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ME 553 :

Advanced Vibrations

Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune


Mechanical Engineering Department
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals
Chapter 1
Introduction
LEC-01
Introduction
Objectives

After you have finished this lecture you will be able to:
1. Know what is meant by vibration

2. Know the importance of vibration

3. Know the desirable effects of vibration

4. Know the undesirable effects of vibration

5. Classify the different types of vibration

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 4


Lecture Outline

Preliminary Remarks

Brief History of Vibration

Importance of the Study of Vibration

Basic Concepts of Vibration

Classification of Vibration

Vibration Analysis Procedure

Spring Elements

Mass or Inertia Elements

Damping Elements

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 5


What is Vibration ?

Vibration is the back and forth (up and down) motion of a machine or machine part from its
equilibrium position.

Examples:

Remark: All machines can be represented as ( spring-mass system)


since they have weight, and spring-like properties.

http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/mass-spring-lab/mass-spring-lab_en.html
http://www.cabrillo.edu/~jmccullough/Applets/Flash/Fluids,%20Oscillations%20and%20Waves/SHM2.swf

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 6


Definition

Vibration:
Oscillatory motion of bodies, such as acceleration, velocity and displacement of bodies, and the
forces associated with them.
All bodies possessing mass and elasticity are capable of vibration.
Vibration could be regular like the spring-mass system, or could be irregular like the earthquake.
The simplest vibration type is the Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM).

Regular Vibration Irregular Vibration

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 7


Why Study Vibration?
Vibration can lead to excessive deflections and failure on the machines and structures.
To reduce vibration through proper design of machines and their mountings.
To improve the efficiency of certain machining, casting, forging & welding processes.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 8


Importance of Vibration?

Most of engineering branches are confronted with vibration


Widespread in Energy daily life
Home appliances

Trains, Cars, etc

Rotating Machines : Turbines, Pumps, Compressors

Reciprocating Machines: Internal Combustion Engines (ICE), Reciprocating


Compressors

Can be used in Fault Diagnosis Analysis (FDA)

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 9


Vibration in Everyday Life

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 10


In Machinery In Recreation In Defense

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In Transportation In Aerospace In Automobile

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 12


Sound/ Noise in Automobile

NVH (Noise, Vibration, & Harshness) is a Top


Priority for the BIG 3 Auto Industry.
Several hundred million dollars have been invested
in infrastructure & human resource development in
this area over the past 30 years.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 13


Why do we Measure Vibration ?

To verify that frequencies and amplitudes do not exceed the

material limits ( e.g. as described by Whler curves).

To avoid excitation of resonances in certain parts of a

machine.

To be able to dampen or isolate vibration sources.

To make conditional maintenance on machines.

To construct or verify computer models of structures (system

analysis).

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 14


Brief History of Vibration
Origins of vibration:
582-507 B.C.
Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician, is
the first to investigate musical sounds on a scientific basis.
He conducted experiments on a vibrating string by using a
simple apparatus called a monochord. He further
developed the concept of pitch.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 15


Around 350 B.C.
Aristotle wrote treatises on music and sound
In 320 B.C.
Aristoxenus wrote a three-volume work entitled Elements of Harmony
In 300 B.C.
Euclid wrote a treatises Introduction to Harmonics
A.D. 132
Zhang Heng invented the worlds first
seismograph to measure earthquakes

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 16


Galileo to Rayleigh:

Galileo Galilei (1564 1642)

- founder of modern experimental science

- started experimenting on simple pendulum

- published a book, Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences, in 1638,


describing resonance, frequency, length, tension and density of a vibrating
stretched string

Robert Hooke (1635 1703)

- found relation between pitch and frequency of vibration of a string

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 17


Joseph Sauveur (1653 1716)

- coined the word acoustics for the science of sound.

- founded nodes, loops, harmonics and the fundamental frequency.

