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Title: SPSS statistics version 22: a practical guide I Peter Allen, Kellie
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In this example, we're asking whether two independent (or separate) groups
 male OTs and female OTs  work differing amounts of unpaid overtime.
Note how each participant is a member of just one group (i.e., you can be a
male OT or a female OT, but not both). This is an essential characteristic of
the independent samples t test.
Gender is our independent variable (IV), which has two levels: male and
female. Unpaid overtime is our dependent variable (DV), which we could
measure in hours per week.
2. Are nursing home residents with pets happier than those without?
3. Do rats injected with a growth hormone run faster than those injected
with a placebo?
Their research investigates whether the participants who were asked the "hit"
question report, on average, faster or slower speed estimates than those
asked the "smashed" question.
Table 5.1
0 Data:
Speed Estimates (in km/h) Given by Participants (N = 30) in Response to
This is data file Either the "Hit" Question, or the "Smashed" Question
data_S_l.sav on the
companion website.
1 39 16 41
2 33 17 36
3 32 18 49
4 37 19 50
5 35 20 39
6 35 21 38
7 34 22 39
8 33 23 42
9 34 24 41
10 31 25 40
11 38 26 40
12 36 27 45
13 30 28 36
14 34 29 42
15 30 30 47
Chapter 5: Independent Samples t Test 49
Value Labela
Select the Value cell ror the eKperlmental group variable, then click
to open the Value UIIMI dialogue . Use the values 1 and 2 to
Indicate which group each case belongs to.
(I) Tip:
You can toggle
between displaying
values or vlllue /libels
In the Data VIew by
clicking the Value
Ulbel
button:
Tllj[tu
Co!!JIIn .,,_
~Uri. Model
Glnlrlllpd lil. . lllocllla
ll!ld lllocllla
.8*
~
.eP.......
QOinllll ~f'loll._
!!egrHSion
~
Neunl Nel!!!orb In the Analyze menu, select
~ Descriptive Statistics then
QIIMnlloll RN!don Explore
~
!!!Oft....cT....
F~
lnMII
..._,lmpulalon
~Samplu
~~~~
gu.lllr Corn!
ROC<:wp_
Chapter 5: Independent Samples t Test 51
([) Tip:
Move a variable by
highlighting It,
In l!xplore, move the DV (speed then clicking an
esttm11tes) Into the Depencltlnt Ullt, and arrow button:
the IV (experlmentlll group) Into the
factor Ullt.
a Explore: Statistics
I in !i tf .
[I 1!'11~~
..
1!'1~

1!'1~
sl.,
In l!xplore: Plots, selecting Hllltogrem and
Normality plots with teta will provide 6 }~
In l!xplore: Option the default option
sufficient Information for assessing the
for handling missing values Is l!xclucltl
normality of each distribution of scores.
ca llatwlae. This means that a case Is
not included In the analyses If It Is missing
data on either the IV or the DV.
I ~~~~~~~~ r~.
I
1 Oils I,.._.. ~
' 011*
l
l;\ii!lilll!!.1
.....
.. l.Mt. .lAIIIItli
I! oer.......

 !
O~Pip;
Olck Continue to close this dialogue.
I . . I
~rtmenl Group c
VI lid Mallng Totlll
N Pen::ent N Pen::ent N Percent
The table of Descrtptlvee contains a
Speed Estimate Hit
Smllhed
t51100.0%
15 100.0% :I .Olio
.olio
151100.0%
15 100.0%
range of useful Information, Including
measures of central tendency and
dispersion for each group of scores,

along with skewness and kurtosis
statistics.
Ellperimentlll Group Slatalc kt.Error
Speed Estimate HH Moon 34.07 .700
811%~1n LowrBound 32.117
lorn
Uppornd 35.117
5% Trimmed MMn 34,02 When Skewnese and Kurtosis are
Mldlan 34.00 both zero, the data are normally
llllrtonco 7.352
distributed.
