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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


THERMOFLUIDS LAB
(CGE 536)

EXPERIMENT : FLOWMETER DEMONSTRATION


DATE PERFORMED : 28/09/2017
SEMESTER :3
PROGRAMME/CODE : THERMOFLUIDS LAB / CGE 536
GROUP : EH2433

NAME STUDENT NO
SITI NUR IZZATY BINTI NAZAR 2016691684

No Title Allocated Marks % Marks


1 Abstract/Summary 5
2 Introduction 5
3 Aims/Objectives 5
4 Theory 5
5 Apparatus 5
6 Procedures 10
7 Result 10
8 Calculations 10
9 Discussion 20
10 Conclusions 10
11 Recommendations 5
12 References 5
13 Appendices 5
TOTAL 100

REMARKS :

CHECKED BY :
TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENT PAGES

ABSTRACT/SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION 2-4

AIMS/OBJECTIVES 5

THEORY 6-7

APPARATUS/MATERIAL 8

PROCEDURES 9

RESULT 10-11

CALCULATIONS 12-15

DISCUSSION 16

CONCLUSIONS 17

RECOMMENDATIONS 18

REFERENCES 19

APPENDICES 20
SUMMARY

EXPERIMENT 1: Demonstration of the operation and characteristic of three different basic


types of flowmeter
The experiment has been conducted to determine the flow rate and pressure loses using three
basic types of flow measuring techniques; rotameter, venturimeter and orifice meter. Firstly, we set up
the apparatus and conducted the experiment based on the procedure. Then, to obtain the flow rate
reading, we has been measure the time taken of a known volume of water (3 litres) that accumulate in
the water tank. Next, we required to record the manometer reading (a-j) and the flow rate reading in
different techniques. We had repeated this experiment about 3 times to get the accurate reading.

EXPERIMENT 2: Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree
elbow
The experiment has been conducted to determine the loss coeffient when fluid flows through a
90 degree elbow. Firstly, we set up the apparatus and conducted the experiment based on the
procedure. Then, we have measure the time of a known volume of water accumulate in a tank to
determine the flow rate. Next, we record the reading in manometer I and J. At the end of experiment,
v2
we plot a graph of h against 2gs for 90 degree elbow to determine the coefficient of losses. We had

repeated this experiment about 3 times to get the accurate reading.

1
INTRODUCTION

EXPERIMENT 1:

Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the behavior of fluid especially liquid in
many form of application which is statics, dynamics and thermodynamics. In order to study this
behavior of fluids, we need a device known as flow meter. Flow meter is a device used to measure the
flow rate or a quantity of fluids flow through a pipe.

The hydraulic bench (model: fm 110) is provided in the laboratory and were connected to the
flow meter measurement apparatus (model: fm 101) which consists of venturi meter, orifice meter and
rotameter.

Venturi meter

Venturi meter are used to measure the velocity of flow of fluids in a pipe. It consists of a short
length of pipe shaped like a vena contracta, or the portion with the least cross-sectional area, which
fits into a normal pipe-line. The obstruction caused to the flow of liquid at the throat of the venturi
produces a local pressure drop in the region that is proportional to the rate of discharge. This
phenomenon, using Bernoullis equation, is used to calculate the rate of flow of the fluid flowing
through the pipe.

2
Orifice meter

An orifice meter is basically a type of flow meter used to measure the rate of flow of liquid or
gas, especially steam, using the differential pressure measurement principle. It is mainly used for
robust applications as it is known for its durability and is very economical.

As the name implies, it consists of an orifice plate which is the basic element of the
instrument. When this orifice plate is placed in a line, a differential pressure is developed across the
orifice plate. This pressure drop is linear and is in direct proportion to the flow-rate of the liquid or
gas.

Since there is a drop in pressure, just like turbine flow meter, hence it is used where a drop in
pressure or head loss is permissible.

3
Rotameter

Rotameters are the most widely used type of variable-area (va) flowmeter. In these devices,
the falling and rising action of a float in a tapered tube provides a measure of flow rate. Rotameters
are known as gravity-type flow meters because they are based on the opposition between the
downward force of gravity and the upward force of the flowing fluid. When the flow is constant, the
float stays in one position that can be related to the volumetric flow rate. That position is indicated on
a graduated scale. Note that to keep the full force of gravity in effect, this dynamic balancing act
requires a vertical measuring tube.

EXPERIMENT 2:

The value of the loss coefficient is very important to accurately calculate the flow rates and
pressure drop in pipes. In long straight pipe, the pressure drop is due to the friction in the pipe which
is also known as major losses. The pressure drop caused by fittings or valves is known as minor losses
which will be calculated at the end of the experiment. As pipes get shorter and more complicated the
proportion of losses due to fittings and valves gets larger, but by convention is also known as minor
losses. The type of pipe fitting contain in this experiment is 90 degree elbow.

4
OBJECTIVES

EXPERIMENT 1:

To obtain the flow rate measurement by utilizing three basic types of flow measuring
techniques; rotameter, venturi meter and orifice meter.

