is included which is not a metal.
Also not all the elements are wear derived; some are contaminants originating outside the
machinery and others are additives.
Wear metals may be quantified by Atomic Absorption or Atomic Emission spectroscopy. Both
are well established procedures but the latter - using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)
spectrometer - is increasing in popularity due to its very high speed of operation.
ICP spectrometers installed at the Castrol Laboratory can quantify a large number of
elements. Those generally reported for the most common oil applications include:

Aluminium Copper Nickel Tin


Antimony Iron Silicon Vanadium
Chromium Lead Silver

With all wear metals and contaminants, the important factor is the change in the quantities of
material identified i.e. the trend not the actual measurement. The number of parts per million
recorded has significance only when it is compared with previous samples.
Also, it must be remembered that the trend in wear metal elements primarily indicates the
condition of the machine rather than the condition of the oil. However, the deterioration of the
condition of the oil will also be highlighted by this trend as the amount of contamination may
build up to a point where the oil may have to be changed, or a regime of intensive purification, or
filtration, of the oil introduced. Wear debris which is by nature abrasive may generate secondary
wear material. Also as larger particles become worn down, small pieces of debris will be formed
which increase the total "wear metal" count.
Only very small (0.8 micron) particles are collected and quantified in a spectrometer; larger
pieces of debris in the oil are screened out. Consequently catastrophic engine failures are unlikely
to be predicted from ICP element counts since such failures usually involve the generation of
relatively large metallic particles. However, ICP analyses can provide reliable indicators of long
term wear patterns since these are associated with the production of small particles.

6
ROUTINE
CLASSIFICATION
TESTS OF LUBRICANTS

VISCOSITY CLASSIFICATION FOR INDUSTRIAL GRADE acc .to I.S.O. 3448


VISCOSITY VISCOSITY LIMIT APPROXIMATE VISCOSITY (cSt) FOR A 95 VI
CLASS MM2/S (cSt) MINERAL OIL
ISO AT 40OC AT 20OC AT 50OC AT 100OC
ISO VG 2 1.98 - 2.02 (2.92 - 3.71) (1.69 - 2.03) -
ISO VG 3 2.88 - 3.52 (4.58 - 5.83) (2.39 - 2.86) -
ISO VG 5 4.14 - 5.05 (7.09 - 9.03) (3.32 - 3.99) -
ISO VG 7 6.16 - 7.48 (11.4 - 14.40) (4.76 - 5.72) -
ISO VG 10 9.0 - 11.0 18.1 - 23.1 6.78 - 8.14 2.46 - 2.80
ISO VG 15 13.5 - 16.5 29.8 - 38.3 9.8 - 11.8 3.17 - 3.58
ISO VG 22 19.8 - 24.2 48.0 - 61.7 13.9 - 16.6 3.99 - 4.50
ISO VG 32 28.8 - 35.2 76.9 - 98.7 19.4 - 23.3 4.97 - 5.6
ISO VG 46 41.4 - 50.6 120 - 153 27.0 - 32.5 6.2 - 7.05
ISO VG 68 61.2 - 74.8 193 - 244 38.7 - 46.6 7.95 - 9.1
ISO VG 100 90.0 - 110.0 303 - 383 55.3 - 66.6 10.3 - 11.8
ISO VG 150 135 - 165 486 - 614 80.6 - 97.1 13.6 - 15.5
ISO VG 220 198 - 242 761 - 964 115 - 138 17.5 - 20.0
ISO VG 320 288 - 352 1180 - 1500 163 - 196 22.3 - 25.5
ISO VG 460 414 - 506 1810 - 2300 228 - 274 28.2 - 32.2
ISO VG 680 612 - 748 2880 - 3650 326 - 393 36.5 - 41.5
ISO VG 1000 900 - 1100 4550 - 5780 466 - 560 46.6 - 52.9
ISO VG 1500 1350 - 1650 7390 - 9400 676 - 812 60.0 - 68.0
Figures in brackets: approximate viscosities by extrapolation

NLGI LUBRICATING GREASES CONSISTENCY CLASSIFICATION


NLGI CONSISTENCY ASTM WORKED (60 STROKES)
NUMBER PENETRATION AT 25OC TENTHS
OF A MILLIMETRE
000 445 to 475
00 400 to 430
0 355 to 385
1 310 to 340
2 265 to 295
3 220 to 250
4 175 to 205
5 130 to 160
6 85 to 115

7
CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICANTS
COMPARATIVE VISCOSITY CLASSIFICATION FOR LUBRICANTS AND
BASE OILS

850 42

775 40

700 38
680
625 36

550 34

500 140 32

460
450 30

400 7 28

365 26

315 320 24

280 6 22

240 20
220 50
90
205 18
5
175 16

150 40
140 14
650 N
4
115 85W 12
500 N
100 30
85 3 10

68 80W 300 N
60 2 8
20
46 200 N
40 1 6
32 75W
10W
20 22 100 N 4
15 5W
10 10 2

ISO VG AGMA SAE GEAR SAE COMMON


LUBRICANT VISCOSITY VISCOSITY BASE OIL
NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NOMENCLATURE

8
TEMPERATURE, DEGREES CELSIUS
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160
100,000 100,000

50,000 1. Plot oil viscosity in centistokes at 40oc 50,000


and 100oc.
20,000 2. Draw straight line through points. 20,000

10,000 3. Read off centistokes at any temperature 10,000


of interest.
5,000 5,000

3,000 Note: 3,000


ROUTINE

Lines shown indicate ISO preferred grades of 100


2,000 2,000
viscosity index. Lower V.I. oils will have steeper
slopes. Higher V.I. oils will have flatter slopes.
1,000 1,000

500 500
400 400
300 300

200 200
150 150
TESTS

100 100
75 75

50 50
40 40

30 30
KINEMATIC VISCOSITY CENTISTOKES

KINEMATIC VISCOSITY CENTISTOKES


ISO
15
ISO 00
10
CLASSIFICATION

20 20
VISCOSITY - TEMPERATURE VARIATION GRAPH

00
ISO
68
15 0 15
ISO
46
0
ISO
32
10 0 10
9.0 ISO
22 9.0
0
8.0 8.0
ISO
7.0 15 7.0
0
ISO ISO
6.0 ISO ISO
15 ISO
ISO
32 46 ISO
ISO
10 6.0
7 10
22 68 0
5.0 5.0

4.0 4.0
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160

TEMPERATURE, DEGREES CELSIUS


-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160

Reprinted, with permission, from the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia. PA 19103. USA
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330

TEMPERATURE, DEGREES FAHRENHEIT


OF LUBRICANTS

9
CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICANTS

SAE VISCOSITY CLASSIFICATION FOR CRANKCASE OIL


5W 10W 15W 20W 20 30 40 50
VISC.@ 40 C
O

MIN. cSt NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
MAX. cSt NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
VISC.@ 100OC
MIN. cSt 3.8 4.1 5.6 5.6 5.6 9.3 12.5 16.3
MAX. cSt NR NR NR NR <9.3 <12.5 <16.3 <21.9

NR: No requirement

SAE NO. FOR GEAR LUBRICANTS


75W 80W 85W 90 140
VISC.@ 40OC
MIN. cSt NR NR NR NR NR
MAX. cSt NR NR NR NR NR
VISC.@ 100OC
MIN. cSt 4.1 7.0 11.0 13.5 24
MAX. cSt NR NR NR <24 <41

NR: No requirement

AGMA LUBRICANT NUMBER


1 2 3 4 5 6 7
VISC.@ 40 C O

MIN. cSt 36.1 53.5 78.3 117.4 172.3 250.5 360


MAX. cSt 44.1 65.1 95.7 143.6 210.5 306.1 440

10
ROUTINE TESTS MARINE FUELS

NOTES
Commonly used designations like Gas Oil, Marine Diesel Oil or similar do in no way represent
a certain quality nor any standardised properties. This applies also for Heavy Fuel designations as
they are widely used, e.g. Intermediate Fuel, Bunker Fuel or similar.

IF 380 or any other IF.... fuel is not a fuel with any determined specific property, with the
exception of the upper viscosity limit at 50oC.

BS MA 100 (1996) and ISO 8217 (1996) are identical specifications of marine fuels.

