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MILADY Standard

Catherine M. Frangie
Alisha Rimando Botero
Colleen Hennessey
Dr. Mark Lees
Bonnie Sanford
Frank Shipman
Victoria Wurdinger

John Halal
Randy Ferman
Jim McConnell
Janet McCormick
Vicki Peters
Douglas Schoon

Cosmetology Australia Brazil Japan Korea Mexico Singapore Spain United Kingdom United States

59306_FM.indd 1 2/1/11 10:37 AM

Milady Standard Cosmetology 2012, 2008, 2004, 2000, 1996, 1991, 1985, 1981, 1972, 1967, 1965, 1959, 1954, 1938 Milady, a part
Author: Milady of Cengage Learning
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced,
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Director of Beauty Industry Relations:
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Nina Tucciarelli Library of Congress Control Number: 2007941007
Design Director: Bruce Bond
Art Director: Benj Gleeksman ISBN-13: 978-1-4390-5930-2
Senior Art Director: Joy Kocsis ISBN-10: 1-4390-5930-6
Cover and title page photo:
Adrianna Williams/Corbis ISBN-13: 978-1-4390-5929-6
ISBN-10: 1-4390-5929-2

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1 2 3 4 5 XXX 15 14 13 12 11

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Contents in Brief
Orientation / 1 Skin Care / 685
1 History and Career Opportunities / 2 22 Hair Removal / 686
2 Life Skills / 16 23 Facials / 708
3 Your Professional Image / 34 24 Facial Makeup / 756
4 Communicating for Success / 44

nail Care / 791

General Sciences / 65 25 Manicuring / 792
5 Infection Control: 26 Pedicuring / 842
Principles and Practices / 66 27 Nail Tips and Wraps / 872
6 General Anatomy and Physiology / 108 28 Monomer Liquid and Polymer
7 Skin Structure, Growth, and Nutrition / 154 Powder Nail Enhancements / 896
8 Skin Disorders and Diseases / 174 29 UV Gels / 924
9 Nail Structure and Growth / 196
10 Nail Disorders and Diseases / 204
11 Properties of the Hair and Scalp / 218
12 Basics of Chemistry / 244
13 Basics of Electricity / 262 business skills / 955
30 Seeking Employment / 956
31 On the Job / 984
32 The Salon Business / 1006

Hair Care / 281

14 Principles of Hair Design / 282 Appendix A
15 Scalp Care, Shampooing, and Associations / 1031
Conditioning / 306
16 Haircutting / 342 Appendix B
17 Hairstyling / 418 Metric Conversions / 1032
18 Braiding and Braid Extensions / 506
Glossary/Index / 1034
19 Wigs and Hair Additions / 538
20 Chemical Texture Services / 562
21 Haircoloring / 626


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Table of Contents
Procedures at a Glance / viii 4 Communicating for Success / 44
Why Study Communicating for Success? / 46
Preface / xi Human Relations / 46
Foreword: A Little Advice from Successful Communication Basics / 49
Professionals / xi The Client Consultation/Needs Assessment / 52
New to this Edition / xvi Special Issues in Communication / 57
Additional Features of this Edition / xix In-Salon Communication / 60
Educational Chapter Formatting / xxi
Extensive Learning and Teaching Package / xxiii
Educator Supplements / xxvii Part 2 General Sciences / 65
Contributing Authors / xxviii 5 Infection Control: Principles and
Practices / 66
Editorial Contributors Why Study Infection Control? / 69
for the 2012 Edition / xxxii Regulation / 69
Principles of Infection / 72
Acknowledgments / xxxv Principles of Prevention / 82
Reviewers / xxxvi Universal Precautions / 92
The Professional Salon Image / 94
Procedures / 96
Part 1 Orientation /1
6 General Anatomy and Physiology / 108
1 History and Career Opportunities / 2 Why Study Anatomy and Physiology? / 112
Why Study Cosmetology History and Anatomy, Physiology, and You / 112
Career Opportunities? / 4
Cells / 113
Brief History of Cosmetology / 4
Tissues / 114
Career Paths for Cosmetologists / 9
Organs and Body Systems / 114
2 Life Skills / 16 The Skeletal System / 115
The Muscular System / 120
Why Study Life Skills? / 18
The Nervous System / 126
Life Skills / 18
The Circulatory System / 131
The Psychology of Success / 19
The Lymphatic/Immune System / 137
Managing Your Career / 22
The Endocrine System / 137
Goal Setting / 24
The Digestive System / 138
Time Management / 26
The Excretory System / 139
Study Skills / 28
The Respiratory System / 140
Ethics / 29
The Integumentary System / 140
Personality Development and Attitude / 31
The Reproductive System / 141
3 Your Professional Image / 34
7 Skin Structure, Growth, and
Why Study the Importance
of Your Professional Image? / 36 Nutrition / 154
Beauty and Wellness / 37 Why Study Skin Structure, Growth, and
Nutrition? / 156
Appearances Count / 38
Anatomy of the Skin / 156
Your Physical Presentation / 40
Nutrition and Maintaining Skin Health / 164


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8 Skin Disorders and Diseases / 174 Part 3 Hair Care / 281
Why Study Skin Disorders and Diseases? / 177
Disorders and Diseases of the Skin / 177 14 Principles of Hair Design / 282
Disorders of the Sebaceous (Oil) Glands / 180 Why Study Principles of Hair Design? / 284
Disorders of the Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands / 181 Philosophy of Design / 284
Inflammations and Common Infections of the Skin / 182 Elements of Hair Design / 285
Pigment Disorders of the Skin /182 Principles of Hair Design / 290
Hypertrophies of the Skin / 184 Influence of Hair Type on Hairstyle / 293
Skin Cancer / 184 Creating Harmony between Hairstyle
Acne and Problem Skin / 186 and Facial Structure / 295
Aging Skin Issues / 187 Designing for Men / 303
The Sun and Its Effects / 189
Contact Dermatitis / 190
15 Scalp Care, Shampooing,
and Conditioning / 306
9 Nail Structure and Growth / 196 Why Study Scalp Care, Shampooing,
and Conditioning? / 308
Why Study Nail Structure and Growth? / 198
Scalp Care and Massage / 308
The Natural Nail / 198
Hair Brushing / 310
Nail Anatomy / 199
Understanding Shampoo / 311
Nail Growth / 201
Understanding Conditioner / 318
Know Your Nails / 202
Draping / 320
10 Nail Disorders and Diseases / 204 Three-Part Procedure / 322
Procedures / 323
Why Study Nail Disorders and Diseases? / 206
Nail Disorders / 206
16 Haircutting / 342
Nail Diseases / 212
Why Study Haircutting? / 344
11 Properties of the Hair and Scalp / 218 Basic Principles of Haircutting / 344
Client Consultation / 350
Why Study Properties of the Hair and Scalp? / 220
Haircutting Tools / 353
Structure of the Hair / 220
Posture and Body Position / 364
Chemical Composition of Hair / 222
Safety in Haircutting / 365
Hair Growth / 227
Basic Haircuts / 366
Hair Loss / 229
Other Cutting Techniques / 371
Disorders of the Hair / 232
Clippers and Trimmers / 380
Disorders of the Scalp / 233
Procedures / 384
Hair and Scalp Analysis / 236

12 Basics of Chemistry / 244 17 Hairstyling / 418

Why Study Hairstyling? / 420
Why Study Basics of Chemistry? / 246
Client Consultation / 420
Chemistry / 246
Wet Hairstyling Basics / 421
Matter / 247
Finger Waving / 421
Potential Hydrogen (pH) / 256
Pin Curls / 422
13 Basics of Electricity / 262 Roller Curls / 426
Why Study Basics of Electricity? / 264 Comb-Out Techniques / 429
Electricity / 264 Hair Wrapping / 431
Electrical Equipment Safety / 266 Blowdry Styling / 431
Electrotherapy / 269 Thermal Hairstyling / 435
Other Electrical Equipment / 271 Thermal Hair Straightening (Hair Pressing) / 441
Light Energy and Light Therapy/ 272 Styling Long Hair / 446
Formal Styling / 447
The Artistry of Hairstyling / 447
Procedures / 448

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18 Braiding and Braid Extensions / 506 Part 4 Skin Care / 685
Why Study Braiding and Braid Extensions? / 508
Understanding the Basics / 509 22 Hair Removal / 686
Braiding the Hair / 514 Why Study Hair Removal? / 688
Procedures / 520 Client Consultation / 689
Contraindications for Hair Removal / 690
19 Wigs and Hair Additions / 538 Permanent Hair Removal / 692
Why Study Wigs and Hair Additions? / 541 Temporary Hair Removal / 693
Human versus Synthetic Hair / 541 Procedures / 696
Wigs / 544
Hairpieces / 550 23 Facials / 708
Hair Extensions / 553 Why Study Facials? / 710
Skin Analysis and Consultation / 710
20 Chemical Texture Services / 562 Determining Skin Type / 716
Why Study Chemical Texture Services? / 564 Skin Care Products / 718
The Structure of Hair / 564 Client Consultation / 723
Permanent Waving / 567 Facial Massage / 725
Chemical Hair Relaxers / 583 Facial Equipment / 733
Curl Re-Forming (Soft Curl Permanents) / 591 Electrotherapy and Light Therapy / 734
Procedures / 593 Facial Treatments / 737
Aromatherapy / 740
21 Haircoloring / 626 Procedures / 741
Why Study Haircoloring? / 629
Why People Color Their Hair / 629 24 Facial Makeup / 756
Hair Facts / 630 Why Study Facial Makeup? / 758
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone / 631 Cosmetics for Facial Makeup / 758
Types of Haircolor / 636 Makeup Color Theory / 767
Consultation / 642 Basic Professional Makeup Application / 771
Haircolor Formulation/ 643 Special-Occasion Makeup / 773
Haircolor Applications / 647 Corrective Makeup / 774
Using Lighteners / 650 Artificial Eyelashes / 783
Using Toners / 652 Procedures / 784
Special Effects Haircoloring / 653
Special Challenges in Haircolor/
Corrective Solutions / 655 Part 5 nail Care / 791
Haircoloring Safety Precautions / 663
Procedures / 664 25 Manicuring / 792
Why Study Manicuring? / 794
Nail Technology Tools / 794
Professional Cosmetic Products / 803
The Basic Manicure / 807
A Mans Manicure Service / 810
Massage / 811
Spa Manicures / 813
Aromatherapy / 814
Paraffin Wax Treatments / 815
Nail Art / 816
Only the Beginning / 816
Procedures / 817


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26 Pedicuring / 842 Part 6 business skills / 955
Why Study Pedicuring? / 844
Pedicure Tools / 845 30 Seeking Employment / 956
About Pedicures / 851 Why Study How to Prepare for and Seek
Disinfection / 859 Employment? / 958
Procedures / 863 Preparing for Licensure / 958
Preparing for Employment / 963
27 Nail Tips and Wraps / 872 The Job Interview / 974
Why Study Nail Tips and Wraps? / 874
Nail Tips / 874 31 On the Job / 984
Nail Wraps / 876 Why Study What It Is Like on the Job? / 986
Nail Wrap Maintenance, Repair, and Removal / 877 Moving from School to Work / 986
Procedures / 879 Out in the Real World / 987
Managing Your Money / 993
28 Monomer Liquid and Polymer Powder Discover the Selling You / 996
Nail Enhancements / 896 Keeping Current Clients and Expanding
Why Study Monomer Liquid and Polymer Your Client Base / 1001
Powder Nail Enhancements? / 898 On Your Way / 1004
Monomer Liquid and Polymer Powder
Nail Enhancements / 898 32 The Salon Business / 1006
Monomer Liquid and Polymer Powder Nail Why Study the Salon Business? / 1008
Enhancement Supplies / 901 Going into Business for Yourself / 1008
Monomer Liquid and Polymer Powder Nail Operating a Successful Salon / 1019
Enhancement Maintenance, Crack Repair, Building Your Business / 1026
and Removal / 904
Odorless Monomer Liquid and Polymer
Powder Products / 906
Colored Polymer Powder Products / 907 Appendix A
Procedures / 908 Associations / 1031

29 UV Gels / 924 Appendix B

Why Study UV Gels? / 926 Metric Conversions / 1032
UV Gels / 926
UV Gel Supplies / 929 Glossary/Index / 1034
When to Use UV Gels / 931
Choosing the Proper UV Gel / 931
UV Light Units and Lamps / 932
UV Gel Polish / 933
UV Gel Maintenance and Removal / 934
Procedures / 935


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Procedures at a Glance
164 L ong-Layered (180-Degree) Haircut:
Right-Handed / 408
51  isinfecting Nonelectrical Tools and
Implements / 96 164 L ong-Layered (180-Degree) Haircut: Left-
Handed / 411
52 Disinfecting Foot Spas or Basins / 97
165 Mens Basic Clipper Cut / 413
53 Proper Hand Washing / 102
171 Preparing Hair for Wet Styling / 448

151 Pre-Service Procedure / 323 172 Horizontal Finger Waving:

Right-Handed / 450
152 Post-Service Procedure / 326
172 H
 orizontal Finger Waving:
153 Normal Hair and Scalp Treatment / 328 Left-Handed / 454
154 Dry Hair and Scalp Treatment / 329 173 C
 arved or Sculpted Curls:
Right-Handed / 457
155 Oily Hair and Scalp Treatment /330
173 C
 arved or Sculpted Curls:
156 Antidandruff Treatment / 331
Left-Handed / 459
157 Hair Brushing / 332
174 Wet Set with Rollers / 461
158 D
 raping for a Basic Shampooing and
175 Hair Wrapping / 463
Conditioning / 333
176 Blowdrying Short, Layered, Curly Hair
159 Draping for a Chemical Service / 334
to Produce Smooth and Full Finish:
1510 Basic Shampooing and Conditioning / 335 Right-Handed / 465

1511 Scalp Massage / 338 176 B

 lowdrying Short, Layered, Curly Hair
to Produce Smooth and Full Finish:
161 B
 lunt Haircut with Fringe: Left-Handed / 467
Right-Handed / 384
177 B
 lowdrying Short, Curly Hair in Its Natural
161 B
 lunt Haircut with Fringe: Wave Pattern / 469
Left-Handed / 388
178 D
 iffusing Long, Curly, or Extremely Curly
162 Graduated Haircut: Right-Handed / 392 Hair in Its Natural Wave Pattern / 471
162 Graduated Haircut: Left-Handed / 397 179 B
 lowdrying Straight or Wavy Hair for
Maximum Volume: Right-Handed / 472
163 U
 niform-Layered Haircut:
Right-Handed / 401 179 B
 lowdrying Straight or Wavy Hair for
Maximum Volume: Left-Handed / 474
163 U
 niform-Layered Haircut:
Left-Handed / 405


