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German Vocabulary English from German, through Latin

Author(s): Geo. Wm. Putnam

Source: The Classical Weekly, Vol. 11, No. 21 (Apr. 1, 1918), p. 164
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
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Accessed: 06-01-2017 18:07 UTC

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which the speaker wishes to comment. Aliquis dicat, increase, in a very positive way, the vocabulary, both
therefore, is a paratactic condition, to which the idea active and passive.
of saying implied in what follows is the conclusion. Below is a table of the commonest German prefixes
We have the same ('postulative') use of the subjunc- with their Latin equivalents, and examples of their
tive of determined futurity in the passage from occurrence in words that can be rendered into English
Petronius 77, quoted below, and in As. 465, quoted through the medium of Latin, as outlined above.
in the preceding paragraph8. A b, Latin de, e, ex: Abartung, degeneration;
The frequent use of aliquis dicet, as in Cicero, In abbauen, demolish; abbitten, deprecate; Abmage-
Pisonem 68, furnishes almost conclusive evidence that rung, emaciation.
the modal meaning of aliquis dicat was that of deter- an, Latin in, ad: anfanglich, incipient; Annaherung,
mined futurity. Evidence of the same kind is fur- approach, approximation; Anpassung, adaptation.
nished by the use of aliquis (quispiam) dixerit, if auf, Latin super, ad, in: Aufbau, superstructure;
dixerit is future perfect indicative, as Roby, Elmer, Aufhaufung, accumulation; Auflage, impost.
and Kroll maintain. aus, Latin e, ex: ausarbeiten, elaborate; Ausdruck,
With the sit of the stereotyped forsitan should be expression; Ausgiessung, effusion; ausgenommen,
considered the fuat of Pseud. 432 Fors fuat an istaec except.
dicta sint mendacia. Here the speaker does not be, Latin ton: Bestand, constancy; bestatigen,
wish to say, 'It is possible that there is a chance confirm; Bestarkung, corroboration; begreifen, com-
whether'. Possibly the three words had come to be prehend.
felt as a single adverb, but originally the meaning durch, Latin per, trans: Durchbohrung, perfora-
was 'It shall (is bound to) be a chance whether'.
tion; Durchseihung, percolation; durchscheinend,
The subject of the verb has in it the idea of possibility;
translucent (compare the Greek derivative diaphanous);
but that fact does not control the modal meaning of Durchgang, transit.
the verb. In Hec. 6io we have fors as the subject
ein, Latin in: einaschern, incinerate; Einkleidung,
of fuat with a true optative meaning. Nor does fors
investiture; Einschluss, inclusion.
when used adverbially give to the verb a 'potential'
ent, Latin a, ab, de, e, ex, di, dis: Entfuhrer, abduc-
meaning. If it did, we should have to recognize a
tor; enthaupten, decapitate; entsetzen, depose;
'potential' indicative in Vergil, Aen. I I.50 Fors et vota entdecken, discover, detect; Entehrung, dishonoring;
facit. . . . The sit of forsitan (fors sit an) origin-
Entschuldigung, exculpation; entwurzeln, eradicate.
ally had the determined futurity meaning, as had fuat
er, Latin e, ex: erbittlich, exorable; Erhohung,
in fors fuat an. exaltation.
fort, Latin pro: Fortschritt, progress; fortstossen,
(To be concluded) propel.
ge, Latin con: Gefolge, consequence; Gehalt,
GERMAN VOCABULARY contents; Gestim, constellation.
ENGLISH FROM GERMAN, THROUGH LATIN miss, Latin di, dis: Misslaut, dissonance; Miss-
vergnugung, dissatisfaction.
Since many compound words in German have the
mit, Latin con: mitarbeiten, cooperate; Mitklang,
same significance as words similarly compounded in
consonance; Mitleid, compassion.
Latin, and since these Latin words have in a large
nach, Latin post: Nachschrift, postscript.
number of cases been incorporated into the English
iuber, Latin super, trans: Ueberblick, survey;
language, the pupil who is translating German will not
uiberzahlig, supernumerary; tbergang, transition;
infrequently be helped materially in finding the exact
Uebersendung, transmission.
equivalent of a German word by first rendering the
um, Latin, circum: Umgang, circuit; umliegend,
component parts of the word into the corresponding
circumjacent; umschiffen, circumnavigate.
Latin compound. For example, take the word Mitleid.
un, Latin in: unendlich, infinite; unersch6pflich,
Mit, 'with', = Latin con; leid, 'suffering', = passio
inexhaustible; Unmacht, impotence.
(from patior, passus). Hence, Mitleid = 'compassion'.
unter, Latin sub: unterschreiben, subscribe; unter-
Not only is there the advantage mentioned above, but,
seeisch, submarine; unterwerfen, subject.
what is more important, this connection of ideas once
ver, Latin de, dis, ex: verbeten, deprecate; verzug-
discovered tends to fix meanings in a way otherwise
lich, delaying, dilatory; Verdreher, distorter; ver-
impossible. In other words, this. method tends to
weiben, effeminate.
8Compare Kroll 7.I23, I33. There seems to be little value vor, Latin (prae), pre, pro: voranordnen, preordain;
in the comparison of aliquis dicat with rLs etVr,7at, Od. 6.275 and
vorfuihren, produce.
elsewhere, rLs Cf7rot-if that be the correct reading-, Od. 6.479,
or rLS epL. I1. 7.9I, and elsewhere. In Aeschylus, Sept. 9I3, GEO. WM. PUTNAM.
rdX' dprLrs ersrot, the idea of possibility is expressed by rdX' dv, HIGH SCHOOL,
just as it is by fortasse in Cicero, Sull. 84 Dicet fortasse quispiam. MONTCLAIR, N. J.

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