Sill. o.lon 2.712
These skewness and kurtosis figures
Mnlmum 30
are reasonably close to zero, and z,
._.mum 38
and Zk (see section 4.3.2.3) are within
Rongo 8 :1:1.96 for both variables. This Is all
Smashed

lntlrqUIIrllli Rllnge
Kurloolo
Moon
811% Contldoncoo I n  Lower Bound
41.87
38.27
4
.187
.!582
v .550
1.121
1.116
reassuring news!
lorn
Uppornd 44.05
SPSS Statistics provides two Teste of
5% Trimmed MMn 41.112
Normellty. The SheplroWIIk test is
M1cU1n 41.00 considered more appropriate for
Vlrt.nce 18.1157 smaller samples. A statistically
SII!.D..Iollon 4.320 significant (I.e., Slg < .OS), W statistic
Mnlmum 3e Is Indicative of nonnormality.
._.mum 50
Rongo 14 Here, W Is .967 (Sig = .804) for the

lnlerquartlo Rongo 5 "hit" data, and .920 (S/g z .193) for
.715 .550
the smashed" data. Thus, we can
conclude the assumption of normal!tv
Kul't:llll 288 1.121
Is not ylolated for either group of
~
I
Stltlslc df Sig. Stattatlc df Slg.
The Sig figures The t test Is considered robust against
SpeedEtlmatl HH .200' .1104
reported by SPSS .110 151 .9G7l 15l small to moderate violations of the
Statistics are usually SmMhed .203 15 .088 .920 15 .193
normality assumption, provided the
referred to as p In LlllllitDn Stgnllcence Cori'IICIIon sample Is reasonably large ( 40+ ), and
journal articles. .TNe a lower bound, ... ..,. algnllcence. group sizes are relatively equal.
Researchers concerned about more
For example, W(15) a severe violations  or nonnormality
.97, p .804. combined with heterogeneity of
variance  may consider data
transformation (see Tabachnlck &.
A visual Inspection of the Hllltotlrems Fldell, 2013), or a nonparametric
further confirms that each group of scores js procedure such as the MannWhitney
approximately normally distributed. U test (see chapter 17).
Speed Estimate
Histograms
~ Links:
The full SPSS
Statistics output
Included two Normel
QQ Plot., and two
Detnlnded Normel
QQ Plot., which
have been omitted
from the current
example. See chapter
3 for Information
about these graphs. I I
llt>Hd
Chapter 5: Independent Samples t Test 53
~l..illlllodll
a.terlllpdunt.llodlle
lllpd IIOdllll
clnlll'l
~
~
NeWII .........
~
In the Analyze menu, select
QlmMIIGn Radon Comp~~re Means then
Sqle IndependentSample T Te.t.
~T....
l'clrlalfiiD ..
~
lii!IIIH Rupaue
..
g~~a~~ng VIM /onllfllla
...... lmpulllon ..
CllmiiiiK 8MIIIIet ..
II! ........
QullllrCanhl ..
ROC 011!1
2 r~
In lndep~~ndentSIImple T <D Tip:
Te.t, move the DV Into the Te.t You can
Verteble() list, and the IV Into the simultaneously
Grouping Verteble box. compare two groups
of participants on
several OVs by moving
them all
Into the Te.t
Vartablea() list.
3 r~
In Define Group~~, enter the
values used to represent each level
of the IV. Here, 1 "hit" and 2
smashed".
8 Define Groups
v::li::u I
I ~" I 4
I OSJ~..1 I In lndep~~ndentSample T Tet:
Option, the defaults are as follows:
1
hllpe'*n18ampiH Tnt
~
Le...ne's Teatb'Equalltyot
V.l'lances tttst br Equality of Mllnl
95% Conftdenoe 1nr.e1 oflhe
Equal 'Airlsncea
F
2.'86
Slg.
.126
I df
28 . . (2. . tlod)
.....
