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Chapter 5.

Waterproofing of basements and
other below ground structures
5.4 Waterproofing of basements and other below ground structures


DESIGN Clause Page This Chapter gives guidance on meeting the Technical
D1 Design standards D1 2 Requirements and recommendations for the waterproofing
of basements and other structures below (or near to) ground
D2 Statutory requirements D2 2
level. It includes guidance for walls, floors and foundations
D3 Engineer design D3 2 intended to prevent the passage of moisture into the building,
D4 Structural design D4 2 and considers water from the ground and other sources
D5 Waterproofing design D5 3 that could reasonably be expected during the design life
of the building.
D6 Ground conditions D6 3
D7 Specific design considerations D7 3
D8 Provision of information D8 5 INTRODUCTION

MATERIALS Below ground constructions that generally require

Materials standards M1 5 waterproofing include: depth varies
Waterproofing systems M2 5 basements
semi basements
SITEWORK below ground parking areas
lift pits
Sitework standards S1 6
Installation standards S2 6 storage or plant rooms
Handling, storage and protection S3 6 service ducts or similar that are connected to the below
ground structure

Handover requirements structures S4 6

adjacent to stepped floor slabs where the step is greater than 150mm.
voids where
void water may
Near to ground constructions that may require

Ground conditions investigations 7 waterproofing include:
external walls where the lowest finished floor level is less
INDEX 7 than 150mm higher than the external ground level.
Guidance for the following types of waterproofing systems is
included in this Chapter:
depth varies Type A waterproofing barriers
Type B structurally integral construction.
Type C drained cavity construction.

depth varies

CONSTRUCTIONS Semi-basement Retaining walls

lowest finished floor level is generally less
than 150mm above the external ground level
forming lightwells
(guidance examples
acceptableof construction
detailing types
of the junction

between timber
generally framed walls
requiring and external ground
can also be found in Chapter 6.2 External timber
framed walls)
buried podium (guidance for roof coverings,

Dashed red line indicates where

depth varies including green roofs, can be found in
waterproofing should be considered.
Chapter 7.1 Flat roofs and balconies)
Solid red line indicates where
waterproofing is required. buried podium (guidance for roof coverings,
Stairs adjacent to Buried podium
including green roofs, can be found in
Chapter 7.1 Flat roofs and balconies)
the structure

buried podium (guidance for roof coverings,

depth varies including green roofs, can be found in
Chapter 7.1 Flat roofs and balconies)

Page 1 Chapter 5.4 2015

including green roofs, can be found in
Chapterpodium (guidance
7.1 Flat roofs andfor roof coverings,
including green roofs, can be found in
Chapter 7.1 Flat roofs and balconies)

Waterproofing of basements and other below ground structures

buried podium (guidance for roof coverings,
adjacent to
voids where
water mayto
including green roofs, can be found in void
voids where
Chapter 7.1 Flat roofs and balconies) water may
THIS CHAPTER 5.4 D1 Design shall meet the
Technical Requirements structures
Cavity drain membrane adjacent to
Semi-flexible sheet, designed to form a voids where
Design that follows the guidance below
water may
cavity, that intercepts water penetrating will be acceptable for the waterproofing
accumulate of
the structure, and directs it to a suitable basements and below ground structures,
drainage point. See Type C drained including foundations, walls and floors.
cavity construction.
Further guidance can be found in ,
Fully bonded barrier Basements for Dwellings; Guidance
Lift pit Type A barrier that forms part of a Document published by The Basement
composite with the structural wall. Includes lowest finished
Information floor level is generally less
than 150mm above the external ground level
liquid applied and cementitious systems. lowest finished floor level is generally less

