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# Course in Machine Design

Fatigue I

Machine Design
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Arbejdskurver

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Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile
Materials

Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg Fatigue I
Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle
Materials

Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg Fatigue I
State of Stress

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Spndingskoncentration - Geometri

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Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Exercise 2 - reviewed
Determine characteristic properties and
nomenclature for the steel S235J2
Illustrate the stress-strain curve
Indicate characteristic properties on the
curve created in the previous
Is this a ductile or a brittle type steel
material? Why?

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Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Failure Modes
Yielding
Ductile rupture
Brittle fracture
Fatigue
Corrosion
Wear
Impact
Creep
Buckling
Stress corrosion (synergistic)
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Plane Stress
Plane Stress - state of stress in which two faces of
the cubic element are free of stress. For the
illustrated example, the state of stress is defined by

x , y , xy and z = zx = zy = 0.

## State of plane stress occurs in a thin plate subjected

to forces acting in the midplane of the plate.

## State of plane stress also occurs on the free surface

of a structural element or machine component, i.e.,
at any point of the surface not subjected to an
external force.

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Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials
Under Plane Stress
Failure of a machine component subjected to
uniaxial stress is directly predicted from an
equivalent tensile test
Failure of a machine component subjected to
plane stress cannot be directly predicted from
the uniaxial state of stress in a tensile test
specimen
It is convenient to determine the principal
stresses and to base the failure criteria on the
corresponding biaxial stress state

## Failure criteria are based on the mechanism

of failure. Allows comparison of the failure
conditions for a uniaxial stress test and

## Machine Design Fatigue I 11

Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials
Under Plane Stress
Maximum shearing stress criteria:
Structural component is safe as long as the
maximum shearing stress is less than the
maximum shearing stress in a tensile test
specimen at yield, i.e.,

max < Y = Y
2

## For a and b with the same sign,

a b
max = or < Y
2 2 2
For a and b with opposite signs,
a b
max = < Y
2 2
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Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials
Under Plane Stress
Maximum distortion energy criteria:
Structural component is safe as long as the
distortion energy per unit volume is less
than that occurring in a tensile test specimen
at yield.

ud < uY
1 2
6G
(
a a b + b2 < )
1 2
6G
(
Y Y 0 + 02 )
a2 a b + b2 < Y2

## Machine Design Fatigue I 13

Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Fracture Criteria for Brittle
Materials Under Plane Stress
Brittle materials fail suddenly through rupture
or fracture in a tensile test. The failure
condition is characterized by the ultimate
strength U.

## Maximum normal stress criteria:

Structural component is safe as long as the
maximum normal stress is less than the
ultimate strength of a tensile test specimen.
a < U
b < U

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Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
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Failure Modes
Yielding
Ductile rupture
Brittle fracture
Fatigue
Corrosion
Wear
Impact
Creep
Buckling
Stress corrosion (synergistic)
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Characterization of Fatigue
Fatigue - a distinct failure mode:
Apparently brittle even in ductile materials
Sudden and catastrophic
Result of initiation and propagation of a crack
Fatigue is failure due to time-varying stresses

## Machine Design Fatigue I 18

Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Historical Overview 1 of 5
1840s Failure of railroad axles - stress
concentration at shoulders
1850s-1860s: Whler, Germany, The father of
systematic fatigue testing introduced S-N
diagram which we use in much the same form
1870s-1890s: Gerber and Goodman provide
analysis tools to account for superimposed
mean and alternating stresses

## Machine Design Fatigue I 19

Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Historical Overview 2 of 5
1920s Gough examined slip lines and
analyzed the mechanisms of fatigue
1920s Griffith studied brittle fracture
s a = constant

## s = nominal stress at fracture

a = crack size at fracture

## Machine Design Fatigue I 20

Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Historical Overview 3 of 5
1930s Haigh - notch strain analysis
1930s Almen - shot peening to create residual
compressive surface stresses
1937 Neuber - elementary block concept:
Size effect -inch diameter stronger than 2-inch
diameter
1945 Miner - cumulative damage concept to
account for stress regime of varying amplitude
(suggested in 1924 by Palmgren)