DIW.rence
Sld.Enor
Dlfllr1nce ,..., Dlllrenct
Upper
~.~2,~
Speed Estimate 5.771 .000 7.800 1.317 10.298
assumed
Equal.,.rlencee not 5.771 23.547 .000 7.800 1.317 10.321 4.879
111umed
The Levene's Test for Equality of The t test for Equal variances assumed Is statistically
Variances Is not significant (F = 2.486, significant at a = .05. We can reject the null hypothesis, and
Stg > .05). !be assuml!tl!lll gf conclude that tbere is a differeo'e betweeo tbe tw!l grQUI!S Qf
b!lm!lgeoelt gf llilrlao~ bas O!lt beeo ~.
Yil!lated..
The following details will be needed for the writeup:
Therefore, Interpret and report the t test
for Equal variances assumed. t = 5.771
df = 28
Sig (2tailed) = .000
If the Assumption Is VIolated
Although SPSS Statistics does not automatically compute an effect size index
for the t test, one can be easily calculated from the output SPSS Statistics
provides.
Where n1 is the size of group 1; n2 is the size of group 2; 5 2 1 is the variance of where s 1 and s 2 are
group 1; and 5 22 is the variance of group 2. the standard
deviations for groups
1 and 2 respectively.
All of these figures are available in (or easily calculated from) the Group
Statistics table outputted with the t test:
s2 1 = 2. 712 x 2. 712
= 7.352
s2 2 = 4.320 x 4.320
= 18.667
So,
8.667
sp =
=
28
= ~364.266 = .J13.0095
28
=3.607
56 SPSS Statistics: A Practical Guide
Then,
d = 34.0741.67
3.607
=2.11
Cohen (1988) suggested some general conventions for effect sizes in the
CD Tip: social sciences. According to these conventions, an effect size of d = .20 is
Report the absolute
value of d, rather than
a negative value.
considered small, d = .50 is medium, and d = .80 is large.
Cohen (1988) cautions that these general recommendations are more useful
in some circumstances than others. However, the concept of small, medium,
and large effect sizes can be a reasonable starting point if you do not have
more precise information to work from.
Results
violated. Levene's test was also nonsignificant, thus equal variances When the t test Is statistically
significant, both the size and
direction of the effect should
can be assumed. The t test was statistically significant, with the "hit" be reported.

the two group means.
km/h lower, 95% CI [10.30, 4.90], than the "smashed" group (M =
Size is indicated by Cohen's d.
5.3.5. Summary
In this example, the independent samples t test was statistically significant,
and neither the normality nor homogeneity of variance assumptions were
violated. Reallife research, however, is often not this "neat"!
Mrs Sommers would like to know whether there is a difference between the
average IQ of her male students, and that of her female students.
Table 5.2
CJ Dm:
Gender and IQ Data for Each Member of Mrs Sommers' Class (N = 35) This Is data file
dm_5_2.Hv on the
companiOn website.
Participant ID Gender IQ
1 1 100
2 1 82
3 1 109
4 2 105
5 2 110
6 1 118
7 1 97
8 1 108
9 2 112
10 1 124
11 1 104
12 2 95
13 2 106
14 2 94
15 2 109
16 1 110
17 2 105
18 2 106
19 1 105
20 1 103
21 1 112
22 1 97
23 2 99
24 1 96
25 2 108
26 2 109
27 2 104
28 1 117
29 1 114
30 2 106
31 2 99
32 2 98
33 1 89
34 1 98
35 2 100
gender c
Valid Msslng Totol
N Percent N Percent N Percent
IQ Millo 181100.0% .0% 18 1100.0% The Caee Proceulng Summary Indicates that
Fomolo 17 100.0% :I .0% 17 100.0% there are 18 males In the sample, and 17 females.
' There are no missing data.