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1710 B
 lowdrying Blunt or Long-Layered, Straight 203 Permanent Wave and Processing Using a
to Wavy Hair into a Straight Style: Right- Curvature Permanent Wrap / 598
Handed / 476
204 Permanent Wave and Processing Using a
1710 B
 lowdrying Blunt or Long-Layered, Straight Bricklay Permanent Wrap / 601
to Wavy Hair into a Straight Style: Left-
Handed / 479 205 Permanent Wave and Processing Using a
Weave Technique / 603
1711 Thermal Waving: Right-Handed / 481
206 Permanent Wave and Processing Using a
1711 Thermal Waving: Left-Handed / 484 Double-Rod or Piggyback Technique / 605

1712 Curling Short Hair / 487 207 Permanent Wave and Processing Using a
Spiral Wrap Technique / 607
1713 Curling Medium-Length Hair / 489
208 Applying Thio Relaxer to Virgin Hair / 610
1714 Curling Hair Using Two Loops or
Figure 8 / 491 209 Thio Relaxer Retouch / 612

1715 Soft Pressing for Normal Curly Hair / 493 2010 Applying Hydroxide Relaxer to Virgin
Hair / 614
1716 Knot or Chignon / 496
2011 Hydroxide Relaxer Retouch / 617
1717 Twist / 498
2012 Curl Re-Forming (Soft Curl Perm) / 620
1718 Pleat / 500
211 Performing a Patch Test / 664
181 Preparing Textured Hair for Braiding / 520
212 Preliminary Strand Test / 665
182 Rope Braid / 522
213 Temporary Haircolor Application / 667
183 Fishtail Braid / 524
214 Semipermanent Haircolor Application / 669
184 Invisible Braid / 526
215 Single-Process Color on Virgin Hair / 671
185 Single Braids without Extensions / 528
216 Permanent Single-Process Retouch with a
186 Single Braids with Extensions / 530 Glaze / 673
187 Basic Cornrows / 533 217 Lightening Virgin Hair / 675
188 Cornrows with Extensions / 535 218 Toner Application / 677
201 P
 reliminary Test Curl for a Permanent 219 S
 pecial Effects Haircoloring with Foil
Wave / 593 (Full Head) / 679
202 P
 ermanent Wave and Processing Using a
Basic Permanent Wrap / 595


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271 Nail Tip Application / 879
221 Pre-Service Procedure / 696 272 Nail Tip Removal / 882
222 Post-Service Procedure / 699 273 Nail Wrap Application / 884
223 Eyebrow Tweezing / 701 274 Two-Week Fabric Wrap Maintenance / 887
224 Eyebrow Waxing / 703 275 F our-Week Fabric Wrap
Maintenance / 889
225 Body Waxing / 705
276 Fabric Wrap Removal / 892
231 Basic Facial / 741
281 One-Color Monomer Liquid and Polymer
232 Facial for Dry Skin / 746
Powder Nail Enhancements over Nail Tips
233 F acial for Oily Skin with Open Comedones or Natural Nails / 908
(Blackheads) / 748
282 T wo-Color Monomer Liquid and
234 F acial for Acne-Prone and Problem Polymer Powder Nail Enhancements
Skin / 751 Using Forms / 912

241 B
 asic Professional Makeup 283 One-Color Monomer Liquid and Polymer
Application / 784 Powder Maintenance / 916

242 Band Lash Application / 787 284 C

 rack Repair for Monomer Liquid and
Polymer Powder Nail Enhancements / 919

285 M
 onomer Liquid and Polymer Powder Nail
251 Pre-Service Procedure / 817
Enhancement Removal / 921
252 Post-Service Procedure / 821
291 O
 ne-Color Method UV Gel on Tips or
253 Proper Hand Washing / 823 Natural Nails with UV Gel Polish / 935

254 H
 andling an Exposure Incident During 292 T wo-Color Method UV Gel on Tips or
a Manicure / 824 Natural Nails / 939

255 Performing a Basic Manicure / 826 293 UV Gel over Forms / 942

256 Hand and Arm Massage / 831 294 UV Gel Maintenance / 945

257 Polishing the Nails / 835 295 U

 V Gel over Monomer Liquid and Polymer
Powder Nail Enhancements with
258 Paraffin Wax Treatment / 837 UV Gel Polish / 948
261 The Basic Pedicure / 863 296 UV Gel RemovalHard Gel / 950
262 Foot and Leg Massage / 867 297 UV Gel RemovalSoft Gel / 951

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Milady Standard Cosmetology
Congratulations! You are about to begin a journey that can take you in
many directions and that holds the potential to make you a confident,
successful professional in cosmetology. As a cosmetologist, you will become
a trusted professional, the person your clients rely on to provide ongoing
services that enable them to look and feel their best. You will become as
personally involved in your clients lives as their physicians or dentists,
and with study and practice, you will have the opportunity to showcase
your artistic and creative ideas for the entire world to see!
You and your school have chosen the perfect course of study to
accomplish all of this and more. Milady Standard Cosmetology was
the creation of Nicholas F. Cimaglia, founder of Milady Publishing
Company, in 1927. The very first edition of Milady Standard Cosmetology
was published in 1938, and since that time, it has consistently been the
most-used cosmetology textbook in the world. Many of the worlds most

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

famous, sought-after, successful, and artistic professional cosmetologists
have studied this very book!
Milady employs experts from all aspects of the beauty professionhair
care, skin care, nail care, massage, makeup, infection control, and business
developmentto write for and consult on every textbook published. Since
the field of cosmetology is always changing, progressing, and discovering  r. Nicholas F. Cimaglia, Founder
new technologies, services, and styles, Milady keeps a close eye on its texts of Milady Publishing Company.

and is committed to investing the time, energy, resources, and efforts to

revising its educational offerings to provide the beauty industry with the
most up-to-date and all-encompassing tools available.
So you see, by studying the Milady Standard Cosmetology, you have not
simply opened the cover of a textbook, youve been adopted by a family
of the most well-known and highly respected professional cosmetology
educators in the world!

A Little Advice from Successful Professionals
You have one decision to make today: Are you going to be your very best self or
just get by? Thats it. After all, 90 percent of success is showing up, mentally
and physically. Are you committed to putting a laser focus on learning?
Education makes your life better, happier, richer. Specialized learning builds
confidence, leads to a specific career, and opens dozens of unexpected doors.
And if you listen to those who have already traversed the path before you,
cosmetology training will provide you with the foundation for an exciting,
artistic, limitless career that can fulfill what celebrity stylist Ted Gibson calls
Your Big, BIG dream.


59306_FM.indd 11 2/1/11 10:37 AM

The 2010 host of TLCs What Not To Wear and owner of namesake

Ted Gibson styling actress Anne Hathaway. Photo courtesy of Ted Gibson
salons in NYC and Washington, D.C., Gibson says that a solid, basic

Celebrity Hair Stylist and Owner of the Ted Gibson Salon, NYC.
education is vital because what you learn in beauty school will carry you
through your career:

Your cosmetology education gives you the opportunity to do so many

things, from working behind the chair to styling celebrities to doing
platform work, TV, and movies, says Gibson. I love this business!

 All my training was the best, because now The Road to Success
I can say I am a beauty school graduate and Before you compose your own song of success, take stock of what it
very proud of it. I feel fortunate to have found will take: hard work, dedication, and plenty of practice. If youve been
what makes my heart sing.Ted Gibson
styling friends hair since you were ten, you may think you know a lot
already, but thats a trap.
Beth Minardi didnt become the countrys most accomplished haircolor

Photo courtesy of Beth Minardi, President Minardi Salon.

educator or premiere Manhattan salon owner by happenstance. When
she recognized that haircolor was uniquely challenging, she did what
all super-successful hairdressers doshe took a chance in order to
learn all she could. Armed with a B.A. in Education and Theatre
and a cosmetology license, she applied for a job with Clairol. Of her
four weeks in training, the first was spent on semipermanent color,
the second on the lift and deposit shades, the third on bleaching and
toning, and the fourth on special effects.

 Being a hairdresser is like being an After each week, you were tested, and if you failed any test, you were
athlete. Work hard, focus, and ask for more fired, recalls Minardi. It made me realize that there is no fashion
responsibility. If you do, youll get the honor
of being included with successful people. without foundation, no creativity without the basics.
While Minardi credits her mentors for understanding that being a great
colorist meant mastering theory and all color products, she stresses that
success also requires commitment and a healthy body and mind: When
you go to work, its show time; theres no room for gossip, personal
problems or partying.

Robert Cromeans. Photo courtesy of John Paul Mitchell Systems.

As for creative ideas, the old adage is true: they originate from more
perspiration than inspiration. Robert Cromeans, Global Artistic Director
for Paul Mitchell and a Paul Mitchell The School owner, is known for
cutting hair with a fork, using electric clippers to create a bob, and even
using a staple gun. Heres what he says about creative genius:

The truth of the matter is that without the foundation of

haircutting under my belt, I would never have been able to create
these techniques. It is pivotal to know and understand the rules
before you can breakthem.
 Developing a great habit of going to school
every day will benefit your career as a salon
professional. Motivation doesnt change
things; good habits do.Robert Cromeans
Where Milady Comes In
As you show up each day, ready to be at your mental and physical
best, you will have the support of the hundreds of professionals who
contributed to the creation of this revised edition of Milady Standard


59306_FM.indd 12 2/1/11 10:37 AM

Cosmetology. Milady was part of Cromeans cosmetology curriculum,
as well as Minardis and Gibsons. Gibson says he still refers to Milady
textbooks regularly. In other words, successful stylists never stop learning.
At the Eric Fisher Academy in Wichita, KS, salon and school owner
Eric Fisher, who has won numerous artistic and business awards, chose
this very textbook for his students because he considers it the most
comprehensive one available.

Technical and Artistic Fundamentals

Photo courtesy of Aviva Maller Photography.

Look through the Table of Contents, and youll see everything from
cutting, coloring, perming, and relaxing to the bodys structures,
infection control, makeup application, and braiding. Within each
chapter, learning objectives are clearly established, terms are simply
defined, and review questions help you recall all youve learned.

Sometimes, you dont even know that you have stumbled upon an
aspect of the profession that you will love for the rest of your career,  Dont be afraid to admit you have to learn
more. Remember, knowledge is power.
comments Colleen Hennessey, a colorist, salon owner, and P&G ColleenHennessey
School Manager Consultant. Thats why it is important to learn all
that you can. Without being exposed to all cosmetology has to offer,
you cant make sound choices about the direction you want to take.
Even if you think you already know which area of cosmetology interests
you most, developing skills in many disciplines is important because
combinedthey provide the solid foundation that can take you anywhere.

When I went to school, I learned roller placement, how to

accommodate the hairs movement, and how to work with bone
Photo courtesy of Eric Fisher Academy-Salons.

structure, recalls Fisher. Im grateful for those basics because they

eventually allowed me to travel the world, own a successful business,
do hair for video shoots, and more. Its like basketball: you can run,
pass, and alley-oop, but the game is won at the free throw line.
Fundamentalsstrong foundationsbuild houses that can survive
any threat from inside orout.
At Fishers Academy, the motto is student for life, and it works well.
His students have gone on to work at top New York City salons, travel  If you practice anything for one hour every
day for 365 days, you can be a national expert.
the world, and even win the student category at the North American You need the attitude that goes with it, which
Hairdressing Awards (something Fisher himself won in other categories). means embracing the positive. Smile often.
Make others feel welcome and important.
Eric Fisher
Every day in school, think about the kind of person you want to
be, advises Fisher. You dont have to be a superstar to achieve
greatnessrepetition and practice lead to success. Offer to help others
just for the opportunity to learn. You have to do more than you get
paid for, before you can get paid for more than you do.

Strong Interpersonal Skills

With focus, foundation, repetition, and practice, anyone can master
the technical aspects of this wonderful profession. But hairdressing


59306_FM.indd 13 2/1/11 10:37 AM

is also an emotional field, one that requires you to be a people person.
What that really means is that you must have a positive attitude and
be able to listen, read others, and speak their language.
Thats why this textbook includes details on conducting a great
consultation, working with difficult clients and co-workers, and other
life skills that youll begin to hone during the clinic phase of your
training. Throughout the chapters, activities and real-life examples
help you develop the good work habits and interpersonal skills that
accomplished professionals say are a must.

Success as a hairdresser is about more than cutting and coloring

skills, notes Nick Arrojo, who educates on platform for Wella,

Photo courtesy of Jammi York/Arrojo.

oversees his New York City-based Arrojo Studio and Arrojo
Education, and preceded Gibson as the hair guru of TLCs
What Not To Wear. You have to be a great communicator.
You need to know the challenges of different hair types,
the importance of cleanliness, both of yourself and your
environment, and you must be able to retail.

The so-called non-artistic parts of the profession are actually

arts in themselves, because youre learning how to communicate
with a person who has different tastes and desires than you
do, says Minardi. Your body language, facial expression, and
carriage are all part of being successful. After awhile, applying
 I believe anyone who shows
color is the easier part; it takes longer to do the rest well.
professionalism, discipline, and
commitment over many years of Cromeans adds that developing great habits will help you through both
hard work can do what I do. the artistic and interpersonal aspects of hairdressing.
Nick Arrojo

Focus equally on your technical skills and on your dialogue, chair-

side manner, and ability to celebrate each (client), he says.

Business Basics and Beyond

When it comes down to it, cosmetology comprises three tiers. First, its
an artistically expressive field. Second, it relies on human dynamics and
personal interaction, so that one individual can make another look and
feel fabulous. Third, cosmetology is a business.
The final chapters of this book, which you will study near the end of
your schooling, detail the employment search, the job interview, and
business basics, from salon design to personnel management. Youll
want to refer to these chapters often as you enter the working world
and progress toward achieving your big dream.

Your passion for the art may drive your fire, but to succeed, you also
need business discipline, says Fisher. Each stylist should know his or
her average service and retail ticket, retention and prebooking rates,
and future goals for next week and next month.


59306_FM.indd 14 2/1/11 10:37 AM

Being a strong business person is the best way to give your creativity
the freedom to flourish, stresses Arrojo. You must have enough
money to pay the bills. Keep learning, stay focused, and continue
doing the right things every day. Theres no race to the finish line.
Technique, creativity, confidence, and communication can all be
taught, but only with time can you gain experience. With experience,
opportunities follow.

Opportunities for Life

Many professionals say that as they grew into their careers, they found
themselves wishing they had paid more attention in school. They also
say that they are grateful for everything they learned, even things they
hadnt thought useful at the time. Hairdressers are no different.
Whether you want to be a Hollywood stylist, a corporate educator, the
owner of a spa, or the worlds greatest braider, learning all you can now
and finding a great mentor will help you achieve your goal.

Dont get ahead of yourself and think youre a superstar, cautions

Hennessey. Have a good work ethic. Be a team player. Continue
your education. And be willing to put in long hours on your feet.
Arrojo stresses that winners are always on time, respect their peers,
and accept criticism as a positive learning experience. Cromeans advises
forming good habits and being prepared every day to go for it: You
have to be present to win.

There are no shortcuts to fame, says Minardi. Your head, heart,

and hands are what will make you a success.
If youre ready to apply all three, take a big step toward your future,
and turn the page!

The Industry Standard

This edition of Milady Standard Cosmetology is jam-packed with new
and compelling information and photography that will enable you to
not only pass your licensing exams, but also to ensure your success once
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

you are on the job.

