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# ME 553 :

## Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune

Mechanical Engineering Department
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals
Chapter 1
Introduction
LEC-01
Introduction
Objectives

After you have finished this lecture you will be able to:
1. Know what is meant by vibration

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 4

Lecture Outline

Preliminary Remarks

## Basic Concepts of Vibration

Classification of Vibration

Spring Elements

Damping Elements

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 5

What is Vibration ?

Vibration is the back and forth (up and down) motion of a machine or machine part from its
equilibrium position.

Examples:

## Remark: All machines can be represented as ( spring-mass system)

since they have weight, and spring-like properties.

http://www.cabrillo.edu/~jmccullough/Applets/Flash/Fluids,%20Oscillations%20and%20Waves/SHM2.swf

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 6

Definition

Vibration:
Oscillatory motion of bodies, such as acceleration, velocity and displacement of bodies, and the
forces associated with them.
All bodies possessing mass and elasticity are capable of vibration.
Vibration could be regular like the spring-mass system, or could be irregular like the earthquake.
The simplest vibration type is the Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM).

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 7

Why Study Vibration?
Vibration can lead to excessive deflections and failure on the machines and structures.
To reduce vibration through proper design of machines and their mountings.
To improve the efficiency of certain machining, casting, forging & welding processes.

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 8

Importance of Vibration?

## Most of engineering branches are confronted with vibration

Widespread in Energy daily life
Home appliances

Compressors

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 9

Vibration in Everyday Life

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 10

In Machinery In Recreation In Defense

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 11

In Transportation In Aerospace In Automobile

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 12

Sound/ Noise in Automobile

## NVH (Noise, Vibration, & Harshness) is a Top

Priority for the BIG 3 Auto Industry.
Several hundred million dollars have been invested
in infrastructure & human resource development in
this area over the past 30 years.

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 13

Why do we Measure Vibration ?

machine.

analysis).

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 14

Brief History of Vibration
Origins of vibration:
582-507 B.C.
Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician, is
the first to investigate musical sounds on a scientific basis.
He conducted experiments on a vibrating string by using a
simple apparatus called a monochord. He further
developed the concept of pitch.

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 15

Around 350 B.C.
Aristotle wrote treatises on music and sound
In 320 B.C.
Aristoxenus wrote a three-volume work entitled Elements of Harmony
In 300 B.C.
Euclid wrote a treatises Introduction to Harmonics
A.D. 132
Zhang Heng invented the worlds first
seismograph to measure earthquakes

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 16

Galileo to Rayleigh:

## - published a book, Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences, in 1638,

describing resonance, frequency, length, tension and density of a vibrating
stretched string

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 17

Joseph Sauveur (1653 1716)

## - founded nodes, loops, harmonics and the fundamental frequency.

- calculated the frequency of a stretched string from the measured sag of its middle point.

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 18

Joseph Lagrange (1736 1813)
- found the analytical solution of the vibrating
string and the wave equation

## Simeon Poisson (1781 1840)

- solved the problem of vibration of a
rectangular flexible membrane

## R.F.A. Clebsch (1833 1872)

- studied the vibration of a circular membrane

## Lord Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919)

- founded Rayleigh-Ritz method, used to find
frequency of vibration of a conservative
system and multiple natural frequencies

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 19

Recent contributions

## 1902 Frahm investigated the importance of torsional vibration study in the

design of propeller shafts of steamships

## Aurel Stodola (1859 1943)

- contributed to the study of vibration of beams, plates, and membranes.
- developed a method for analyzing vibrating beams which is applicable to

## C.G.P. De Laval (1845 1913)

- presented a practical solution to the problem of vibration of an
unbalanced rotating disk

1892 Lyapunov
laid the foundations of modern stability theory which is applicable to all
types of dynamical systems

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 20

1920 Duffling and Van der Pol
- brought the first definite solutions into the theory of nonlinear vibrations and
drew attention to its importance in engineering
Introduction of the correlation function by Taylor

1950
- advent of high-speed digital computers
- generate approximate solutions
- developed finite element method enabled engineers to conduct numerically detailed
vibration analysis of complex mechanical, vehicular, and structural systems displaying
thousands of degrees of freedom with the aid of computers
- Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp presented the finite element method as known today

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 21

Vibration in Our Life

Our heart beats, our lungs oscillate, we hear because our ear drum vibrates
Vibration even makes us snore!!

The light waves which permit us to see & sound waves through which we hear
entail vibration.

I M PO RTANT !