Female

Kui'IDIII
Moon
.228
.Q!Q
103.82
.838
1.038
1.304
11!1% Conldoncoln1oMI LOW8f' Bound 101.08
lorn
Ullound 108.88
5% Trtmmect MHn 103.82
a..ctlan 108.00
V.rtance 28.904
Std.Oa'tlladon 8.378
Minimum 84
,._mum 112
Rona 18

~tlrquartNa Ft.nge 10
A31 .850
Kui'IDIII .871 1.083
IQ
Histograms
Hlotlogram
,..,104.11
at.Dtw.IO...
N11
/ H1otDgnm
I I
IQ
Chapter 5: Independent Samples t Test 59
 
5.4.2. SPSS Statistics Output (Part 2: Homogeneity of Variance and
the tTest)
TTest

As suspected Levene' Tellt for !quaHty of
a.. Vrtance. Is' statistically significant (F 5.689,
gondot' Slid. Error
N  ]s...o........ Slg .023), Indicating that the b!lm ggeneltv llf
IQ ...... 11 104.01 I 10.138 2.1108 variance assumptiOn Is ylglated.
Femllo 17 103.82 1.378 1.304
Consequently, we'll use the t test for !qual
vrtanca not umect.
_,... ....
__  J.....
lewne.. Tntb'Equelttyof
/
.. .....
...,.~oiMNnt
11'4 eonw.nc. ~of e.
. _ u.....
 
0.....
, . .. ....en.. .._
...
.....
I .... ( 2  )
IQ
............ 214 .710 .1.. 2.1111
t .279
df 25.458
Slg (2talled) .783
where: sp =
2
(n11 )s 1 +(n21 )s i
n1+n22
60 SPSS Statistics: A Practical Guide
So,
sp =
1924.281 +462.464
= 33
= 33
= .J72.326 = 8.504
Then,
d = 104.61103.82
8.504
= 0.093
An effect size of this magnitude is trivial. There is virtually no difference (and
certainly not a "significant" one) between the average IQs of the male and
female students in Mrs Sommers' class.
Results
scores were normally distributed, but that there was substantially more
pairs, but need each to provide us with data on one occasion only. This is
usually referred to as a matched design.
The chairperson thinks that reaction times will be faster during the
experimental trials (i.e., when the cyclists are wearing fluorescent vests).
Table 6.1
CJ Data:
This is data file
data_6_1.sav on the Average Reaction Times (in Milliseconds) to the Presentation of Virtual Cyclists
companion website.
in Fluorescent and NonFluorescent Attire During a Driving Simulation Test
(N = 15)
1 345 268
2 540 340
3 430 310
4 470 322
5 420 286
6 364 320
7 388 292
8 392 388
9 378 296
10 362 304
11 420 318
12 446 312
13 452 334
14 434 346
15 498 376
Chapter 6: Paired Samples t Test 63
(]) np:
The Name you use
will appear at the top
In the Variable VIew, set up two variables: of the variable column
In the Data VIew.
However, the Label
1. Control: The average of the reaction time data collected during
will be used In your
the control (I.e., nonfluorescent) trials.
output.
2. Exp: The average of the reaction time data collected during the
experimental (I.e., fluorescent) trials.
Vlllalllu.
2 1.
Type a name
<D Tip: for the new
variable under
Define other aspects
of the new variable by Terget
clicking the Type Verteble.
Lllbel button. We've used dlff
as shorthand
for d lfference
scores.
Build the
Numeric
Exprenlon
needed to
calculate the
difference
scores using
the list of
available
variables, the
arrow button
and the
keypad.
Your numeric expression should now match the one pictured Click OK to create the
above. new variable.
Chapter 6: Paired Samples t Test 65
T....
caa...... <D Tip:
fieMnlu.e.lllloclll Although obscured by
Genlrllpd ...... ..,....
the Analyze menu In
.............
L!llllnelr
C2llllt
score on dltr Is 77. This
means that his/her
average control trial
reaction time of 345
msec was 77 msec
slower than hiS/her
average experimental
~T. . .
trial reaction time of
268 msec.
