Sie sind auf Seite 1von 58

Course in Machine Design

Fatigue I

Machine Design
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Arbejdskurver

Machine Design Fatigue I 2


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile
Materials

Machine Design Stress & Strain: Axial Loading 3


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg Fatigue I
Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle
Materials

Machine Design Stress & Strain: Axial Loading 4


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg Fatigue I
State of Stress

Machine Design Fatigue I 5


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Spndingskoncentration - Geometri

Machine Design Fatigue I 6


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Exercise 2 - reviewed
Determine characteristic properties and
nomenclature for the steel S235J2
Illustrate the stress-strain curve
Indicate characteristic properties on the
curve created in the previous
Is this a ductile or a brittle type steel
material? Why?

Machine Design Fatigue I 7


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Failure Modes
Yielding
Ductile rupture
Brittle fracture
Fatigue
Corrosion
Wear
Impact
Creep
Buckling
Stress corrosion (synergistic)
Machine Design Fatigue I 8
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Plane Stress
Plane Stress - state of stress in which two faces of
the cubic element are free of stress. For the
illustrated example, the state of stress is defined by

x , y , xy and z = zx = zy = 0.

State of plane stress occurs in a thin plate subjected


to forces acting in the midplane of the plate.

State of plane stress also occurs on the free surface


of a structural element or machine component, i.e.,
at any point of the surface not subjected to an
external force.

Machine Design Fatigue I 9


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 10
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials
Under Plane Stress
Failure of a machine component subjected to
uniaxial stress is directly predicted from an
equivalent tensile test
Failure of a machine component subjected to
plane stress cannot be directly predicted from
the uniaxial state of stress in a tensile test
specimen
It is convenient to determine the principal
stresses and to base the failure criteria on the
corresponding biaxial stress state

Failure criteria are based on the mechanism


of failure. Allows comparison of the failure
conditions for a uniaxial stress test and
biaxial component loading

Machine Design Fatigue I 11


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials
Under Plane Stress
Maximum shearing stress criteria:
Structural component is safe as long as the
maximum shearing stress is less than the
maximum shearing stress in a tensile test
specimen at yield, i.e.,

max < Y = Y
2

For a and b with the same sign,


a b
max = or < Y
2 2 2
For a and b with opposite signs,
a b
max = < Y
2 2
Machine Design Fatigue I 12
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials
Under Plane Stress
Maximum distortion energy criteria:
Structural component is safe as long as the
distortion energy per unit volume is less
than that occurring in a tensile test specimen
at yield.

ud < uY
1 2
6G
(
a a b + b2 < )
1 2
6G
(
Y Y 0 + 02 )
a2 a b + b2 < Y2

Machine Design Fatigue I 13


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Fracture Criteria for Brittle
Materials Under Plane Stress
Brittle materials fail suddenly through rupture
or fracture in a tensile test. The failure
condition is characterized by the ultimate
strength U.

Maximum normal stress criteria:


Structural component is safe as long as the
maximum normal stress is less than the
ultimate strength of a tensile test specimen.
a < U
b < U

Machine Design Fatigue I 14


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 15
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 16
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Failure Modes
Yielding
Ductile rupture
Brittle fracture
Fatigue
Corrosion
Wear
Impact
Creep
Buckling
Stress corrosion (synergistic)
Machine Design Fatigue I 17
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Characterization of Fatigue
Fatigue - a distinct failure mode:
Apparently brittle even in ductile materials
Sudden and catastrophic
Result of initiation and propagation of a crack
Fatigue is failure due to time-varying stresses

Machine Design Fatigue I 18


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Historical Overview 1 of 5
1840s Failure of railroad axles - stress
concentration at shoulders
1850s-1860s: Whler, Germany, The father of
systematic fatigue testing introduced S-N
diagram which we use in much the same form
1870s-1890s: Gerber and Goodman provide
analysis tools to account for superimposed
mean and alternating stresses

Machine Design Fatigue I 19


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Historical Overview 2 of 5
1920s Gough examined slip lines and
analyzed the mechanisms of fatigue
1920s Griffith studied brittle fracture
s a = constant

s = nominal stress at fracture


a = crack size at fracture

Machine Design Fatigue I 20


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Historical Overview 3 of 5
1930s Haigh - notch strain analysis
1930s Almen - shot peening to create residual
compressive surface stresses
1937 Neuber - elementary block concept:
Size effect -inch diameter stronger than 2-inch
diameter
1945 Miner - cumulative damage concept to
account for stress regime of varying amplitude
(suggested in 1924 by Palmgren)