11
MARINE FUELS

CLASSIFICATION OF MARINE FUELS acc to BS 6843 Part 1:1996


FAMILY: SUBDIVISION
ACCORDING TO THE DESIGNATION SYMBOL ISO-F REMARKS
TYPE OF FUEL
CATEGORY: MAXIMUM
SUBDIVISION ACCORDING KINEMATIC
TO APPLICATION AND VISCOSITY
PROPERTIES MM2/S
Marine distillate fuel DMX Emergency purposes
external to the main
machine spaces
DMA General purpose, shall
contain no residuum
DMB General purpose, may
contain a trace of residuum
DMC General purpose, may
contain some residuum
Marine residual fuel RMA 10
RMB 10
RMC 10
RMD 15
RME 25 Maximum limit for density
RMF 25 specified in ISO 8217
RMG 35
RMH 35
RMK 35
RMH 45
RMK 45
RMH 55
RMK 55
RML 45 No density limit is specified
RML 55 for either category

12
ROUTINE TESTS MARINE FUELS

REQUIREMENTS FOR MARINE DISTILLATE FUELS


CATEGORY ISO-F-
CHARACTERISTIC LIMIT DMX DMA DMB DMC TEST METHOD
(1) REFERENCE
Density at 15OC, Kg/m3 max. 890,0 900,0 920,0 ISO 3675 or
ISO 12185
Viscosity at 40OC, mm2/s (2) min. 1,40 1,50 - - ISO 3104
max. 5,50 6,00 11,0 14,0 ISO 3104
Flash point, OC min. 43 60 60 60 ISO 2719
Pour point (upper), OC (3)
-Winter quality max. - -6 0 0 ISO 3016
-Summer quality max. - 0 6 6 ISO 3016
Cloud point, OC max. -16(4) - - - ISO 3015
Sulphur, % (m/m) max. 1,0 1,5 2,0(5) 2,0(5) ISO 8754 or
ISO 14596
Cetane index min. 45 40 35 - ISO 4264
Carbon residue on 10%
(V/V) % (m/m) max. 0,30 0,30 - - ISO 10370
distillation bottoms % (m/m) max. - - 0,30 2,5 ISO 10370
Ash, % (m/m) max. 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,05 ISO 6245
Appearance (6) Clear and bright (6)
Total sediment, existent % (m/m) max. - - 0,10(6) 0,10 ISO 10307-1
Water, % (V/V) max. - - 0,3(6) 0,3 ISO 3733
Vanadium, mg/kg max. - - - 100 ISO 14597,
IP 501 or IP 470
Aluminium plus silicon, mg/kg max. - - - 25 ISO 10478,
IP 501 or IP 470
Used lubricating oil (ULO) The fuel shall be free of ULO (7)
-Zinc, mg/kg max. - - - 15 IP 501 or IP 470
-Phosphorus, mg/kg max. - - - 15 IP 501 or IP 500
-Calcium, mg/kg max. - - - 30 IP 501 or IP 470
(1) Although predominantly consisting of distillate fuel, the residual oil proportion can be significant.
(2) 1 mm2/s = 1 cSt
(3) Purchasers should ensure that this pour point is suitable for the equipment on board, especially
if the vessel operates in both the northern and southern hemispheres.
(4) This fuel is suitable for use without heating at ambient temperatures down to - 16C.
(5) A sulphur limit of 1,5 % (m/m) will apply in SOx emission control areas designated by the
International Maritime Organisation, when its relevant protocol enters into force. There may be
local variations, for example the EU requires that sulphur content of certain distillate grades be
limited to 0,2 % (m/m) in certain applications.
(6) If the sample is clear and with no visible sediment or water, the total sediment existent and
water tests shall not be required.
(7) A fuel shall be considered to be free of used lubricating oils (ULOs) if one or more of the elements
zinc, phosphorus and calcium are below or at the specified limits. All three elements shall
exceed the same limits before a fuel shall be deemed to contain ULOs.

13
14
REQUIREMENTS FOR MARINE RESIDUAL FUELS
CATEGORY ISO -F-
CHARACTERISTIC LIMIT RMA RMB RMD RME RMF RMG RMH RMK RMH RMK
30 30 80 180 180 380 380 380 700 700 TEST METHOD REFERENCE
Density @ 15 C, kg/m3 max. 960.0 975.0 980.0 991.0 991.0 991.0 991.0 1010.0 991.0 1010.0 ISO 3675 or ISO 12185 (see also 7.1)
Kinematic Viscosity at max. 30 30 80.0 180.0 180.0 380.0 380.0 380.0 700.0 700.0 ISO 3104
50C, mm2/s (1)
Flash Point, C min. 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 ISO 2719 (see also 7.2)
Pour Point (upper), C (2)
MARINE FUELS

-Winter quality max. 0 24 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 ISO 3016


-Summer quality max. 6 24 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 ISO 3016
Carbon residue, % (m/m) max. 10 10 14 15 20 18 22 22 22 22 ISO 10370
Ash, % (m/m) max. 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 ISO 6245
Water, % (V/V) max. 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 ISO 3733
Sulphur, % (m/m) (3) max. 3.5 3.5 4.0 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 ISO 14596 or ISO 8754 (see also 7.3)
Vanadium, mg/kg max. 150 150 350 200 500 300 600 600 600 600 ISO 14597, IP 501 or
IP 470 (see also 7.8)
Total sediment,potential, max. 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 ISO 10307-2 (see also 7.6)
% (m/m)
Aluminium plus silicon, max. 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 ISO 10478, IP 501 or
mg/kg IP 470 (see also 7.9)
Used lubricating oil (ULO) The fuel shall be free of ULO(4) .
Zinc, mg/kg 15 IP 501 or IP 470 (see also 7.7)
Phosphorus, mg/kg 15 IP 501 or IP 500 (see also 7.7)
Calcium, mg/kg 30 IP 501 or IP 470 (see also 7.7)

(1) Annex C gives a brief viscosity/temperature table for information purposes only. 1 mm2/s = 1 cSt.
(2) Purchasers should ensure that this pour point is suitable for the equipment on board, especially if the vessel operates in
both the northern and southern hemispheres.
(3) A sulphur limit of 1.5% (m/m) will apply in SOx emission control areas designated by the International Maritime Organisation, when its
relevant protocol enters into force. There may be local variations.
(4) A fuel shall be considered to be free of ULO if one or more of the elements zinc, phosphorus and calcium are below or at the specified limits.
All three elements shall exceed the same limits before a fuel shall be deemed to contain ULO.
ROUTINE TESTS BLENDING DIAGRAM
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

10,000 10,000
7,000 7,000
5,000 5,000

2,000 2,000

1,000 1,000
800 800
600 600
500 500
400 400
300 300

200 200

100 100

50 50

40 40

30 30

25 25

20 20

15 15

10 10

5 5

4 4

3 3

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Enter viscosities at same basic temperature only. EXAMPLE: wanted: 46 cSt


The VI of the candidates must be equal or very similar available: 22 cSt and 100 cSt
at least (for practical use). RESULT: 50% of oil/fuel of 22 cSt
50% of oil/fuel of 100 cSt

15
MARINE FUELS

SPEED, OUTPUT, FUEL CONSUMPTION IN % OF RATED SPEED OUTPUT


AND CONSUMPTION

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

The reading of these diagrams will provide you with figures of sufficient accuracy for practical
use. It must be noted however, that certain variation may occur, depending on engine
maintenance, shell-fouling or weather influence.

16
ROUTINE
SPEED, OUTPUT
TESTS & FUEL CONSUMPTION

120

110

100

90
ED
SPE

80

70
UT
TP
OU

60

50

80 85 90
95 100 105

EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2
90% of the rated speed are 79% of the rated speed are
achieved at 73% engine-output. achieved at abt. 50% of the rated
engine-output.

17
EMISSION LIMITS

GUIDE TO EMISSION LIMITS


The following tables have been produced as a guide to emission limits. Table 1 contains the latest
limits laid down by the bodies who are most active in emission regulations. Table 2 contains a
guide for converting between the most common units of measurement.

TABLE 1
UNITS CO HC THC + NOX PM SMOKE
NOX
Euro I>85kW g/k Whr 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36
Euro II g/k Whr 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
Euro III g/k Whr 1.5 0.25 2.0 0.02 0.15

EPA Category 1 g/k Whr 5.0 7.2- 0.2-


(Tier 2*) 7.5 0.4
EPA Category 2 g/k Whr 5.0 7.8- 0.27-
(Tier 2*) 11.0 0.5
EPA Category 3 g/k Whr 9.8-
(Tier 1) 17.0

CARB Heavy g/bhphr 15.5 1.3 4.0 0.05


duty highway

Standards are changing and are often specific to certain engine applications and/or size categories.
The above table is for guidance only and it is recommended that where specific details are
required of emissions limits, reference should be made to the appropriate regulatory body.

NOTES
1. European standards are now governed by the EU and apply to all member states.
2. California Air Resources Board, (CARB) set differing and normally tougher standards than
the Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA).
3. Category 1 engines are specified as land based non-road diesels with a power rating
greater than 37kW and cylinder displacement of less than 5 litres.
4. Category 2 engines are specified as locomotive engines with a cylinder displacement of
between 5 litres and 30 litres.
5. Category 3 engines are specified as unique marine engine design with a cylinder displacement
of greater than 30 litres. Tier 1 is the same standard as IMO Marpol Annex VI.