Before beginning this revision, Milady surveyed hundreds of educators
and professionals, held focus groups, and received in-depth comments
from dozens of reviewers to learn what needed to be changed, added, or
deleted from the previous edition. We then consulted with educational
experts to learn the best way to present the material, so that all types
of learners could understand and remember it. Next we went to several
experts in various cosmetology-related fields to write or revise the
chapters. Milady then held a seventeen-day photo shoot to update the
technical art for chapter and procedural steps. Finally, we sent the finished
manuscripts to yet more subject experts to ensure the accuracy and  awn Gerrain
thoroughness of the material. What you hold in your hands is the result. Milady
Enjoy it, and best of luck as you start your career in the beauty industry.


59306_FM.indd 15 2/1/11 10:37 AM

New to this Edition
In response to the suggestions of the cosmetology educators and
professionals who reviewed the Milady Standard Cosmetology and to
those submitted by students who use this text, this edition includes
many new features and learning tools.

Milady has carefully aligned all of its core textbooks. This means that
information appearing in more than one textwhether it be cosmetology,
nail technology, or estheticsnow matches from one book to another.

Milady has also dramatically changed the design of the textbookit
now has a very exciting fashion magazine feelto reflect the innovative
and unique energy and artistry found in the beauty business.

Photography and Art

Youll also notice that there are more than 750 new, four-color
photographs and illustrations throughout the book, appearing in both
chapter content and step-by-step procedures. In addition, all of the
new procedure photographs were taken using live models, instead of

Pre- and Post-Service Procedures

To drive home the point that pre-service cleaning, disinfecting, and
preparing for the client are important, you will find that a unique Pre-
Service Procedure has been created to specifically address the individual
needs of each Parthair care, skin care, and nail care. Additionally, a
Post-Service Procedure has been created to address cleaning, disinfecting,
and organizing after servicing a client. Both the Pre-Service and Post-
Service Procedures appear in every part of the text for you to quickly
and easily refer to and follow.

Why Study This?

Milady knows, understands, and appreciates how excited students
are to delve into the newest and most exciting haircutting, styling,
and coloring trends, and we recognize that students can sometimes
feel restless spending time learning the basics of the profession. To
help you understand why you are learning each chapters material
and to help you see the role it will play in your future career as a
cosmetologist, Milady has added this new section to each chapter.
The section includes three or four bullet points that tell you why
the material is important and how you will use the material in your
professional career.


59306_FM.indd 16 2/1/11 10:37 AM

Left-Handed Instruction
This new edition includes left-handed procedures in the haircutting,
hairstyling, and haircoloring chapters with full color photography. For
the first time in a textbook students will see professionals using their left
hand to hold and manipulate hair and tools.

All About Shears

One of the most important and costly tools a cosmetologist will buy is
a pairor several pairsof haircutting shears, so Milady has dedicated
an entire section of the haircutting chapter to never-before-available
information on how to purchase, use, and maintain your shears. The
section is complete with photos of the kinds of shears available and the
proper way to care for them.

New Organization of Chapters

The information in this text, along with your teachers instruction, will
enable you to develop the abilities you need to build a loyal and satisfied
clientele. To help you locate information more easily, the chapters are
grouped into six main parts.

Part 1: Orientation
Orientation consists of four chapters that cover the field of cosmetology
and the personal skills you will need to become successful. Chapter 1,
History and Career Opportunities, outlines how the profession of
cosmetology came into being and where it can take you. In Chapter
2, Life Skills, the ability to set goals and maintain a good attitude is
emphasized, along with the psychology of success. Chapter 3, Your
Professional Image, stresses the importance of inward beauty and health
as well as outward appearance, and Chapter4, Communicating for
Success, describes the important process of building client relationships
based on trust and effective communication.

Part 2: General Sciences

General Sciences includes important information you need to know
in order to keep yourself and your clients safe and healthy. Chapter 5,
Infection Control: Principles and Practices, offers the most current,
vital facts about hepatitis, HIV, and other infectious viruses and bacteria
and tells how to prevent their spread in the salon. The remaining
chapters in Part 2General Anatomy and Physiology, Skin
Structure, Growth, and Nutrition, Skin Disorders and Diseases, Nail
Structure and Growth, Nail Disorders and Diseases, Properties of
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

the Hair and Scalp, Basics of Chemistry, and Basics of Electricity

provide essential information that will affect how you interact with
clients and how you use service products and tools.
Also, youll notice that the Skin Disorders and Diseases and Nail
Disorders and Diseases chapters were moved from their previous


59306_FM.indd 17 2/1/11 10:37 AM

locations to this section, where all of the other science chapters are
locatedby request of instructors and students.

Part 3: Hair Care

Hair Care offers information on every aspect of hair. Principles of
Hair Design explores the ways hair can be sculpted to enhance a
clients facial shape. The foundation of every hair service is covered in
Scalp Care, Shampooing, and Conditioning, followed by an updated
Haircutting chapter, complete with step-by-step procedures for core
cuts with fantastic new glamour shots to show the finished look. Step-
by-step procedures are also found in Hairstyling, which includes
information on new tools and techniques. Another revised chapter,
Braiding and Braid Extensions, is followed by Wigs and Hair
Additions, and both Chemical Texture Services and Haircoloring
reflect the most recent advances in these areas.

Part 4: Skin Care

Skin Care focuses on another area in which new advances have altered
the way students must be trained. This part begins with a chapter on
Hair Removal, which covers waxing, tweezing, and other popular
methods of removing unwanted hair from the face and body. Next,
the basics of skin care is covered in Facials and makeup application
in Facial Makeup. These two chapters offer the critical information
youll need for these increasingly requested services in the expanding
field of esthetics. Procedures are included for many of the services
offered in salons and day spas.

Part 5: Nail Care

Nail Care contains completely revised chapters that are also perfectly
aligned with Milady Standard Nail Technology ,6e. These chapters
include Manicuring, Pedicuring, Nail Tips and Wraps, Monomer
Liquid and Polymer Powder Nail Enhancements, and an expanded UV
Gels chapter.

Part 6: Business Skills

Business Skills opens with the updated chapter Seeking Employment.
This chapter prepares students for licensure exams and job interviews,
and it explains how to create a resume and a portfolio. What you will be
expected to know and do as a newly licensed cosmetologist is described
in On the Job. It offers tips on how to make the most of your first
jobincluding the importance of learning all you can. The final
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

chapter, The Salon Business, exposes students to the numerous

types of salons and salon ownerships available to them.


59306_FM.indd 18 2/1/11 10:37 AM

Additional Features
of This Edition
As part of this edition, many features are available to help you
master key concepts and techniques.
G ood skin care can make a big difference in the way skin looks
and in the way a client feels about his or her appearance.
Besides being very relaxing, facial treatments can offer
many improvements to the appearance of the skin (Figure 231).

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Larry Hamill.

Proper skin care can make oily skin look cleaner and healthier,
dry skin look and feel more moist and supple, and aging skin look
smoother, firmer, and less wrinkled. A combination of good salon
facial treatments and effective, individualized home care will show

visible results.


Cosmetologists should study and have a thorough
understanding of facials because:
Figure 231 Providing skin care services to clients is extremely rewarding, helps
A facial is a soothing, pleasurable busy clients to relax, improves their appearance, and helps clients
experience for the client.
feel better about themselves.
Knowing the basics of skin analysis and basic information about
skin care products will enable you to offer your clients advice when

Throughout the text, short paragraphs in the outer column draw

they ask you for it.

F CUS ON Although you will not treat a skin disease, you must be able to
recognize adverse skin conditions and refer clients to seek medical
advice from a physician.
attention to various skills and concepts that will help you reach
Learning the basic techniques of facials and facial massage will
PERSONAL SKILLS give you a good overview of, and an ability to perform, these
The importance of following foundational services.
hygiene and infection control You may enjoy this category of services and may consider

your goal. The Focus On pieces target sharpening technical and

guidelines when performing specializing in skin care services. This study will create a perfect
facials cannot be overemphasized. basis for making that decision.
As often as possible, perform
your cleaning and disinfection
procedures in the
Skin Analysis and
personal skills, ticket upgrading, client consultation, and building presence of your
clients. When they
see you doing
this, they will feel
Skin analysis is a very important part of the facial

your client base. These topics are key to your success as a student
more confident treatment because it determines what type of skin the
in you as a client has, the condition of the skin, and what type of
professional. treatment the clients skin needs. Consultation allows you
the opportunity to ask the client questions about his

Dash, 2010; used under license from

or her health and skin care history, and it allows

and as a professional. you to advise the client about appropriate

home-care products and treatments.

Health Screening Form


Before beginning the analysis, you must

have the client fill out a health screening

23 710 Chapter 23 Facials Part 4: Skin Care

did you know?

59306_C23.indd 710 1/20/11 4:35 PM

This feature provides interesting information that will enhance Y ou probably know that the natural nail has a cuticle. Do you
know whether the cuticle is living or dead skin? And do you
know where the plate and the bed are located in the natural

your understanding of the material in the text and call attention

nail? This chapter gives you the answers to these questions and more.
So, read on, because you cannot perform professional nail services
without understanding the structure and growth of the natural nail.

Why Study Nail

to a specialpoint. Structure and Growth?
Cosmetologists should study and have a thorough understanding

Perov Stanislav 2010; used under license from

of nail structure and growth because:
Understanding the structure and growth of natural nails allows you
to expertly groom, strengthen, and beautify nails.
It is important to know the difference between the nail cuticle
and the eponychium before performing nail services.
Understanding the structure and growth cycles of the natural nail
will prepare you for more advanced nail services.

The Natural Nail

A natural nail, also known as onyx (AHN-iks), is the hard protective
plate composed mainly of keratin, the same fibrous protein found in
skin and hair. The keratin in natural nails is harder than the keratin in
skin or hair. The natural nail is located at the end of the finger or toe.

did you know? It is an appendage of the skin and is part of the integumentary system,
which is made up of the skin and its various organs. Nail plates protect
the tips of the fingers and toes, and their appearance can reflect the

FYIs offer important, interesting information related to the

Nail plates are made of dead cells, general health of the body.
so they do not require oxygen. In
contrast, nail beds are live cells, A normal, healthy nail is firm but flexible. The surface is shiny, smooth,
so they do need oxygen, vitamins, and unspotted with no wavy ridges, pits, or splits. A healthy nail also is
and minerals.

content. Often FYI boxes direct you to a Web site or other Sometimes the names used for professional nail products can
create confusion. To avoid this problem, pay close attention to what
the product is actually designed to do.

resource for further information.

For example, look at products marketed as nail cuticle moisturizers,
softeners, or conditioners. The cuticle is dead skin on the nail
plate, so why are these products designed to moisturize, soften,
and condition the cuticle? That does not make any sense! Cuticle
moisturizers, softeners, and conditioners are actually designed
to treat the eponychium, sidewalls, and hyponychiumnot the cuticle!
Cuticle removers are properly named; they remove the dead cuticle. These
professional products can quickly dissolve soft tissue, and when carefully
applied to the nail plate, they speed removal of stubborn cuticle tissue.

ACT ivity
9 198 C h a p t e r 9 N a i l S t r u c t u re a n d G ro w t h Part 2: General Sciences

59306_C09.indd 198 1/24/11 1:14 PM

The Activity boxes describe hands-on classroom exercises that will

help you understand the concepts explained in the text. ACT ivity
Using a model (or yourself) and two different color applications, divide the face in half. Try different
foundations, colors, and intensity on each side. This will give you a visual example of how makeup
will work on a face. Actually applying makeup is the best way to learn how to use it.

6. Apply mascara with a disposable wand.

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Paul Castle.

7. Add individual or band lashes if desired (Figure 2420).

Special-Occasion Makeup for Cheeks

Refer to the Corrective Makeup section for techniques you can use to
remedy less attractive aspects of the cheeks. You can also try one of the
following steps:
Use a darker blush color under the cheekbones to add definition.
Apply with a blush brush or applicator and blend carefully. Add a
brighter, lighter cheek color to the apples of the cheeks and blend.
Use a cheek color with shimmer or glitter over the cheekbones

Figure 2420
Dramatic smoky eyes.
for highlight. You may use cream or powder colors.

Special-Occasion Makeup for Lips

Most clients prefer brighter or darker colors for special occasions.

Heres You may use shimmer colors or matte colors, if desired.

a Tip 1. Apply liner color to the lips. Fill in the lip line with pencil and blot.

a Tip
2. Add similar color in lipstick over the entire mouth with a lip
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

It is not recommended that you intensify brush or applicator.

every feature because this will tend to look
3. Apply gloss to the center of the lips with a lip brush or applicator.
overdone and garish. For example, you can
intensify the eyes and lips, or the cheeks
and lips, but not the eyes, cheeks, and lips.

Corrective Makeup
All faces are interesting in their own special ways, but few are perfect.
When you analyze a clients face, you might see that the nose, cheeks,
lips, or jawline are not the same on both sides, or that one eye might
be larger than the other, or that the eyebrows might not match. In
fact, these tiny imperfections can make the face more interesting if
treated artfully. In any case, facial makeup can create the illusion of

These helpful tips draw attention to situations that might arise

better balance and proportion when so desired.
Facial features can be accented with proper highlighting, subdued with
correct shadowing or shading, and balanced with the proper hairstyle. A basic
rule for the application of makeup is that highlighting emphasizes a feature,

and provide quick ways of doing things. Look for these tips 24 774 Chapter 24 Facial Makeup Part 4: Skin Care

throughout thetext. 59306_C24.indd 774 1/20/11 4:57 PM


59306_FM.indd 19 2/1/11 10:38 AM

Service Tip
Photography by Paul Castle, Castle Photography.

7 7 Part a small section of hair from the underside of the ponytail,

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

wrap it around the ponytail to cover the elastic, and secure with a
bobby pin underneath.
Photography by Paul Castle, Castle Photography.

Service Tips draw attention to situations that might arise while

8 8 Smooth out the ponytail and hold it with one hand, and then begin
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

backbrushing from underneath the ponytail with your other hand. Gently
smooth out the ponytail after backbrushing, using the sides of the bristles.

performing a service and provide quick ways of doing things. Look for
Photography by Paul Castle, Castle Photography.

Photography by Paul Castle, Castle Photography.

these tips in the procedures.
9a 9b
S errvice Tip
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

Performing an updo on hair that
has been washed the previous
day is often recommended.
Freshly washed hair can be very
slippery and difficult to work
9 Roll the hair under and toward the head to form the chignon. Secure with. Many stylists also choose
on the left and right undersides of the roll with bobby pins.
to set the hair in hot rollers
prior to doing an updo. The curl
Photography by Paul Castle, Castle Photography.

Photography by Paul Castle, Castle Photography.

10a 10b allows the hair to be more easily

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

manipulated into rolls or loops

and creates a fuller shape.

10 Fan out both sides by spreading the chignon with your fingers. Secure
with hairpins, pinning close to the head. Use bobby pins if more hold is needed.
11 Finish with a strong hair spray, and add flowers or ornaments if desired.

