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Food Unit Operation 1 Lê Ngọc Liễu Office: A1-706 Email: lnlieu@hcmiu.edu.vn 1

Food Unit Operation 1

Lê Ngọc Liễu

Office: A1-706 Email: lnlieu@hcmiu.edu.vn

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Introduction

What is difference between food science and food technology?

Food science comprises different fundamental areas such as food chemistry, food physics, microbiology, preservation, food nutrition, food analysis

Technology is the output of the advanced usage of science, or called applied science process of making food product

Apple juice processing

process of making food product Apple juice processing Apple Receiving harvest W a s h i

Apple

Receiving

harvest

Washing/

Sorting

Grinding

Pressing

Separation/

Centrifugation

Filtration Pasteurization

Filling

Packaging

Unit operation

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Unit operation

Definition: a basic step in a process, in common with many industrial processes because it has common techniques and is based on the same scientific principles

Apple juice processing

on the same scientific principles Apple juice processing Apple Receiving harvest W a s h i

Apple

Receiving

harvest

Washing/

Sorting

Grinding

Pressing

Separation/

Centrifugation

Filtration Pasteurization

Filling

Packaging

Filling:

Pasteurization:

Filtration:

Unit operation - Classification

Depend on the nature of transformation

Physical stages: grinding, sieving, mixture, fluidization, sedimentation, flotation, filtration, rectification, absorption, extraction, adsorption, heat exchange, evaporation, drying, etc. Chemical stages: refining, chemical peeling Biochemical stages: fermentation, sterilization, pasteurization, enzymatic peeling

Depend on the nature of transferred property

Mass transfer: distillation, absorption, adsorption, extraction, ionic exchange. Heat transfer: sterilization, pasteurization, evaporation, heat exchanger, oven. Momentum transfer: pumps, compressors, blowers, fans, fluidization, sedimentation, filtration.

Simultaneous mass–heat transfer: Humidification and dehumidification, crystallization, dehydration

Complementary unit operations: grinding, milling, sieving, mixing of solids and pastes

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Course schedule

Week

Activity

1

Chapter 1: Introduction & Heat transfer

2

 

3

Chapter 2: Water in Foods

4

5

 

6

Chapter 3: Drying

7

8

Chapter 4: Freezing

9

Mid-term examination

10

Chapter 4: Freezing

11

 

12

Chapter 5: Heat preservation

13

14

 

15

Chapter 6: Irradiation

16

17

Back-up week

18

Final examination

Course evaluation

Method

Frequency

Percentage

Homework and lab report

3

30%

Mid-term exam

1

35%

Final exam

1

35%

Bonus

-

0.5-1 mark

References

1. Toledo, R.T. 1999. Fundamentals of Food Process Engineering, Aspen Publ. MD. USA

2. R. Paul Singh, Dennis R. Heldman. 2009. Introduction to food engineering. Academic Press. 4 th Edition.

3. Ibarz, A., Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V. 2003. Unit operations in food engineering, Boca Raton, Fla., CRC Press, 889p.

4. Evans J.A. 2008. Frozen Food Science and Technology. Wiley-blackwell Publishing

Table of content

Heat transfer
Heat transfer
Conduction
Conduction
Convection
Convection
Radiation
Radiation

Heat transfer

Heat as the form of energy that can be transferred from one system to another as a result of temperature difference.

The transfer of energy as heat is always from the higher-temperature medium to the lower-temperature one, and heat transfer stops when the two mediums reach the same temperature

Heat can be transferred in three basic modes:

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

Thermal properties of foods

Specific heat: quantity of heat that is gained or lost by a unit mass of product to accomplish a unit change in temperature, without a change in state

a unit change in temperature, without a change in state Q : heat gained or lost

Q: heat gained or lost (kJ) m: mass (kg) ΔT: temperature change in the material ( o C) c p : specific heat (kJ/[kg o C])

Thermal conductivity: amount of heat that will be conducted per unit time through a unit thickness of the material if a unit temperature gradient exists across that thickness

if a unit temperature gradient exists across that thickness Thermal diffusivity: a ratio involving thermal
if a unit temperature gradient exists across that thickness Thermal diffusivity: a ratio involving thermal

Thermal diffusivity: a ratio involving thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat

involving thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat α : thermal diffusivity (m 2 /s) ρ :

α: thermal diffusivity (m 2 /s) ρ: density (kg/m 3 )

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Conductive heat transfer

Conduction: the transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of interactions between the particles.