18
ROUTINE TESTS EMISSION LIMITS

TABLE 2
REQUIRED
(x = % O2) mg/m3 PPM g/GJ

Known
mg/m3 1 0.487 5.07
20.94 -x
Known
PPM 2.054 1 10.47
20.94 -x
Known
g/GJ 20.94 -x 20.94 -x 1
5.07 10.47

19
GLOSSARY

Acid Any substance containing hydrogen in combination with a non-metallic element(s) and
capable of producing hydrogen ions in solution. An acid is capable of neutralising or being
neutralised by a base.

Acidity In lubricants, acidity denotes the presence of acidic constituents whose concentration is
usually defined in terms of an acid number.

Additives A chemical compound or compounds added to a lubricating oil for the purpose of imparting
new properties or enhancing existing properties.

Aniline Point The lowest temperature at which a hydrocarbon fluid is completely miscible with an equal
quantity of aniline. The higher the reading, the lower the aromatic content, and hence the
smaller the effect on rubber.

Antifoam Agent An additive used to suppress the foaming tendency of petroleum products in service. May
be a silicone oil to break up surface bubbles or a polymer to decrease the number of small
entrained bubbles.

Antiwear Agent Additives or their reaction products which form thin, tenacious films on highly loaded parts
to prevent metal-to-metal contact.

Aromatics Hydrocarbons of ring structure having the smallest hydrogen to carbon ratio.

API Gravity An arbitrary scale adopted by the American Petroleum Institute for expressing the relative
density of an oil.

Degrees API = 141.5 - 131.5


rel.density @ 60OF

Ash Some additives, particularly conventional detergent additives, leave behind a powdery
residue after combustion. This residue is known as ash and can cause engine malfunction if
allowed to build up in the combustion chamber, cylinder liner ports and turbochargers.

Ash (sulphated) The ash content of an oil, determined by charring the oil and breaking the residue with
sulphuric acid and evaporating to dryness. Expressed as % by mass.

Asphaltenes Components of asphalt which are insoluble in petroleum naphtha but are soluble in aromatic
solvents. They are hard and brittle and made up largely of high molecular weight polynuclear
hydrocarbon derivatives containing carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen and usually
nickel, iron and vanadium.

Bactericide A biocide specifically formulated to kill bacteria.

Barrel A unit of volume measurement used for petroleum and petroleum products.
A barrel = 42 US Gallons, ~ 35 Imperial Gallons or ~ 159 litres.

Base A compound which reacts with an acid to produce a salt plus water.

Base Number A measure of the amount of acid-neutralising additive present in a lubricating oil, also
known as Total Base Number.

Base Stock Refined petroleum oil used in the production of lubricants and other products. The base
(Base Oil) stock may be used alone or blended with other base stocks and/or additives, to manufacture
a finished lubricant.

Bitumen A viscous liquid or solid consisting of hydrocarbons and their derivatives which is soluble in
an aromatic solvent such as benzene. It is non volatile and softens when heated. Bitumen
may be black or brown in colour and possesses water proofing and adhesive properties. It is
obtained from refinery processes but is also found as a natural deposit.

20
ROUTINE TESTS GLOSSARY

Black Oils Asphaltic materials are added to lubricants used for open gears and steel cables to impart
extra adhesiveness, giving them the characteristic black colour.

Blending The intimate mixing of various components, including base oils and additives,in the
preparation of a product of specified properties.

Blow-by Passage of combustion gases past the piston rings of internal combustion engines, resulting
in contamination of the crankcase oil.

Boundary Lubrication between two rubbing surfaces without the development of a full fluid
Lubrication lubricating film. It occurs under high loads and requires the use of antiwear or EP additives
to prevent metal-to-metal contact.

Bulk Modulus The reciprocal of the compressibility of an oil. The higher the Bulk Modulus of a fluid, the
greater its incompressibility.

Cams Eccentric lobes attached to a camshaft and driven by a crankshaft which are used in most
internal combustion engines to open and close valves and sometimes operate fuel pumps.

Carbon Residue Coked material remaining after an oil has been exposed to high temperatures under controlled
conditions. Carbon residue is thus an indicator of the coke forming tendencies of an oil. It can
be expressed as Conradson, Ramsbottom or Micro-Carbon residue (MCR).

Catalyst Fines Small (typically less than 50 micron) particles of aluminium silicate used as a catalyst in catalytic
cracking (cat cracker) refineries. They are sometimes carried over in the refinery process and
can be found in residual fuels. They are very abrasive and can cause excessive wear in engine
parts - particularly fuel pumps, injectors, cylinder liners and piston rings.

Centipoise (cP) See Poise

Centistoke (cSt) See Stoke

Cetane Index A measure of the ignition quality of a distillate fuel, that is the relative ease with which the
fuel will ignite when injected into a compression - ignition engine. Cetane Index is calculated
from the API gravity and the mid boiling point of the fuel. High Cetane indices shorter
ignition lags and are associated with better combustion performances.

Cetane Number Similar to Cetane Index but is derived from a standard engine test rather than by calculation.

Cloud Point The temperature at which a cloud or haze begins to appear when an oil, which has been
previously dried, is cooled under prescribed conditions. Such a cloud or haze is usually due to
the separation of wax from the oil.

Cold Filter A measure of the ability of diesel fuels to flow at low temperature. A fuel with low CFPP is
Plugging Point capable of being used satisfactorily at low ambient temperatures and not cause blockages in
(CFPP) fuel systems through the precipitation of wax particles.

Copper Strip A qualitative measure of the tendency of a petroleum product to corrode pure copper.
Corrosion

Corrosion Inhibitor A substance added to a lubricant to protect against metal corrosion.

Crosshead Diesel Slow-speed marine diesel engine with separate lubrication systems for cylinders and crankcase.
Engine Invariably operating on the 2-stroke cycle these engines derive their name from the crosshead
bearing which couples the piston rod and the connecting rod.

Crown The top of the piston of an internal combustion engine above the firing ring which is exposed
to direct flame impingement.

21
GLOSSARY

Cylinder Oil Lubricating oil having a high BN for the lubrication of the cylinders of crosshead marine diesel
engines and some types of trunk piston engines.

Demulsibility The ability of lubricant to withstand the formation of an emulsion with water. This property is
measured by a test which times the separation of a well-mixed sample of oil and water, and
gives a Demulsification Number or Value.

Density Mass per unit volume.

Detergent A substance added to a lubricant to keep engine parts clean. In engine oil
formulations, the detergents most commonly used are metallic soaps with a
reserve of basicity to neutralise acids formed during combustion.

Dew Point The temperature at which water vapour in the air starts to condense to liquid.

Dispersant An additive designed to disperse oil insoluble sludge in suspension, thus preventing harmful
deposition in oilways.

Distillate A product obtained by condensing the vapours distilled from petroleum or its products.

Distillation Range The range of temperatures, usually determined at atmospheric pressure by standard apparatus,
over which boiling, or distillation, of a liquid proceeds. Only a pure substance has one definite
boiling point at a particular pressure. Petroleum distillates contain a complex range of
hydrocarbon compounds and consequently a range of boiling points is determined which is
different for different distillates.

Drop Point The temperature at which a grease passes from a semi-solid to a liquid under specified test
conditions.

Emulsibility The ability of an oil or other non-water soluble fluid to form an emulsion with water.

Emulsifier A type of surfactant effective at producing stable emulsions.

Emulsion An intimate mixture of fine particles of one liquid in another. An emulsion is said to break
when the particles join up and the liquids separate.

End Point The highest temperature indicated on the distillation thermometer when a light distillate is
(Final Boiling Point) subjected to one of the standard laboratory methods of distillation.

Engine Deposits Accumulations of sludge, varnish and carbonaceous residues due to blow-by of unburned and
partially burned fuel, or from partial breakdown of the crankcase lubricant. Water from
condensation of combustion products, carbon, residues from fuel or lubricating oil additives,
dust and metal particles also contribute.

Engine Test Use of an internal combustion engine to evaluate lubricants. Parameters such as piston ring
groove fill, piston varnish, component wear, oil viscosity etc. are measured.

Esters Compounds of alcohols and fatty acids which form the major constituent of many synthetic
lubricating oils.

Extreme Pressure EP oils and greases contain additives (usually based on sulphur, phosphorus or chlorine)
(EP) Lubricants which, under the effects of high temperature and pressure, form a protective film on metallic
surfaces, preventing metal-to metal contact if the normal hydrodynamic film breaks down
under high pressure.

Fire Point The lowest temperature at which an oil vapourises rapidly enough to burn for at least five
seconds after ignition under standard conditions.

22
GLOSSARY

Flash Point The temperature to which a combustible liquid must be heated to give off sufficient vapour to
form a momentarily flammable mixture with air when ignited under specified conditions.

Floc Point A measure of the tendency of an oil to flocculate - or precipitate wax - under prescribed
conditions. It is mainly applicable to refrigeration oils.

Four Ball EP Test Method for determining extreme pressure (EP) properties of fluids. One steel ball under load
rotates against three stationary balls in the form of a cradle. Heated test fluid is subjected to a
series of timed tests at increasing loads until welding occurs. Wear is described by scar diameter
plus load to weld in kg.