Note: post-applied sheet membranes are STATUTORY

than 150mm above the external ground level

lift lift

not considered to be fully bonded barriers (guidance for acceptable detailing of the junction
between timber framed walls and external ground
for the purposes of this Chapter. (guidance for acceptable detailing of the junction
alsobeD2 Design
found shall
in Chapter 6.2comply
External with all
between timber framed walls and external ground
framed walls)
Ground barrier canrelevant
also be foundstatutory
in Chapterrequirements
6.2 External timber
A barrier used to resist the ingress of framed walls) Dashed red line indicates where
lowest should be inlevel
finished Dashed
floor shouldwith
be considered.
moisture and/or ground gasses into redisline
generally lesswhere
than 150mm building
above regulations
the external
should level
the building. Solid red line indicates where
statutory requirements.
waterproofing is required.
Solid red line indicates where
Lowest finished floor level Note
Design should take accountis of
waterproofing regulatory

The top surface of the lowest finished (guidance for acceptable detailing of the junction
guidance to avoid thermal bridging.
Stepped floor slab floor (excluding coverings such as
between timber framed walls and external ground
can also be found in Chapter 6.2 External timber
carpet and tiles).
framed walls)

Note: this includes lift pit floors, car park Dashed red line indicates where
5.4 D3 Design of structural
waterproofing shouldelements
be considered.
surfaces and other similar surfaces.
of below ground waterproofing
Solid red line indicates where
Type A waterproofing barrier structures shall be undertaken
waterproofing by
is required.
A waterproofing barrier applied to the an engineer and take account of the
structural element being waterproofed. characteristics of the site, its ground
Also known as tanking. conditions and any hazards

stepped floor slabs (where the Type B structurally integral construction Parts of the building constructed below
step is greater than 150mm)
The water-resistant properties of ground level that form the structural
stepped floor slabs (where the
step is greater than 150mm) the retaining structure, providing elements of usable spaces should be
designed by an engineer in accordance
Split levels waterproofing to the building.
with Technical Requirement R5
Note: this Chapter provides specific (see Chapter 1.1 Introduction and Technical
guidance for the use of Type B concrete Requirements) where they are retaining
systems cast in-situ, with or without more than 600mm.
structures waterproofing admixtures. Where
stepped floor slabs (where the adjacent to
step is greater than 150mm) structures appropriate, the principles are also STRUCTURAL DESIGN
voids where
adjacent to
water may applicable to other Type B systems listed
voids where
accumulate in BS 8102. 5.4 - D4 All elements forming a below
void water may
ground waterproofing structure including
Type C drained cavity construction foundations, walls and floors, shall be
Construction that incorporates a cavity, designed to adequately resist
normally formed with a cavity drain movement and be suitable for
membrane. Water is removed from the their intended purpose
Raised external cavity via a managed drainage system.
Where appropriate, the design of below
ground levels Waterproofing design specialist ground structures should take account
A suitably qualified person co-ordinating of other Chapters including:
the team involved in the design of
waterproofing to basements and other 4.1 Land quality managing
below ground structures. ground conditions
4.2 Building near trees
Waterproofing system 5.1 Substructure and ground
A fully assessed and certified system of bearing floors.
lowest finished floor level is generally less
than 150mm above the external ground level compatible materials and components
lowest finished floor level is generally less
than 150mm above the external ground level
used to provide waterproofing. These are
normally considered to be Type A, B or C
(guidance for acceptable detailing of the junction as defined above.
between timber framed walls and external ground
(guidance forfound
can also be acceptable detailing
in Chapter of the junction
6.2 External timber
between timber framed walls and external ground
framed walls)
can also be found in Chapter 6.2 External timber
framed walls) Dashed red line indicates where
waterproofing should be considered.
Dashed red line indicates where
waterproofing should bewhere
Solid red line indicates considered.
waterproofing is required.
2015 Solid red line indicates where Chapter 5.4 Page 2
waterproofing is required.
5.4 Waterproofing of basements and other below ground structures