12 12 Finished look.
gbphoto, 2010; used under license from


Complete Proccedure
Procedure SEE PAGE 326

Part 3: Hair Care Chapter 17 Hairstyling 497 17

59306_C17.indd 497 1/20/11 1:20 PM

Some information is so critical for your safety and the safety of your
clients that it deserves special attention. The text directs you to this
information in the Caution boxes.
assignments. Dont schedule six appointments for one professional and
only two for another, unless its necessary because you are working
with specialists.
Small Business Ownership
and Operation However, if someone calls to ask for an appointment with a particular
cosmetology professional on a particular day and time, make every effort to accommodate the clients request. If the professional is not available
Advice on business topics from when the client requests, there are several ways to handle the situation:
A to Z and business resources
for accounting, sales, marketing, Suggest other times that the professional is available.
technology, and more. If the client cannot come in at any of those times, suggest another professional.
The Small Business Advisor. If the client is unwilling to try another professional, offer to call the client if there is a cancellation at the desired time.
Information on starting a salon.
Handling Complaints by Telephone

Handling complaints, particularly over the phone, is a difficult task.


The caller is probably upset and short tempered. Respond with
Various business-related articles.
self-control, tact, and courtesy, no matter how trying the circumstances. Only then will the caller feel that she has been treated fairly.
The source for salon business
The tone of your voice must be sympathetic and reassuring. Your manner
growth seminars, training, and
of speaking should convince the caller that you are really concerned about
the complaint. Do not interrupt the caller. After hearing the complaint
Salon Software in full, try to resolve the situation quickly andeffectively.

R e g u l at o ry
Building Your Business A new salon owner will want to get the business up and running as soon
as possible to start earning some revenue and to begin paying off debts.
One of the first items the new salon owner should consider is how to

This feature alerts you to check the laws in your region for procedures and
advertise the salon. It is important to understand the many aspects of
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Paul Castle.

Advertising includes all activities that promote the salon favorably, from
newspaper ads to radio spots to charity events that the salon participates

practices that are regulated differently from state to state. It is important,

in, such as fashion shows. In order to create a desire for a service or
product, advertising must attract and hold the attention of readers,
listeners, or viewers.
A satisfied client is the very best form of advertising because she will

while you are studying, to contact state boards and provincial regulatory
refer your salon to friends and family. So make your clients happy
(Figure 3214)! Then, develop a referral program in which both the
referring client and the new client reap some sort of reward.
If you have some experience developing ads, you may decide to do your

agencies to learn what is allowed and not allowed. Your instructor will
Figure 3214 own advertising. On the other hand, if you need help, you can hire a
Customer satisfaction is your best advertising.
small local agency or ask a local newspaper or radio station to help you
produce the ad. As a general rule, an advertising budget should not

32 1026 Chapter 32 The Salon Business Part 6: Business Skills

provide you with contact information.
59306_C32.indd 1026 1/20/11 2:33 PM

Microdermabrasion (MY-kroh-dur-muh-BRAY-zhun) is a type of
mechanical exfoliation that involves shooting aluminum oxide or other CAUTION
crystals at the skin with a hand-held device that exfoliates dead cells.
Microdermabrasion uses a closed vacuum to shoot crystals onto the The clients eyes always
skin, bumping off cell buildup that is then vacuumed up by suction. should be protected during
Microdermabrasion is a popular treatment because it produces fast, any light ray treatment. Use
visible results. It is used primarily to treat surface wrinkles and aging skin. cotton pads saturated with
Performance of safe and effective microdermabrasion treatments requires alcohol-free freshener or
extensive training. LO8 distilled water. The eye pads
protect the eyes from the
glare of the reflecting rays.

Facial Treatments
A professional facial is one of the most enjoyable and relaxing services
available to the salon client. Clients who have experienced this very restful,
yet stimulating experience do not hesitate to return for more. When
clients receive them on a regular basis, the clients skin tone, texture, and
The Web Resources provide you with Web addresses where you can
find more information on a topic and references to additional sites for
appearance are noticeably improved.
Facial treatments fall into one of the following categories:
Preservative. Maintains the health of the facial
skin by cleansing correctly, increasing circulation,
relaxing the nerves, and activating the skin glands
and metabolism through massage.
Corrective. Correct certain facial skin conditions, such
Always check with your state regulatory
agency to determine which electrical
machines are approved for use in your state.
more information.
as dryness, oiliness, comedones, aging lines,
and minor conditions of acne.
As with other forms of massage, facial treatments help to increase
circulation, activate glandular activity, relax the nerves, maintain muscle
tone, and strengthen weak muscle tissues.

Guidelines for Facial Treatments

Your facial treatments are bound to be successful and to inspire return
visits if you follow the simple guidelines summarized below:
Phase4Photography, 2010; used under license from

Help the client to relax by speaking in a quiet and professional manner.

Explain the benefits of the products and service, and answer any
questions the client may have.
Provide a quiet atmosphere, and work quietly and efficiently.
Maintain neat, clean conditions in the facial work area, with an
orderly arrangement of supplies.
Follow systematic procedures.
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

If your hands are cold, warm them before touching the

clients face.

Part 4: Skin Care Chapter 23 Facials 737 23

59306_C23.indd 737 1/20/11 4:38 PM


59306_FM.indd 20 2/1/11 10:38 AM

Educational Chapter Formatting
Each chapter of Milady Standard Cosmetology includes specialized
formatting and strategies for the presentation of material to enhance
your experience while working with the chapter and to facilitate the
learning process.

Learning Objectives
At the beginning of each chapter is a list of learning objectives that tell
you what important information you will be expected to know after
studying the chapter. Throughout the chapter you will see a special icon
that indicates you have finished reading the material that corresponds to
one of these Learning Objectives. LO1

Learning Objectives
After completing this chapter, you will be able to:

LO1 Recognize common skin lesions.

LO2 Describe the disorders of the sebaceous glands.
LO3 Name and describe changes in skin pigmentation.
LO4 Identify the forms of skin cancer.
LO5 Understand the two major causes of acne and how to treat them.
LO6 List the factors that contribute to the aging of the skin.
LO7 Explain the effects of overexposure to the sun on the skin.

Chapter Outline LO8 Understand what contact dermatitis is and know how it can be prevented.

Why Study Skin Disorderss

and Diseases?

Disorders and Diseases

of the Skin Key Terms
Disorders of the Sebaceous
us Page number indicates where in the chapter the term is used.
(Oil) Glands albinism closed comedo excoriation hypopigmentation
pg. 183 (whitehead) pg. 180 pg. 183
Disorders of the Sudoriferous
rous allergic contact
pg. 180
extrinsic factors impetigo
dermatitis (ACD) conjunctivitis pg. 187 pg. 182
(Sweat) Glands pg. 190 (pinkeye)
pg. 182 fissure intrinsic factors
anaerobic pg. 180 pg. 187
Inflammations and Common on pg. 186 contact dermatitis
free radicals irritant contact
Infections of the Skin anhidrosis
pg. 190
pg. 188 dermatitis (ICD)
pg. 181 crust pg. 191
herpes simplex
Pigment Disorders of the Skin basal cell carcinoma
pg. 179
pg. 182 keloid
pg. 184 cyst pg. 180
Hypertrophies of the Skin bromhidrosis
pg. 178
pg. 181 keratoma
pg. 181 dermatitis pg. 184
Skin Cancer bulla
pg. 182
pg. 183 lentigines
pg. 178 dyschromias pg. 183
Acne and Problem Skin pg. 183
Grafica, 2010; used under license from

chloasma (liver pg. 184

spots) eczema
Aging Skin Issues pg. 183 pg. 182

The Sun and Its Effects

Contact Dermatitis

59306_C08.indd 174-175 1/24/11 1:26 PM

Key Terms
The words you will need to know in a chapter are given at the beginning
of the chapter, in a list of Key Terms. When the word is discussed for
the first time within the chapter, it appears in boldface type. If the word
is difficult to pronounce, a phonetic pronunciation appears after it in

All step-by-step procedures offer clear, easy-to-understand directions
and multiple photographs for learning the techniques. At the beginning
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

of each procedure, you will find a list of the needed implements and
materials, along with any preparation that must be completed before
the procedure begins. At the end of each procedure, you will find
photographs showing the finished result.


59306_FM.indd 21 2/1/11 10:39 AM

6 7 8

6 Put both strands in right hand 7 Twist the left strand two times 8 Pick up a 1-inch section from
with index finger in between and clockwise (toward the center). the left side. Add this section to the
palm facing upward. left strand.

9 10 11

Implements Preparation
and Materials
Pre-SService 9 Put both strands in your 10 Pick up a 1-inch section from 11 Put both strands in your right
Perform Procceduree
Procedure SEE PAGE 323 left hand with the index finger the right side and add it to the right hand with your index finger in
You will need all of the following in between and your palm up. strand. between and your palm up.
implements, materials, and supplies:

Blowdrying cream or lotion

with oil or glycerin base
Procedure 12 13a 13b

Butterfly clips 1 Drape the client for a shampoo. If necessary, comb and detangle
the hair.
Conditioner (protein or
moisturizing) 2 Shampoo, rinse, apply conditioner, and rinse thoroughly.
Detangling solution in 3 Gently towel dry the hair, then blowdry it completely.
12 With your hand in this position, 13a Work toward the nape until 13b Secure with a rubber band.
spray bottle
twist toward the left (toward the the style is complete.
Hair accessories or 4 4 Take a triangular section center) until your palm is facing down.
ornamentation (if desired) of hair from the front. If client
has bangs (fringe), begin behind 14 When you run out of sections to pick up, another option is to create a rope ponytail with the remaining
Neck strip the bangs. hair. Twist the left strand clockwise (away from the center) two or three times. Place the strands in your right
Rubber bands, fabric-covered hand, index finger in between and palm up. Twist the palm down (toward the center), right hand over left.
elastics, or other implements

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.

15 Repeat these steps until you reach the end of the hair. Secure ends with a rubber band.
for securing the ends
Shampoo 16 16 Finished look.
5 5 Divide the section into two
Shampoo cape
equal strands. Cross the right strand
Styling and finishing products over the left strand.
Tail comb with large Post-Service
rounded teeth PROCEDURE
Complete Proocedure
Procedure SEE PAGE 326

18 522 Chapter 18 Braiding and Braid Extensions Part 3: Hair Care Part 3: Hair Care Chapter 18 Braiding and Braid Extensions 523 18

59306_C18.indd 522-523 1/24/11 2:06 PM

In previous editions, the procedures interrupted the flow of the main

content, often making it necessary for readers to flip through many
pages before continuing their study. In order to avoid this interruption,
all of the procedures have been moved to a special Procedures section
at the end of each chapter.
For those students who may wish to review a procedure at the time it
is mentioned in the main content, Milady has added Procedural Icons.
These icons appear where each procedure is mentioned within the main
content of the chapter, and they direct you to the page number where
the entire procedure appears.

Review Questions
Review Questions
What is the primary purpose of regulatory agencies?
What is an MSDS? Where can you get it?
List the four types of organisms that cosmetologists must know about and remember.
Each chapter ends with questions designed to test your understanding of
the chapters information. Your instructor may ask you to write the answers
4. What are bacteria?
5. Name and describe the two main classifications of bacteria.
6. What are some of the beneficial functions performed by nonpathogenic bacteria?
7. Name and describe the three forms of pathogenic bacteria.

to these questions as an assignment or to answer them orally in class. If you

8. What is a contagious disease?
9. Is HIV a risk in the salon? Why or why not?
10. What is the difference between cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilizing?
11. What is complete immersion?

have trouble answering a chapter review question, go back to the chapter

12. List at least six precautions to follow when using disinfectants.
13. How do you know if an item can be disinfected?
14. Can porous items be disinfected?
15. How often should disinfectant solutions be changed?

to review the material and then try again. The answers to the Review
16. What are Universal Precautions?
17. What is an exposure incident?
18. Describe the procedure for handling an exposure incident in the salon.
19. Explain how to clean and disinfect nonelectrical tools and implements, and electrical tools and equipment.

Questions are in your instructors Course Management Guide.

20. List the steps for cleaning and disinfecting whirlpool foot spas and air-jet basins after each client.

Chapter Glossary
acquired immune Abbreviated AIDS; a disease that breaks down the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused

Chapter Glossary
deficiency syndrome by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

acquired immunity Immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease, through inoculation (such
as flu vaccinations), or through exposure to natural allergens, such as pollen, cat dander,
and ragweed.

All key terms and their definitions are included in the Chapter
allergy Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals, or other normally harmless

antiseptics Chemical germicides formulated for use on skin; registered and regulated by the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA).

Glossary at the end of each chapter, as well as in the Glossary/Index

asymptomatic Showing no symptoms or signs of infection.

bacilli Short rod-shaped bacteria. They are the most common bacteria and produce diseases such
as tetanus (lockjaw), typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and diphtheria.

at the end of the text.

Part 2: General Sciences Chapter 5 Infection Control: Principles and Practices 103 5
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

59306_C05.indd 103 1/19/11 3:28 PM


59306_FM.indd 22 2/1/11 10:39 AM

Extensive Learning
and Teaching Package
While Milady Standard Cosmetology is the center of the curriculum,
students and educators have a wide range of supplements from which to
choose. All supplements have been revised and updated to complement
the new edition of the textbook.

Student Supplements

S upplement
S upplement D escription
T itle

Contains chapter-by-chapter questions in multiple-choice, true/false, and matching

Print formats to help prepare for the written portion of licensure exams.
Revised to meet the most stringent test-development guidelines.
Questions are for study purposes only and are not the exact questions that will
be seen on licensure exams.

Exam Review

Full-color, spiral-bound guide

Print Showcases additional advanced procedures for changing hair texture (10 examples)
and hair color (15 examples) with step-by-step accuracy.

Haircoloring and
Chemical Texture

Full-color, spiral-bound guide

Print Showcases cuts and styles that build upon content in Milady Standard Cosmetology
for both women (15 cuts) and men (10 cuts) with step-by-step accuracy.



59306_FM.indd 23 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Student Supplements

S upplement
S upplement D escription
T itle

Helps with mastering the techniques, procedures, and product usage needed for
Print licensure as covered in the textbook.
Provides fill-in-the-blank, matching, multiple-choice, and labeling exercises that
reinforce practical applications.

Practical Workbook

Tests the knowledge of how information that is learned can be applied in real-life
Print situations.
Stories and scenarios closely reflect situations that are likely to arise when working
in a salon.
Helps to demonstrate how to use the information learned by calling on the concepts
discussed in the classroom and applying them to real-life situations.

Problems for the

The study guide is designed to emphasize active, conceptual learning, and to consolidate
Print understanding of the material in Milady Standard Cosmetology.
Provides six easy-to-follow features for each chapter, presenting the key content in a
different manner to help with overall comprehension.
Chapter features: Essential Objectives, Essential Subjects, Essential Concepts, Essential
Review, Essential Discoveries, Accomplishments, Rubrics incorporated throughout
provide self-assessments to assist in overall learning.
Attractive full-color design provides an engaging experience in order to learn
Study Guide: the important theory and practical aspects necessary for licensure and
The Essential
Companion professional success.