Friction The resisting force encountered at the common boundary between two bodies when, under
the action of an external force, one body moves, or tends to move, relative to the other.

FZG Gear Test Rig A method for determining the load carrying ability of lubricants. Calibrated spur gears are
operated at fixed speed and controlled initial oil temperatures for 15 minute stages. The load
on the gear teeth is increased after each stage. Performance is judged by the number of
stages run up to a defined weight loss of the test gears or visual assessment of damage to
the tooth flanks. Maximum number of stages is 12.

Gas Oil A petroleum distillate having a viscosity and distillation range between those of kerosene and
light lubricating oil. The distillation range of gas oils usually extends from 2000C to 3800C.
Gas oil is used as a fuel in medium and high speed diesel engines and as a burner fuel in
heating installations.

Grease A lubricant composed of an oil, or oils, thickened with soap or other thickener, to a semi-solid
or to a solid consistency.

Hydrocarbons Chemical compounds which consist entirely of carbon and hydrogen. They form the basic
composition of all fuels and lubricants derived from petroleum.

Immiscible Incapable of being mixed to form a homogeneous mixture, eg. oil plus water.

Inhibitor A substance which is added in a small proportion to a lubricant to prevent or retard undesirable
changes in the quality of the lubricant, or in the condition of the equipment in which the
lubricant is used.

Insolubles Contaminant found in used oils due to dust, dirt, wear particles and/or oxidation products
often measured as pentane or benzene insolubles to reflect insoluble character.

Kinematic Measure of fluids resistance to flow under gravity at a specific temperature (usually 40OC
Viscosity or 100OC).

Lands The vertical surfaces of the piston crown and the areas between the piston rings.

Lubricant Any substance interposed between rubbing surfaces for the purpose of reducing friction
between them.

MIL- US Military specifications.

Mineral Oil Oil derived from mineral sources, notably petroleum.

Miscible Descriptive of substances, usually liquids, which mix together to form a homogeneous mixture.

Multigrade Multigrade is a term used to describe an oil for which the viscosity/temperature characteristics
are such that its low temperature and high temperature viscosities fall within the limits of two
different SAE numbers.

23
GLOSSARY

Naphthenic Base A type of base stock prepared from Naphthenic crudes (crudes containing a high percentage
Stock of ring type aliphatic hydrocarbons). They are characterised by high specific gravity plus low
viscosity index.

Neutralisation A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of an oil. The number is the mass in
Number milligrams of the amount of acid (HCI) or base (KOH) required to neutralise one gram of oil.

Nitration The process whereby nitrogen oxides attack petroleum fluids at high temperature, often
resulting in viscosity increase and deposit formation.

NLGI Number A numerical scale devised by the U.S. National Lubricating Grease Institute for classifying the
consistency range of lubricating greases. The higher the number, the stiffer or less viscous
the grease and vice versa.

Oxidation A process by which oxygen combines with a material (e.g. oil), to form another substance.

Oxidation Inhibitor An additive which slows down the rate of oxidation of an oil.

Oxidation Stability A measure of resistance of a product to deterioration through exposure to air.

pH A measure of acidity or alkalinity in terms of the logarithm of the hydrogen ion


concentration with the sign reversed.
pH 0 = extreme of acidity
pH 7 = neutral
pH 14 = extreme of alkalinity

Paraffinic Base A type of base stock prepared from Paraffinic crudes (crudes containing a high percentage of
Stock open-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons). They are characterised by low specific gravity and high
viscosity index.

Penetration Measure of consistency (hardness) of a grease. All penetration measurements are in inverse
scale of consistency - that is, the softer the consistency, the higher the penetration number.

Petrolatum Also referred to as mineral jelly or petroleum jelly, petrolatum is a salve like mixture of oil
and microcrystalline wax obtained from petroleum.

Petter WI Single cylinder gasoline engine. Evaluates oil oxidation by viscosity increases and copper/lead
bearing weight loss. Duration is 36 hours at 1500 rpm with sump oil temperature at 1370C.

Poise (P) The standard unit of dynamic viscosity, usually quoted as centipoise (cP).

Polishing (Bore) Excessive smoothing out of the surface finish of the cylinder bore or cylinder liner in an engine
to a mirror-like appearance, resulting in depreciation of the ring sealing efficiency and adhesion
of the oil to the liner surface, leading to high oil consumption. Bore polishing can be produced
by excessive quantities of combustion products which build up on the piston lands and rub on
the liner, or by ring scuffing.

Polyalphaolefin A synthetic lubricant produced by polymerisation of unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Pour Point The lowest temperature at which a lubricant will pour or flow under specified conditions.
Gives an indication of the lowest operating temperature for which an oil is suitable.

Pour Point An additive used in a small proportion to lower the pour point of a lubricant by modifying
Depressant the formation of wax crystals so that they do not agglomerate.

Pumpability The characteristics of an oil permit satisfactory flow to and from the engine oil pump and
subsequent lubrication of moving components.

24
GLOSSARY

Refining Series of processes for converting crude oil and its fractions to finished petroleum products,
including thermal cracking, catalytic cracking, polymerisation, alkylation, reforming, hydrocracking,
hydroforming, hydrogenation, hydrogen treating, solvent extraction, dewaxing, deoiling, acid
treating, clay filtration and de-asphalting.

Residual Fuel Oil Very heavy fuel oils produced from the residue of the fractional distillation process rather than
from the distilled fractions.

Rings The circular metallic elements that ride in the grooves of a piston and provide compression
sealing during combustion. Also used to spread oil for lubrication of the cylinder liners.

Ring Sticking The situation when the piston grooves become sufficiently full of deposits or covered with
lacquer to prevent the piston rings from moving freely.

Rust Preventative Compound for coating metal surfaces with a film that protects against rust. Commonly used
for the preservation of equipment in storage.

Scuffing Abnormal wear occurring in engines due to localised welding and fracture. It can be prevented
through the use of antiwear, extreme pressure and friction modifier additives.

Shear Stability The property of resisting physical change under high rates of shear when
applied to a Viscosity Index Improver. It is the ability of the VI improver molecules
to withstand breakdown into smaller molecules.

S.I.P.W.A Sulzer Integrated Piston ring Wear detecting Arrangement. This equipment monitors the rate
at which piston rings wear in crosshead engines, which in turn provides an indication of the
cylinder liner wear rate and the performance of the cylinder oils.

Sludge Oil insoluble products formed from lubricants and/or fuels used in internal combustion engines,
and deposited on engine parts other than those in contact with the combustion space.

Solvent Extraction Refining process used to separate reactive components (unsaturated hydrocarbons) from lube
distillates in order to improve the oils oxidation stability, viscosity index and response to additives.

Surfactant A compound able to reduce surface tension and commonly used to achieve emulsification,
wetting or detergency.

Stoke (St) The unit of kinematic viscosity, i.e. the measurement of a fluids resistance to flow defined by
the ratio of the fluids dynamic viscosity to its density; usually quoted as centistokes (cSt).

Straight Run Fuels produced by distillation without cracking or alteration to the structure of the constituent
hydrocarbons.

Thermal Cracking An oil refinery process in which the reaction is produced by the action of heat and pressure.
(Visbreaking)

Timken OK Load Measure of the EP properties of a lubricant. Lubricated by the product under investigation, a
standard steel roller rotates against a block. Timken OK load is the heaviest load that can be
carried without scoring.

Tribology The science of lubrication, friction and wear.

Trunk Piston Medium-speed, or high-speed, diesel engine generally using the same oil for both cylinder
Diesel Engine and crankcase lubrication, and utilising connecting rods to transmit piston power directly to
the crankshaft rather than through a crosshead.

Turbine A piece of equipment in which a shaft is steadily rotated by the impact of a current of steam,
air, water, or other fluid directed from jets or nozzles upon blades of a wheel or series of wheels.

25
GLOSSARY

Turbocharger Compressor driven by exhaust gas driven turbine supplying air at higher pressure to the engine
to increase power.

Viscosity That property of a liquid by virtue of which it offers resistance to motion or flow. It is commonly
regarded as the thickness of the liquid. Viscosity decreases with increasing temperature.

Viscosity Index An arbitrary scale used to measure a fluids change of viscosity with temperature.
(VI)

Viscosity Index An additive employed to raise the VI of a mineral oil and other products.
Improver

Zinc (ZDP) Commonly used name for zinc dithiophosphate, an antiwear/oxidation inhibitor chemical.