Items to be taken into account include: The waterproofing design specialist should appropriate investigations, including those
be appointed early in the design phase to listed in the table contained in Appendix A.
(a) structural stability co-ordinate with other designers, including The results of the investigations should
The design should take account of all the engineer, to ensure satisfactory be taken into account by the engineer and
imposed loads and actions including: integration of the waterproofing system the waterproofing design specialist, and
into the building. considered in the design.
ground movement
lateral forces from ground water, Design information should be provided in Where it is necessary to establish the
retained ground and ground accordance with Clause D8. likely level of the water table, a detailed
surcharge loads hydrogeological assessment should be
buoyancy Further guidance for the design of
undertaken by a suitably qualified engineer.
loading from other parts of the building waterproofing systems can be found
temporary loading conditions. in BS 8102. The assessment should include long-term
water level monitoring over at least one
(b) durability (b) risk-based design year to capture seasonal fluctuations and
The structure should be designed to Waterproofing design should be appropriate short- term flooding events that typically
be sufficiently durable against site to the risk and generally assume exposure occur during autumn and spring.
hazards, including: to a full height of water during the design The assessment should be from a suitable
life of the building. Where Grade 3 number of boreholes monitored at a
chemicals protection (see Clause D7(a)) is required, minimum of three-month intervals.
frost action and the below ground wall retains more
cyclical wet-dry conditions. than 600mm, measured from the lowest
finished floor level, the waterproofing
(c) movement design should include a combination of 5.4 D7 Design of waterproofing to all
Movement within the structure should two of the Types of waterproofing systems elements (including walls, floors
be limited to the capacity of the detailed in Clause D7(b). For the purpose of and foundations) forming a below ground
waterproofing systems resistance to such this Chapter combined systems include: structure shall be suitable for the
movement, ensuring that the designed intended use
level of watertightness is achieved. Where Type A and Type B

appropriate, detailed guidance for the Type A and Type C Items to be taken into account include:
limitation of movement should be provided. Type B and Type C
(a) level of waterproofing protection
Movement joints in below ground Alternatively, where the builder has Waterproofing systems should be designed
waterproofed walls should be avoided. demonstrated that the water table is to resist the passage of water/moisture
However, where it is necessary to provide permanently below the underside of the to the internal surfaces of walls, floors
movement joints, the design should ensure lowest floor slab (see Clause D6), a Type and ceilings. The level of protection
satisfactory in-service performance, B structurally integral concrete system in against water/moisture reaching the
including watertightness. Such joints should accordance with D7(b) is acceptable without internal surfaces should be appropriate
be accessible for maintenance, e.g. not further protection from a combined system. for the proposed use of the internal space,
permanently concealed by other structural including equipment located within it.
Where Grade 2 waterproofing is required
elements of the building.
to walls retaining ground greater than Waterproofing grades:
Guidance for limitations of crack widths for 600mm, Type A systems that are not fully
Type B concrete waterproofing systems can bonded should only be used as part of a Grade 3
be found in Clause D7(b). combined system. Habitable accommodation should be
designed to Grade 3 described in
BS 8102 as no water penetration
(d) design co-ordination GROUND CONDITIONS acceptable and a dry environment
Structural design should be co-ordinated
with the design of the waterproofing in 5.4 D6 Design of the waterproofing provided if maintained by
accordance with Clause D5(a). system shall take account of adequate ventilation,
ground conditions Grade 2
Non-habitable areas, such as parking
WATERPROOFING DESIGN Design of the waterproofing system
areas, storage or plant rooms, where
5.4 D5 Waterproofing design shall be should fully consider existing ground
the internal finishes are not readily
conditions. Any likely changes, should be
undertaken by suitably qualified persons damaged by moisture should be
established and, where requested, a report
and be appropriate for the specific designed to Grade 2 described in
provided to NHBC where the below ground
performance required BS 8102 as no water penetration is
waterproofed structure is:
acceptable although damp areas
Items to be taken into account include:
retaining more than 600mm of ground, are tolerated.
(a) waterproofing design measured from the top of the retained Some water ingress may occur where
Waterproofing systems should be designed ground to the lowest finished floor level openings are provided in car parks,
by a waterproofing design specialist. more than 15% of the perimeter of e.g. for ventilation. In such cases, to
an individual building measured on minimise the potential for standing
Designers who have successfully completed plan (terraced homes and apartment water (see Chapter 1.2 A consistent
the Certified Surveyor in Structural blocks should be considered as a single approach to finishes). The car park
Waterproofing (CSSW) qualification building, separate buildings such as should be provided with drainage to
available from the Property Care detached garages should be a suitable outfall.
Association (PCA) would normally be considered individually). Grade 1
acceptable to NHBC.
Retaining walls typically used to form
The ground conditions report should take
An alternative demonstration of external lightwells should be designed to
into account Chapter 4.1 Land quality
competence may be acceptable to NHBC, provide Grade 1 protection, described in
managing ground conditions and other
subject to successful review. BS 8102 as Some seepage and damp

