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Nervous Tissue 3 Systems of the Peripheral Nervous System

Network of Billions of interconnected Somatic Nervous System


nerve cells all assisted by supporting - Sensory Neurons = Conveys
cells. information from the Somatic
Functions to gather and process receptors.
information in able to the generate - Motor Neurons = Conducts
appropriate response signals. impulses from the CNS to the
Nervous tissues make up 2kg of our Skeletal Muscles only.
body (3% of our body weight). Autonomic Nervous System
- Sensory Neurons = Conveys
Three Basic Functions information from the Autonomic
sensory receptors.
Sensory Function - Ability to Detect - Motor Neurons = Conducts nerve
Integrative Function - Ability to impulses from the CNS to the
Process Smooth, Cardiac Muscles and
Motor Function - Ability to elicit an Glands
appropriate motor response. Enteric Nervous System (Brain of the
Gut)
Nervous System - Sensory Neurons = Monitor
Chemical and Physical Changes
Central Nervous System within the GI Tract.
- Brain - Motor Neurons = Govern
- Spinal Cord Contraction of Smooth Muscles,
Peripheral Nervous System (All Secretions from the stomach and
nervous tissue outside CNS) activity of the GIT Endocrine cells.
- Cranial Nerves
- Spinal Nerves Histology of Nervous Tissues
Both Cranial and Spinal Nerves
are bundles of axons together Neurons
with associated connective tissue - Highly specialized cells capable of
and blood vessels. making extremely intricate
- Ganglia connections with other cells.
Small masses of nervous tissue - Provide unique functions of the
consisting primarily of neuron NS such as Sensing, Thinking,
cell bodies. Remembering, Controlling and
- Enteric Plexuses Muscle Activity.
Neurons located in the walls of - Does not have the ability to
the organs in the gastrointestinal undergo mitotic division
tract. (Reproduce or Replicate).
- Sensory receptors in skin - Largest Cells of the NS
Monitors changes in the internal - Specialized to Receive
and external environment. Information and Conduct it as
impulses to other parts of the NS.

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- Functional and Structural units of Dendrites
the NS. - Little Trees.
- Possess Electrical Excitability. - Receiving/Input portions of a
- Has the ability to respond to a Neuron.
stimulus and convert it into - Plasmalemma: has numerous
action potential. receptor sites for binding
Neuroglia/Glial Cells chemical messages from other
- Smaller but out number neurons cells.
10-25x as much. - Short, Tapering & Highly
- For Support, Nourishment and Branched.
Protection of Neurons. Axons
- Maintain the Interstitial Fluid of - Long Cylindrical Projection
the NS. - Propagates Nerve Impulses
- Has the ability to continuously toward another Neuron, Muscle
divide throughout an individuals Fiber or Glandular Cell.
lifetime. - Contains Mitochondria and
- Microtubules.
Parts of a Neuron - Axon Hillock = Attachment site;
Cone Shaped elevation of the
Cell Body soma where the axon originates.
- Trophic Center of a Neuron - Axon Collateral = Branches along
- Contains a Nucleus surrounded the length of an Axon.
by Cytoplasm the includes typical - Axon Terminals/Terminal
cellular organelles and Buttons = End of the Axon and its
cytoskeletal filaments. collaterals.
1. Nucleus - Owls Eye
Appearance.
2. Cytoplasmic Organelles
Lysosomes
Mitochondria
Golgi Complex
Free Ribosomes
Prominent Clusters of
Rough ER = (Nissl
Bodies)
Pigment = Lipofuscin
3. Cytoskeletal Elements
Neurofilaments /
Neurofibrils
Microtubules
Actin Filaments

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Structural Classification of Neurons Unipolar Neurons
- Dendrites and One Axon that are
Multipolar Neurons fused together to form a
- Have Several Dendrites and One continuous process the emerges
Axon. from the Soma.
- CNS Interneurons & All Motor - Spinal and Cranial Ganglia;
Neurons. Sensory Receptors.
Bipolar Neurons Anaxonic Neurons
- Have One Main Dendrite and One - Many Dendrites but No True
Axon. Axon.
- Retina of the Eye, inner Ear & - Do Not Produce Action Potentials
Olfactory area of the Brain. but Regulate Electrical Changes
of Adjacent Neurons.
- Neurons of the CNS.

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Functional Classifications of Neurons

Sensory/Afferent Neurons
- Action Potential is Conveyed into the
CNS.
- Most are Unipolar in Structure.
Motor/Efferent Neurons
- Convey Action Potential away from
the CNS to the effectors in the PNS
through the Cranial and Spinal
Nerves.
- Multipolar.
Interneurons/Association Neurons
- Mainly located within the CNS
between Sensory and Motor
Neurons.
- Process Incoming Sensory
information from the Sensory
Neurons and Elicit a Motor Response
by activating the appropriate motor
neurons.
- Most are Multipolar in structure.

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6 Types of Neuroglia/Glial Cells

Astrocytes
- Star Shaped Cells that have many
processes and are the largest and
most numerous of the Neuroglial
Cells
Microglia
- Perivascular Feet = Foot Processes
- Small Cells with Slender Processes
which cover the surface of Neurons,
that give off numerous Spine-like
Blood Vessels and Pia Mater.
Projections.
- Provides Structural Supports and
- Evenly Distributed in Gray and White
play a role in Regulating what
Matter.
substances from the blood reach the
- Constitute the Major Mechanisms of
neurons.
immune Defense in the CNS.
- Monocyte-Derived.
- Antigen-Presenting Cells.
- Functions as Phagocytes.
- Removes Cellular Debris and
Microbes.

Oligodendrocytes
- Resembles Astrocytes but are
smaller and contain fewer
processes.
- Responsible for Forming and
Maintaining the Myelin Sheath*
around CNS Axons.
- *Myelin Sheath = Multi-Layered
Lipid and Protein Covering around
some Axons that Insulates and
Increases the Speed of Nerve
Impulses.

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Ependymal Cells Satellite Cells
- Epithelial-like cells that form a single - Flat Cells that surround the cell
layer lining the fluid filled ventricles bodies of neurons of the PNS
and central canal of the CNS. Ganglia.
- Are Cuboidal to Columnar Cells - Provide Structural Support to
arranged in a Single Layer. Neurons within the Ganglia of the
- Cilia facilitates the movement of the PNS.
Cerebrospinal Fluid while long - Regulate the Exchange of Material
Microvilli are involved in Absorption. between Neuronal Cell Bodies and
Interstitial Fluid.

Schwann (Schvon/Schwon) Cells


(Neurolemmocytes)
- Encircles the PNS Axons.
- They Form the Myelin Sheath
around Axons. Participates in Axon
Regeneration.
- Single Oligodendrocyte myelinates
several axons, but one SC myelinates
a single axon.

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