No physical movement of the object undergoing heat transfer

The rate of heat transfer depends on: Fourier’s law
The rate of heat transfer depends on:
Fourier’s law

Surface area of the wall (a wall with larger surface area will conduct more heat) Thermal properties of construction materials (steel will conduct more heat than brick) Wall thickness (more heat transfer through a thin wall than thick) Temperature difference (more heat transfer will occur when the outside temperature is much hotter than the inside room temperature)

: rate of heat flow in the direction of heat transfer by conduction (W) k: thermal conductivity (W/[m o C]) A: area (normal to the direction of heat transfer) through which heat flows (m 2 ) T: temperature ( o C) x: length (m)

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Typical units for Fourier equation

 

S.I

British

W

Btu/hr

A

m

2

ft 2

T

K or o C

o

F

x

m

ft

k

W/m K

(Btu/hr)(ft -1 )( o F) -1

Conversion:

1 W/m K = 0.578 Btu hr -1 ft -1 oF -1

1 Btu = 1055 J

Typical values for k

Typical values for k 13

Steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer

Steady-state condition: time has no influence on the temperature distribution within an object, although temperature may be different at different locations within the object.

Simple

Uncommon

different locations within the object. Simple Uncommon Rectangular slab Tubular pipe Composite rectangular wall

Rectangular slab Tubular pipe Composite rectangular wall Composite cylindrical tube

Rectangular slab Tubular pipe Composite rectangular wall Composite cylindrical tube
Rectangular slab Tubular pipe Composite rectangular wall Composite cylindrical tube
Rectangular slab Tubular pipe Composite rectangular wall Composite cylindrical tube

Unsteady-state condition:

temperature changes with location and time.

Rectangular slab

Fourier’s law

Rectangular slab Fourier’s law : rate of heat flow in the direction of heat transfer by

: rate of heat flow in the direction of heat transfer by

conduction (W) k: thermal conductivity (W/[m o C])

A: area (normal to the direction of heat transfer) through

which heat flows (m 2 ) T: temperature ( o C)

x: length (m)

Boundary conditions:

( o C) x : length (m) Boundary conditions: ∆ ∆ or ∆ ∆ Thermal resistance
( o C) x : length (m) Boundary conditions: ∆ ∆ or ∆ ∆ Thermal resistance

( o C) x : length (m) Boundary conditions: ∆ ∆ or ∆ ∆ Thermal resistance

or

Thermal resistance

or

conditions: ∆ ∆ or ∆ ∆ Thermal resistance ∆ o r ∆ Rate of heat transfer

Rate of heat transfer =

Driving force

Resistance

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Composite rectangular wall

We will now consider heat transfer through a composite wall made of several materials of different thermal conductivities and thicknesses. An example is a wall of a cold storage, constructed of different layers of materials of different insulating properties.

layers of materials of different insulating properties. R B R C R D Rate of heat

R B

R C

R D

Rate of heat transfer:

or:

+ +

Thermal resistance:

Tubular pipe

Tubular pipe R Fourier’s law in cylindrical coordinates may be written as Substituting for circumferential area

R

Fourier’s law in cylindrical coordinates may be written as

Substituting for circumferential area of the pipe

2

Boundary conditions:

as Substituting for circumferential area of the pipe 2 Boundary conditions: 2 π ln or ln
as Substituting for circumferential area of the pipe 2 Boundary conditions: 2 π ln or ln

as Substituting for circumferential area of the pipe 2 Boundary conditions: 2 π ln or ln

2π

ln

or

as Substituting for circumferential area of the pipe 2 Boundary conditions: 2 π ln or ln

ln

2

Thermal resistance

as Substituting for circumferential area of the pipe 2 Boundary conditions: 2 π ln or ln

ln

2

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Composite cylindrical tube

R A R B
R A
R B

+

or

ln

ln

2 + 2

Convective heat transfer

Convection: The mode of energy transfer between a solid surface and the adjacent liquid or gas that is in motion.