26
CONVERSION TABLES APPENDIX

INDEX
Gravity and density conversions 28-29

Relative density corrections 30-31

Viscosity comparison table 32

Conversion tables

Temperature 33-34

Measurement 35

Distance 36

Weight 36

Volume 36

Pressure 37

Work 37

Power 37

27
GRAVITY AND DENSITY

API SPECIFIC API SPECIFIC API SPECIFIC


GRAVITY GRAVITY DENSITY GRAVITY GRAVITY DENSITY GRAVITY GRAVITY DENSITY
60F 60/60F 15C* 60F 60/60F 15C* 60F 60/60F 15C*
0.0 1.0760 1.0754 7.0 1.0217 1.0210 14.0 0.9725 0.9719
0.2 1.0744 1.0737 7.2 1.0202 1.0196 14.2 0.9712 0.9706
0.4 1.0728 1.0721 7.4 1.0187 1.0181 14.4 0.9698 0.9693
0.6 1.0712 1.0705 7.6 1.0173 1.0166 14.6 0.9685 0.9680
0.8 1.0695 1.0689 7.8 1.0158 1.0152 14.8 0.9672 0.9666
1.0 1.0679 1.0673 8.0 1.0143 1.0137 15.0 0.9659 0.9653
1.2 1.0663 1.0656 8.2 1.0129 1.0123 15.2 0.9646 0.9640
1.4 1.0647 1.0640 8.4 1.0114 1.0108 15.4 0.9632 0.9627
1.6 1.0631 1.0624 8.6 1.0100 1.0094 15.6 0.9619 0.9614
1.8 1.0615 1.0609 8.8 1.0086 1.0080 15.8 0.9606 0.9611
2.0 1.0599 1.0593 9.0 1.0071 1.0065 16.0 0.9593 0.9588
2.2 1.0583 1.0577 9.2 1.0057 1.0051 16.2 0.9580 0.9575
2.4 1.0568 1.0561 9.4 1.0043 1.0037 16.4 0.9567 0.9562
2.6 1.0552 1.0545 9.6 1.0028 1.0022 16.6 0.9554 0.9549
2.8 1.0536 1.0530 9.8 1.0014 1.0008 16.8 0.9541 0.9536
3.0 1.0520 1.0514 10.0 1.0000 0.9994 17.0 0.9529 0.9523
3.2 1.0505 1.0498 10.2 0.9986 0.9980 17.2 0.9516 0.9510
3.4 1.0489 1.0483 10.4 0.9972 0.9966 17.4 0.9503 0.9498
3.6 1.0474 1.0467 10.6 0.9958 0.9952 17.6 0.9490 0.9485
3.8 1.0458 1.0452 10.8 0.9944 0.9938 17.8 0.9478 0.9472
4.0 1.0443 1.0436 11.0 0.9930 0.9924 18.0 0.9465 0.9459
4.2 1.0427 1.0421 11.2 0.9916 0.9910 18.2 0.9452 0.9447
4.4 1.0412 1.0406 11.4 0.9902 0.9896 18.4 0.9440 0.9434
4.6 1.0397 1.0390 11.6 0.9888 0.9882 18.6 0.9427 0.9422
4.8 1.0382 1.0375 11.8 0.9874 0.9869 18.8 0.9415 0.9409
5.0 1.0366 1.0360 12.0 0.9861 0.9855 19.0 0.9402 0.9397
5.2 1.0351 1.0345 12.2 0.9847 0.9841 19.2 0.9390 0.9384
5.4 1.0336 1.0330 12.4 0.9833 0.9827 19.4 0.9377 0.9372
5.6 1.0321 1.0315 12.6 0.9820 0.9814 19.6 0.9365 0.9359
5.8 1.0306 1.3000 12.8 0.9806 0.9800 19.8 0.9352 0.9347
6.0 1.0291 1.0285 13.0 0.9792 0.9787 20.0 0.9340 0.9335
6.2 1.0276 1.0270 13.2 0.9779 0.9773 20.2 0.9328 0.9322
6.4 1.0261 1.0255 13.4 0.9765 0.9760 20.4 0.9315 0.9310
6.6 1.0246 1.0240 13.6 0.9752 0.9746 20.6 0.9303 0.9298
6.8 1.0231 1.0225 13.8 0.9738 0.9733 20.8 0.9291 0.9286

When calculating a weight in kilogram by multiplication of the density by a volume (at the
same temperature) the result is a weight in vacuum. To obtain the weight in air, subtract
0.0011 from the determined density.

28
GRAVITY AND DENSITY

API SPECIFIC API SPECIFIC API SPECIFIC


GRAVITY GRAVITY DENSITY GRAVITY GRAVITY DENSITY GRAVITY GRAVITY DENSITY
60F 60/60F 15C* 60F 60/60F 15C* 60F 60/60F 15C*
21.0 0.9279 0.9273 28.0 0.8871 0.8867 35.0 0.8499 0.8494
21.2 0.9267 0.9261 28.2 0.8860 0.8856 35.2 0.8488 0.8484
21.4 0.9254 0.9249 28.4 0.8849 0.8845 35.4 0.8478 0.8474
21.6 0.9242 0.9237 28.6 0.8838 0.8833 35.6 0.8468 0.8464
21.8 0.9230 0.9225 28.8 0.8827 0.8822 35.8 0.8458 0.8454
22.0 0.9218 0.9213 29.0 0.8816 0.8811 36.0 0.8448 0.8443
22.2 0.9206 0.9201 29.2 0.8805 0.8801 36.2 0.8438 0.8433
22.4 0.9194 0.9189 29.4 0.8794 0.8790 36.4 0.8428 0.8423
22.6 0.9182 0.9177 29.6 0.8783 0.8779 36.6 0.8418 0.8413
22.8 0.9170 0.9165 29.8 0.8772 0.8768 36.8 0.8408 0.8403
23.0 0.9159 0.9153 30.0 0.8762 0.8757 37.0 0.8398 0.8393
23.2 0.9147 0.9142 30.2 0.8751 0.8746 37.2 0.8388 0.8383
23.4 0.9135 0.9130 30.4 0.8740 0.8735 37.4 0.8378 0.8374
23.6 0.9123 0.9118 30.6 0.8729 0.8725 37.6 0.8368 0.8364
23.8 0.9111 0.9106 30.8 0.8718 0.8714 37.8 0.8358 0.8354
24.0 0.9100 0.9095 31.0 0.8708 0.8703 38.0 0.8348 0.8344
24.2 0.9088 0.9083 31.2 0.8697 0.8692 38.2 0.8338 0.8334
24.4 0.9076 0.9071 31.4 0.8686 0.8682 38.4 0.8328 0.8324
24.6 0.9065 0.9060 31.6 0.8676 0.8671 38.6 0.8319 0.8315
24.8 0.9053 0.9048 31.8 0.8665 0.8660 38.8 0.8309 0.8305
25.0 0.9042 0.9037 32.0 0.8654 0.8650 39.0 0.8299 0.8295
25.2 0.9030 0.9025 32.2 0.8644 0.8639 39.2 0.8289 0.8285
25.4 0.9018 0.9014 32.4 0.8633 0.8629 39.4 0.8280 0.8276
25.6 0.9007 0.9002 32.6 0.8623 0.8618 39.6 0.8270 0.8266
25.8 0.8996 0.8991 32.8 0.8612 0.8608 39.8 0.8260 0.8256
26.0 0.8984 0.8979 33.0 0.8602 0.8597 40.0 0.8251 0.8247
26.2 0.8973 0.8968 33.2 0.8591 0.8587 40.2 0.8241 0.8237
26.4 0.8961 0.8956 33.4 0.8581 0.8577 40.4 0.8232 0.8228
26.6 0.8950 0.8945 33.6 0.8571 0.8566 40.6 0.8222 0.8218
26.8 0.8939 0.8934 33.8 0.8560 0.8556 40.8 0.8212 0.8208
27.0 0.8927 0.8923 34.0 0.8550 0.8545 41.0 0.8203 0.8199
27.2 0.8916 0.8911 34.2 0.8540 0.8535 41.2 0.8193 0.8189
27.4 0.8905 0.8900 34.4 0.8529 0.8525 41.4 0.8184 0.8180
27.6 0.8894 0.8889 34.6 0.8519 0.8515 41.6 0.8174 0.8171
27.8 0.8883 0.8878 34.8 0.8509 0.8504 41.8 0.8165 0.8161

For calculation of API gravity or specific gravity use following formulas:

Spec. Gravity at 60F = 141.5 API Gravity = 141.5


- 131.5
131.5 + API Gravity Spec. Gravity

29
RELATIVE DENSITY CORRECTIONS

For mineral oil average correction 0.00065 per C (not for official use).

To find the specific density at 15C from a given density at any other temperature use the sign
digits as indicated in this table.