Designed to reinforce classroom and textbook learning.

Print Contains chapter-by-chapter exercises on theory subjects.
Includes fill-in-the-blank, multiple-choice, matching, and labeling exercises, all
coordinated with material from the main text.
Final Review Examinations at the end of the workbook assist with test preparation.

Theory Workbook


59306_FM.indd 24 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Student Supplements

S upplement
S upplement D escription
T itle

Interactive resource designed to reinforce classroom learning, stimulate the imagination,

CD-Rom and aid in preparation for board exams.
Over 100 video clips that demonstrate procedures and theoretical concepts
Chapter quizzes that provide 10 questions at a time but draw from a quiz bank of
more than 1,200 questions
An arcade with 4 different types of games
An audio glossary that pronounces each term and provides the definition
Student CD-Rom
Content follows and enhances Milady Standard Cosmetology.

Content-rich, web-based learning aid that presents information in a new

Online and different way.
24x7 access
Provides tools and content that allow for more effective management of time, progress
checks, exam preparation, and organization of notes.
Designed for integration of additional technology into programs that accommodate the
ever-changing learning styles.
Student Features include: Chapter Learning Objectives, Study Sheets, Online Chapter
eHomework Quizzes, Flash Cards, Discussion Topics, Web Links, FAQs, Glossary, Video, Games

Provides an alternative way to study for licensure exams, whether taken

Online on a computer or on paper.
Offers familiarity with a computerized test environment during licensure exam
Features include:
24x7 availability and students have the flexibility to study from any computer
Chapter tests, quizzes and comprehensive exams that draw from more than 1,200
multiple-choice questions
All questions are available in both English and Spanish
Milady U Online Immediate results with rationales to assist with knowledge acquisition
Licensing Prep
Robust reports that help students determine areas of study they need to focus on


59306_FM.indd 25 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Student Supplements

S upplement
S upplement D escription
T itle

Designed to be used in conjunction with Milady Standard Cosmetology textbook and the
practical portion of a cosmetology program.
Focuses on delivering the theory portions of the cosmetology curriculum in an
online format.
Extremely interactive which will engage all types of learners
Features include:
Interactive lectures with audio
Milady Online Interactive learning reinforcement activities including situational problems
Automatically graded quizzes and tests
Audio Flashcards with glossary terms and definitions

Electronic version of Milady Standard Cosmetology for instant

Online online access
Requires an internet connection.
Enables highlighting, note-taking, and bookmarking.
Has search capabilities.
Contains an audio glossary.
Ability to print pages one at a time while connected to the internet


Mobile An on-the-go tool designed to help prepare for the written portion of licensure exams.
App Available for iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad devices.
Features include:
Question of the Day
Randomized multiple choice questions for each chapter
Immediate feedback with rationales
Progress reporting for all chapter tests

Exam Review
Mobile App


59306_FM.indd 26 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Educator Supplements
Milady proudly offers a full range of innovative resources created
especially for cosmetology educators to make classroom preparation and
presentation simple, effective and enjoyable.

S upplement T itle

Milady Standard Cosmetology Course Management Guide Print Binder

Milady Standard Cosmetology Course Management Guide CD
Milady Standard Cosmetology DVD Series
Milady Standard Cosmetology Instructor Support Slides CD
Milady Standard Cosmetology Student CD School/Network Version
Milady Standard Cosmetology Interactive Games CD
Milady Standard Cosmetology Haircutting DVD Series
Milady Standard Cosmetology Haircutting Instructor Resource CD
Milady Standard Cosmetology Haircoloring and Chemical Texture Services DVD Series
Milady Standard Cosmetology Haircoloring and Chemical Texture Services Instructor
Resource CD

Thank you for choosing Milady as your Total Learning Solutions

Provider. For additional information on the above resources or to place
an order please contact your Milady Sales Representative or visit us
online at


59306_FM.indd 27 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Contributing Authors
Catherine Colleen
Frangie Hennessey

Photo courtesy of Cathy Frangie.

Catherine M. Frangie Recognized nationally
began her career in 1982 as a Master Haircolorist,
as a licensed cosmetologist, Platform Artist, and
salon owner, and beauty Technical Educator,
school instructor. Since Colleen Hennessey brings
then, Catherine has held many years of hands-on
prominent positions in the coloring experience to the
professional beauty industry, including Marketing, industry. She spent eight years at the renowned
Communications, and Education Vice President; Adam Broderick Salon and Spa as a Master Colorist
Communications Director; Trade Magazine Editor/ and Director of Salon Education.

Photo courtesy of Colleen Hennessey.

Publisher; and Textbook Editor and Author.
Colleens rare skills as an educator make her a sought-
Catherine has been a guest lecturer at conferences and after resource throughout the profession. For eight
trade shows, including the International Beauty Show years she served as Senior Technical Editor of Haircolor
in NYC. She has authored more than 125 feature- and Design Magazine, where she wrote an editorial
length magazine articles and several books on beauty article entitled The Haircolor Department.
trends, fashion, and the business of the professional
Beauty schools students also benefit from Colleens
salon. Catherine holds degrees in communications,
expert knowledge and teaching ability. Colleen is the
and marketing.
subject matter expert chosen to write the Haircolor
In 2001, Catherine founded Frangie Consulting, chapter for Milady Standard Cosmetology. In addition
LLC, a marketing, communications, and publishing to her writing projects, she works as a School
firm which offers strategies for managing business Manager representing the Procter & Gamble School
objectives, creating high-performing teams, and Partnership Program to help schools keep abreast of
successfully achieving goals. Her experiences and all new product introductions and education.
successes have given her a well-deserved reputation
An artist of many talents, Colleen is an established
as an industry expert in marketing and branding,
platform artist, performing throughout the United
communications and education. Frangie Consulting
States and attracting crowds at mega trade shows,
earned seven ABBIE Awardsincluding two Gold
including Hair Color USA in Long Beach, International
ABBIEsfor marketing campaigns, new product
Beauty Show in New York City, Haircolor USA, Matrix
launches, and outstanding professional educational
Logics Tour, and the Midwest Show. Her easy color
techniques are popular with stylists, as are her classes
Catherine has been involved with Milady for more in effective client-communication skills, both of which
than twenty years, and since 2004 has acted as the have enabled her and the stylists she works with to build
revision author/editor for its three core textbooks salon haircolor sales.
Milady Standard Cosmetology, Milady Standard
Nail Technology, and Milady Standard Esthetics


59306_FM.indd 28 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Formally Clairol Professionals exclusive color Dr. Lees has been interviewed and quoted by
designer and Senior Manager of Clairol Professionals NBC News, The Associated Press, The Discovery
Education Department, Colleen has brought Channel, Glamour, Self, Teen, Shape, and many other
techniques and color-correction advice direct to salon publications.
mailboxes through Clairol Professionals Creative
Dr. Lees is cofounder of both the Skin Care Study
Connection, an educational membership program
Center in Los Angeles and the Institute of Advanced
free to all licensed cosmetologists. Her color work
has also been featured in Color & Style, Matrix News, Clinical Esthetics in Seattle, special science-based
Modern Salon, and Passion magazines, as well as advanced training programs for clinical estheticians.
Milady educational publications. Dr. Lees is former Chairman of EstheticsAmerica,
Wherever Colleen teacheson platform, in salons, the esthetics education division of the National
in textbooks, or in magazinesshe communicates Cosmetology Association (NCA), and has served
her love of haircolor by teaching others the precise, as a CIDESCO International Examiner. He has
technical, artistic, and communication skills that have also served on the national Board of Directors of
earned her the prestigious title of Master Colorist. the NCA.
Dr. Lees is former Chairman of the Board of the
Esthetics Manufacturers and Distributors Alliance,
Dr. Mark Lees is a member of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists,
Dr. Mark Lees is one of and is author of the popular book Skin Care: Beyond
the countrys most noted the Basics, now in its third edition, and the recently
skin care specialists and released The Skin Care Answer Book.
Photo courtesy of Mark Lees.

anaward-winning speaker
and product developer. Dr. Lees holds a Ph.D. in Health Sciences, a
He has been actively Master of Science in Health, and a CIDESCO
practicingclinical skin care International Diploma. He is licensed to practice
for over twenty years at his in both Florida and Washington State. His line of
multi-award winning CIDESCO accredited Florida products for problem, sensitive, and sun-damaged
salon, which has been awarded many honors by skin is available at finer salons and clinics
thereaders of the Pensacola News-Journal, including throughout the United States.
Best Facial, BestMassage, and Best Pampering Place.
His professional awards are numerous and include
Esthetician of the Year from American Salon
Magazine, the Les Nouvelles Esthtiques Crystal
Award, the Dermascope Legends Award, the Rocco
Bellino Award for outstanding education from
the Chicago Cosmetology Association, and Best
Educational Skin Care Classroom from the Long
Beach International Beauty Expo. Dr. Lees has
also been inducted into the National Cosmetology
Associations Hall of Renown.


59306_FM.indd 29 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Frank Shipman the globe, winning a World Championship in 2005.
Frank Shipman has been She has been featured in multiple training videos
making hair look great for and more than 150 beauty and trade publications
more than two decades. As and blog spots worldwide, such as Teen Vogue, Bridal

Photo courtesy of Frank Shipman.

the owner of the nationally Guide, Self, Fitness, and Seventeen Magazine, as well
recognized Technicolor/TC as numerous industry trade magazines like Nails,
Salon Spas, Frank is proud Nailpro, Scratch (UK), and Stylish Nail (Japan).
to have the privilege of Through the years, Alisha has garnered the attention
working behind the chair. of large industry manufacturers, small business
He also continues to be a beauty educator, writer, entrepreneurs, salon franchises, and nail and beauty
and speaker, bringing his own unique perspective associations. She has worked with Research and
to the industry. Development chemists to develop artificial nail
In 2005, Frank received the prestigious Diamond enhancement products, nanotechnology skin care
Award from the magazine Day Spa to add to his and cuticle treatments, polish collections, and natural
many professional awards and honors. nail treatments. One of her innovative product lines
was awarded an industry ABBIE for best packaging,
Frank has a graduate degree in art from Boston
and several others have been recognized with
University and has had his art exhibited nationally
readers choice awards for best products. Recently,
and internationally. Today he no longer creates
Alisha has added reflexology to her growing list of
precious objects but instead creates experiences.
competencies, ever striving to advance a more holistic
Frank is happy to be in a profession that allows him
approach to natural nail products and services.
to state, What I do is make people feel good.
Alishas love and passion for her industry and family
have led her to New York State, where she currently
Alisha Rimando resides with her husband and son.
Alisha is recognized as one
Bonnie Sanford

Photo courtesy of Alisha Rimando.

of the nail industrys leading
experts in training and Bonnie Sanford is a beauty industry consultant,
education. In her first two editor, and writer who specializes in marketing,
years as an educator, Alisha communications, and public relations. She has
taught classes in over 100 worked in the professional beauty industry for over
beauty schools and vo-techs fourteen years, beginning as the Managing Editor
across the US. As she expanded internationally, her of a national trade publication. Bonnie moved from
focus turned to Asia, where she dedicated eight years the publishing field to the professional products
to implementing artistic training programs and industry, first as the Director of Communications
marketing strategies that resulted in the opening and Creative Services for a leading international hair
of over 100 nail salons and seven schools in Japan, care company, then as a consultant to various hair
growing that market to become the industry leader care and skin care companies.
in nail art techniques. Bonnie was a contributing writer for the sixth
In her fourteen years of experience, her work has edition of Milady Standard Nail Technology Student
been described as groundbreaking. She has been CD-ROM. She is honored to continue her work
a platform artist and motivational speaker for more with Milady as a contributing author for Milady
than 1,500 promotional and educational events and Standard Cosmetology.
has competed in over 100 nail competitions around


59306_FM.indd 30 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Victoria Wurdinger She has won several American Society of Business
Victoria Wurdinger is an award-winning writer Press Editors awards, as well as an international
and researcher who specializes in beauty, business, award for her coverage of the British Hair Fashion
and wellness. Her State of the Professional Haircare industry. Most recently, she has provided content
Market, originally appearing in DCI and later for various Web sites. Her own is http://www.
in Modern Salon magazine, became the essential
annual report on the salon industry for both venture
capitalists and industry insiders. As a columnist, she
has written about new technology, and her articles on Contributing Authors for
the health-care concerns of small businesses brought Previous Editions of Milady
notice from as far away as Germany. Standard Cosmetology
Victorias work has appeared in dozens of Arlene Alpert Mary Beth Janssen
publications, among them Art Business News, Beauty
Margrit Altenburg Nancy King
Digest, Beauty Store Business, British Hairdressers
Journal, Celebrity Hairstyles, Color and Style, Drug Diane Carol Bailey Dr. Mark Lees
Store News, Day Spa, DCI, Longevity, Modern Salon, Letha Barnes Toni Love
Germanys Top Hair, Launchpad, and Salon Today.
Her travels to salons have taken her from Miami to Lisha Barnes Vivienne Mackinder
Moscow and New York to Paris. Deborah Beatty Carey Nash
Additionally, Victoria has developed educational Mary Brunetti Ruth Roche
programs and promotional materials for several
Jane Crawford Teresa Sammarco
major beauty care manufacturers, including ARTec,
Clairol, Mizani, Redken, Rusk, and Tocco Magico. Robert Cromeans Sue Sansom
As a commercial writer, she was selected to write the
Alyssa Evirs Douglas Schoon
packaging and promotional copy for Joan Rivers
infomercial-sold skin care line, Fundamentals. Catherine M. Frangie Sue Ellen Schultes

Victoria has authored several books, including John Halal Frank Shipman
Competition Hairdesign, The Photo Session Handbook, Colleen Hennessey Jeryl Spear
101 Quick Fixes for Bad Hair Days, The Eric Fisher
Salon Training Notebook, and Multicultural Markets.
For the latter, she conducted extensive historical
research, sometimes working with Spanish translators
to explore early methods of hairstyling in the Latino
community. Multicultural Markets contains the never-
before-published history of ethnic beauty culture in
the United States.


59306_FM.indd 31 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Editorial Contributors for the 2012 Edition
Randy Ferman John Halal

Photo courtesy of Randy Fermin.