- calculated the frequency of a stretched string from the measured sag of its middle point.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

- published his monumental work, Philosophiae Naturalis

Principia Mathematica, in 1686, discovering three laws of motion.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 18


Joseph Lagrange (1736 1813)
- found the analytical solution of the vibrating
string and the wave equation

Simeon Poisson (1781 1840)


- solved the problem of vibration of a
rectangular flexible membrane

R.F.A. Clebsch (1833 1872)


- studied the vibration of a circular membrane

Lord Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919)


- founded Rayleigh-Ritz method, used to find
frequency of vibration of a conservative
system and multiple natural frequencies

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 19


Recent contributions

1902 Frahm investigated the importance of torsional vibration study in the


design of propeller shafts of steamships

Aurel Stodola (1859 1943)


- contributed to the study of vibration of beams, plates, and membranes.
- developed a method for analyzing vibrating beams which is applicable to
turbine blades

C.G.P. De Laval (1845 1913)


- presented a practical solution to the problem of vibration of an
unbalanced rotating disk

1892 Lyapunov
laid the foundations of modern stability theory which is applicable to all
types of dynamical systems

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 20


1920 Duffling and Van der Pol
- brought the first definite solutions into the theory of nonlinear vibrations and
drew attention to its importance in engineering
Introduction of the correlation function by Taylor

1950
- advent of high-speed digital computers
- generate approximate solutions
- developed finite element method enabled engineers to conduct numerically detailed
vibration analysis of complex mechanical, vehicular, and structural systems displaying
thousands of degrees of freedom with the aid of computers
- Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp presented the finite element method as known today

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 21


Vibration in Our Life

Our heart beats, our lungs oscillate, we hear because our ear drum vibrates
Vibration even makes us snore!!
http://www.freehearingtest.com/about_animated.shtml

The light waves which permit us to see & sound waves through which we hear
entail vibration.

We cannot even say Vibration without vibration of larynges, vocal cord.

We move by oscillating our legs.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 22


I M PO RTANT !

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 23


Effects of Vibration
Desirable Effects

Washing Machines

Material Handling, Conveyors, Hoppers, Compactors, Pneumatic Drills

Seismic Instruments

Can be used in Fault Diagnosis

It is one of the best indicators of M/c health conditions

Medical fields, massages, ultrasonic processes

Musical Instruments

Clocks, watches

Mixing of dispersions and aggregates- concrete mixing for example

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 24


Bad or Harmful Effects
Undesirable noise

Tiring to people

Resonance effects

Excessive vibration leads to loosening on parts, For Harmful Effects


noise & eventual failure Vibration must be avoided if possible.
Structural damage (Its occurrence indicates some kind of

Equipment malfunction faults or defects).

Minimize its harmful Effects.


Effects of vibration on human body: Discomfort,
fatigue, performance, loss of efficiency, and the
health of people subjected to it, as in sickness
due to ship (or high rise building) oscillation.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 25


Basic Concepts of Vibration
Vibration = the back and forth (up and down) motion of a machine or machine part from
its equilibrium position. The swinging of a pendulum and the motion of a plucked string
are typical examples of vibration. The study of vibration deals with the study of oscillatory
motions of bodies and the forces associated with them.

Vibratory System consists of:


1) spring or elasticity
2) mass or inertia
3) damper

Involves transfer of potential energy to kinetic energy and vice versa.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 26


Degrees of Freedom & Generalized Coordinates

The minimum number of independent coordinates needed to describe a system

completely is the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of the system.

Any such set of kinematically independent coordinates is called a set of generalized

coordinates.

The number of degrees of freedom (dof) is unique, whereas the choice of a set of

generalized coordinates is not unique.

Kinematics quantities such as displacements, velocities and accelerations are written as

functions of the generalized coordinates and their time derivatives.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 27


Degrees of Freedom & Generalized Coordinates
Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) System

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 28


Two Degree of Freedom System

X and

x1 and x 2 1 and 2

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 29


Three Degree of Freedom Multi Degree of Freedom
System (MDOF) System
x1 , x 2 and x 3

1 , 2 and 3

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 30


Discrete Systems and Continuous Systems
Systems with a finite number dof are termed discrete or lumped parameter systems.

Infinite number of dof system are termed continuous or distributed systems.

Example of Infinite number of (dof) system:

More accurate results obtained by increasing number dof.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 31


Classification of Vibration
Free Vibration: A system that is left to vibrate on its own.
after an initial displacement from its equilibrium.