To find the actual density at any temperature when specific density is known, use the inverse
sign of this table

CENTIGRADE TABLE
TEMPERATURE CORRECTION TEMPERATURE CORRECTION TEMPERATURE CORRECTION
0Oc - 0.0097 34C 0.0123 68C 0.0334
1 - 0.0091 35 0.0130 69 0.0351
2 - 0.0084 36 0.0136 70 0.0357
3 - 0.0078 37 0.0134 71 0.0364
4 - 0.0071 38 0.0149 72 0.0370
5 - 0.0065 39 0.0156 73 0.0377
6 - 0.0058 40 0.0162 74 0.0383
7 - 0.0052 41 0.0169 75 0.0390
8 - 0.0045 42 0.0175 76 0.0396
9 - 0.0039 43 0.0182 77 0.0403
10 - 0.0032 44 0.0188 78 0.0409
11 - 0.0026 45 0.0195 79 0.0416
12 - 0.0019 46 0.0201 80 0.0422
13 - 0.0013 47 0.0208 81 0.0429
14 - 0.0006 48 0.0214 82 0.0435
15 0.0000 49 0.0211 83 0.0442
16 0.0006 50 0.0227 84 0.0448
17 0.0013 51 0.0234 85 0.0455
18 0.0019 52 0.0240 86 0.0461
19 0.0026 53 0.0247 87 0.0468
20 0.0032 54 0.0253 88 0.0474
21 0.0039 55 0.0260 89 0.0481
22 0.0045 56 0.0266 90 0.0487
23 0.0052 57 0.0273 91 0.0494
24 0.0058 58 0.0279 92 0.0500
25 0.0065 59 0.0286 93 0.0507
26 0.0071 60 0.0292 94 0.0513
27 0.0078 61 0.0299 95 0.0520
28 0.0084 62 0.0305 96 0.0526
29 0.0091 63 0.0312 97 0.0533
30 0.0097 64 0.0318 98 0.0539
31 0.0104 65 0.0325 99 0.0546
32 0.0110 66 0.0331 100 0.0552
33 0.0117 67 0.0338

30
ROUTINE
RELATIVE
TESTSDENSITY CORRECTIONS

For mineral oil average correction 0.00036 per F (not for official use).

To find the specific density at 60F from a given density at any other temperature use the sign
digits as indicated in this table.

To find the actual density at any temperature when specific density is known, use the inverse
sign of this table

FAHRENHEIT TABLE
TEMP CORRECTION TEMP CORRECTION TEMP CORRECTION TEMP CORRECTION
50F - 0.0036 83F 0.0083 116F 0.0202 149F 0.0320
51 - 0.0032 84 0.0086 117 0.0205 150 0.0324
52 - 0.0029 85 0.0090 118 0.0209 151 0.0328
53 - 0.0025 86 0.0094 119 0.0212 152 0.0331
54 - 0.0022 87 0.0097 120 0.0216 153 0.0335
55 - 0.0018 88 0.0101 121 0.0220 154 0.0338
56 - 0.0014 89 0.0104 122 0.0223 155 0.0342
57 - 0.0011 90 0.0108 123 0.0227 156 0.0346
58 - 0.0007 91 0.0112 124 0.0230 157 0.0349
59 - 0.0004 92 0.0115 125 0.0234 158 0.0353
60 0.0000 93 0.0119 126 0.0238 159 0.0356
61 0.0004 94 0.0122 127 0.0241 160 0.0360
62 0.0007 95 0.0126 128 0.0245 161 0.0364
63 0.0011 96 0.0129 129 0.0248 162 0.0367
64 0.0014 97 0.0133 130 0.0252 163 0.0371
65 0.0018 98 0.0137 131 0.0256 164 0.0374
66 0.0022 99 0.0140 132 0.0259 165 0.0378
67 0.0025 100 0.0144 133 0.0263 166 0.0382
68 0.0029 101 0.0148 134 0.0266 167 0.0385
69 0.0032 102 0.0151 135 0.0270 168 0.0389
70 0.0036 103 0.0155 136 0.0274 169 0.0392
71 0.0040 104 0.0158 137 0.0277 170 0.0396
72 0.0043 105 0.0162 138 0.0281 171 0.0400
73 0.0047 106 0.0166 139 0.0284 172 0.0403
74 0.0050 107 0.0169 140 0.0288 173 0.0407
75 0.0054 108 0.0173 141 0.0292 174 0.0410
76 0.0058 109 0.0176 142 0.0295 175 0.0414
77 0.0061 110 0.0180 143 0.0299 176 0.0418
78 0.0065 111 0.0184 144 0.0302 177 0.0421
79 0.0068 112 0.0187 145 0.0306 178 0.0425
80 0.0072 113 0.0191 146 0.0310 179 0.0428
81 0.0076 114 0.0194 147 0.0313 180 0.0432
82 0.0079 115 0.0198 148 0.0317

31
VISCOSITY COMPARISON TABLE

REDWOOD NO.1

REDWOOD NO.1

REDWOOD NO.1
CENTISTOKES

CENTISTOKES

CENTISTOKES
SAYBOLT

SAYBOLT

SAYBOLT
ENGLER

ENGLER

ENGLER
(SUS)

(SUS)

(SUS)
(cSt)

(cSt)

(cSt)
(E)

(E)

(E)
2.0 1.119 30.8 32.7 27 3.70 113 128 150 19.74 611 694
2.2 1.140 31.2 33.4 28 3.82 117 132 155 20.40 631 718
2.5 1.169 32.0 34.5 29 3.94 120 137 160 21.06 651 741
2.8 1.198 32.8 35.4 30 4.07 124 141 165 21.71 672 764
3.0 1.217 33.3 36.1 31 4.19 128 146 170 22.37 692 787
3.1 1.226 33.5 36.4 32 4.32 132 150 175 23.03 713 810
3.2 1.235 33.8 36.7 33 4.44 136 155 180 23.69 733 833
3.3 1.244 34.0 37.0 34 4.57 140 159 185 24.35 754 856
3.4 1.253 34.3 37.4 35 4.70 144 164 190 25.00 774 880
3.5 1.262 34.5 37.7 36 4.82 148 168 195 25.66 794 903
3.6 1.271 34.8 38.0 37 4.95 152 173 200 26.32 815 926
3.7 1.280 35.0 38.3 38 5.08 156 177 210 27.65 855 972
3.8 1.289 35.3 38.6 39 5.21 160 182 220 28.95 896 1018
3.9 1.298 35.5 38.9 40 5.33 164 186 230 30.3 937 1065
4.0 1.307 35.8 39.2 41 5.46 168 191 240 31.6 978 1111
4.5 1.350 37.0 40.8 42 5.59 172 195 250 32.9 1018 1157
5.0 1.393 38.3 42.4 43 5.72 176 200 260 34.2 1059 1203
5.5 1.436 39.7 44.0 44 5.85 180 204 270 35.5 1099 1250
6.0 1.479 40.9 45.6 45 5.98 184 209 280 36.8 1140 1296
6.5 1.521 42.3 47.2 46 6.11 188 213 290 38.2 1181 1342
7.0 1.564 43.6 48.8 47 6.23 192 218 300 39.4 1222 1389
7.5 1.608 44.9 50.4 48 6.37 196 223 310 40.8 1263 1435
8.0 1.651 46.3 52.1 49 6.50 200 227 320 42.1 1303 1481
8.5 1.696 47.7 53.8 50 6.62 205 232 330 43.4 1344 1527
9.0 1.740 49.0 55.5 55 7.28 225 255 340 44.7 1385 1574
9.5 1.785 50.5 57.2 60 7.93 245 278 350 46.1 1425 1620
10 1.831 51.9 58.9 65 8.58 265 301 360 47.4 1465 1666
11 1.924 54.9 62.4 70 9.23 286 324 370 48.7 1505 1713
12 2.020 58.1 66.0 75 9.89 306 347 380 50.0 1546 1759
13 2.118 61.2 69.7 80 10.54 326 370 390 51.3 1587 1805
14 2.218 64.5 73.5 85 11.20 346 393 400 52.6 1628 1851
15 2.323 67.9 77.4 90 11.86 366 417 450 59.2 1832 2082
16 2.434 71.3 81.3 95 12.51 387 440 500 65.8 2036 2314
17 2.530 74.8 85.3 100 13.17 407 463 550 72.4 2239 2545
18 2.644 78.4 89.4 105 13.83 428 486 600 78.9 2443 2777
19 2.755 82.0 93.5 110 14.48 448 509 650 85.5 2646 3008
20 2.870 85.7 97.7 115 15.14 469 532 700 92.1 2850 3239
21 2.984 89.4 101.9 120 15.80 489 555 750 98.7 3054 3471
22 3.100 93.2 106.2 125 16.45 510 579 800 105.3 3258 3702
23 3.220 97.0 110.5 130 17.11 530 602 850 111.8 3462 3934
24 3.340 100.9 114.8 135 17.77 551 625 900 118.4 3666 4165
25 3.460 104.7 119.1 140 18.43 571 648 950 125.0 3871 4396
26 3.580 108.6 123.5 145 19.08 591 671 1000 131.6 4074 4628

Above figures are calculated for 50C, however they can be used with sufficient accuracy
between +20C and +100C

32
ROUTINE
TEMPERATURE
TESTS CONVERSION TABLES

Example: Known Temperature is -160OF, what is the temperature in OC?