Randy Ferman, CEO and John Halal began his career
Founder of the Shark Fin in the beauty industry
Shear Co., has a history of as a hairstylist over forty
introducing new products years ago. Halal is a former
that revolutionize the way salon owner, a licensed
stylists do business. His cosmetology instructor,

Photo courtesy of John Halal.

mission has been to improve and since 1992, founder
stylists quality of life and president of Honors
through innovation and product advancement. Randy Beauty College, Inc.
Fermans genuine concern and instinctive ability has
Halal is an affiliate member of the Society of Cosmetic
resulted in innovative and technologically advanced
Chemists (SCC). He is a past President of both the
products for the professional beauty industry.
American Association of Cosmetology Schools (AACS)
After teaching at cosmetology schools in the and the Indiana Cosmetology Educators Association
Northeast, Randy Ferman learned that students (ICEA).
and instructors were quick to cite the need for
Halal is the author of Hair Structure and Chemistry
a more advanced shear. With traditional shears,
Simplified and Milady Hair Care and Product
the handle openings were too large, causing users
Ingredient Dictionary. He is also a contributing
fingers to slide through. This resulted in loss of
author of the Milady Standard Cosmetology and
control and a misalignment of the fingers. Randy
several other Milady publications.
Ferman dedicated more than five years to creating
a more ergonomically correct shear that enhances Halal obtained his Associates Degree, with highest
both comfort and precision. This unique patented distinction, from Indiana University and is a member
design can help to prevent and may even eliminate of The Golden Key National Honor Society and
conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve Alpha Sigma Lambda.
damage, tendonitis, wrist and arm pain, and He has authored numerous articles on a wide
shoulder and neck pain. variety of topics and has been published in several
In 2001, Randy Ferman created a remarkable professional trade magazines. He often travels as
product for the shear segment of the beauty a guest speaker, addressing both professional and
industry, now called the Shark Fin Shear. This line consumer groups.
of revolutionary shears for stylists has a patented I love the beauty industry more than ever, he states
handle design that comes with the SHEAR-FIT proudly. The secret, according to Halal is to never
scissor fitting system for a more ergonomically stop learning.
correct fit for the hand. This patented scissor
fitting system offers interchangeable ring guards
that provide a customized fit for the users exact
ring finger and thumb diameter, providing more
control and comfort. Shark Fin shears are patented
throughout the United States, Canada, and Europe,
and other patents are pending worldwide. Randy
Ferman continues to introduce innovative and
exciting products for the hair care industry and
holds many patents worldwide.


59306_FM.indd 32 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Jim McConnell Janet
Photo courtesy of Jim McConnell.

Jim McConnell received McCormick

his B.S. in Chemistry Janet McCormick is a
from the University of licensed and experienced
Oregon in 1986. He has esthetician and manicurist,
been a chemist in the field a sought-after trainer, a
of polymers since 1988. former spa director, and
After graduating from salon owner. She has been
Photo courtesy of Janet McCormick.

the University of Oregon, writing for over twenty

Jim worked as a catalytic chemist in the petroleum years, producing hundreds of highly respected articles
industry and as a urethane and epoxy chemist in the in beauty industry trade magazines, three books, and
wood products, concrete coating, and steel coating chapters covering two specialties for the industrys
industries for twelve years. During this time, he was leading textbooks.
on the board for various committees for the Steel
Ms. McCormick is co-owner of the Just For Toenails
Structures Painting Council (SSPC) and National
Nail System, a gel system sold only to podiatrists. She
Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE).
is also co-owner of the Medinail Learning Center,
He and his wife, Lezlie, began McConnell Labs, Inc., which educates nail professionals and prepares them
in 1998 to make Light Elegance Nail Products for to work in medical facilities. The Center offers two
their salon in Eugene, Oregon. After making Light certification programs: the Advanced Nail Technician
Elegance for use in their own salon, they began selling certification program for salon-based nail technicians
the UV gel products internationally. Jim contributed and the Medical Nail Technician certification for
to numerous nail technology magazines around technicians who work in podiatry offices. She is also
the world to answer questions, provide chemistry owner of Spa Techniques, a consulting and training
information, and explain UV light technology prior firm, and she writes under that banner.
to starting McConnell Labs with his wife.


59306_FM.indd 33 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Vicki Peters Douglas Schoon

Photo courtesy of Vicki Peters.

As a nail technician, Doug Schoon is the
Vicki Peters has wowed Chief Scientific Advisor
the industry with her for Creative Nail Design
championship nails. As a (CND). With over thirty
cover artist and author, her years of experience as
work has been published a research scientist,
worldwide, more than any international lecturer,

Photo courtesy of Doug Schoon.

other tech in the history author, and educator,
of the nail business. As an educator, she has trained he has become a recognized authority in the
techs from Russia, Germany, Japan, Ireland, the professional beauty industry. Schoon led CNDs
United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico, Africa, Australia, Research and Development program for nineteen
and the United States. As an industry leader, she has years. Now, as president of his own consulting
mentored thousands of nail professionals. As a world- firm, Schoon Scientific, he continues focusing
master nail technician, Peters, with her own line of on assisting CND with scientific, technical, and
products, promises to lead the industry to regulatory issues that help shape the industry.
new heights. He works as a strong advocate for salon safety
and represents the professional nail industry on
Vicki Peters is a twenty-eight-year veteran nail
scientific and technical issues in the U.S., Europe,
technician, former competition champion,
Canada, Australia, and Japan.
competition judge and director, technical educator,
and featured business speaker. She is also author of Schoon is the author of several books, video and
the Nails Q&A Book, Drilltalk, The Competitive Edge, audio training programs, and dozens of magazine
and Novartis Nail Healthy Guide. Her nail artistry articles about salon chemicals, chemical safety, and
has been on the covers of TV Guide, Day Spa, Nails, disinfection. As a writer and speaker, Schoon is
Nailpro, Nailpro Europe, and numerous fashion applauded for his ability to make complex chemical
magazines. Her expertise in the nail business ranges theories and concepts seem simple and easy to
from salon work and hands-on technical experience understand. Schoons latest book, Nail Structure &
to Research and Development, education, and Product Chemistry, Second Edition, Milady, a part
lecturing worldwide. of Cengage Learning, is also considered an excellent
resource for nail professionals. Currently, Schoon is a
co-chair of the Nail Manufacturers Council (NMC)
of the Professional Beauty Association (PBA).


59306_FM.indd 34 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Milady recognizes, with gratitude and respect, the Dino Petrocelli, professional photographer, for his
many professionals who have offered their time photographic expertise for many of the photos in
to contribute to this edition of Milady Standard the nail technology chapters.
Cosmetology and wishes to extend enormous
Latoyia Anderson, owner of The Hair Extension
thanks to the following people who have played
Room, Rochester, NY, for her enthusiastic and
an invalueable role in the creation of this edition:
creative braiding styles that are featured in
Milady would like to offer our special thanks this edition.
to the Continental School of Beauty Culture
Debbie Harris, professional stylist, Rochester, NY,
of Rochester, Batavia, Buffalo, West Seneca,
for her beautiful finger-wave styling.
Olean, and Syracuse, NY, who, along with
their school owners, directors, instructors, Jesse Hajduk, cosmetologist, Averill Park, NY, for
and students, welcomed the Milady team to her off-camera assistance and on-camera modeling.
their schools in order to conduct this editions Shear Ego International School of Hair Design,
massive photo shoot and who were whole- Rochester, NY, for allowing Milady to hold casting
heartedly kind, accommodating, and hospitable calls at their school.
to all of our crew!
Maria Moffre-Lynch, cosmetologist, cosmetology Product Suppliers
instructor, and consultant, for her invaluable The Andis Company for generously providing
assistance throughout the revision process and for clippers and trimmers used and pictured
sharing her hairdressing skills and keen eye during throughout this edition.
the Milady Standard Cosmetology photo shoot.
The Burmax Company for providing many of the
Yanik Chauvin, professional photographer, whose tools, implements, and supplies used and pictured
artistic vision and photographic expertise helped throughout this edition.
bring many of these pages to life.
 airlines Inc. Distributors for generously
Krissy Ferro, professional makeup artist and providing wet products, flat irons, curling irons,
founder of Ferro Cosmetics, for her artfully scissors, carving combs, and brushes used and
inspired makeup applications and for generously pictured throughout this edition.
providing much of the makeup product, tools,
and supplies used and pictured throughout this The Procter & Gamble Co., parent company
edition. of Clairol Professional, for generously providing
the haircolor products, swatch books, and
Colleen Hennessey, for her on-camera haircoloring other educational materials used and pictured
work, her writing and authoring abilities, and her throughout this edition.
passion about haircolor education.
The Shark Fin Shear Company and Randy
Frank Shipman, for his on-camera haircutting and Ferman for generously providing the shears and
styling work, his innovative approach, and his love cutting implements used and pictured throughout
for the beauty industry. this edition.
Tom Carson, professional photographer, for his Zotos International, Inc., for generously
wonderful finished haircut and styling photos, providing hair care, texture products, and
which truly enhance these pages and are sure to educational material used and pictured
inspire readers. throughout this edition.


59306_FM.indd 35 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Interior Photo Shoot Models Robin Cochran, Gadsden State Community
Latoyia Anderson, Nicole Bleier, John Bradley, College, AL
Charla Buckner, Monique Campbell, Cheryl Kimberly Cutter, Savannah Technical College, GA
Carapezza, Sandy Charette, Melissa Christensen,
Corrinne Edwards, CTN Systems, MD
Jennifer East, Latrice Ellis, Emma Eskander, Tracy
Eskander, Cassidy Ewing, Krissy Ferro, Maureen Ami Enzweiler, Salon 4 U, OH
Fink, Roberta Alessandra Finn, Yesenia Fonseca, Cortney Forster, The Beauty Bar, MI
Victoria Gerstner, Jessie Hajduk, Laura Hand,
Laureen Gillis, Kent Career Technical Center, MI
Debbie Harris, Michael Harvey, Maria K. Hebert,
Colleen Hennessey, Shadia Jaber, Shantelle Luety, Shari Golightly, Entanglements Inc. Training
Tracy Lupinetti, Philip Mandl, Orlando Martinez, Center, CO
Kari Maytum, Katie Meynis, Alexandra Mitchell, Keri Gray, State College of Beauty Culture, WI
Bonnie M. Mitchell, Kristin Mitchell, Maria Moffre- Kristy Henderson, East Central Technical
Lynch, Jamie Mookel, Renee Moonan, Carrie Morris, College, GA
Thanh-Van Nguyen, Jaionna Overton, Trina Palmo,
Mary Jean Hernandez, Southeastern Trade Schools,
Kristie Peraza, Alanna Perna, Courtney Perrotta,
Inc., GA
Samantha Perry, Matthew Poissant, Joseph Rojo,
Dezmarie Ruiz, Yvette Seils, Frank Shipman, Caitlin Jean Hoffer, Capital Region Career and Technical
Siebert, Amanda Spenziero, Crystal Stephan, Ashley School, NY
Stewart, Lynn A. Strzelecki, Rosemary Suong, Natalie Florence Hogan, Bella Vita Spa, MI
Tchurekow, Nina Vieira, Betty Vieira, Tiffany Vogt,
MaryAnn Hough, State of Connecticut Unified
Tiffany Wade, Lisa Wallace
Vocational School District #1, CT
Patricia Jones, Southern Union State Community
Reviewers of Milady Standard College, AL
Cosmetology 2012 Edition Dr. Carolyn Kraskey, Central Beauty School, MN
Francis Archer, The Nail Clinic School of Susan Kolar, David Pressley Professional School of
Manicuring, SC Cosmetology and Transitions-Mott Community
Brenda Baker, Euphoria/Lincoln College of College, MI
Technology, FL Fredrick Laurino, House of Heavilin of
RaNae Barker, Southern Oklahoma Technology Kansas Inc., KS
Center, OK Danielle Lawson, Kenneth Shuler School of
Jane Barrett, Chisholm Institute, Victoria, Australia Cosmetology, SC
Yota Batsaras, Sephora USA, CA Helen LeDonne, Santa Monica College, CA
Laurie Biagi, Skyline Community College, CA Dawn Mango, John Paulos Extreme Beauty
Melinda Borrego, Mindyfingers, CT School, NY
Gina Boyce, Gegi Designs, MO Laura Manicho, OPI National School Division, OH
Peggy Braswell, Swainsboro Technical College, GA Maria Moffre, Orlo School of Hair Design and
Cosmetology, NY
Toni Campbell, Sullivan South High School, TN
Kirby Morris, Wyoming Board of Cosmetology, WY
Phyllis Causey, Hair By Phyllis, TX
Alan Murphy, King Research, WI


59306_FM.indd 36 2/1/11 10:40 AM

Ernestine Peete, Tennessee Technology Center at Special Thanks to Miladys Infection Control
Memphis, TN Advisory Panel for Reviewing & Contributing
Sandra Peoples, Pickens Technical College, CO to Chapter 5, Infection Control: Principles and
Beth Phillips, Heritage College, MO
Barbara Acello, M.S., R.N., Denton, TX
Robert Powers, Pinellas Technical Education
Gerri Cevetillo-Tuccillo, General Manager,
Center, FL
Dentronix Inc./Ultronics Inc., OH
Debbie Eckstine-Weidner, DeRielle Cosmetology
Academy, PA Mike Kennamer, Ed.D., Director of Workforce
Development & Skills Training, Northeast
LuAnne Rickey, The Lab A Paul Mitchell Partner
Alabama Community College
School, NJ
Janet McCormick, M.S., Cidesco, FL
Conrad Sanchez, Central New Mexico Community
College, NM Leslie Roste, R.N., National Director of
Denise Sauls, Lurleen B. Wallace Community Education & Market Development, King
College, AL Research/Barbicide, WI
Penny Sawyer, Rapid Response Monitoring, NY Robert T. Spalding, Jr., DPM, TN
Jennifer Schrodt, University of Nebraska, NE David Vidra, CLPN, WCC, MA, President
Kimberly Schroeder, Avalon School of Health Educators, Inc., OH
Cosmetology, MN
Vickie Servais, New Horizons Regional Education
Center, VA
Donna Simmons, Tulsa Tech, OK
Foy Smith, Beech High School and Looks By
Foy, TN
Lisa Sparhawk, Self-Employed Private Educator, NY
Kay Stannard, Four County Career Center, OH
Madeline Udod, Brookhaven Technical Center
(Eastern Suffolk BOCES), NY
Rebecca Udwary, San Francisco Institute of Esthetics
and Cosmetology, CA
Michael Vanacore, Learning Institute for Beauty
Sciences, NY
Therese Vogel, Tiffin Academy of Hair Design, OH
Kenneth Young, Hotheads Hair Design, OK
Tamara Yusupoff, Bellus Academy, The Academy of
Beauty and Spa, CA
Ida Scarpelli-Zanon, Northern Gateway Division
Onoway High School, AB, Canada


59306_FM.indd 37 2/1/11 10:40 AM

59306_FM.indd 38 2/1/11 10:40 AM
history and career opportunities
life skills your professional Chapters

for Success
image communicating for 1 HISTORY AND CAREER



for Success



io n
ta t part

r i en Professional

O Image

history and career
opportunities life skills
your professional image
communicating for success
59306_C01.indd 1 1/26/11 2:52 PM
1 Chapter
and Career
Chapter Outline
Why Study Cosmetology History
and Career Opportunities?
Brief History of Cosmetology

Career Paths for Cosmetologists

Vladimir Wrangel, 2010; used under license from

59306_C01.indd 2 1/26/11 2:52 PM

Learning Objectives
After completing this chapter, you will be able to:

LO1 Explain the origins of appearance enhancement.

LO2 Name the advancements made in cosmetology during the nineteenth,
twentieth, and early twenty-first centuries.
LO3 List several career opportunities available to a licensed beauty practitioner.