It involves the combined effects of conduction and fluid motion.

Two modes: forced or natural

conduction and fluid motion . Two modes: forced or natural The rate of heat transfer (Newton’s
conduction and fluid motion . Two modes: forced or natural The rate of heat transfer (Newton’s

The rate of heat transfer (Newton’s law):

or natural The rate of heat transfer (Newton’s law): h is the convective heat-transfer coefficient, W/(m

h is the convective heat-transfer coefficient, W/(m 2 o C)

the convective heat-transfer coefficient, W/(m 2 o C) 1 Thermal resistance: 1 U n i t

1

convective heat-transfer coefficient, W/(m 2 o C) 1 Thermal resistance: 1 U n i t s

Thermal resistance:

1

Units of h:

S.I.: W/m 2 K or J s -1 m -2 K -1 British: Btu hr -1 ft -2 oF -1 Conversion: 1 W/m 2 K = 0.176 Btu hr -1 ft -2 oF -1

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Estimation of overall heat-transfer coefficient

The figure involves heat transfer in a pipe that carries a fluid at a temperature greater than the temperature of the environment surrounding the outside of the pipe. In this case, heat must first transfer from the inside fluid by forced convection to the inside surface of the pipe, then by conduction through the pipe wall material, and finally by free convection from the outer pipe surface to the surrounding environment

from the outer pipe surface to the surrounding environment Rate of heat transfer: ∆ ∑ ∞

Rate of heat transfer:

Total thermal resistance:

+ +

1

+

ln

2π +

1

1

1

Total thermal resistance: + + 1 + ln 2 π + 1 1 1 ∞ ∞

+ + 1 + ln 2 π + 1 1 1 ∞ ∞ U i ,
+ + 1 + ln 2 π + 1 1 1 ∞ ∞ U i ,

Summary of heat equation

Heat:

Q: heat gained or lost (kJ) m: mass (kg) ΔT: temperature change in the material ( o C) c p : specific heat (kJ/[kg o C])

Rate of heat transfer in a fluid stream

o C]) Rate of heat transfer in a fluid stream ∆ : rate of heat transfer

: rate of heat transfer (kJ/s)

: mass flow rate (kg/s) ΔT: temperature change in the material ( o C) c p : specific heat (kJ/[kg o C])

To calculate

Rate of heat transfer if there is a phase change

H: enthalpy of phase change

Rate of heat transfer for a process

: enthalpy of phase change Rate of heat transfer for a process ∆ ∑ ∞ To

: enthalpy of phase change Rate of heat transfer for a process ∆ ∑ ∞ To

To calculate A i or to design equipment

Log mean temperature difference (LMTD)

Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) Assumption: 1. Heat transfer is under steady-state conditions. 2. The overall

Assumption:

1. Heat transfer is under steady-state conditions.

2. The overall heat-transfer coefficient is constant throughout the length of pipe.

3. There is no axial conduction of heat in the metal pipe.

4. The heat exchanger is well insulated. The heat exchange is between the two liquid streams flowing in the heat exchanger. There is negligible heat loss to the surroundings.

The duty of heat exchanger:

heat loss to the surroundings. The duty of heat exchanger: ∆ Log mean temperature difference between

Log mean temperature difference between cold and hot stream

ln

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Radiation heat transfer

Radiation heat transfer Radiation: The energy emitted by matter in the form of electromagnetic waves (or

Radiation: The energy emitted by matter in the form of electromagnetic waves (or photons)

Heat transfer by radiation is fastest (at the speed of light)

Different from conduction and convection, radiation does not require the presence of a material medium to take place.