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 23

Effects of Vibration
Desirable Effects

Washing Machines

## Material Handling, Conveyors, Hoppers, Compactors, Pneumatic Drills

Seismic Instruments

## Medical fields, massages, ultrasonic processes

Musical Instruments

Clocks, watches

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 24

Bad or Harmful Effects
Undesirable noise

Tiring to people

Resonance effects

## Excessive vibration leads to loosening on parts, For Harmful Effects

noise & eventual failure Vibration must be avoided if possible.
Structural damage (Its occurrence indicates some kind of

## Minimize its harmful Effects.

Effects of vibration on human body: Discomfort,
fatigue, performance, loss of efficiency, and the
health of people subjected to it, as in sickness
due to ship (or high rise building) oscillation.

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 25

Basic Concepts of Vibration
Vibration = the back and forth (up and down) motion of a machine or machine part from
its equilibrium position. The swinging of a pendulum and the motion of a plucked string
are typical examples of vibration. The study of vibration deals with the study of oscillatory
motions of bodies and the forces associated with them.

## Vibratory System consists of:

1) spring or elasticity
2) mass or inertia
3) damper

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 26

Degrees of Freedom & Generalized Coordinates

## Any such set of kinematically independent coordinates is called a set of generalized

coordinates.

The number of degrees of freedom (dof) is unique, whereas the choice of a set of

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 27

Degrees of Freedom & Generalized Coordinates
Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) System

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 28

Two Degree of Freedom System

X and

x1 and x 2 1 and 2

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 29

Three Degree of Freedom Multi Degree of Freedom
System (MDOF) System
x1 , x 2 and x 3

1 , 2 and 3

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 30

Discrete Systems and Continuous Systems
Systems with a finite number dof are termed discrete or lumped parameter systems.

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 31

Classification of Vibration
Free Vibration: A system that is left to vibrate on its own.
after an initial displacement from its equilibrium.

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 32

Forced Vibrations: Forced vibrations occur if a system is continuously driven by an
external excitation. A simple example is a childs swing that is pushed on each downswing.
Of special interest are systems undergoing SHM and driven by sinusoidal forcing.

## Resonance occurs when the frequency

of the external force coincides with one of
the natural frequencies of the system.

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 33

Tacoma Narrows Bridge

## The Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington state, was with

1.9 km length one of the largest suspended bridges built at
the time. The bridge connecting the Tacoma Narrows
channel collapsed in a dramatic way on Thursday
November 7, 1940. Winds of 65-75 km/hr produced an
oscillation which eventually broke the construction.
Below you see some movies taken during that event. The
bridge began first to vibrate the bridge torsionally, giving it a
twisting motion. Later the vibrations entered a natural
resonance frequency of the bridge which started to
increase their amplitude.

http://www.cabrillo.edu/~jmccullough/Videos/resonance_helicopter.avi
http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Engineering/Courses/En4/java/forced.html
http://abel.math.harvard.edu/archive/21b_fall_03/tacoma/
http://rotorlab.tamu.edu/me617/some%20videos/050606_GroundResonance.wmv
A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 34
How do we Quantify Vibration?
We make a measurement

## We analyze the results (levels and frequencies).

In order to make the analysis, we must first talk about the types of
vibration signals we might encounter and how we measure these signals.

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 35

Types of Vibration

## Undamped Vibration: When no energy is lost or

dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillations.

## Damped Vibration: When any energy is lost or

dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillations.

http://www.lon-capa.org/~mmp/applist/damped/d.htm

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 36

Linear Vibration:

When all basic components of a vibratory system, i.e. the spring, the mass and the

damper behave linearly. The superposition principle applies for linear systems.

Nonlinear Vibration:

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 37

Stationary Signals can be divided into Deterministic Signals and Random Signals.
Stationary deterministic signals are made up entirely of sinusoidal components at
discrete frequencies.

Deterministic Vibration:

predicted.

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 38

Non-stationary Signals can be divided into Continuous and Transient signals.

as transients.

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 39

Types of Vibration

Longitudinal Vibration:

Transverse Vibration:

Torsional Vibration:

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 40

Vibration Analysis Procedure
Step 1: Mathematical Modeling

Direct solution

## Laplace Transform Solution

Numerical Solutions

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 41

Mechanical Elements

element).

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 42

Simplest Form of Vibrating System

http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Engineering/Courses/En4/java/shm.html

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 43

Example of the modeling of a forging hammer:

## Anvil: heavy block of iron

or steel with a smooth, flat
top on which metals are
shaped by hammering

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 44

Example of Modeling an Automobile

## A. Aziz Bazoune ME 553 Advanced Vibrations LEC 02 Slide 45

Simplified, multiple model for a human body standing on a vibrating platform.