Key Terms
Page number indicates where in the chapter the term is used.
pg. 4

59306_C01.indd 3 1/26/11 2:52 PM
Cosmetology (kahz-muh-TAHL-uh-jee) is a term used to encompass a
broad range of specialty areas, including hairstyling, nail technology, and
esthetics. Cosmetology is defined as the art and science of beautifying
and improving the skin, nails, and hair and includes the study of

Robyn Mackenzie, 2010; used under license from

cosmetics and their application. The term comes from the Greek word
kosmetikos, meaning skilled in the use of cosmetics. Archaeological
studies reveal that haircutting and hairstyling were practiced
in some form as early as the Ice Age.
The simple but effective cosmetic implements used at the dawn of
history were shaped from sharpened flints, oyster shells, or bone.
Animal sinew or strips of hide were used to tie the hair back or
as adornment. Ancient people around the world used coloring
matter on their hair, skin, and nails, and they practiced
tattooing. Pigments were made from berries, tree bark, minerals, insects,
nuts, herbs, leaves, and other materials. Many of these colorants are still
used today.

Why Study Cosmetology History

and Career Opportunities?
Cosmetologists should study and have a thorough understanding
of the history of cosmetology and the career opportunities
available because:
Many very old methods have evolved into techniques still used
today. Studying the origin of these techniques can be useful in fully
understanding how to use them today.
Knowing the history of your profession can help you predict and
understand upcoming trends.
By learning about many possible career paths, youll see the wide
range of opportunities open to cosmotologists.

Brief History of Cosmetology

The Egyptians
The Egyptians were the first to cultivate beauty in an extravagant
fashion. They used cosmetics as part of their personal beautification
habits, religious ceremonies, and preparation of the deceased for burial.
As early as 3000 BC, Egyptians used minerals, insects, and berries to create
makeup for their eyes, lips, and skin. Henna was used to stain their hair and
nails a rich, warm red. They were also the first civilization to infuse essential
oils from the leaves, bark, and blossoms of plants for use as perfumes and
for purification purposes. Queen Nefertiti (circa 1400 BC) stained her nails
red by dipping her fingertips in henna, wore lavish makeup designs, and
used custom-blended essential oils as signature scents. Queen Cleopatra
(circa 50 BC) took this dedication to beauty to an entirely new level by
erecting a personal cosmetics factory next to the Dead Sea.

1 4 Chapter 1 History and Career Opportunities Part I: Orientation

59306_C01.indd 4 1/26/11 2:52 PM

Ancient Egyptians are also credited with creating kohl
makeuporiginally made from a mixture of ground
galena (a black mineral), sulfur, and animal fatto
heavily line the eyes, alleviate eye inflammation, and
protect the eyes from the glare of the sun.
In both ancient Egypt and Rome, military commanders
stained their nails and lips in matching colors before
important battles (Figure 11).

The Chinese
History also shows that during the Shang Dynasty (circa
1600 BC), Chinese aristocrats rubbed a tinted mixture

of gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax, and egg whites onto
their nails to color them crimson or ebony. Throughout Figure 11
the Chou Dynasty (circa 1100 BC), gold and silver were The Egyptians wore elaborate
hairstyles and cosmetics.
the royal colors. During this early period in Chinese history, nail
tinting was so closely tied to social status that commoners caught
wearing a royal nail color faced a punishment of death.

The Greeks
During the golden age of Greece (circa 500 BC), hairstyling became a
highly developed art. The ancient Greeks made lavish use of perfumes
and cosmetics in their religious rites, in grooming, and for medicinal

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

purposes. They built elaborate baths and developed excellent methods of
dressing the hair and caring for the skin and nails. Greek women applied
preparations of white lead onto their faces, kohl around their eyes,
and vermillion upon their cheeks and lips. Vermillion is a brilliant red
pigment, made by grinding cinnabar (a mineral that is the chief source
of mercury) to a fine powder. It was mixed with ointment or dusted on
the skin in the same way cosmetics are applied today (Figure12). Figure 12
The Greeks advanced grooming and
skin care.
The Romans
Roman women lavishly used fragrances and cosmetics. Facials made
of milk and bread or fine wine were popular. Other facials were made
of corn with flour and milk, or from flour and fresh butter. A mixture
of chalk and white lead was used as a facial cosmetic. Women used hair
color to indicate their class in society. Noblewomen tinted their hair red,
middle-class women colored their hair blond, and poor women dyed
their hair black (Figure 13).

The Middle Ages

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

The Middle Ages is the period of European history between classical

antiquity and the Renaissance, beginning with the downfall of Rome,
circa AD 476, and lasting until about 1450. Beauty culture is evidenced
by tapestries, sculptures, and other artifacts from this period. All of these
show towering headdresses, intricate hairstyles, and the use of cosmetics
on skin and hair. Women wore colored makeup on their cheeks and Figure 13
lips, but not on their eyes. Around AD 1000, a Persian physician and The Romans applied various
preparations to the skin.

Part I: Orientation Chapter 1 History and Career Opportunities 5 1

59306_C01.indd 5 1/26/11 2:52 PM
alchemist named Avicenna refined the process of steam distillation.
This ushered in the modern era of steam-distilled essential oils that
we use today.

The Renaissance
This is the period in history during which Western civilization made
the transition from medieval to modern history. Paintings and written
records tell us a great deal about the grooming practices of the time.
One of the most unusual practices was the shaving of the eyebrows and
the hairline to show a greater expanse of forehead. A brow-less forehead
was thought to give women a look of greater intelligence. During
this period, both men and women took great pride in their physical
appearance and wore elaborate, elegant clothing. Fragrances and
cosmetics were used, although highly colored preparations of the
lips, cheeks, and eyes were discouraged (Figure 14).
Figure 14
During the Renaissance, shaving or tweezing The Victorian Age
of the eyebrows and hairline to show a
greater expanse of the forehead was thought
The reign of Queen Victoria of England, between 1837 and 1901, was
to make women appear more intelligent. known as the Victorian Age. Fashions in dress and personal grooming
were drastically influenced by the social mores of this austere and
restrictive period in history. To preserve the health and beauty of
the skin, women used beauty masks and packs made from honey,
eggs, milk, oatmeal, fruits, vegetables, and other natural ingredients.
Victorian women are said to have pinched their cheeks and bitten their
lips to induce natural color rather than use cosmetics, such as rouge or
lip color (Figure 15). LO1

The Twentieth Century

In the early twentieth century, the invention of motion pictures
coincided with an abrupt shift in American attitudes. As viewers saw
pictures of celebrities with flawless complexions, beautiful hairstyles,
and manicured nails, standards of feminine beauty began to change.
This era also signaled the spread of industrialization, which brought
a new prosperity to the United States. Beauty applications began to
follow the trends set by celebrities and society figures (Figure 16).

In 1904, Max Faktor emigrated from Lodz, Poland, to the United
States. By 1908, he had Americanized his name to Max Factor and
Figure 15 moved to Los Angeles, where he began making and selling makeup. His
During the Victorian period, makeup and
showy clothing were discouraged except
makeup was popular with movie stars because it wouldnt cake or crack,
in the theater. even under hot studio lights.
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

On October 8, 1906, Charles Nessler invented a heavily wired machine

that supplied electrical current to metal rods around which hair strands
were wrapped. These heavy units were heated during the waving
process. They were kept away from the scalp by a complex system
of counterbalancing weights that were suspended from an overhead
chandelier mounted on a stand. Two methods were used to wind hair

1 6 Chapter 1 History and Career Opportunities Part I: Orientation

59306_C01.indd 6 1/26/11 2:53 PM

strands around the metal units. Long hair was wound from the Figure 16
Dramatic changes in beauty and
scalp to the ends in a technique called spiral wrapping. After fashion occured through the decades
World War I, when women cut their hair into the short bobbed of the twentieth century.
style, the croquignole (KROH-ken-yohl) wrapping technique
was introduced. In this method, shorter hair was wound from
the ends toward the scalp. The hair was then styled into deep
waves with loose end-curls.
One of the most notable success stories of the cosmetology
industry is that of Sarah Breedlove. She was the daughter of
former slaves and was orphaned at age seven when she went
to work in the cotton fields of the Mississippi delta. In 1906,
Sarah married her third husband, C.J. Walker, and became
known as Madame C. J. Walker. Sarah suffered from a scalp condition
and began to lose her hair, which caused her to experiment with store-
bought products and homemade remedies. She began to sell her scalp
conditioning and healing treatment called Madam Walkers Wonderful
Hair Grower. She devised sophisticated sales and marketing strategies
and traveled extensively to give product demonstrations. In 1910, she
moved her company to Indianapolis where she built a factory, hair
salon, and training school. As she developed new products, her empire
grew. She devoted much time and money to a variety of causes in
Indianapolis, including the National Association for the Advancement
of Colored People (NAACP) and the Young Mens Christian Association
(YMCA). In 1917, she organized a convention for her Madam C. J.
Walker Hair Culturists Union of America. This was one of the first
national meetings for businesswomen ever held. By the time of her
death, she had established herself as a pioneer in the modern African-
American hair care and cosmetics industry.
In 1872, Marcel Grateau (AKA Francois Marcel) invented the first
curling irontongs heated by a gas burner. Later, around 1923, he
created an electric version. Because he introduced several electric
versions, the actual date of the invention remains in dispute. Grateau
went on to develop a permanent wave machine, barbers clippers, a
safety razor, and other devices.

The cosmetics industry grew rapidly during the 1920s. Advertising
expenditures in radio alone went from $390,000 in 1927 to $3.2 million
in 1930. At first, many womens magazines deemed cosmetics improper
and refused to print cosmetic advertisements, but by the end of the 1920s,
cosmetics provided one of their largest sources of advertising revenue.
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

In 1931, the preheat-perm method was introduced. First, hair was
wrapped using the croquignole method. Then, clamps that had been
preheated by a separate electrical unit were placed over the wound
curls. An alternative to the machine perm was introduced in 1932

Part I: Orientation Chapter 1 History and Career Opportunities 7 1

59306_C01.indd 7 1/26/11 2:53 PM
did you know? when chemists Ralph L. Evans and Everett G. McDonough pioneered
a method that used heat generated by chemical reaction: small flexible
pads containing a chemical mixture were wound around hair strands.
Up until the nineteenth century,
When the pads were moistened with water, a chemical heat was released
many barbers also performed
that created long-lasting curls. Thus the first machineless permanent
minor surgeries and practiced
wave was born. Salon clients were no longer subjected to the dangers
dentistry. In fact, the barber
and discomforts of the Nessler machine.
pole, a symbol of the barber
surgeon, has its roots in a medical In 1932, nearly 4,000 years after the first recorded nail-color craze,
procedure called bloodletting that Charles Revson of Revlon fame marketed the first nail polishas
was once thought to strengthen opposed to a nail stainusing formulas that were borrowed from the
the immune system. The pole is automobile paint industry. This milestone marked a dramatic shift in
believed to represent the staff nail cosmetics as women finally had an array of nail lacquers available
that patients held tightly to make to them. The early screen sirens Jean Harlow and Gloria Swanson
the veins in their arms stand glamorized this hip new nail fashion in silent pictures and early talkies
out during the procedure. The by appearing in films wearing matching polish on their fingers and toes.
bottom cap represents the basin
Also in 1932, Lawrence Gelb, a New York Chemist, introduced the first
used to catch the blood. The
permanent haircolor product and founded a company called Clairol. In
red and white stripes represent
1935, Max Factor created pancake makeup to make actors skin look
the bandages that stopped the
natural on color film. In 1938, Arnold F. Willatt invented the cold wave
bleeding and were then hung on
that used no machines or heat. The cold wave is considered to be the
the pole to dry. As the wind blew,
precursor to the modern perm.
these bandages would become
twisted around the pole, forming
a red-and-white pattern.
In 1941, scientists developed another method of permanent waving
The modern barber pole, then, that used waving lotion. Because this perm did not use heat, it was
was originally the symbol of the also called a cold wave. Cold waves replaced virtually all predecessors
barbersurgeon, and is believed and competitors. In fact, the terms cold waving and permanent waving
to represent the bandages became practically synonymous. Modern versions of cold waves,
(white), blood (red), and veins usually referred to as alkaline perms, are very popular today. The
(blue) involved in bloodletting term texture services is used today to refer to the variety of permanent
(Figure17). waving and straightening services available for various hair types
Up until the end of the and conditions.
nineteenth century, even
in the United States, both 19512000
men and women wore The second half of the twentieth century saw the introduction of
wigs. Today wigs are tube mascara, improved hair care and nail products, and the boom
making a resurgence as and then death of the weekly salon appointment. In the late 1960s,
a fashion item, riding the Vidal Sassoon turned the hairstyling world on its ear with his
popularity wave of hair revolutionary geometric cuts. The 1970s saw a new era in highlighting
extensions. when French hairdressers introduced the art of hair weaving using
aluminum foil. In the 1980s, makeup went full circle, from barely
there to heavily made-up cat-eyes and the heavy use of eye shadows
and blush. In the 1990s, haircolor became gentler, allowing all

Figure 17 ethnicities to enjoy being blonds, brunettes, or redheads. In 1998,

A traditional barber pole.
Creative Nail Design introduced the first spa pedicure system to the
professional beauty industry.

1 8 Chapter 1 History and Career Opportunities Part I: Orientation

59306_C01.indd 8 1/26/11 2:53 PM

The Twenty-First Century
Today, hairstylists have far gentler, no-fade haircolor. Estheticians can
noticeably rejuvenate the skin, as well as keep disorders such as sunspots
and mild acne at bay. The beauty industry has also entered the age of
specialization. Now cosmetologists frequently specialize either in haircolor
or in haircutting; estheticians specialize in esthetic or medical-aesthetic
services; and nail technicians either offer a full array of services or specialize
in artificial nail enhancements, natural nail care, or even pedicures.
Since the late 1980s, the salon industry has evolved to include day spas,
a name that was first coined by beauty legend Noel DeCaprio. Day spas
now represent an excellent employment opportunity for beauty
practitioners (Figure 18).
Men-only specialty spas and barber spas have also grown in popularity.
These spas provide exciting new opportunities for mens hair, nail, and Figure 18
Day spas are increasing in number
skin-care specialists. Figure19 on page 10 is a timeline of significant and popularity.
events in the cosmetology industry. LO2

Career Paths for Cosmetologists

Once you have completed your schooling and are licensed, you will
be amazed at how many career opportunities will open up to you. The
possibilities can be endless for a hard-working professional cosmetologist
who approaches her or his career with a strong sense of personal integrity.
Within the industry there are numerous specialties, such as the following:
Haircolor specialist. Once you have received additional training
and experience in haircolor, you may be responsible for training
others in your salon to perform color services or work for a product
Figure 110
manufacturer, where you will be expected to train other professionals Haircolor specialists are in great demand.
how best to perform color services according to the companys
guidelines and product instructions (Figure 110).
Texture specialist. Once you have received additional training and
experience in texture services you may be responsible for training others
to perform texture services in the salon, or work for a manufacturer
where you will be expected to train others on how best to perform texture
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.

services according to your companys guidelines and product instructions.