No external force acts on the system.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 32


Forced Vibrations: Forced vibrations occur if a system is continuously driven by an
external excitation. A simple example is a childs swing that is pushed on each downswing.
Of special interest are systems undergoing SHM and driven by sinusoidal forcing.

Resonance occurs when the frequency


of the external force coincides with one of
the natural frequencies of the system.

The result is .. ???? =====

TacomaNarrowsBridge[1].mpg CH-47 Ground Resonance Test.flv

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 33


Tacoma Narrows Bridge

The Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington state, was with


1.9 km length one of the largest suspended bridges built at
the time. The bridge connecting the Tacoma Narrows
channel collapsed in a dramatic way on Thursday
November 7, 1940. Winds of 65-75 km/hr produced an
oscillation which eventually broke the construction.
Below you see some movies taken during that event. The
bridge began first to vibrate the bridge torsionally, giving it a
twisting motion. Later the vibrations entered a natural
resonance frequency of the bridge which started to
increase their amplitude.

http://www.cabrillo.edu/~jmccullough/Videos/resonance_helicopter.avi
http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Engineering/Courses/En4/java/forced.html
http://abel.math.harvard.edu/archive/21b_fall_03/tacoma/
http://rotorlab.tamu.edu/me617/some%20videos/050606_GroundResonance.wmv
A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 34
How do we Quantify Vibration?
We make a measurement

We analyze the results (levels and frequencies).

In order to make the analysis, we must first talk about the types of
vibration signals we might encounter and how we measure these signals.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 35


Types of Vibration

Undamped Vibration: When no energy is lost or


dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillations.

Damped Vibration: When any energy is lost or


dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillations.

http://www.lon-capa.org/~mmp/applist/damped/d.htm

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 36


Linear Vibration:

When all basic components of a vibratory system, i.e. the spring, the mass and the

damper behave linearly. The superposition principle applies for linear systems.

Nonlinear Vibration:

If any of the components of a vibratory system behave nonlinearly. The superposition

principle does not apply for this type of systems.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 37


Stationary Signals can be divided into Deterministic Signals and Random Signals.
Stationary deterministic signals are made up entirely of sinusoidal components at
discrete frequencies.

Deterministic Vibration:

If the value or magnitude of the excitation (force or motion)

acting on a vibratory system is known at any given time.

Nondeterministic or Random Vibration:

When the value of the excitation at a given time cannot be

predicted.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 38


Non-stationary Signals can be divided into Continuous and Transient signals.

Continuous Non-Stationary Vibration:

During analysis continuous non-stationary signals

should normally be treated as random signals or

separated into the individual transient and treated

as transients.

Transient Vibration: signals which commence

and finish at a constant level, normally zero,

within the analysis time.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 39


Types of Vibration

Longitudinal Vibration:

Transverse Vibration:

Torsional Vibration:

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 40


Vibration Analysis Procedure
Step 1: Mathematical Modeling

Use mechanical elements such as spring, mass, dashpot

Step 2: Derivation of Governing Equations

Using Newtons second law of motion for translation and/or rotation

Using Energy Method for conservative systems

Using Lagrange Equations

Step 3: Solution of the Governing Equations

Direct solution

Laplace Transform Solution

Numerical Solutions

Step 4: Interpretation of the Results

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 41


Mechanical Elements

All mechanical systems contain the three basic

elements: spring, damper, and mass (inertia Translational Elements


element).

When each of these in turn is exposed to a

constant force they react with a constant

displacement, a constant velocity and a

constant acceleration respectively.

Similarly, we can obtain the same relationships

for rotational (torsional) elements.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 42


Simplest Form of Vibrating System

http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Engineering/Courses/En4/java/shm.html

http://www.falstad.com/fourier/

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 43


Example of the modeling of a forging hammer:

Anvil: heavy block of iron


or steel with a smooth, flat
top on which metals are
shaped by hammering

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 44


Example of Modeling an Automobile

(a) Model representation of an automobile.

(b) A simplified representation.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 45


Simplified, multiple model for a human body standing on a vibrating platform.

A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 46