F.o
gaM~!
..................._
lll!flllle RlltflanM
Mllll!lllle .........
~SimiiiH
Ill
Qulllreonnl
ROC~.
6 7
In l!xplo,.., move the control, Select Both to display all the options
experimental and difference scores available In l!xplo..., or either Smtllltlc:a or
variables Into the De.,.nclent Ullt. Plots for a more limited range.
I~ lliilillllilil ~~
1!1 ...........
~Link:
oDIJlf....., ..,....
, o..
There are many ways
to assess normality.
Several of these are
...................
', ~ Illustrated In chapter 4.
I
I
e.
~~~~~~
.'flllllt.......
~~'
ey.naiiintllll
[ _____~~
Click Continue to exit this dialogue.
Control (NonFiuro)
On a Hletogrem, the vertical axis
represents the frequency of each band
w..rta:a..e (or range) of values, which are ordered
lld.Div.D.D5
Ntl from smallest to largest along the
()) np: horizontal axis.
Doubleclick a graph Looking at the first histogram, one
to open up the Olert participant had an average reaction
Editor. In this editor time between 300 and 350 msec
you can superimpose during the Control trials; five had
a normal curve on top averages between 350 and 400 msec;
of a histogram, as well and so on.
as change Its
appearance in Ideally, a histogram should look
numerous ways. Turn reasonably "normal". That Is, It should
to chapter 3 for a resemble an "Inverted u with greatest
closer look at the frequency of cases clustered around
SPSS Statistics Chert the mean, and progressively fewer
Editor. cases towards the tails.
.,_...,..,... (Fluro)
dlff
f
l
dill
Chapter 6: Paired Samples t Test 67
g..IIIJIINrllodll
GeMrllpciUIIWIIDdlll
lll!!tCIIIDdlll
~
.......
BtgiiNIGII
.............
~
~Ridlldlall
Sqle
~.........T
~~~
.......
...........
llil!llllle RleiiCNe
,....._
................
COmllll
lis ........
9AIIr CGI*1III
.ROCCUI!L
2 r,
In the PalredSamplea T Tellt ]~~=~==========~~
1
The default (]) np:
dialogue select the pair of variables to Paired Samplea T 8 PairedSamples T Test Options To select multiple
be compared and click the arrow Teat: Option will variables, hold down
button to move them Into the first row
of the Paired Varlablea list.
be fine In most
situations.
~~.::::~ the Shift: key on your
keyboard, then dick
each with your mouse.
If you want to make additional Click Continue to
comparisons, repeat this process with close this window. One click will select a
additional pairs of variables. variable; a second
click will deselect lt.
PairedSamples T Test
Click OK to
output the t test.
68 SPSS Statistics: A Practical Guide
TTest
The Paired Sample StatlatiCII table Includes
If we repeated this research many hundreds of times (with samples of N = 15 all drawn from the same
population), and calculated a pair of means for each replication, we would find that most of these means varied
from those presented In the Paired Sample Statlatlca table. The Std. Error Mean Is an estimate of this
variability (expressed In standard deviation units).
A larger standard error of the mean Indicates more variability In the sampling population.
~Link:
I Pearson's correlation coefficient, which Is a
commonly used Index of the strength of the linear
association between the two groups of scores.
_.. ~
v 95% Confidence lnlltMI of the
Dltfarence
Std. Da'tjjation
Std. Error
Moan Lower I Upper l df Slg. (21BIIed)
Palr1
Con"rf'~)
E>q>erl (Fiuro)
101.800 48.987 12.132 75.780 I 127.820 8.391 14 .000
(
In the Paired Difference section of the Paired The t test Is statistically significant at a = .05.
Sample Teat table there are several useful pieces of Reaction times were significantly faster when the
(D Tip: Information: cyclists were wearing fluorescent vests.