A subspecialty, curly hair specialist, focuses on maintaining natural curl.
Cutting specialist. This position requires a dedicated interest in learning
various cutting styles and techniques. After perfecting your own skills
and developing your own method of cutting (everyone develops his or
her own cutting technique), you may want to study with other reputable
haircutters to learn and adopt their systems and techniques. This training
will allow you to perform top-quality haircutting in your own salon,
as well as to coach those around you, helping them to hone their skills Figure 111
Cutting hair in a salon is one of the many
(Figure 111). choices open to you.

Part I: Orientation Chapter 1 History and Career Opportunities 9 1

59306_C01.indd 9 1/26/11 2:53 PM
Figure 19

A Timeline of Milestones in the Professional Beauty Industry.

3000 BC 2500 2000 1500 1100 BC

3000 BC Egyptians used minerals, 1600 BC Chinese aristocrats 1400 BC Queen Nefertiti stained her 1100 BC Throughout the Chinese
insects, and berries to create makeup rubbed a tinted mixture of gum nails red by dipping her fingertips in Chou Dynasty, gold and silver were

under license from

for their eyes, lips, and skin. Henna arabic, gelatin, beeswax, and egg henna, wore lavish makeup the royal colors. Nail tinting was

Vladimir Wrangel, 2010; used

was used to stain their hair and nails whites onto their nails to color designs, and used custom- so closely tied to social status that
a rich, warm red. They also infused them crimson or ebony. blended essential oils as commoners caught wearing a
essential oils from the leaves, bark, signature scents. royal nail color faced a punishment
and blossoms of plants for use as of death.
perfumes and purification purposes.

1900 1905 1910 1915

1872 Marcel Grateau 1900s Motion picture 1906 Charles Nessler invented 1908 Max Factor began 1910 Sarah Breedlove
(AKA Francois Marcel) viewers saw pictures of a heavily wired machine that making and selling became known as Madame
invented the first celebrities with flawless supplied electrical current to makeup to movie stars C. J. Walker and sold Madam
curling irongas complexions, beautiful metal rods around which hair that wouldnt cake or Walkers Wonderful Hair
burner-heated tongs. hairstyles, and manicured strands were wrapped. These crack, even under Grower. She moved her
About 1923, he nails, and standards of heavy units were heated hot studio lights. company to Indianapolis

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

created an electric feminine during the waving process. where she built a factory, hair
version. beauty They were kept away from salon, and training school. As
began to the scalp by a complex system she developed new products,
change. of counterbalancing weights her empire grew.
that were suspended from an
overhead chandelier mounted
on a stand.

1940 1950 1960

Zastol`skiy Victor Leonidovich, 2010; used

1935 Max Factor created 1938 Arnold F. Willatt 1941 Scientists developed another method of 1960s Vidal Sassoon turned
pancake makeup to make invented the cold wave that permanent waving that used waving lotion. the hairstyling world on

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

under license from

actors skin look used no machines or heat. Because this perm did not use heat, it was its ear with his
natural on The cold wave is considered also called a cold wave. Cold waves replaced revolutionary
color film. to be the precursor to the virtually all predecessors and competitors, and geometric cuts.
modern perm. the terms cold waving and permanent waving
became practically synonymous.

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

2000 According to a Vance Research Services study 2003 Sebastian International 2005 Most salons have their
of 1,500 salon owners, 30 percent of salons used introduces the first consumer- own websites and use e-mail
a computer for business while at work and oriented DVD to the professional to communicate. Point-of-sale
Borodaev, 2010; used under license

44 percent used it for business at home. salon industry, in order to speak software and computerized
Sixty-five percent of respondents had directly to the consumer. appointment scheduling are
home Internet access, while just in widespread use.

17 percent had it in their salons.

1 10 Chapter 1 History and Career Opportunities Part I: Orientation

59306_C01.indd 10 1/26/11 2:53 PM

500 BC 50 AD 1000 1500 1850
500 BC During the golden age of Greece, 50 BC Queen Cleopatra AD 1000 Persian physician 18371901 To preserve the health
hairstyling became a highly developed took dedication to beauty and alchemist, Avicenna, and beauty of the skin, women used
under license from

art. The ancient Greeks made lavish use of to an entirely new level refined the process of steam beauty masks and packs made from
Natalia Lisovskaya, 2010; used

perfumes and cosmetics in their religious by erecting a personal distillation. This ushered in honey, eggs, milk, oatmeal,
rites and personal grooming. Greek women cosmetics factory next to the modern era of steam- fruits, vegetables, and other
applied preparations of white lead onto the Dead Sea. distilled essential oils that natural ingredients.
their faces, kohl around their eyes, and we use today.
vermillion upon their cheeks and lips.

1920 1925 1930

1917 Madame Walker 1920s The cosmetics 1931 The preheat perm method 1932 Chemists Ralph L. Evans and Everett G. McDonough
organized a convention industry grew was introduced. Hair was pioneered a method that used heat generated by chemical
for her Madam C. J. rapidly. Advertising wrapped using the croquignole reaction: small flexible pads containing a chemical mixture were
Walker Hair Culturists expenditures in radio method. Clamps, preheated by wound around hair strands. When the pads were moistened with
Union of America. This alone went from a separate electrical unit, were water, a chemical heat was released that created long-lasting curls.
was one of the first $390,000 in 1927 to then placed Thus the first machineless permanent wave was born. Salon clients
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

national meetings $3.2 million in 1930. over the were no longer subjected to the dangers and discomforts of the
for businesswomen wound Nessler machine.
ever held. curls.
Also that year, Charles Revson of Revlon fame marketed the
first nail polishas opposed to a nail stainusing formulas
that were borrowed from the automobile paint industry. Lawrence
Gelb, a New York Chemist, introduced the first permanent haircolor
product and founded a company called Clairol.

1970 1980 1990

1970s French 1980s Makeup went full circle, from 1990s Haircolor 1998 Creative Nail Design 1999 Spas hit their stride
hairdressers introduced barely there to heavily made-up became gentler, introduced the first spa pedicure as big business. According
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.
Bogdan Ionescu, 2010; used under

the art of hair weaving cat-eyes and the heavy use of eye allowing all ethnicities system to the to the International
license from

using aluminum foil. shadows and blush. Also, the salon to enjoy being blonds, professional Spa Association (ISPA),
industry evolved to include day spas, brunettes, or redheads. beauty industry. consumers spent $14.2
a name that was first coined by billion in about 15,000
beauty legend Noel DeCaprio. destination and
day spas.

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2006 Brazilian 2007 Haircolor becomes the largest 2008 There is an explosion in 2009 Many beauty
straightening treatments hair care category in terms of in-salon, salons using social networking manufacturers have Mobile
are introduced in the U.S. back bar, and take-home color refresher sites to do business. Twitter, which versions of their Websites.
Robyn Mackenzie, 2010; used under

product sales. The green movement takes was introduced in March, 2006, Access to instant online
off in salons, with many positioning becomes the next big thing in technical education and color
license from

themselves as eco salons and spas social networking with clients. formulas becomes common.
striving for sustainability. In April, the first
American television reality-competition
show for salons, Shear Genius, debuts.

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59306_C01.indd 11 1/26/11 2:54 PM
did you know? Salon trainer. Many companies, such as manufacturers and salon
chains, hire experienced salon professionals and train them to
train others. This kind of training can take many forms, from
Although cosmetologists who
technical training to management and interpersonal relationship
work in salons and spas do
training. A salon trainer can work with small salons, as well as large
not have to join a union to be
organizations and trade associations, to help develop the beauty
considered for work or to be
industrys most valuable resourcesalon staff and personnel.
entitled to certain benefits of
employment, to work on films, Distributor sales consultant. The salon industry depends heavily
television shows, and theater on its relationships with product distributors in order to stay abreast
you may need to join a union. of what is occurring in the marketplace. Distributor sales consultants
The unions havedifferent names, (DSCs) provide information about new products, new trends, and
one of the largest is the Makeup new techniques. This specialty provides an excellent opportunity
and HairstylistsUnion, also known for highly skilled and trained cosmetology professionals. The DSC
as the International Alliance of is the salon and its staff s link with the rest of the industry, and
Theatrical Stage Employees, this relationship represents the most efficient method that outside
Moving Picture Technicians, companies use to reach the salon stylist.
Artist and Allied Crafts of the Manufacturer educator. Most manufacturers hire their own
United States and Canada, educators to train stylists and salon staff to understand and use
AFL-CIO, CLC (IA). the companys hair care, haircolor, and chemical-service products.
You may also need to join the Mastery of the companys product lines is a must for manufacturer
Makeup and Hairstylists Guild, educators. An accomplished educator who is a good public speaker
or the Actors union. can advance to field educator, regional educator, or even platform
educator, appearing on stage at shows in the U.S. and around
the world.
Cosmetology instructor. Have you ever wondered how your
instructor decided to start teaching? Many instructors had
fantastic careers in salons before dedicating themselves to
teaching new professionals the tricks of the trade. If this
career path interests you, spend some time with your
schools instructors and ask them why they went
into education. Educating new cosmetologists can
be very trying, but it can also be very rewarding.
Film or theatrical hairstylist and editorial
stylist. Working behind the scenes at magazine
and Internet photo shoots or backstage on
movies and TV sets all starts with volunteering
to assist. Even someone right out of school can
FXQuadr, 2010; used under license from

volunteer by calling agencies, networking with

photographers, or asking other hairdressers who
work behind the scenes for advice. The days
are longup to eighteenhours on soap opera
setsbut once you clock the specific number of
hours required by your state of residence, you
can join the local union, which opens many
doors. All you need are persistence, networking
skills, reliability, team spirit, and attention to detail.

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ACT ivity
You may think you already know which area of cosmetology interests you
most. But as you learn more, that can change. To help you determine the
best area of speciality, interview a salon owner or a specialist in your area.
Ask the following questions:
Why did you choose the specialty you did?
What special skills are required?
What type of training was required to become a specialist?
How long did it take you to get really proficient?
Whats the most exciting thing about your specialization?
To find someone to interview, ask your instructors for ideas, visit local
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

salons, go to trade shows, or search the Internet for specialists in your

areaor anywhere! Many salon owners, colorists, texture specialists,
business experts, and educators can be found through social
networks like Facebook, Myspace, LinkedIn, and many others.

This field requires constant continuing education, particularly in

working with wigs, hairpieces, and makeup. LO3

These are but a few of the many career paths awaiting you on the
road to a lifelong career in cosmetology. The wonderful thing about
the professional beauty industry is that there are truly no limits to what
you can do if you have a sincere interest in learning and giving back to
your industry. Keep developing your skills in the specialities that interest
you, and youll soon be building and enjoying an extremely creative and
unique career.

Salon Management
If business is your calling, you will find that management opportunities
in the salon and spa industry are quite diverse. They include being an
inventory manager, department head, educator, special events manager
(promotions), assistant manager, and general manager. With experience,
you can also add salon owner to this list of career possibilities. To ensure
your success, it is wise to enroll in business classes to learn more about
managing products, departments, andabove allpeople.
Salon manager is a potential career path for a cosmetologist, but it requires
a very different skill set. As a result, some managers of large operations
are not cosmetologists. Salon managers must have an aptitude for math
and accounting and be able to read documents such as profit and loss
statements. They should understand marketing, including the roles of
advertising, public relations and promotions, and what makes these
programs successful. Much of management involves the business side of
the salonmaking it profitablewhile keeping clients and employees

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T he field of cosmetology has broadened to encompass areas of specialization, including esthetics and nail
technology. As the cosmetology industry continues to grow, opportunities for professionals increase.
 ccording to a study by the National Accrediting Commission of Cosmetology Arts and Sciences (NACCAS),
salons employed around 1,683,000 professionals in 2007, and 53 percent of salons had job openings. Nearly
three-quarters of salon owners with positions to fill could not find qualified applicants, even though about
38 percent of the jobs were for inexperienced professionals with less than a year on the job.
 hile many factors, including the national economy, affect the industry, the salon business usually
withstands recessions much better than other industries. To make each day in school positively impact your
future, focus on your studies, read trade publications cover-to-cover, become a member of relevant trade
associations, and attend workshops outside of school. Remember, your license will unlock countless doors,
but it is your personal dedication and passion that ultimately determines how successful you become.

happy. Titles and the accompanying responsibilities vary widely from

salon to salon, and it is always possible to learn on the job. However,
supplementing your experience with formal business education is the
quickest path to success.
Beyond choosing a specialty, you must decide on the type of facility
where you will work. Many options are available:

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.

Specialty salons
Full-service salons (offering hair, skin, and nail services)
Photo, video, or film sets (preparing models and actors
for camera appearances)
Day spas (offering services that emphasize both beauty and
wellness) (Figure 112)
To learn more about the various types of salon business models,
see Chapter 32, The Salon Business. There you will find a wealth
of choices, including national and regional chains and low- and
high-end salon opportunities.

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.

Figure 112
A day spa may offer nail, hair,
body, and skin services.

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59306_C01.indd 14 1/26/11 2:54 PM

Review Questions
1. What are the origins of appearance enhancement?
2. What are some of the advancements made in cosmetology during the nineteenth, twentieth,
and early twenty-first centuries?
3. What are some of the career opportunities available to licensed beauty practitioners?

Chapter Glossary
cosmetology The art and science of beautifying and improving the skin, nails, and hair and
includes the study of cosmetics and their application.

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59306_C01.indd 15 1/26/11 2:54 PM

Implements Preparation
and Materials
You will need all of the
Perform 15-1 Procedure See page 323

materials,and supplies:
Cutting cape 1 1 Drape your client for
a shampoo.
Cutting or styling comb
Haircutting shears
Neck strip
Sectioning clips
Shampoo and conditioner 2 Shampoo and condition the hair as necessary.
Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.

Shampoo cape 3 Escort the client back to the styling chair. Secure a neck strip
Spray bottle with water around the clients neck. Place a cape over the neck strip and fasten
in the back. Fold the neck strip down over the cape so that no part of
Towels the cape touches the clients skin.
Wide-tooth comb 4 Detangle the hair with the wide-tooth comb.

16 408 Chapter 16 Haircutting Part 3: Hair Care

59306_C16.indd 408 1/31/11 10:28 AM

5 6 7

5 Part the hair into five sections, 6 Begin at the top of the 7 Work to the front of the
as in step 5 of Procedure 16-3. crown by taking a -inch (1.25 top section by taking a second
centimeters) subsection across the -inch subsection. Direct the first
head. Comb straight up from the subsection (guideline) to the second
head form and cut straight across. one and cut to the same length.

8 8 Continue, using the previously cut subsection as your guideline to cut

a new -inch subsection throughout the top section.

9a 9b 9 On the right front

section, using -inch horizontal
subsections, comb the hair straight
up and match to the previously cut
hair (guideline) in the top section.
Continue working down the side,
using -inch subsections until the
hair no longer reaches the guide.

10 10 Repeat on the left side.

Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.

11 11 Complete the back sections.

12 Continue cutting using -inch horizontal subsections and working

from top to bottom until the hair no longer reaches the guideline.

Part 3: Hair Care Chapter 16 Haircutting 409 16

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