All solids, liquids, and gases emit, absorb, or transmit radiation to varying degrees

All objects at a temperature above absolute zero emit thermal radiation

Rate of heat emission (or radiation)

emit thermal radiation Rate of heat emission (or radiation) σ : Stefan-Boltzmann constant, equal to 5.669x10

σ: Stefan-Boltzmann constant, equal to 5.669x10 -8 W/(m 2 K 4 ) T A : temperature, absolute (K) A: area (m 2 ) ε: emissivity, which describes the extent to which a surface is similar to a blackbody. For a blackbody, ε = 1

Example 1.1

The bottle of an aluminum kettle is 20 cm diameter and 1.2 mm thick. If water in the kettle is boiling off at 0.833 g/s, what is the temperature drop through the kettle bottom? Enthalpy of vaporization of water is 2260 kJ/kg. The thermal conductivity of aluminum is 204 W/m K

Given:

Equations used:

x = 1.2 mm = 1.2 x 10 -3 m

r = 20/2 = 10 cm = 10 x 10 -2 m

= 0.833 g/s = 0.833 x 10 -3 kg/s

π

H

v = 2260 kJ/kg

k

= 204 W/m K

Answer: T = 0.35 K

Example 1.2

A furnace wall is made of 230 mm thick layer of firebrick and a 75 mm layer of insulating brick, with thermal conductivities of 1.3 and 0.14 W/m K respectively. The inner surface is at 800 o C, the other at 40 o C.

a) What is the rate of heat loss per unit area through the wall?

b) What is the temperature at the junction of the two layers?

c) What is the rate of heat loss through a wall 6m x 6m under these conditions?

What assumptions are involved in your solutions?

230 mm 75 mm 800 o C T 2 k k 40 o C 2
230 mm
75 mm
800 o C
T
2
k
k
40 o C
2
1
Answer:

a)

b)

c)

/A = 1066.5 W/m 2

T 2 = 611.3 o C

= 38.4 kW

Given: x 1 = 230 mm = 230 x 10 -3 m x 2 = 75 mm = 75 x 10 -3 m k 1 = 1.3 W/m K k 1 = 0.14 W/m K T 1 = 800 o C T 3 = 40 o C

Equations used:

Example 1.3

Saturated steam at 800 kPa flows through a pipe of outside diameter 4.8 cm. The outside of the pipe is insulated with magnesia insulation, 5 cm thick; the thermal conductivity of the magnesia is 0.07 W/m K. The outside pipe surface of the insulation is at 35 o C. Calculate the rate of condensation of the steam in a 30 m length of pipe. The enthalpy of condensation of the steam at 800 kPa is 2040 kJ/kg.

r 1

r

r 1 ∆ r 170 o C

170 o C

35 o C

Answer:

= 0.78 kg/s

Given:

r 1 = 4.8/2 = 2.4 cm = 2.4 x 10 -2 m r = 5 cm = 5 x 10 -2 m

L = 30 m

T 1 = 170 o C T 2 = 35 o C

k = 0.07 W/m K

Equations used:

5 x 10 - 2 m L = 30 m T 1 = 170 o C

/ 2π

Example 1.4

The bottle of an aluminum kettle is 20 cm diameter and 1.2 mm thick. If water in the kettle is boiling off at 0.833 g/s. Find the flame temperature for the following values of heat transfer coefficients:

h i (boiling) = 4000 W/m 2 K and h o (gas flame) = 40 W/m 2 K Enthalpy of vaporization of water is 2260 kJ/kg. The thermal conductivity of aluminum is 204 W/m K

Given:

 

3 = 100 o C T

3 = 100 o C

T

 

Water

h

i

 
T 2

T

2

       
     

x

T 1

T

1

Flame

   
 

h

o

T o

T

o

x = 1.2 mm = 1.2 x 10 -3 m

r = 20/2 = 10 cm = 10 x 10 -2 m

= 0.833 g/s = 0.833 x 10 -3 kg/s

H v = 2260 kJ/kg

k = 204 W/m K

h

o = 40 W/m 2 K

h

i = 4000 W/m 2 K

Answer: T o = 1614 o C

Equations used:

π

1

1 + ∆

1

+

Example 1.5

There is a heat exchanger designed as below. How much area is required for the heat exchanger? With c p for oil is 0.74 Btu/lb m o F and U o for the steam is 150 Btu/(hr ft 2 o F)

Saturated steam Saturated water Hot 280 o F 280 o F Oil Cold 110 o
Saturated steam
Saturated water
Hot
280 o F
280 o F
Oil
Cold
110 o F, 900 lb m /min
Oil
35 o F, 900 lb m /min

Equations used:

ln

lb m /min Oil 35 o F, 900 lb m /min Equations used: ∆ ∆ ∆

Answer: 104 ft 2

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