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General Principles of First Aid

 If someone refuses help what should you do?

*Call 911 stay with the victim until help arrives…
 *Think about scene safety first don’t get yourself injured
 Protect yourself from others fluids (BSI)
 Practice taking off gloves
 *Things that are contaminated go in a biohazard bag
 HIPPA confidentiality you can’t talk to others about the event but you can talk to
*people involved, doctors, nurses, and councilors, it is important to talk if it
bothers you.
Danger (Your safety first)
Responsiveness (Shake and shout “Are you okay?”)

Airway (Head tilt, chin lift. Jaw thrust if trauma suspected)

Breathing (Look, listen, and feel. If no breathing 2 rescue breaths)
Circulation (Check for body movements, noises, breathing. Chest compressions
Deformities (Check for and treat fractures, burns etc)

Medical Emergencies
 Chocking signs- universal chocking sign, victim is unable to speak
Are you chocking? Can you speak? *I’m going to help?
*Perform abdominal thrusts. *If pregnant chest thrust
 Asthma is caused by inflamed hyperreactive airways and narrowing airways
Signs- tripod position, wheezing, trouble exhaling, pain in chest
Victims need bronchodilator and should have a spacer (allows medicine to
go into lungs instead of back of throat.)
*Get their medicine and assist them.
 Bad allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
Signs- *swollen tongue and face, trouble breathing
Victim needs Epipen. *You can assist them giving Epipen.
Demonstration and practice giving Epipen.
 Heart Attack (MI)
Signs- *uncomfortable feeling of pain and pressure in the chest, upper
body, arms, back, neck, jaw, and stomach; nausea, weak, lightheaded.
*Victim needs to sit quietly while you call 911, and get the AED and first
aid kit; prepare to do CPR.
 Fainting
Signs- lightheaded, dizzy feeling
*Victim needs to lie flat on the floor, and you need to raise their feet up
 Diabetes (Hypoglycemia, Hyperglycemia) Low Blood Sugar
Signs- Hypoglycemia- person hasn’t eaten, has used too much insulin,
change in behavior, hunger, thirst, pale, sleepy.
Hyperglycemia- person smells like alcohol.
Victim needs to sit quietly or lie down. You need to give them something
containing sugar (if they can swallow) like orange juice or regular coke.
Call 911 if unresponsive or if they don’t improve.
 Stroke
Signs- * sudden facial droop, weakness in one side of the body, trouble
Victim needs the area safe, call 911, do CPR if needed
Injury Emergencies
 Bleeding External
*Victim needs to apply direct pressure to the wound while you don
protective equipment. With a gloved hand *use a dressing to apply
pressure, and elevate the extremity. Remember to apply pressure ASAP to
aid clotting. Call 911 if necessary. Look for shock.
*If there is a puncture wound and the object is still in the victim leave it.
 Nosebleeds
*Using gauze apply pressure to the nostrils while having the victim sit and
lean their head forward.
 Amputations
Call 911, put on gloves, and apply direct pressure to the stump to stop
bleeding, watch for shock. If you find the part rinse it in water rap it in a
dressing and place it in an airtight bag, and label it with the persons name.
Place that bag in another bag with ice.
 Shock
Signs-* Weak, dizzy, shivering, restless, confused, vomit, are thirsty, pale
cool clammy skin they’ve lost a lot of blood, had a heart attack etc.
*Victim needs to lie down. *You need to elevate their feet, make them
comfortable (blanket), and reinsure them. Call 911.
 Internal Bleeding
Signs- suspect if they have been in a car crash, fell, been stabbed, shot, has
bruises, and shows signs of shock.
Victim needs to lie down and stay still. *Check and suspect shock, call
911, and do CPR and AED if needed.
 Head and Spine Injury
Signs- Unresponsive, sleepy, confused, vomit, headache, difficulty seeing,
and moving. Suspect if there is an injury to upper body (*head or chest), a
fall from a height, motor vehicle crash, forceful blows to the head, chest.
Victim needs someone to call 911. Don’t allow the victims head to move
(C-Spine immobilization).
 Injuries to Bones, Joints, and Muscles
Signs- deformity, pain, bruising.
Victim needs RICE- rest, ice, compress, elevate. Cover open wound with
dressings, stop bleeding. Don’t apply ice directly to the skin *cover with a
towel then ice don’t let victim move injured sight. Don’t try to straighten
injury. Call 911 if needed or transport to ER.
 Burns from Heat
Signs- contact with fire, hot surface, liquid, or steam.
Victim needs to “stop, drop and roll” if still on fire. Remove burned
clothing if they aren’t stuck to skin. Start CPR if unresponsive. If 1st or
2nd degree *run cold water over it for 15 to 30 minutes.
 Burns from Electricity
Signs- marks or wounds where electricity entered and exited.
Victim needs someone to call 911 if needed. Don’t touch victim if they
are still in contact with power source. If unresponsive do CPR. Check for
signs of shock.
CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Chain of Survival- Early access (911), Early CPR, Early AED, Advanced
Check for responsiveness *Shake and shout “Are you okay?”
Call 911 or send someone to call
Open the airway- head-tilt, chin lift.
Check for breathing- Look, Listen, and Feel *if they are breathing
recovery position (on side) if no head or spine injury.
*Give two rescue breathes if not breathing keep airway open use mask or
*Check for signs of circulation
Start chest compressions- *if no signs of circulation are present.
Continue giving 15 chest compressions and 2 breaths until EMS arrives
*Recheck for signs of circulation after four 15:2 cycles or about 1 minute
*If the victim is breathing normally turn them on their side (recovery pos.)
AED Automated External Defibrillator
Call 911
Start CPR
No signs of circulation use AED *the sooner the higher the survival rate
*Use the AED as soon as possible. *Stop CPR start the AED process
Turn on AED attach electrodes to the victims chest
Follow prompts from the AED machine
Clear the victim (analyzing rhythm)
*Clear the victim (make sure no one is touching them) push shock button
*If there is a medicine patch remove it and wipe the area dry before
attaching the pad.
Environmental Emergencies
 Snake bites
Signs- *one or two dots or teeth marks means poisonous. “U” shaped
bites are probably not poisonous.
Victim needs to have someone call 911. Tell victim not to move, be still
and calm. Wash the wound with soap and water. If the bite is from a
coral snake apply pressure by wrapping the bite area with several elastic
 Human and Animal Bites
Call 911. *Wash the area with soap and water, then stop the bleeding.
*Report all wild animal bite to police.
 Bee Stings
Call 911 if an allergic reaction is occurring. *Bad allergic reaction signs
include tongue and face swelling and trouble breathing. Help victim with
Epipen if reaction occurs. Remove stinger with a card. Clean area with
soap and water. Put ice on the sting area. Watch the victim for signs of a
bad allergic reaction.