EXPERIMENT 2:

To investigate the loss coefficient of fluid through 90 degree elbow.

5
THEORY

EXPERIMENT 1:

Bernoulli equation is applied to calculate the flow rate in both venturi meter and orifice:

1. By determine point 1 and 2 at the flowmeter:

2. By using continuity equation, we can eliminate velocity,u2:

3. Substituting this into and rearranging bernoullis equation:

4. To get the actual result, coefficient discharge have to be consider in the calculation:

In this experiment, z1=z2. Therefore, z1 and z2can be cancelling out.

A1 : area at point 1

A2: area at point 2

P1: pressure at point 1

P2: pressure at point 2

U1: velocity at point 1 6


U2: velocity at point 2

Values of discharge coefficient are determined by experimented, the assumed values used in
the software are:

Cd venturi meter= 0.98

Cd orifice plate = 0.63

The head loss (h, meter) is recorded due to the height reading of manometer. In this experiment,
the head losses will be compared with the flow rate used. Pressure loss for venture meter is low while
for the orifice the pressure loss is medium.

EXPERIMENT 2:

To calculate the loss coefficient, the equation use is:

v2
HL = K X 2g

Where,

HL= head loss

K= loss coefficient

V= flow velocity

G= acceleration of gravity

The usual value use for g is 9.81n.

7
APPARATUS

2 3

1. Discharge valve 4. 90elbow


2. Venturi meter 5. Rotameter
3. Orifice meter 6. Manometer

8
PROCEDURE

EXPERIMENT 1:

1. The apparatus was placed on bench, connect inlet pipe to bench supply and outlet
pipe into volumetric tank.
2. With the bench valve fully closed and the discharge valve fully opened, the pump
supply was started up from hydraulic bench.
3. The bench valve was slowly opened until it is fully opened.
4. When the flow in the pipe is steady and there is no trapped bubble, the bench
valve was started to close to reduce the flow to the maximum measurable flow
rate.
5. By using the air bleed screw, water level was adjusted in the manometer board. A
maximum reading on manometers was retained with the maximum measurable
flow rate.
6. Readings on manometers (A - J), Rotameter and measured flow rate was noted.
7. Step 6 is repeated for different flow rates. The flow rates can be adjusted by
utilizing both bench valve and discharge valve.
8. Similar flow rates at different system static pressures, was demonstrated by adjust
bench and flow control valve together. A manometer level as required was
adjusting.

EXPERIMENT 2:

1. Step (1-5) from experiment 1 was repeated.


2. Readings on manometers (I and J) and measured flow rate was noted.
3. Step 6 is repeated for different flow rates. The flow rates can be adjusted by
utilizing both bench valve and discharge valve.
4. The table below was completed.

V
2

5. Graph h against s for 90 degree elbow was plotted to determine the


2g
coefficient of losses.

9
Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree elbow

V V2/2g
Differential Piezometer Head, h'
Volume Time Flowrate,Q
No. (mm)
(l) (sec) (L/min) (m/s) (mm)
Elbow (hi-hj)

1. 3 35.41 5.08 242-242=0 0.159 1.29 103

2. 3 15.22 12 229-227=2 0.377 7.24 103

3. 3 13.01 13.64 210-202=8 0.428 9.34 103

4. 3 9.49 18.75 185-179=6 0.589 0.0176

5. 3 8.01 23.08 155-145=10 0.725 0.0268

11
CALCULATION

EXPERIMENT 1:

For the venturi meter

Upstream pipe diameter 1 = 26mm

2
Cross sectional area 1 = = 5.3093104 2
4

Throat diameter 2 = 16mm

2
Cross sectional area of throat 2 = 4
= 2.0106104 2

Discharge coefficient = 0.98

For the orifice plate

Upstream pipe diameter 1 = 26mm

2
Cross sectional area 1 = = 5.3093104 2
4

Throat diameter 2 = 16mm

2
Cross sectional area of throat 2 = = 2.0106104 2
4

Discharge coefficient = 0.63

Timed Flow rate, Qt (m3/s) = V =Volume Collected


t Timed to collect

= 0.003 m3/ 35.4 s


1000
= 8.47 x 105 m3/s 1

60
=5.08 L/min

12
Variable Area Flow Rate, Qa (m3/s) =Value from instrument reading (L/min)
60, 000
=4 L / min
60, 000
1000
= 6.67 x 105 m3/s 1