Page 3 Chapter 5.4 2015

Waterproofing of basements and other below ground structures 5.4
areas are tolerable, dependent on for the specific purpose should be used Ready-mixed concrete will only be
intended use. Drainage may also be internally or in sandwich constructions. acceptable from suppliers operating a full
required to deal with seepage. quality control system, which ensures that
Externally applied membranes to
the concrete specified is delivered.
waterproofed walls forming a return
Where there is any doubt about use,
should continue around the return to Suppliers of ready-mixed concrete
Grade 3 protection should be provided.
prevent water tracking back through operating under the Quality Scheme for
(b) waterproofing systems, materials the structure. Ready mixed Concrete (QSRMC) or BSI
and components Kitemark scheme are acceptable.
Design at junctions and corners should
Proprietary waterproofing systems, include for proprietary components such Other suppliers of ready-mixed concrete
materials and components should be as reinforcement in accordance with the may be accepted if their operations are to
assessed in accordance with manufacturers recommendations an equivalent quality standard acceptable
Technical Requirement R3. (see Clause S2(d)). to NHBC.
Components forming the waterproofing Joints between components, including
system should be predefined and assessed Type B Structural integral day work joints, should be durable and
to demonstrate suitable performance. construction watertight and include appropriate
The assessment should specificity waterstops or hydrophilic strips. Kickers,
consider compatibility where materials General information: usually cast as part of the slab, should be
and components are intended to be Type B systems acceptable to NHBC include: used to form the joint between floors
interchangeable between systems. and walls.
in-situ concrete with or without
The project-specific design and admixtures and crack widths limited Suitable quality management systems and
construction documentation should by design quality audits should be used to record
detail waterproofing systems, materials in-situ high-strength concrete with crack and monitor the placement of concrete.
and components in accordance with the widths limited by design and Monitoring records should be supplied to
manufacturers recommendations. post-construction crack injection NHBC upon request.
pre-cast concrete systems assessed
Design, including the selection of the Design details for reinforced concrete
in accordance with Technical