1 Look for -160O in the centre column
2 Adjacent figure in the left column gives the required temperature in OC here - 107OC
If a Fahrenheit equivalent to a given Celsius temperature is required, e.g. -20OC
1 Look for -20 in the centre column
2 Adjacent figure in the right column is -4OF
C C C
C F F C F F C F F
-273 -459.4 -84 -120 -184 -5.0 23 73.4
-268 -450 -79 -110 -166 -4.4 24 75.2
-262 -440 -73 -100 -148 -3.9 25 77.0
-257 -430 -68 -90 -130 -3.3 26 77.8
-251 -420 -62 -80 -112 -2.8 27 80.6
-246 -410 -57 -70 -94 -2.2 28 82.4
-240 -400 -51 -60 -76 -1.7 29 84.2
-234 -390 -46 -50 -58 -1.1 30 86.0
-229 -380 -40 -40 -40 -0.6 31 87.8
-223 -370 -34 -30 -22 0 32 89.6
-218 -360 -29 -20 -4 0.6 33 91.4
-212 -350 -23 -10 14 1.1 34 93.2
-207 -340 -17.8 0 32 1.7 35 95.0
-201 -330 -17.2 1 33.8 2.2 36 96.8
-196 -320 -16.7 2 35.6 2.8 37 98.6
-190 -310 -16.1 3 37.4 3.3 38 100.4
-184 -300 -15.6 4 39.2 3.9 39 102.2
-179 -290 -15.0 5 41.0 4.4 40 104.0
-173 -280 -14.4 6 42.8 5.0 41 105.8
-169 -273 -459.4 -13.9 7 44.6 5.6 42 107.6
-168 -270 -454 -13.3 8 46.4 6.1 43 109.4
-162 -260 -436 -12.8 9 48.2 6.7 44 111.2
-157 -250 -418 -12.2 10 50.0 7.2 45 113.0
-151 -240 -400 -11.7 11 51.8 7.8 46 114.8
-146 -230 -382 -11.1 12 53.6 8.3 47 116.6
-140 -220 -364 -10.6 13 55.4 8.9 48 118.4
-134 -210 -346 -10.0 14 57.2 9.4 49 120.2
-129 -200 -328 -9.4 15 59.0 10.0 50 122.0
-123 -190 -310 -8.9 16 60.8 10.6 51 123.8
-118 -180 -292 -8.3 17 62.6 11.1 52 125.6
-112 -170 -274 -7.8 18 64.4 11.7 53 127.4
-107 -160 -256 -7.2 19 66.2 12.2 54 129.2
-101 -150 -238 -6.7 20 68.0 12.8 55 131.0
-96 -140 -220 -6.1 21 69.8 13.3 56 132.8
-90 -130 -202 -5.6 22 71.6 13.9 57 134.6

O
C = OF - 32 O
F = OC x 9
x5 + 32
9 5

33
TEMPERATURE CONVERSION TABLES

C C C
C F F C F F C F F
14.4 58 136.4 33.9 93 199.4 115.56 240 464.0
15.0 59 138.2 34.4 94 201.2 118.33 245 473.0
15.6 60 140.0 35.0 95 203.0 121.11 250 482.0
16.1 61 141.8 35.6 96 204.8 123.89 255 491.0
16.7 62 143.6 36.1 97 206.6 126.67 260 500.0
17.2 63 145.4 36.7 98 208.4 129.44 265 509.0
17.8 64 147.2 37.2 99 210.2 132.22 270 518.0
18.3 65 149.9 37.78 100 212.0 135.00 275 527.0
18.9 66 150.8 40.56 105 221.0 137.78 280 536.0
19.4 67 152.6 43.33 110 230.0 140.56 285 545.0
20.0 68 154.4 46.11 115 239.0 143.33 290 554.0
20.6 69 156.2 48.89 120 248.0 146.11 295 563.0
21.2 70 158.0 51.67 125 257.0 148.89 300 572.0
21.7 71 159.8 54.44 130 266.0 154.44 310 590.0
22.2 72 161.6 57.22 135 275.0 160.00 320 608.0
22.8 73 163.4 60.00 140 284.0 165.56 330 626.0
23.3 74 165.2 62.78 145 293.0 171.11 340 644.0
23.9 75 167.0 65.56 150 302.0 176.67 350 662.0
24.4 76 168.8 68.33 155 311.0 182.22 360 680.0
25.0 77 170.6 71.11 160 320.0 187.78 370 698.0
25.6 78 172.4 73.89 165 329.0 193.33 380 716.0
26.1 79 174.2 76.67 170 338.0 198.89 390 734.0
26.7 80 176.0 79.44 175 347.0 204.44 400 752.0
27.2 81 177.8 82.22 180 356.0 210.00 410 770.0
27.8 82 179.6 85.00 185 365.0 215.56 420 788.0
28.3 83 181.4 87.78 190 374.0 221.11 430 806.0
28.9 84 183.2 90.56 195 383.0 226.67 440 824.0
29.4 85 185.0 93.33 200 392.0 232.22 450 842.0
30.0 86 186.8 96.11 205 401.0 237.78 460 860.0
30.6 87 188.6 98.89 210 410.0 243.33 470 878.0
31.1 88 190.4 101.67 215 419.0 248.89 480 896.0
31.7 89 192.2 104.44 220 428.0 254.44 490 914.0
32.2 90 194.0 107.22 225 437.0 260.00 500 932.0
32.8 91 195.8 110.00 230 446.0
33.3 92 197.6 112.78 235 455.0

34
ROUTINEMEASUREMENT
TESTS CONVERSION
Use of the table: the number of inches to be converted, which is made up by the number of inches of
the head of a column and the fraction at the side of a line, is converted to the number in the position
where line and column meet.
For example 1 1/64 = 1 in + 1/64 = 25.797 mm