60

2
Orifice Plate Flow Rate, Qo (m3/s) = 2 ( )
1( 2 )2
1

2(9.81)(0.015)
=(0.63)(2.0106 104 ) ( 2.0106104 2
)
1( )
5.3093104

1000
=7.42 105 m3/s 1

60
= 4.45 L/min

2
Venturi Meter Flow Rate, Qv (m3/s) = 2 ( )
1( 2 )2
1

2(9.81)(0.008)
= (0.98)(2.0106 104 ) ( 2.0106104 2
)
1( )
5.3093104

1000
= 8.43 105 m3/s 1

60
= 5.06 L/min

Rotameter % Error = (Qa Qt) x 100


Qt
= (6.67 x 105 8.47 x 105) x 100%
8.47 x 105
= -21.26%

Orifice Plate % Error =(Qo Qt) x 100


Qt
= (4.45 5.08) x 100%
5.08
= -12.40%

Venturi Meter % Error = (Qv Qt) x 100


Qt
= (5.06 5.08) x 100%
5.08
= -0.39 % 13
This calculation is repeated for the 2 , 3 ,4, 5 repeated experiment to find accurate data

Flow rate

No Time flow rate Qt Rotameter flow Venturi meter flow Orifice flow rate Q0
(L/min) rate Qa(L/min) rate Qv (L/min) (L/min)
1 5.08 4 5.06 4.45

2 12.00 8 9.30 8.52

3 13.64 12 13.74 12.78

4 18.75 16 17.88 16.68

5 23.08 20 21.30 20.34

Percentage error compare to time flowrate

No Rotameter % flow Venturi plate % flow Orifice meter % flow -


rate error (%) rate error (%) rate error (%)
1 -12.26 -0.39 -12.40
2 -33.33 -22.5 -29
3 -12.02 0.73 -6.30
4 -14.67 -4.64 -11.04
5 -13.34 -7.71 -11.87
Average 17.12 7.19 14.12

Average is calculated by change negative value to positive to determine the accurate flow rate
measurement .

14
EXPERIMENT 2:

Theoriticalvalue :

Elbow flanged regular 90= 0.3

Graph of differential Piezometer head


against Velocity head
12
Differential piezometer head,mm

10 y = 0.353x + 0.8043

6
H
4
Linear (H)
2
Linear (H)
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
velocity head,mm

The slope, k = 0.353

% error =(0.353-0.3) x 100%

0.3

= 17.67%

15
DISCUSSION

As we know, for the experiment 1, the objective is to obtain the flow rate measurement by
using three basic types of flow measuring techniques which are rotameter, venturi and orifice. And we
can find that the flowrate is the volume of fluid per unit time represented by unit Q.

From the calculation that has been made, we know that the percentage error for the
experiment by using rotameter is more than 15% while the experiment using orifice and venturi meter
is not more that 15% so it is considered as unsuccessful experiment. By referring percentage error
that we have calculated by comparing to time flowrate for rotameter , orifice and venture is 17.12% ,
7.19% and 14.12% . so, we can conclude that percentage error for orifice is the lowest and make it the
best device for calculate flow rate .

If we compare with the theory, it should be venturi meter is a more accurate than orifice and
rota meter. But, from the calculation, we can see that orifice meter is more accurate than others.
Actually, it should be the venturi meter. We can say that one of the major factors that affect the
readings is the bubble in pipeline. Besides, when taking the manometer reading, the position of eyes
also gives effect to the reading.

For experiment 2, the objective is to investigate the lost coefficient of fluid through 90 degree
elbow. From the graph that we required to plot, gradient (k) of the graph is 0.353. But the actual
theoretical value is 0.3 for elbow flanged regular 90. The percentage error for this experiment is
17.67%. So it is considered the experiment is unsuccessful because the error is slightly exceed 15%.
This failure may be caused by bubble that trap inside the tube that connected to manometer.

16
CONCLUSION

For conclusion in experiment 1, we can conclude that the most accurate flow meter is a
venturi meter. From this experiment, we determine that the flow rate % error for venturi meter is more
than the orifice meter. From the theory, the more efficiency of flow meter has a less flow rate % error.

For conclusion in experiment 2, we get that the loss coefficient is 0.353. Percentage
difference for the experiment is 17.67%. The experiment is unsuccessful.

17
RECOMMENDATION

For the better result and safety requirement when conducting the experiment, we must take some
precautions and suggestions of flow measurement apparatus in the experiment. The recommendations
are as followed:

1. Make sure the observer that taking the reading and measurement of the apparatus must be
fixed to the same one person only to avoid any errors.

2. Before starting the experiment, make sure students are understand about the whole
experiment and follow all the instructions from the supervisor and do general set-up
procedures.
3. Make sure eyes of observer are parallel to the reading scale to avoid error in taking readings.

4. Make sure to follow the shut-down procedures after finishing the experiment.
5. We must conduct the experiment at least by taking three results to obtained average result.

18
REFERENCES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fluid_mechanics
http://www.codecogs.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/pipes/venturi-meters.php
http://scharfautomation.com/orifice-meter/
http://www.sensorsmag.com/components/basics-rotameters
Lab manual, faculty of chemical engineering, Uitm Shah Alam

19
APPENDICES

FIGURE 2 APPARATUS
FIGURE 1 ORIFICE

FIGURE 3 MANOMETER FIGURE 4 ROTMETER

20 FIGURE 6 VENTURI
FIGURE 5 90 ELBOW