waterproofing system, should take structures should include:
Requirement R3.
into account all likely ground and
weather conditions. concrete specification
Specialist advice should be sought where
the type of concrete
The following should be considered for the other Type B systems are specified.
concrete strength
design of specific waterproofing systems: proportion of any admixture
proposals for limiting crack widths
Type A Waterproofing type and position of reinforcement
consideration of temporary support to
barrier waterproof the formwork
Type A systems generally accepted by reinforced
the method of making good holes in the
NHBC when assessed in accordance with concrete formed for shutter bolts and
Technical Requirement R3 include: tie bars
bonded sheet membranes positioning of structural elements
liquid-applied membranes appropriate tolerances for the line and
geosynthetic (bentonite) clay liners level of structural elements.
mastic asphalt
cementitious systems The concrete mix should be agreed between
pre-applied fully bonded systems. the engineer and the waterproofing design
Type B structure specialist, and should achieve the necessary
external waterproofing robustness, durability and waterproofing.
with protection BS 8102 contains guidance for the use
of Type B systems, including secant piled,
contiguous piled and sheet piled. Concrete with admixtures:
Where the design of in-situ concrete
Structural design should be undertaken by
waterproofing includes admixtures:
an engineer in accordance with Technical
Requirement R5 (see Clause D3). the reinforcement should limit crack
widths to 0.3mm for flexural cracks and
The design of in-situ Type B concrete
0.2mm for cracks that pass
systems should be in accordance with BS
through the section
EN 1992-1-1 and BS EN 1992-3. Reference
the ratio of admixture to concrete
should be made to Chapter 2.1 Concrete
specified in the design should take
and its reinforcement. Further guidance
account of the recommendations of the
acceptable to NHBC may be found in
Type A structure - tanked protection admixture supplier
the Mineral Products Association (MPA)
suitable quality management systems
The substrate to which the Type A system publication Concrete basements.
and quality audits should be used to
is to be applied should be compatible Guidance on the design and construction of
record and monitor the batching
and prepared in accordance with the in-situ concrete basement structures.
of admixture.
manufacturers recommendations. The design of in-situ concrete systems
should be suitable for the environmental Admixtures should be independently
Only fully bonded systems assessed in
exposure and ground conditions. assessed, in accordance with Technical
accordance with Technical Requirement R3
Requirement R3, specifically for the

2015 Chapter 5.4 Page 4

5.4 Waterproofing of basements and other below ground structures

intended use, and used strictly in waterproofing system and (f) protection from ongoing works
accordance with the manufacturers superstructure damp proofing Design should consider the risk of damage
recommendations. horizontal and vertical waterproofing being caused by ongoing works.
waterproofing system components.
Details of suitable protection measures
Concrete without admixtures: should be included in the design. Items to
The design should detail proprietary
Where the design of in-situ concrete be taken into account include:
components for complex junctions.
waterproofing does not include admixtures:
the fixing of other components, such as
high-strength concrete may be (d) interface with the above skirtings, wall ties and wall linings
specified in order to achieve the ground structure the protection of the waterproofing
necessary level of waterproofing, Waterproofing should extend at least from backfilling.
but post-construction crack injection 150mm above the external ground level
where it connects with the superstructure.
may be required in order to deal with
Where appropriate, this can be achieved
cracking induced by increased
thermal and shrinkage strains by linking the below ground waterproofing INFORMATION
the reinforcement should limit crack system to a continuous cavity tray.
5.4 D8 Designs and specifications
widths to 0.2mm for both flexural The connection between the below and shall be produced in a clearly
cracks and for cracks that pass above ground waterproofing should be understandable format and include all
through the section bonded and formed with appropriate relevant information
a minimum section thickness of 250mm materials (see Clause M2(d)).
should be used in the design. Designs and specifications should include:
a full set of current drawings
Type C Drained cavity details of joints, junctions and
construction service penetrations
the manufacturers information,
Type C systems that include a cavity drain including relevant parts of the system
membrane, which forms a waterproof cavity tray design manual
barrier, are acceptable to NHBC when

an installation method statement

assessed in accordance with Technical detailing the sequence of works
Requirement R3. Where the Type C system a ground condition report
is formed using a drained masonry cavity third-party certifications
wall, the guidance in BS 8102 should external
information detailed in Clause D7(b)
be considered. details of the waterproofing
habitable area
design specialist.