The difference
Mean. The difference between the two sample means For your writeup, make note of:
between the two
(422.60  320.80 = 101.800).
means is simply t x
Std. Error Mean.
t = 8.391
Std. Deviation. The standard deviation of the difference df = 14
scores. Here, the difference scores deviate from the 5/g (2talled) = .000
8.391 X 12.132 =
mean of 101.800 msec by an average of 46.987 msec.
101.800
Note. SPSS Statistics rounds to three decimal
95~ Confidence Interval of the Difference. We can places. Sig (2talled) = .000 simply means that the
be 95% confident that this Interval (75. 780 to 127 .820) likelihood of observing a t value of 2: 8.391 If the
contains the true (population) mean difference. null hypothesis Is true (i.e., if the population mean
difference Is zero) Is less than .0005.
Chapter 6: Paired Samples t Test 69
Where M1 and M2 are the two sample means and 5p is the pooled standard (D Tip:
deviation, calculated as: There are many
websltes that you can
use to calculate
Cohen's d. Just make
sure you use one for a
paired sample t
test.
Where 51 and 52 are the two sample standard deviations. All of these figures
can be derived from the Paired Samples Statistics table:
So,
53.835 + 32.371
s =
p 2
=43.103
Then,
d = 422.60320.80
43.103 (D Tip:
Jacob Cohen ( 1988)
=2.36 suggests that a d of
.20 can be considered
small, ad of .50 is
medium, and a d of
.80 Is large.
This is a very large effect. Participants in this study responded substantially
He also stresses that
faster to the fluorescent cyclists than they did to the control (nonfluorescent) these values were
subjectively derived
cyclists. with the Intent that a
medium effect should
be "vlslb le to the
naked eye of a careful
observer, a small
effect should be
"noticeably smaller
than medium but not
so small as to be
trivial", and a large
effect should be "the
same distance above
medium as small [is]
below It" (Cohen,
1992, p. 156).
70 SPSS Statistics: A Practical Guide
A comprehensive results
Results section should provide:
6.3.5. Summary
The effect observed in the first illustrated example was large and significant.
The effect in example two is not so clear.
At the end of the eightweek treatment program, the psychologist asked each
client to again complete the BAl. The posttreatment BAI scores for the 10
clients who completed the full eightweek program are listed in the second
column of Table 6.2. Posttreatment BAI data are not available for two clients
who dropped out of the program after two and five weeks respectively.
Chapter 6: Paired Samples t Test 71
Table 6.2
CJ Dbl:
Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) Scores Before and After an EightWeek This Is data file
dlit11_1_2.AY on the
Treatment Program for Generalised Anxiety Disorder (N = 12) companion website.
1 55 53
2 36
3 39 37
4 53 49
5 46 40
6 52
7 47 39
8 45 44
9 34 38
10 41 43
11 33 29
12 50 46
,
I :r
The ShaplroWilk test is a part of the
Normality ploa with wa option In
Explore: Plot8:
II Explore: Plots
' r
E
Ballltoll
0 fadar ...... loglelll' ~
'"
Oil .. It .. o~.....,
.ftanl

dlff
.._Ill~~~~
In this example, the three histograms
look reasonably normal (although with so
few cases, It can be difficult to tell). This
assessment Is supported by the three
ShaplroWIIk tests, which are all non
significant (at a .OS).=
Ibe carmalltll acd carmalltl af dlfferecte
S!:Qrt:S iiSSUmlrti!!DS ilrt: D!lt lll!lliitlld.
KolmogorovSmlmo.,
~ Links: Stllllltc df Slg. Slg.
Some Normal QQ PreTretmentBAI .137 10 .200' 10 .750
Ploa and Detrended PoatTr..tmentBAI .138 10 .zoo 10 .880
Normal QQ Ploa, d111 .1113 10 .200' 10 .788
were generated along
with these normality LMIIefDrl&gntllc8r'ICII Coi'Ndlon
tests. Guidelines for .lllllll: lowerboundollleW.Igntbnc:e.