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Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Historical Overview 4 of 5
1950s Introduction of closed loop control fatigue
testing machines and electron microscopes
1950s Irwin introduced stress intensity factor,
the basis for linear elastic fracture mechanics
(LEFM)
1960s Manson and Coffin - LCF
1960s Paris - crack growth per cycle:
dA
= A(K ) n
dN
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Fatigue failure
Fatigue failures more common than static
Always begins at crack
Occurs in three stages
Crack initiation
Crack propagation
Fracture

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Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Fatigue failure

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S-N-P diagram
Strength vs. Log of life
or
Log of strength vs. Log of life
Each curve is for a constant probability (p)
of failure
Sometimes called RSN curves: R=
reliability, R=1-p

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Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Uendelig

Endelig

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Types of fatigue
High-cycle fatigue (HCF)
Stress controlled, >10,000 cycles
Low cycle fatigue (LCF)
Strain controlled, <10,000 cycles
Thermal fatigue
Surface fatigue
Rolling contact
Pitting, spalling, cracking (wear)
Impact fatigue
Corrosion fatigue
Fretting fatigue
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Fatigue Design Approaches
Infinite life design
Based of fatigue limit
Safe life design
Finite life design
Implies life can be predicted
Need safety margin to account for uncertainties
SNP curves: P=probability
Fail-safe design

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Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Fail safe design
Recognizes some structural damage is
inevitable - relies on detection and repair of
cracks before failure
Residual strength after crack
Provides a degree of fail-safety
Damage tolerant design is and extension of fail
slow crack growth - high fracture toughness
Example pressure vessel leak before burst
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Fatigue Limit
Steels and titanium exhibit a knee in the
S-N diagram - fatigue strength levels off
after perhaps 107 cycles
Also termed endurance limit Se

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Generating SN diagrams
Several stress amplitudes are selected
Multiple samples at each stress level
Number of failed specimens vs. log life is
assumed to be a log normal distribution
Connect points of equal probability

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Use of S-N-P diagrams
Used to determine fatigue strength for a given
number of cycles
Fatigue strength is meaningful only when
number of cycles is specified
S-N diagram gives information based on
polished, uniform size, uniform composition
samples in a controlled environment
Engineers must adjust the fatigue strength
based on service conditions

## Machine Design Fatigue I 45

Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Factors affecting S-N-P
diagrams 1 of 2
Material composition
Grain size
Fine-grained are superior at room temp
Trans-granular fracture path
At high temperature coarse grained superior
Intergranular fracture path
Grain direction
Heat treatment (material condition)
Welding

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Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Factors affecting S-N-P
diagrams 2 of 2
Geometrical discontinuities
Surface finish and surface treatment
Size
Residual stresses
Environment
Mean stress

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Mean Stress Affects
Modified Goodman Diagram drawn for a
particular life, N=N1 cycles
Plot alternating stress versus mean stress
Soderberg and Gerber are other similar
relationships

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Eksempler
Eksempel p statisk analyse se RN Case study 1C s.287
Eksempel p statisk analyse se RN Case study 2C s.290
Eksempel p statisk analyse se RN Case study 3C s.293
Eksempel p statisk analyse se RN Case study 4C s.296
Eksempel p definition af en S-N kurve se RN Eksempel 6-1 s.357
Eksempel p definition af en S-N kurve se RN Eksempel 6-2 s.359
Beregningsgang for udmattelsesberegning se RN s.372
Beregningsgang for udmattelsesberegning se RN s.389
Eksempel p udmattelsesberegning se RN Eksempel 6-5 s.391
Eksempel p udmattelsesberegning se RN Eksempel 6-6 s.404
Eksempel p udmattelsesberegning se RN Case study s.408

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