continuous Design and specification information

drained Example of linking waterproofing with DPC/cavity tray
cavity should be:
(e) penetrations through the
provided to NHBC at least 8 weeks in
waterproofing system advance of the works starting on site,
The design should avoid penetrations in accordance with NHBC Rules
through the waterproofing system. However, available on site
where penetrations cannot be avoided, distributed to all relevant personnel.
the design should detail the method of
waterproofing to ensure it is watertight and
durable. Penetrations include those for wall MATERIALS STANDARDS
sump discharging ties, services and drainage systems.
to suitable outlet
Penetrations should be suitably separated 5.4 - M1 All materials shall:
to allow for proprietary seals to be correctly (a) meet the Technical Requirements
Type C structure - drained cavity
installed. Suitable allowance should be
Type C systems should be designed to (b) take account of the design
made for differential settlement and
include a drainage system that adequately movement between the structure/finishes Materials that comply with the design and
disposes of water to a suitable outlet either and services. the guidance below will be acceptable for
by gravity or through a sump and pump. waterproofing of basements and below
recess in basement wall ground structures.
The drainage channel, sump and pump lintel to bridge recess
should include appropriately located access Further guidance for the selection of
points for servicing and maintenance. materials can be found in Technical
To prevent backflow, the drainage system Requirement R3 (see Chapter 1.1
should be fitted with a one-way valve. Introduction and Technical Requirements).
Materials Clause M2(c) contains further 5.1 M2 Waterproofing systems shall
guidance for the correct selection of pumps. adequately resist the passage of water
and moisture into the building
(c) detailing joints and junctions
Design should include the correct method (a) waterproofing systems
and detailing to form all joints and drain connection Waterproofing systems should be:
junctions, to ensure they are correctly mastic asphalt to BS 6925 or BS EN 12970
lapped and sealed in accordance with the proprietary systems or products
Drainage connection avoiding penetration of
manufacturers recommendations, assessed in accordance with Technical
the waterproofing system by the soil stack
including those between: Requirement R3.

Page 5 Chapter 5.4 2015

Waterproofing of basements and other below ground structures 5.4
The manufacturer should confirm installation method statement detailing the (c) Type C Drained cavity construction
compatibility between different materials sequence of works. Type C waterproofing systems should be
where they are used to form joints and applied in accordance with the design by
Fixing of internal finishes, such as wall
junctions. Plain polyethylene sheet should installers who are suitably qualified or
linings and skirting boards, should not
not be used as a waterproofing system. have been trained by the manufacturer
damage the waterproofing system.
or supplier of the waterproofing system.
(b) ancillary components Installers should be made fully aware
(a) Type A Waterproofing barrier
Ancillary components should be of the design and the manufacturers
Type A waterproofing systems should
assessed as part of the waterproofing recommendations for preparation
be applied in accordance with the
system. Alternatively, an assessment of and installation.
manufacturers instructions, by installers
compatibility and satisfactory performance
who are suitably qualified or have been Access points for drainage systems should
should be provided for materials and
trained by the manufacturer or supplier of be installed in accordance with the design.
products that are interchangeable
the waterproofing system. Installers should
between different systems. Ancillary Cavity drain membranes should be
be made fully aware of the design and
components include: installed using the fixings recommended
the manufacturers recommendations for
preformed junctions and corners preparation and installation. by the manufacturer.
Completed waterproofing should be (d) junctions, abutments and services
protected. A protection board should Details of how junctions and abutments
hydrophilic strips.
be provided against the waterproofing are formed should be provided to
(c) pumps material to prevent damage. Where the site personnel.
Pumped systems should include a: waterproofing system is protected by
Proprietary components that are part of,
backfilled material, this should be placed
primary pump or compatible with, the waterproofing
carefully in layers.
secondary pump with battery or system should be used to form
generator backup Weather conditions at the time of junctions such as:
suitable audio or visual alarm that installation should be appropriate for the
complex changes in direction
indicates pump failure. system being installed. The manufacturers
service penetrations.