 Spider and Scorpion

Signs- muscle cramps, headache, fever, vomiting, breathing problems,
seizures, unresponsive.
Victim needs someone to call 911. If unresponsive call 911. Clean the
bite area with soap and water. Put ice on the area.
 Ticks
*Remove the tick with fingers or tweezers applying light constant pulling
pressure. Don’t use matches, lotion etc. Wash the bite with soap and
water. Put ice on the area. Get medical attention if you are in a Lyme
Disease region.
 Frostbite
Signs- in cold with part exposed. Usually fingers, nose, ears, and toes.
Area is waxy, white, or gray-yellow. Area is cold and numb. Area is
Victim needs to get to a warm place. Call 911. Remove tight clothing,
and jewelry. Remove wet clothing. *Don’t thaw area if you are near a
medical facility (let them do it) or if it could refreeze. Don’t rub area, use
heating pad or fire, give alcohol, let victim smoke cigarettes.
 Hypothermia
Signs- shivering in mild hypothermia. *In more serious cases (severe
hypothermia) shivering has stopped- confused, change in behavior.
Muscles stiff and rigid, skin ice cold and blue. Victim becomes
unresponsive and appears dead.
Victim needs to get to warmth ASAP. Take off wet clothing, put on dry,
handle victim carefully. Call 911. Put blankets and any other clothing on
and around the victim. If unresponsive start CPR.
 Heat Related Emergencies
Signs- muscle cramps, sweating, headache, nausea, weakness, dizziness.
Heatstroke (most serious)- confusion, inability to drink and vomit, red,
hot, dry skin, shallow breathing, seizures, unresponsiveness.
*Victim needs to get to a cool, or shady area. *Loosen or remove tight
clothing. *Encourage victim to drink water if responsive. Spray victim
with cool water, fan the victim. Call 911 and do CPR as needed.
 Poison Emergencies
Call 911 and poison control 800-222-1222. Remove victim from area if
you can safely. If victim is unresponsive start CPR. Wash or remove
poison from victims skin, *run water over area for at least 20 minutes or
until EMS arrives, remove contaminated clothing. Wash area with water,
wash eye being sure to not contaminate other eye. Get MSDS (Material
Safety Data Sheet) and follow procedures.