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Calculation of Boiler Efficiency by Indirect method

Prerequisite:
Steam, Steam generation, Boiler, Boiler operation

Objective:

1. Intellectual skills:
i. To know the variation of efficiency by using various fuels.
ii. Understand the steam generation process.
2. Motor skills:
. To determine enthalpy of feed water.
i. To determine enthalpy of wet steam.
ii. To determine heat produced in the combustion chamber
iii. To determine heat loss

Various fuels used in the Boiler, Efficiency calculation, Heat Balance Sheet

Apparatus: 1.Boiler2.Drynessfractionmeasuringdevice3.Fluegasanalyzer

Theory:
Fig. Packa
aged Steam
m Boiler
Theory
y:

Therma al efficienc
cy of boiler is deffined as the perce
entage of heat input that iss
effe
ectively uttilized to generate the steamm. There are two methods of assess sing boiler
effic
ciency.

A) T
The Directt Method: Where thhe energy gain of tthe workin ng fluid (w
water and steam) is s
com
mpared with the energy contennt of the boilerr fuel.
B) T
The Indire
ect Methodd: Where the
t efficiency is the
e difference between n the lossees and the
e
energy input. (Energy produced
p from
f the coombustionn of fuel is taken as 100% ene ergy input)
)

Indirec
ct Method
d:

Indirectt method is also called as heat loss me


ethod. Thee efficienc
cy can be arrived at,
by ssubtracting the heat loss fracctions fromm 100. Th
he standarrds do nott include bblow down n
loss
s in the efficiency
e determinaation process. A de etailed pro
ocedure fo or calculating boiler
effic
ciency by indirect
i me
ethod is as
s follows.

Fig. Illustration of heat loss


s from the Boiler

The principle losses that occur in a boiler are:

Lo
oss due to dry flue gas (sensibble heat) .............. L
L1
Lo
oss due to hydrogen in fuel (H2)............. L2
Lo
oss due to moisture in fuel (H2 2O)............. L3
Lo
oss due to moisture in air (H2O O) L4
Lo
oss due to carbon monoxide (C CO) ...... L5
Lo
oss due to surface raadiation, co
onvection and otherr unaccoun nted L6
Un
nburnt loss
ses in fly ash
a (Carbo on) ... L7
Un
nburnt loss
ses in botttom ash (C Carbon) L8
Boiler Efficiency by indirect method = 100 - (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 + L5 + L6 + L7 + L8)

Measurements Required for Performance Assessment Testing:

The following parameters need to be measured, as applicable for the computation of boiler
efficiency and performance

a) Flue gas analysis

Percentage of CO2 or O2 in flue gas


Percentage of CO in flue gas
Temperature of flue gas

b) Flow meter measurements for

Fuel
Steam
Feed water
Condensate water
Combustion air

c) Temperature measurements for

Flue gas
Steam
Makeup water
Condensate return
Combustion air
Fuel
Boiler feed water

d) Pressure measurements for

Fuel
Steam
Combustion air, both primary and secondary
Draft

e) Water condition

Total dissolved solids (TDS)


pH
Blow down rate and quantity
Boilerr Efficienccy by Indiirect Meth
hod: Calculation P
Procedure
e and Form
mula:

In ordeer to calculate the bo


oiler efficie
ency by ind
direct method, all th
he losses th hat occur
in th
he boiler must
m be esstablished. These los sses are co
onveniently
y related tto the amo ount of
fuel burnt. In this way it is easy to
t compare e the perfo
ormance oof various bboilers witth differentt
ratin
ngs.

Theorettical (Stoic
chiometric) air fuel ratio
r and e
excess air supplied a
are to be d
determined
d
firstt for computing the boiler
b losses. The following rellation can be used fo or the sam
me.
Whe
ere,

L1=
= % Heat loss due to
o dry flue gas
g

m = Mass of dry
d flue ga
as in kg/kg
g of fuel

=C
Combustion
n products from fuel:

=C CO2 + SO2 + Moisture


e in flue ga
ases + O2 in flue gas + Mass o
of air supp
plied for co
ombustion
of fu
uel

Cp = Specific heat of fu
uel gas in kJ/kg
k K

Tf = Flue gas temperatu


ure in C

Ta = Ambientt temperatture in C

2.Heat loss due


d to evaporation
n of water formed due to H2 in fuel (%) (L2)
):

Where:

M = kg moisture in fuel on 1 kg basis


s

Cp = Sp
pecific hea
at of superrheated ste
eam in kJ//kg C
Tf = Flu
ue gas tem
mperature in C

Ta = Am
mbient tem
mperature in C

2676 = Latent he
eat corresp
ponding to pressure of water v
vapour in k
kJ/kg

4. Heatt loss due


e to moistture present in airr (L4) :

Vapour in the form m of humidity in the e incoming g air, is sup


perheated as it pass
ses
throughh the boiler. Since th his heat paasses up thhe stack, it must be included a as a boilerr
loss. To
o relate thiis loss to the mass of
o coal burned, the m moisture co
ontent of tthe
combus stion air an
nd the amo ount of airr supplied per unit mmass of coaal burned must be
known. The mass s of vapourr that air contains
c caan be obta ained from
m psychometric
charts and
a typical values arre included d below:
ObserrvationTable
e:

Sr. No. Particular Re
eadings / Ob
bservations
1 Fuel Firing Rate (kg
g/hr)
2 Steam
m generation rate
r (kg/hr)
3 Steam
m pressure (ba
ar)
4 Steam
m temperature
e (C)
5 Feed water
w temperrature (C)
6 % CO2 in Flue gas
7 % CO in Flue gas
8 Averag
ge flue gas te
emperature (C)
(
9 Ambient temperatu
ure (C)

10 Humidity in ambien
nt air (kg /kg dry air)

11 Surfac
ce temperature of boiler (C)

12 Wind velocity
v aroun
nd the boiler (m/s)

13 Total surface
s area of boiler (m2
2)

14 GCV of
o Bottom ash
h (kJ/kg)
15 GCV of fly ash (kJ/kg)

16 Ratio of bottom ash to fly ash

Fuel Analysis (%)

1 Ash content in fuel

2 Moisture in coal

3 Carbon content

4 Nitrogen content

5 Oxygen content

6 GCV of Fuel (kJ/kg)


Ressult:

A. E
Efficiency of
o boiler byy using
o a. C
Coal Lignitte: ________________________
o b. C
Coal Anthrracite: ___________
_____________
o c. C
Coal Bitum
minous: __ ________
______________
o d. L
Light Dieseel Oil: ____
_________________
___
o e. F
Furnace Oill: _______ ________________

Inference

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