recommendations in relation to weather
Pumps should operate automatically. conditions should be followed. The waterproofing system should be linked
to the damp proofing arrangements for
The substrate to which the Type A system
(d) connection with the structure the superstructure in accordance with
is to be applied should be clean, free from
Where the waterproofing is linked to the design.
debris and prepared in accordance with the
the above ground structure via a cavity manufacturers recommendations. Bonded
tray, the materials should compress to sheet membranes should only be directly HANDLING, STORAGE
form a watertight seal and be capable of
taking the load. Bitumen based materials
applied to masonry substrates that have AND PROTECTION
flush pointed joints and are smooth.
in accordance with BS 6398 or suitable 5.4 S3 Materials, products and
materials assessed in accordance with (b) Type B Structural systems shall be handled, stored and
Technical Requirement R3 should be used. integral construction protected in a satisfactory manner to
Type B waterproofing should be installed prevent damage, distortion, weathering
(e) reinforcement
in accordance with the design by suitably or degradation
Guidance for reinforcement used in
qualified operatives who are fully aware of
concrete can be found in Chapter 2.1 Items to be taken into account include:
the requirements for placing concrete and
Concrete and its reinforcement.
reinforcement, and for installing ancillary
(a) handling and storage
components used in Type B systems.
Materials, products and systems
SITEWORK STANDARDS The line, level and position of formwork and should be transported, lifted, handled
reinforcement should be checked prior to and stored in accordance with the
5.1 - S1 All sitework shall: concrete placement to ensure that it is in manufacturers recommendations.
(a) meet the Technical Requirements accordance with the design.
(b) protection
(b) take account of the design Penetrations from tie bars and the like Proprietary products and systems should
(c) follow established good practice should be made good in accordance with be protected and, where appropriate, tested
and workmanship the design. before backfilling occurs.
Sitework that complies with the design and Where joints are formed in concrete,
the guidance below will be acceptable for the surfaces should be clean and free of HANDOVER
waterproofing of below ground structures. excessive laitance. Hydrophilic strips should REQUIREMENTS
be protected from water before the joint
5.4 S2 Waterproofing to basements is formed. 5.4 S4 Detailed information shall be
and below ground structures shall be provided to the end user
Quality management systems and quality
installed in accordance with the design
audits should be used to record and Items to be taken into account include:
Appropriate sequencing of work will monitor the placement of concrete on site.
Monitoring records should be supplied to details of any appropriate
enable logical and timely construction of
NHBC as requested. user instructions
the waterproofing system and prevent
details of any servicing requirements,
unnecessary damage.
Reference should also be made to i.e. for pumps and drainage systems
Installation should be undertaken in Chapter 2.1 Concrete and its reinforcement the importance of not puncturing
accordance with the design and the (Sitework) and Chapter 1.4 waterproofing systems, e.g. with fixings.
Cold weather working.

2015 Chapter 5.4 Page 6

Ground conditions investigations

Further investigations Guidance and information

Desk study including review of:
groundwater and flooding issues
flood potential of the site
available groundwater data
SuDS impact assessment
flood risk assessment
topography of the site
effects of adjacent surface finishes.

Contaminated and aggressive groundwater Testing required if there is the potential for chemically aggressive ground
and/or ground conditions. and/or groundwater.
Water level change, including risks of flash The report should consider likely fluctuations and short term flooding
flooding and waterlogging. events.
Assessment of impact on the groundwater flow where Interpretative report by a qualified engineer, hydrologist or hydrogeologist
the construction is likely to have a damming effect. to include:
assessment of the direction of groundwater flow
Damming effects on the groundwater regime
Damming effect of adjacent structures.

INDEX Handling and storage 6 R

Handover requirements 6 Reinforcement 6
I Risk based design 3
A Installation standards 5 S
Ancillary components 6 Interface with the above 5 Sitework standards 6
C ground structure Structural stability 2
Connection with the structure 6 J Structural design 2
Constructions requiring 1 Junctions, abutments 6 Statutory requirements 2
waterproofing and services
Specific design considerations 2
Definitions for this chapter 2 Level of waterproofing 3
Type A Waterproofing barrier 4
Design standards 2 protection
Type B Structural integral 4
Design co-ordination 3 M
Detailing joints and junctions 5 Materials standards 5
Type C Drained cavity 5
Durability 2 Movement 3 construction
Penetrations through the 5 Waterproofing design 3
Engineer design 2
waterproofing system
G Waterproofing systems 5
Provision of information 5
Ground conditions 3 Waterproofing systems, 3
Pumps 6 materials and components
Protection 5
Handling, storage and 6
Protection from ongoing works 5

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