Interpreting each can
be found In chapter 4.
entiiN  
collected before and after an eightweek
treatment program.
Sld.Emw
N Sid.
1 44.30 10 7AII8 2.371
PaoHoniMI nao 10 1.778 2.144
The Paired Sample Teat table Indicates
that the difference between the pre and
posttreatment means Is D!lt statlstlcailll
Polrod . . . . . . c.rr. slgclflcact (at a .OS). Make note of:
(D Tip:
You will sometimes
see tests with Stg
IPWr1 ontMI& N 10 ICorM: I ~1 t = 2.216
df 9
values only slightly Stg (2talled) .OS4
above the specified
alpha level (usually
.OS) described as Plred Oiffllrence1
approaching 95% Confidence lntBMI of lhe
significance In the Dttllrwnce
research literature. Sid. Error
Moon Sid. 0.AIon Moon Lower I Upper I df Slg. (21ollod)
Palr1 PreTreatment BAI Poat.
TrutmentBAI
2.500 3.587 1.128 .052 I 5.052 2.216 8 .054
Chapter 6: Paired Samples t Test 73
6. 4. 3. 1. Effect Size
Where M1 and M2 are the two sample means and Sp is the pooled standard
deviation (the average of the two sample standard deviations). So,
=0.35
7.139 7.139
'' 8
p
=s,+s 2 = 7.499+6.779
2
=7.139
2
Statistical power refers to the likelihood of detecting an effect, where one ~ Links:
actually exists. (By detecting, we mean finding p < .OS.) Generally speaking, We recommend
Howell (2013b) for
we are more likely to detect larger effects, in larger samples. Conversely, an accessible
Introduction to
small effects in small samples can be particularly difficult to catch. As the statistical power.
current sample is quite small (N = 10), it is possible that the study was
underpowered. That is, it is possible that the psychologist did not give herself
a very good chance of finding a statistically significant effect.
Retrospective power estimates are provided as part of the output for many <D Tip:
SPSS Statistics procedures. When they are not provided, you can use the Retrospective power
analysis can be
power tables included in the appendices of many good textbooks (e.g., controversial. Power is
best considered (and
Howell, 2013b), or one of several power calculators. The calculator that we most useful) before
use G*Power is maintained by Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, and Buchner (2007) collecting data, when
it can be used to
and can be freely downloaded from http://www.gpower.hhu.de/en.html calculate an
appropriate sample
slle. You should avoid
Retrospective power analyses with G*Power confirmed that the t test was (mls)uslng It to
explain away non
likely underpowered. It is recommended that the psychologist replicate this significant results.
study with a much larger sample. She will need around 70 participants to
have a decent (i.e., 80%) chance of observing an effect of around d = 0.35.
74 SPSS Statistics: A Practical Guide
Results
A twotailed, paired samples t test with an alpha level of In her Method section the
author should note that 12
people began the study,
.05 was used to compare the pre (M = 44.30, SD = 7.50) and post but only 10 completed it. If
known, the reasons for this
attrition should also be
reported.
treatment (M= 41.80, SD = 6.78) Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
In her Results section, she
Is correct to report that the
scores of l 0 individuals. On average, participants' posttreatment BAI analyses are based on data
from just 10 individuals.
scores were 2.5 points lower than their pretreatment scores, 95% CI
CD Tip:
Numbers that cannot
exceed 1 do not
[0.05, 5.05]. However, this difference was not statistically

significant, t(9) = 2.22, p = .054. Cohen's d for this test was 0.35,
In the Results section,
simply report what was
found In the data.
Interpretations, speculation
need a leading zero. which can be described as small to medium. about why the test did not
Therefore, p = .054, support the hypothesis and
but d = 0.35. suggestions for subsequent
Visual inspection of the relevant histograms indicated that research should all be
saved for the Discussion.
were violated.