INCHES AND FRACTIONS OF AN INCH TO MILLIMETRES 1 INCH = 25.4MM


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
INCHES MM MM MM MM MM MM MM MM MM MM MM MM
0 0.000 25.400 50.800 76.200 101.600 127.000 152.400 177.800 203.200 228.600 254.000 279.400
1/64 0.397 25.797 51.197 76.597 101.997 127.397 152.797 178.197 203.597 228.997 254.397 279.797
1/32 0.794 26.194 51.594 76.994 102.394 127.794 153.194 178.594 203.994 229.394 254.794 280.194
3/64 1.191 26.591 51.991 77.391 102.791 128.191 153.591 178.991 204.391 229.791 255.191 280.591
1/16 1.588 26.988 52.388 77.788 103.188 128.588 153.988 179.388 204.788 230.188 255.588 280.988
5/64 1.984 27.384 52.784 78.184 103.584 128.984 154.384 179.784 205.184 230.584 255.984 281.384
3/32 2.381 27.781 53.181 78.581 103.981 129.381 154.781 180.181 205.581 230.981 256.381 281.781
7/64 2.778 28.178 53.578 78.978 104.378 129.778 155.178 180.578 205.978 231.378 256.788 282.178
1/8 3.175 28.575 53.975 79.375 104.775 130.175 155.575 180.975 206.375 231.775 257.175 282.575
9/64 3.572 28.972 54.372 79.772 105.172 130.572 155.972 181.372 206.772 232.172 257.572 282.972
5/32 3.969 29.369 54.769 80.169 105.569 130.969 156.369 181.769 207.169 232.569 257.969 283.369
11/64 4.366 29.766 55.166 80.566 105.966 131.366 156.766 182.166 207.566 232.966 258.366 283.766
3/16 4.762 30.162 55.562 80.962 106.362 131.762 157.162 182.562 207.962 233.362 258.762 284.162
13/64 5.159 30.559 55.959 81.359 106.759 132.159 157.559 182.959 208.359 233.759 259.159 284.559
7/32 5.556 30.956 56.356 81.756 107.156 132.556 157.956 183.356 208.756 234.156 259.556 284.956
15/64 5.953 31.353 56.753 82.153 107.553 132.953 158.353 183.753 209.153 234.553 259.953 285.353
1/4 6.350 31.750 57.150 82.550 107.950 133.350 158.750 184.150 209.550 234.950 260.350 285.750
17/64 6.747 32.147 57.547 82.947 108.347 133.747 159.147 184.547 209.947 235.347 260.747 286.147
9/32 7.144 32.544 57.944 83.344 108.744 134.144 159.544 184.944 210.344 235.744 261.144 286.544
19/64 7.541 32.941 58.341 83.741 109.141 134.541 159.941 185.341 210.741 236.141 261.541 286.941
5/16 7.938 33.338 58.738 84.138 109.538 134.938 160.338 185.738 211.138 236.538 261.938 287.338
21/64 8.334 33.734 59.134 84.534 109.934 135.334 160.734 186.134 211.534 236.934 262.334 287.734
11/32 8.731 34.131 59.531 84.931 110.331 135.731 161.131 186.531 211.931 237.331 262.731 288.131
23/64 9.128 34.528 59.928 85.328 110.728 136.128 161.528 186.928 212.328 237.728 263.128 288.528
3/8 9.525 34.925 60.325 85.725 111.125 136.525 161.925 187.325 212.725 238.125 263.525 288.925
25/64 9.922 35.322 60.722 86.122 111.522 136.922 162.322 187.722 213.122 238.522 263.922 289.322
13/32 10.319 35.719 61.119 86.519 111.919 137.319 162.719 188.119 213.519 238.919 264.319 289.719
27/64 10.716 36.116 61.516 86.916 112.316 137.716 163.116 188.516 213.916 239.316 264.716 290.116
7/16 11.112 36.512 61.912 87.312 112.712 138.112 163.512 188.912 214.312 239.712 265.112 290.512
29/64 11.509 36.909 62.309 87.709 113.109 138.509 163.909 189.309 214.709 240.109 265.509 290.909
15/32 11.906 37.306 62.706 88.106 113.506 138.906 164.306 189.706 215.106 240.506 265.906 291.306
31/64 12.303 37.703 63.103 88.503 113.903 139.303 164.703 190.103 215.503 240.903 266.303 291.703
1/2 12.700 38.100 63.500 88.900 114.300 139.700 165.100 190.500 215.900 241.300 266.700 292.100
33/64 13.097 38.497 63.897 89.297 114.697 140.097 165.497 190.897 216.297 241.697 267.097 292.497
17/32 13.494 38.894 64.294 89.694 115.094 140.494 165.894 191.294 216.694 242.094 267.494 292.894
35/64 13.891 39.291 64.691 90.091 115.491 140.891 166.291 191.691 217.091 242.491 267.891 293.291
9/16 14.288 39.688 65.088 90.488 115.888 141.288 166.688 192.088 217.488 242.888 268.288 293.688
37/64 14.684 40.084 65.484 90.884 116.284 141.684 167.084 192.484 217.884 243.284 268.684 294.084
19/32 15.081 40.481 65.881 91.281 116.681 142.081 167.481 192.881 218.281 243.681 269.081 294.481
39/64 15.478 40.878 66.278 91.678 117.078 142.478 167.878 193.278 218.678 244.078 269.478 294.878
5/8 15.875 41.275 66.675 92.075 117.475 142.875 168.275 193.675 219.075 244.475 269.875 295.275
41/64 16.272 41.672 67.072 92.472 117.872 143.272 168.672 194.072 219.472 244.872 270.272 295.672
21/32 16.669 42.069 67.469 92.869 118.269 143.669 169.069 194.469 219.869 245.269 270.669 296.069
43/64 17.066 42.466 67.866 93.266 118.666 144.066 169.466 194.866 220.266 245.666 271.066 296.466
11/16 17.462 42.862 68.262 93.662 119.062 144.462 169.862 195.262 220.662 246.062 271.462 296.862
45/64 17.859 43.259 68.659 94.059 119.459 144.859 170.259 195.659 221.059 246.459 271.859 297.259
23/32 18.256 43.656 69.056 94.456 119.856 145.256 170.656 196.056 221.456 246.856 272.256 297.656
47/64 18.653 44.053 69.453 94.853 120.253 145.653 171.053 196.453 221.853 247.253 272.653 298.053
3/4 19.050 44.450 69.850 95.250 120.650 146.050 171.450 196.850 222.250 247.650 273.050 298.450
49/64 19.447 44.847 70.247 95.647 121.047 146.447 171.847 197.247 222.647 248.047 273.447 298.847
25/32 19.844 45.244 70.644 96.044 121.444 146.844 172.244 197.644 223.044 248.444 273.844 299.244
51/64 20.241 45.641 71.041 96.441 121.841 147.241 172.641 198.041 223.441 248.841 274.241 299.641
13/16 20.638 46.038 71.438 96.838 122.238 147.638 173.038 198.438 223.838 249.238 274.638 300.038
53/64 21.034 46.434 71.834 97.234 122.634 148.034 173.434 198.834 224.234 249.634 275.034 300.434
27/32 21.431 46.831 72.231 97.631 123.031 148.431 173.831 199.231 224.631 250.031 275.431 300.831
55/64 21.828 47.228 72.628 98.028 123.428 148.828 174.228 199.628 225.028 250.428 275.828 301.228
7/8 22.225 47.625 73.025 98.425 123.825 149.225 174.625 200.025 225.425 250.825 276.225 301.625
57/64 22.622 48.022 73.422 98.822 124.222 149.622 175.022 200.422 225.822 251.222 276.622 302.022
29/32 23.019 48.419 73.819 99.219 124.619 150.019 175.419 200.819 226.219 251.619 277.019 302.419
59/64 23.416 48.816 74.216 99.616 125.016 150.416 175.816 201.216 226.616 252.016 277.416 302.816
15/16 23.812 49.212 74.612 100.012 125.412 150.812 176.212 201.612 227.012 252.412 277.812 303.212
61/64 24.209 49.609 75.009 100.409 125.809 151.209 176.609 202.009 227.409 252.809 278.209 303.609
31/32 24.606 50.006 75.406 100.806 126.206 151.606 177.006 202.406 227.806 253.206 278.606 304.006
63/64 25.003 50.403 75.803 101.203 126.603 152.003 177.403 202.803 228.203 253.603 279.003 304.403

35
CONVERSION TABLES

DISTANCE
TO OBTAIN: METRES KILOMETRES FEET YARDS LAND MILES NAUTICAL MILES
KNOWING MULTIPLY BY
Metres 1 0.001 3.2808 1.0936 0.0006 0.00054
Kilometres 1000 1 3280.8 1093.6 0.6214 0.5400
Feet 0.3048 0.0003 1 0.333 0.000189 0.000165
Yards 0.9144 0.0009 3.0 1 0.000568 0.000494
Land miles 1609.4 1.6094 5280.0 1760.0 1 0.8690
Nautical miles 1852 1.852 6076.1 2025.4 1.1508 1

1: This relation is exact by definition

WEIGHT
TO OBTAIN: KILOGRAMS POUNDS METRIC TONS LONG TONS SHORT TONS
KNOWING MULTIPLY BY
Kilograms 1 2.2046 0.001 0.0009842 0.001102
Pounds 0.45359 1 0.00045359 0.00044643 0.0005
Metric tons 1000 2204.6 1 0.98421 1.1023
Long tons 1016.0 2240.0 1.016 1 1.120
Short tons 907.18 2000 0.90718 0.89286 1

1: This relation is exact by definition

VOLUME
TO OBTAIN: IMP. GALLON BARREL (GB) US GALLON US BARREL LITRES CUB. METRES
KNOWING MULTIPLY BY
Imp. gallon 1 0.027778 1.20094 0.028594 4.546 0.004546
Barrel (GB) 36 1 43.235 1.0295 163.656 0.163656
US gallon 0.83268 0.02313 1 0.2381 3.7853 0.0037853
US barrel 34.9726 0.9715 42 1 158.984 0.158984
Litres 0.219974 0.006104 0.26418 0.00629 1 0.001
Cub. metres 219.974 6.1104 264.18 6.29 1000 1

1: This relation is exact by definition

36
ROUTINE TESTS CONVERSION TABLES

PRESSURE
2
TO OBTAIN PA N/MM BAR KP/CM2 MM HG
KNOWING MULTIPLY BY
Pa 1 10-6 10-5 0.102 x 10-4 0.0075
N/mm2 10-6 1 10 10.2 7.5 x 103
bar 10-5 0.1 1 1.02 750
kp/cm2 98.1 x 103 9.81 x 10-2 0.981 1 736
mm Hg 133.322 0.133 x 10-3 1.33 x 10-3 1.36 x 10-3 1

Pa = N/m2
bar = daN/cm2(da = deka)
kp/cm2 = at = techn. atmosphere

WORK
TO OBTAIN NM = WS KWH KPM KCAL PSH
KNOWING MULTIPLY BY
Nm - Ws 1 0.278 x 10-6 0.012 0.239 x 10-3 0.378 x 10-6
kWh 3.60 x 10-6 1 0.367 x 10-6 860 1.36
kpm 9.81 2.72 x 10-6 1 2.345 x 10-3 3.70 x 10-6
kcal 4186 1.16 x 10-3 426.9 1 158 x 10-3
Psh 2.65 x 10-6 0.736 0.270 x 10-6 632 1

Ws = Joule = J

POWER
TO OBTAIN NM/S=W=J/S KW KPM/S KCAL/H PS
KNOWING MULTIPLY BY
Nm/s = W = J/s 1 10-3 0.102 0.860 1.36 x 10-3
kW 103 1 102 860 1.36
kpm/s 9.81 9.81 x 10-3 1 8.45 13.3 x 10-3
kcal/h 1.16 1.16 x 10-3 0.118 1 1.57 x 10-3
PS 736 0.736 75 635 1

W = Joule/s

37
Castrol Marine
Building D
Chertsey Road
Sunbury On Thames
Middlesex
TW16 7LN
United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0) 1932 774493
Fax: +44 (0) 1932 764062 CM06
www.castrolmarine.com 12/07

Registered Office: Chertsey Road, Sunbury on Thames, Middlesex, TW16 7BP, UK Registered No. 1158983 England
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