Machine Design Fatigue I 21


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Historical Overview 4 of 5
1950s Introduction of closed loop control fatigue
testing machines and electron microscopes
1950s Irwin introduced stress intensity factor,
the basis for linear elastic fracture mechanics
(LEFM)
1960s Manson and Coffin - LCF
1960s Paris - crack growth per cycle:
dA
= A(K ) n
dN
Machine Design Fatigue I 22
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Fatigue failure
Fatigue failures more common than static
Due to multiple loadings of material
Always begins at crack
Occurs in three stages
Crack initiation
Crack propagation
Fracture

Machine Design Fatigue I 23


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Fatigue failure

Machine Design Fatigue I 24


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 25
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 26
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 27
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 28
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 29
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 30
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
S-N-P diagram
Strength vs. Log of life
or
Log of strength vs. Log of life
Each curve is for a constant probability (p)
of failure
Sometimes called RSN curves: R=
reliability, R=1-p

Machine Design Fatigue I 31


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Uendelig

Endelig

Machine Design Fatigue I 32


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 33
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Types of fatigue
High-cycle fatigue (HCF)
Stress controlled, >10,000 cycles
Low cycle fatigue (LCF)
Strain controlled, <10,000 cycles
Thermal fatigue
Surface fatigue
Rolling contact
Pitting, spalling, cracking (wear)
Impact fatigue
Corrosion fatigue
Fretting fatigue
Machine Design Fatigue I 34
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 35
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Fatigue Design Approaches
Infinite life design
Based of fatigue limit
Safe life design
Finite life design
Implies life can be predicted
Need safety margin to account for uncertainties
SNP curves: P=probability
Fail-safe design
Redundancy-low weight, adequate safety

Machine Design Fatigue I 36


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Fail safe design
Recognizes some structural damage is
inevitable - relies on detection and repair of
cracks before failure
Uses multiple load paths
Residual strength after crack
Provides a degree of fail-safety
Damage tolerant design is and extension of fail
safe design incorporating materials that have
slow crack growth - high fracture toughness
Example pressure vessel leak before burst
Machine Design Fatigue I 37
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Fatigue Limit
Steels and titanium exhibit a knee in the
S-N diagram - fatigue strength levels off
after perhaps 107 cycles
Also termed endurance limit Se

Machine Design Fatigue I 38


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 39
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Generating SN diagrams
Several stress amplitudes are selected
Multiple samples at each stress level
Number of failed specimens vs. log life is
assumed to be a log normal distribution
Connect points of equal probability

Machine Design Fatigue I 40


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 41
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 42
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 43
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 44
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Use of S-N-P diagrams
Used to determine fatigue strength for a given
number of cycles
Fatigue strength is meaningful only when
number of cycles is specified
S-N diagram gives information based on
polished, uniform size, uniform composition
samples in a controlled environment
Engineers must adjust the fatigue strength
based on service conditions

Machine Design Fatigue I 45


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Factors affecting S-N-P
diagrams 1 of 2
Material composition
Grain size
Fine-grained are superior at room temp
Trans-granular fracture path
At high temperature coarse grained superior
Intergranular fracture path
Single crystal turbine blades
Grain direction
Heat treatment (material condition)
Welding

Machine Design Fatigue I 46


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Factors affecting S-N-P
diagrams 2 of 2
Geometrical discontinuities
Surface finish and surface treatment
Size
Residual stresses
Environment
Mean stress

Machine Design Fatigue I 47


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 48
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 49
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 50
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 51
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 52
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Mean Stress Affects
Modified Goodman Diagram drawn for a
particular life, N=N1 cycles
Plot alternating stress versus mean stress
Soderberg and Gerber are other similar
relationships

Machine Design Fatigue I 53


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 54
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 55
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 56
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Machine Design Fatigue I 57
Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg
Eksempler
Eksempel p statisk analyse se RN Case study 1C s.287
Eksempel p statisk analyse se RN Case study 2C s.290
Eksempel p statisk analyse se RN Case study 3C s.293
Eksempel p statisk analyse se RN Case study 4C s.296
Eksempel p definition af en S-N kurve se RN Eksempel 6-1 s.357
Eksempel p definition af en S-N kurve se RN Eksempel 6-2 s.359
Beregningsgang for udmattelsesberegning se RN s.372
Beregningsgang for udmattelsesberegning se RN s.389
Eksempel p udmattelsesberegning se RN Eksempel 6-5 s.391
Eksempel p udmattelsesberegning se RN Eksempel 6-6 s.404
Eksempel p udmattelsesberegning se RN Case study s.408

Machine Design Fatigue I 58


Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg