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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education
Region V-Bicol
Legaspi City



Learning Area : HUMANITIES Writer: HAZEL B. ALBAO

LEARNING Points for
COMPETENCY TYPE SOURCE contextualization
( Code ) (Suggestions)
1. Identifies various National Artist of the Philippines (All Arts Form)
contemporary art Source: URL: Cultural Mapping
forms and their Listings of arts forms
practices from the Various Art Forms. Categories under which National Artists can be recognized created during our
various regions originally included: lifetimes
Music - composition, direction, and/or performance; a. within ones
(CAR11/121AC-Oa-1) Dance - choreography, direction and/or performance; locality.
Theater direction, performance and/or production design; b. In Bicol Region
Visual Arts painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, installation art,
mixed media works, illustration, graphic arts, performance art and/or imaging;
Literature poetry, fiction, essay, playwriting, journalism and/or literary
Film and Broadcast Arts direction, writing, production design,
cinematography, editing, camera work, and/or performance; and
Architecture, Design and Allied Arts architecture design, interior design,
industrial arts design, landscape architecture and fashion design.
Kulay-Diwa Gallery of Philippine Contemporary Art Identifying gallery/ies
1. Identifies various Source: URL: to be visited in the
contemporary art Diwa_Gallery_of_Philippine_Contemporary_Art locality and in region
forms and their in order to promote
practices from the Kulay-Diwa Gallery of Philippine Contemporary Art contemporary
various regions artworks.
(CAR11/121AC-Oa-1) Kulay-Diwa Gallery of Philippine Contemporary Art is an art gallery
housing contemporary art productions from the Philippines and other Southeast Asian
countries. The gallery is owned and managed by Roberto Nolasco.
The name of the gallery comes from two Tagalog words: kulay (color) and diwa
(spirit or thought).
History. The gallery opened on 7 February 1987, with the goal of discovering and
promoting the contemporary artworks of young and emerging Filipino artists and
facilitating cultural interaction among the Philippine regions and between the
Philippines and other nations. It is currently located in Paraaque City, Metro Manila.
About the Gallery. Kulay-Diwa accepts from artists and curators exhibition proposals
for display in its three galleries.
The White Main Gallery (20 ft x 40 ft x 9 ft) can house approximately 20
moderately large works. The Red Gallery (14 ft x 11 ft x 10 ft) has smaller space, while
the Black Gallery (25 ft x 20 ft x 8 ft) is recommended for sculpture installations, video
displays, and other multimedia works. Special arrangements for exhibits in the Black
Gallery will have to be made in advance.
Five independent exhibition areas are also available for large-scale works. The
gallery also has a garden that can be used for assemblies, performances, and sculpture
The gallery has no fixed opening hours and has limited parking space. To view
the exhibits in the gallery, a patron or visitor needs to set an appointment with the
gallery staff at least three days ahead. Flash photography is generally allowed inside
the gallery, except of specific works. The usage of tripods and other photography
equipment, however, requires explicit permission from gallery staff.
The gallery performs the following services for its clientele:
Authentication The gallery issues certificates of living artists that are affiliated with it
and have exhibited their works in the gallery.
Consignment The gallery resells artworks on consignment.
Framing The gallery can custom-frame an artwork.
Artworks as Collateral
Shipping and Payments The gallery can ship artworks to any place around the world.
It also accepts payments through PayPal and major credit cards.
Kulay-Diwa has hosted the artworks of the following contemporary artists:

Filipino Artists
Alexander Abon Eugene Cubillo II Jojo Legaspi Orville Tiamson
Alexander de Moscoso Federico Alcuaz Jonathan Ching Pardo De Leon
Andres Barrioquinto Federico Sievert Jonathan Olazo Popo San Pascual
Anita Magsaysay-Ho Felix Hidalgo Jose Joya Raoul Rodriquez
Amiel Roldan
Ferdinand Doctolero Joseph Lofranco Reginald Yuson
Ang Kiukok Fernando Amorsolo Juan Luna Ricarte Puruganan
Armand Santos Fernando Modesto Julie Lluch Rico Lascano
Bembol dela Cruz Francesca Enriquez Jun Veliora Robert Besana
Bienvenido Banez Jr. Francisco Viri Juvenal Sanso Robert Langenegger
Carlo Gabuco Gabby Barredo Kelly Sonio Rock Drilon
Camille dela Rosa Galo Ocampo Kiko Escora Romulo Olazo
Cesar Legaspi Geraldine Javier Kristoffer Ardena Ronald Ventura
Charlie Co Glenn Bautista Lawrence Borsoto Santiago Bose
Christopher Zamora Gromyko Semper Leslie De Chavez Sid Hildawa
Clairelyn Uy
Guillermo Tolentino Lester Amacio Stella Tansengco-
Cristina Taniguchi Gus Albor Luis Francisco Schapero
Danilo Dalena Henri Cainglet Macario Vitalis Tatong Torres
David Medalla Honrado Fernandez Manuel Ocampo Tita Lim
Dennis Gonzales H. R. Ocampo Marcel Antonio Ver Camille
Demetrio Diego Ian Victoriano Mark Justiniani Vicente Manansala
Dindo Llana Ian Quirante Michael Adrao Victorio Edades
Don Barranco Ibarra dela Rosa Michael Bacol Vincent Balandra
Don Salubayba Ivan Acuna Michelle Tan Willy Gonzales
Edd Aragon Jaime De Guzman Mideo Cruz
Edmond Reboredo Jayson Oliveria Napoleon Abueva
Edwin Wilwayco Jecky Alano Nena Saguil
Elmer Borlongan Jeho Bitancor Norberto Carating
Elmer Roslin Jericho Vamenta Norman Posecion
Eng Chan Jerry Navarro Nunelucio Alvarado
Eric Guazon Jess Abrera Onib Olmedo

Non-Filipino Artists
Antonius Kho
Bai Yiluo
Martin Werthmann
Min Yi Ming
Min Yi Yao
The Luo Brothers
Qin Feng
Wang Xingang
Wipoosana Supanakorn
Yue Minjun
Zhang Dali

Kulay-Diwa Gallery of Philippine Contemporary Art website (2009). (accessed on
April 3, 2010)
Roberto Nolasco LinkedIn (2010). (accessed on April 3, 2010)
Vernacularization of the curator:Informal and independent contemporary
curatorial practice in the Philippines Riel Hilario: Musings and Sketches. (May
4, 2007). (accessed on April 3, 2010)
1. Identifies various Kulay-Diwa Gallery of Philippine Contemporary Art Identifying gallery/ies
contemporary art Source: URL: to be visited in the
forms and their contemporary-art-para%C3%B1aque locality and in region
practices from the in order to promote
various regions Specialties contemporary
(CAR11/121AC-Oa-1) Kulay-Diwa Gallery of Philippine Contemporary Art is a privately owned venue artworks.
for artistic expression. It is strategically located within a cluster of progressive
communities South of Manila. It has an independent exhibition area able to
accommodate large-scale works, and a spacious garden ideal for outdoor
programs, performances and sculpture installations.

Goals of Kulay-Diwa:
1. To discover and promote the works of talented, young and deserving
Filipino Artist;
2. To serve as a cultural outpost and make the arts more accessible to the fast-
growing communities South
of Manila; and
3. To foster cultural interaction and exchanges with the local
regions,Southeast Asia and other countries.

Kulay (Color)
Diwa (Spirit, Thought)

Established in 1987.
The gallery opened on 7 February 1987, with the goal of discovering and
promoting the contemporary artworks of young and emerging Filipino artists and
facilitating cultural interaction among the Philippine regions and between the
Philippines and other nations. It is currently located in Paraaque City, Metro Manila.
1. Listings of Visual art
1. Identifies various Article Topic: Visual Art: Definition & Meaning discipline which a
contemporary art URL: student
forms and their a. have learned in
practices from the Visual Art: Definition & Meaning junior high school.
various regions b. wishes to experience
"Visual Arts" is a modern but imprecise umbrella term for a broad
(CAR11/121AC-Oa-1) category of art which includes a number of artistic disciplines from various 2. Bringing of samples:
sub-categories. Its wide ambit renders meaningless any attempt at definition, a. candid shots/photos
so rather than define or compose some diluted meaning for it, here is a list of taken
its constituent disciplines. (See also: Types of Art.) art

What Does Visual Art Include?

Definitions of visual art usually encompass the following:
1. Fine Arts
All fine art belongs to the general category of visual arts. These include
activities such as: Drawing, Painting, Printmaking and Sculpture, along with
associated activities like Graphic art, Manuscript Illumination, Book
Illustration, Calligraphy and Architecture.

2. Contemporary Arts
The visual arts also include a number of modern art forms, such as:
Assemblage, Collage, Mixed-media, Conceptual Art, Installation, Happenings
and Performance art, along with film-based disciplines such as Photography,
Video Art and Animation, or any combination thereof.

This group of activities also includes high tech disciplines like computer
graphics and giclee prints. Another modern visual art, is the new
environmental or Land art, which also includes transitory forms like ice/snow
sculpture, and (presumably) graffiti art.
Watching animated
Topic: Animation Art films with Filipino or
URL: Bicolano animators
like Finding Nemo
Animation Art
Animation (from the Latin word, animare, to breathe life into) is the visual
art of making a motion picture from a series of still drawings. Although twenty
first century animation is dominated by computerized film and video
technology, the creative figure drawing skills and draftsmanship of cartoonists
and graphic artists remain an integral part of the process. Famous twentieth
century animators include J. Stuart Blackton, George McManus, Max Fleischer,
and Walt Disney, and the team from DreamWorks Animation. Famous
animated film cartoons include Mickey Mouse, Bugs Bunny and Donald Duck,
Jungle Book, the Simpsons, Shrek and Anime.
There are various types of animations: animated full-length films, like
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Fritz the Cat, and Shrek; films with both
animated and human characters, such as Roger Rabbit, and Lord of the Rings;
shorter-length cartoons or TV series, like Tom and Jerry, and the Simpsons;
and specific animations for TV and video commercials. The growth of
animation, both as an art form and as a commercial product, has led to its
growing importance as a study subject. Animation is now taught as a separate
figurative art course in a growing number of European as well as American arts
colleges. For related disciplines, see Photography and also Video art.
The Draftsman Animator
Animators complete their drawings on cels, transparent acetate sheets. If
drawn on paper, they are later transferred to cels using xerography. The most
common media for drawing the story are opaque inks and paints, applied with
a variety of specialist markers, crayons, and litho pencils. The basic process
revolves around the 'storyboard' - a series of one-panel sketches.
Accompanying action and dialogue summaries are written under each sketch.
Cartoons are particularly labour-intensive: the average short cartoon requires
40-50,000 separate frames or drawings. Making a character sit down can
require 10 or more drawings to depict each individual movement.
Head Animator
To achieve continuity and uniformity of images, one or more models are
made for each character. These models typically incorporate sketches of the
characters in various positions with various facial expressions, and are used by
the head animator to sketch the primary action sequence. For instance, if the
character is supposed to run, the head animator will draw the foot leaving the
floor, then in the air, and finally returning to the floor. Assistant artists then
complete the details.
Layout and Background Artists
Set design is very important. This is handled by the layout artist who
makes a series of linear drawings which are used by the background artist to
create the backgrounds. The latter can include anything from buildings, room-
interiors, landscapes, jungle and mountain to shopping malls. All colour is
usually filled in by computer.
Computer Animation
Since 1990, computer-created animation incorporating sophisticated
graphics software has become increasingly dominant: witness John Lassiter's
'Toy Story', the first feature film created totally with computer animation.
Whether traditional animation can survive this development is unclear,
although at present it seems that human skill is still needed to create the ultra-
realistic imagery which consumers now expect. (See also: Is Photography Art?)
Animated film derives from the old 'magic lantern' shows. These
originated with the work of Jesuit Monks like Althanasius Kircher and Gaspar
Schott, in the seventeenth century, and the turning windmills of Dutchman
Pieter Van Musschenbroek in the early eighteenth century. The influential
essay 'Persistence of Vision with Regard to Moving Objects' by the Swiss
physician Peter Mark Roget, author of Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and
Phrases, stimulated interest in 'magic lantern' technology, and was followed
by several technical developments. First, the thaumatrope, invented by John
Paris during the 1820s. Second,the phenakistoscope, invented by the Belgian
Joseph Plateau. Thirdly, the stroboscope, designed by by Simon Ritter von
Stampfer and the zoetrope, invented by William Homer. Then, in 1845, came
the first movie projector, designed by Baron Franz von Uchatius. In 1888,
George Eastman invented celluloid film - a medium that projected images
much better than those painted on glass.
The first film cartoon - Humourous Phases of Funny Faces animated by J.
Stuart Blackton, appeared in the United States, in 1906. This was followed in
1908 by Emile Cohl's Phantasmagorie, and in 1911 by Winsor McCay's Gertie
the Dinosaur. In 1923, Walt Disney, started developing children's stories into
cartoons. Mickey Mouse first appeared in 1928, and Snow White and the
Seven Dwarfs, in 1937. Since then, animation art has undergone huge
improvements. The new generation of animated cartoon graphics - as
evidenced in the films Lord of the Rings, Shrek, Toy Story and Anime - are
taking computerized animation to new heights.

1. Identifies various Topic: Art of the Philippines

contemporary art Source: URL:
forms and their
practices from the Painting
various regions Artistic paintings were introduced to the Filipinos in the 16th century when the
Spaniards arrived in the Philippines. During this time, the Spaniards used paintings as
(CAR11/121AC-Oa-1) religious propaganda to spread Catholicism throughout the Philippines. These
paintings, appearing mostly on church walls, featured religious figures appearing in
Catholic teachings. Due to the Church's supervision of Filipino art and Spanish
occupation of the Philippines, the purpose of most paintings from the 16th-19th
century were to aid the Catholic Church.[
In the early 19th century, wealthier, educated Filipinos introduced more
secular Filipino art, causing art in the Philippines to deviate from religious motifs. The
use of watercolor paintings increased and the subject matter of paintings began to
include landscapes, Filipino inhabitants, Philippine fashion, and government officials.
Portrait paintings featured the painters themselves, Filipino jewelry, and native
furniture. The subject of landscape paintings featured artists' names painted ornately
as well as day-to-day scenes of average Filipinos partaking in their daily tasks. These
paintings were done on canvas, wood, and a variety of metals. [1]
During World War II, some painters focused their artwork on the effects of
war, including battle scenes, destruction, and the suffering of the Filipino people.
Tribal dances include Malakas at Maganda, Kadal Blelah, Kadal Tahaw,
Binaylan, Bagobo Rice Cycle, and Dugso. Malakas at Maganda is a national folklore
dance. It tells the story of the origin of the Filipino people on the islands. Another
dance, called the Binaylan dance, tells the story of a hen, the hen's baby, and a hawk.
In this dance, the hawk is said to control a tribe's well-being, and is killed by hunters
after attempting to harm the hen's baby
Two examples of traditional Filipino dances are Tinikling and Binasuan and
many more. Filipinos have unique folk dances like tinikling where assistants take two
long bamboo sticks rapidly and in rhythm, clap sticks for dancers to artistically and
daringly try to avoid getting their feet caught between them. Also in the southern part
of the Philippines, there is another dance called singkil using long bamboo poles
found in tinikling; however, it is primarily a dance showing off lavish Muslim royalty.
In this dance, there are four bamboo sticks arranged in a tic-tac-toe pattern in
which the dancers exploit every position of these clashing sticks. Dancers can be
found trying to avoid all 4 bamboo sticks all together in the middle. They can also try
to dance an entire rotation around the middle avoiding all sticks. Usually these stick
dances performed in teamwork fashion not solo. The Singkil dance is identifiable with
the use of umbrellas and silk clothing.
Philippine weaving involves many threads being measured, cut, and mounted
on a wooden platform. The threads are dyed and weaved on a loom. [5]
They weaved rugs that they used for quilts and bedding. The quality of the
quilt/bedding was based on how soft, how tight together, and the clean pattern. The
patterns were usually thick stripes with different colors and with a nice pattern.
Traditional pot-making in certain areas of the Philippines would use clay found
near the Sibalom River. Molding the clay required the use of wooden paddles, and the
clay had to be kept away from sunlight.

Other ar Kalinga Pottery

Ceramic vessels of Kalinga are divided into three types: rice cooking (ittoyom),
vegetable/meat cooking (oppaya), and water storage (immosso) pots. According to
Skibo, the rice cooking pots are usually larger, thinner and have a smaller opening
than vegetable/meat pots. On the other hand, water storage pots have an average
and uniform size and a smaller neck size.

Except for water storage pots, which have a uniform size, the other two kinds
can come in three different sizes, large, medium and small. Although this is true in
some cases, another larger type of vegetable/meat pot and smaller water storage pot

Kalanay Pottery Complex

The type site of the Kalanay pottery complex is the Kalanay Cave found in
Masbate. From this site, the pottery is further subdivided into pottery types Kalanay
and Bagupantao.
Art forms

Tanaga is a type of Filipino poetry. Kut-kut is an art technique used between the
15th and 18th centuries. The technique was a combination of European and Oriental
style and process mastered by indigenous tribes of Samar island.
Indigenous arts
Some indigenous materials are also used as a medium in different kinds of art
works especially in painting by Elito Circa, a famous folk artist of Pantabangan and a
pioneer for using indigenous materials, natural raw materials including human
blood.[12] Many Filipino painters and foreign artists were influenced by this and
started using these materials such as extract from onion, tomato, tuba, coffee, rust,
molasses and other materials available anywhere as paint.

In 2015/16, the Asia Society in New York presented an exhibit called Philippine
Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms. The exhibition presents spectacular
works of gold primarily discovered over the past forty years on the Philippine
islands of Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao. The regalia, jewelry, ceremonial
weapons, and ritualistic and funerary objects attest to the recently uncovered
evidence of prosperity and achievement of Philippine polities that flourished
between the tenth and thirteenth centuries, long before the Spanish
discovered and colonized the region. Although the forms and styles of the
majority of these works developed locally, some indicate that Philippine
craftsmen had been exposed to objects from beyond their borders through
the robust cultural connections and maritime trade in Southeast Asia during
what was an early Asian economic boom.

Topic Literary forms in Philippine Literature in Contemporary Period

by: Christine F. Godinez-Ortega

The Contemporary Period

The flowering of Philippine literature in the various languages continue especially

with the appearance of new publications after the Martial Law years and the
resurgence of committed literature in the 1960s and the 1970s.

Filipino writers continue to write poetry, short stories, novellas, novels and essays
whether these are socially committed, gender/ethnic related or are personal in
intention or not.

Of course the Filipino writer has become more conscious of his art with the
proliferation of writers workshops here and abroad and the bulk of literature available
to him via the mass media including the internet. The various literary awards such as
the Don Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature, the Philippines Free Press,
Philippine Graphic, Home Life and Panorama literary awards encourage him to
compete with his peers and hope that his creative efforts will be rewarded in the long

With the new requirement by the Commission on Higher Education of teaching of

Philippine Literature in all tertiary schools in the country emphasizing the teaching of
the vernacular literature or literatures of the regions, the audience for Filipino writers
is virtually assured. And, perhaps, a national literature finding its niche among the
literatures of the world will not be far behind.
2. Classifies various Article
arts forms found in Philippine Arts and Culture (Sculpture)
the Phil. Source: URL:
(CAR11/121AC-Ob-2) Source URL:



The Philippines has a larger and more vigorous artistic community than any
other Southeast Asian nations because it has four cultural heritages - Asian, European,
Mexican, and American. In Manila alone, the arts and culture capital, there are many
art galleries showcasing the works of talented local painters, sculptors, muralists, and
folk artists. Theatrical and orchestral performances are also very popular.


Filipino sculptors came to be known in the middle of the 19 th century. Classical

Philippine sculpture reached its peak in the works of Guillermo Tolentino (1890-1976).
His best known masterpiece is the Bonifacio Monument, which is a group sculpture
composed of numerous figures massed around a central obelisk.

The principal figure is Andres Bonifacio, leader of the revolution against Spain
in 1896. Behind him stands Emilio Jacinto, the brains of the Katipunan. The Bonifacio
Monumen t - completed in 1933 -- marked the apex of Tolentino's career.
Bonifacio Monument

Napoleon Abueva (born 1930), one of Tolentino's pupils, is one of the pioneering
modernists in sculpture. He used various media. And his stylization bordered on the
abstract as in Allegorical Harpoon, in which the dominant horizantal thrust of the
figure evokes the vitality of primitive forms.
Allegorical Harpoon, Art Philippines

Abueva's more famous work is Fredesvinda , which was included in the First ASEAN
Sculpture Symposium held in Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, from March 27 to April 26,
Fredesvinda, The Asean Sculptures

For more information, e-mail the secretariat at Source: National

Commission for Culture & the Arts
Philippine culture and Arts MUSIC
Source: URL:


With the death of Nicanor Abelardo and Francisco Santiago, the two greatest
Filipino composers, Filipino music has been struggling. However, the efforts of such
musicians as Antonio J. Molina, Felipe P. Padilla de Leon, Lucio San Pedro, and others,
using folk literature and folk songs, have contributed to the revival of Filipino music.
The Philippines is rich in sound-producing instruments, such as percussions,
flutes and stringed instruments. Here are some examples:

Gongs There are two types used in the Philippines. One is the flat gong which is a
narrow-rimmed gong without central protrusion and found exclusively in the north.
The other has a boss or central protrusion with narrow or very wide rim, widely used
only in southern Philippines.
Kulintang (gong-chime)

Kutyapi This is a two-stringed plucked lute, commonly found in Maganoy,

Maguindanao. It is one of the most technically demanding and difficult to master
among Filipino traditional instruments. However, the kutyapi music is rich in melodic
and rhythmic sound and is deeply poetic in inspiration.
Kutyapi (two-stringed plucked lute)

For more information, e-mail the secretariat at

Source: National Commission for Culture & the Arts

Topic: NCCA Music Forms and Composition

Source: URL:

Philippine Music Forms and Composition-NCCA

Posted on April 15, 2015


Philippine Music comes in a variety of forms, covering a wide spectrum of
sources, geographically and historically; and representing more than 100
ethnolinguistic groups as well as different social and cultural environments in the
Philippines. The totality of these forms may be categorized into three distinct
repertoires: 1) Asiatic oral traditions; 2) westernized oral traditions; and 3) western-
influenced art and popular music, and semi classical music.
The first category covers forms that are closely related to the cultural traditions
of Southeast Asia. In the Philippines, such traditions are practiced among the villages
in the Cordillera Administrative Region, in the upland areas of Palawan, Mindoro and
eastern Mindanao, the predominantly Muslim communities in western Mindanao and
Sulu, as well as the different Negrito communities across the archipelago, e.g.
Northern Luzon, Bicol and parts of Panay and Mindanao. Most of the musical forms
are performed in connection with rites of passage and life cycle events as well as
occupational activities. These occasions consist of birth, initiation and graduation
ceremonies; courtship and marriage; death and funeral rites; hunting, fishing, planting
and harvest; healing and various forms of armed conflicts.
In public gatherings, most of the musical performances are integrated with
dancing and some form of physical movement, as well as the participation of the
community or audience. Solo playing or small group singing are done without much
movement. In Philippine literature, these forms are usually referred to as Indigenous
Philippine music.
The second category of musical forms consists of orally transmitted genres
and compositions that are performed in rural Christian communities in Luzon, Visayas
and parts of lowland Mindanao, and are generally referred to as Philippine folk
Their origins may be traced through four evolutionary processes: 1) forms
that have been introduced by the Spanish colonial power and later adopted and
modified by local artists and performers (metrical romances); 2) syncretic and hybrid
forms that have been locally assimilated elements from Western religious traditions
(subli, sanghiyang); and 4) locally processed songs based on older pre-colonial tunes
(planting songs, children s play songs, lullabies, love songs and serenades). Much of
Philippine folk music are found in the religious and paraliturgical repertoires of
countryside Christian communities, as well as in various forms of entertainment and
rites of passage such as marriage and funeral ceremonies.
The most important occasions during which folk music is performed in the
Christian calendar year include the may flower devotions to the Virgin Mary that
culminates in the Santacruzan pageant, Lent and Christmas seasons. Particular
religious hymns are connected to specific activities like the Alay (Flower Offering) in
May; the pabasa and pasyon (chant reading of the life and passion of Christ), the
senakulo (pasyon theater), andsalubong ( meeting of the risen Christ and Mary)
during lent and Easter; and the panuluyan search for an inn) during Christmas eve.
Each community has other religious and semi-religious occasions such as the
feast of the patron saint and other special festivals; e.g. the harvest festival called
pahiyas in Quezon province or the commemoration of the feast of the Sto Nio (Holy
Child) in Panay Island called Dinagyang.It should be noted that many of the forms
under this category began as compositions by the clergy and/or locally trained
musicians, but have nevertheless become part of the over-all oral literature and
learned spontaneously through centuries of practice.
The third category of Philippine musical forms are found in urban
communities and centers of population. In the last 100 years, Filipino composers have
written works in the standard Western art music forms (chamber music, symphonic
music, opera, serswela, etc.) and contemporary music styles, as well as the
latest popular music industry- Latin American, jazz, country, rock, folk, rap, etc. In
addition, modern compositions have also been written for such theatrical forms as
dance and/or ballet, drama, musicales, and cinema.
Outside the symphony orchestra tradition and the Filipino theater, the
Filipinos have also developed a repertoire for three distinct musical ensembles: the
band (brass and bamboo), the rondalla and the chorus. The Philippine band repertoire
consists of marches, overtures, symphonic poems, concertant pieces, and medleys of
Filipino folk tunes, which are performed duing the military and civic parades, as well
as formal and semi-tests the playing prowess and physical endurance of the
competing musicians. Incidental pieces for the comedia and other forms of local
theater have also been written for the band.
The rondalla(plucked string ensemble) that was introduced by Spain as the
estudiantina and comparsa, has a similar repertoire. It consists of marches and
pasodoble pieces (fast and brilliant music in two), medleys and arrangements of
Filipino folk songs, overtures, concertant music, and folk dance accompaniments. In
recent years, Filipino composers have written serious art pieces for the rondalla or
individual rondalla instruments. In modern compositions, the rondalla instruments
are also combined with symphonic instruments.
In the field of vocal music, choral music in the Philippines has dramatically
expanded in the last fifty years, with the rise of the high quality choral singing and the
countrywide proliferation of choral groups in all sectors of society : church ,
government, business and culture. Initially, Philippine choral music consisted of
folksong arrangements, old masses and hymns, as well as locally composed operas
and sarswelas. Today, the repertoire has been augmented by local madrigal-like
pieces, arrangements of popular love songs, and large scale compositions are very
much in demand during choral competitions and choral festivals that occur during the
Christmas season.
Although Philippine musical forms may be classified according to a few general
categories, e.g. welcome song, song debates, courtship music, etc. each culturally-
related genre has its own distinctive features which include, language and/or idiom,
style of rendition and other elements. For example, the pasyon in Pampanga and the
pasyon from Bulacan would greatly differ from each other in language, the tunes
used, the number of singers, and performance style (leader-chorus, antiphonal, etc.).

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Pfeiffer, William. Music in the Philippines: Indigenous, Folk, Modern. Dumaguete City: Silliman University
Foundation, 1975
Santiago, Francisco. Development of Music in the Philippines. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press,

Tiongson, Nicanor, ed. CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art. Vol. VI Music. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines,


Maceda, Jose. Philippines. New Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969
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__________. Philippines. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Stanley Sadie, ed. Vol. XIV, 1970
__________. Filippine. Dixionario Enciclopedico Universale della Musica e dei Musicisti. Vol. II Torino: Utet, 1980
Santos, Ramon P. Philippines. Musics of ASEAN (Ramon P. Santos, ed.) Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines,

About the Author:

Ramon P. Santos, Ph. D. is a composer and musicologist, having received training at the University of the
Philippines, Indiana University and the State University of New York at Buffalo. He was a full fellow at the Summer
Courses in New Music at Darmstadt and undertook post-graduate work in Ethnomusicology at the University of
Illinois with grants from the Asian Cultural Council and the Ford Foundation.

His works have been featured in major festivals in Europe and in Asia. Recently, he has been awarded residency
fellowships at the Bellagio Study Center and the Civitella Ranieri Center in Italy. In the field of musicology, he has
undertaken researches not only in Philippine and Asian contemporary music, but also studied Javanese gamelan
music and dance and Nan Kuan, and engaged in continuing field studies of Philippine traditional music such as the
Ibaloi badiw, the Maranao bayok, and the musical repertoires of the Mansaka, Bontoc, Yakan, and Boholano.

He has contributed major articles on Philippine music to various encyclopedias and anthologies such as The
Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, the Encyclopedia of Philippine Art, the Compendium of the Humanities in the
Philippines. He was chief editor and writer of the book Musics of the ASEAN, and has produced CDs on Mindanao
Highland Music, Mansaka Music and Music of the Bontoc from the Mountain Province.

He is currently serving as University Professor of the UP, Commissioner for the Arts of the National Commission for
Culture and the Arts, and 2nd Vice President of the International Music Council.
Article Topic: Philippine Arts and Culture (Dance)
Images URL:

Native dances occur in amazing diversity throughout the Philippines. However,
many of them are of varied origins and functions Some are part of a tribal rite or
sacrifice; others are in native feasts and festivals to conciliate the spirits, seek
deliverance from pestilence or mark births and deaths; and still others have a lighter
burden to carry: flirtation or courtship, or to lighten the tasks of planting or harvesting.
Darangan Cultural Troupe Dancers
For more information, e-mail the secretariat at
Source: National Commission for Culture & the Arts

2. Classifies various PHILIPPINE ARTS AND CULTURE-Painting

arts forms found in Topic: Philippine Arts and Culture (Dance)
the Phil. URL:
The Philippines has a larger and more vigorous artistic community than any
other Southeast Asian nations because it has four cultural heritages - Asian, European,
Mexican, and American.
In Manila alone, the arts and culture capital, there are many art galleries
showcasing the works of talented local painters, sculptors, muralists, and folk artists.
Theatrical and orchestral performances are also very popular .

In the last half of the 19th century, Filipino painters showed enough maturity
of concept and technique to merit critical acclaim. Damian Domingo got recognition
as the father of Filipino painting. Towards the end of the Spanish regime, two
Filipino painters won recognition in Europe Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo and Juan
Luna. Hidalgos Antigone and Lunas Spolarium were both acclaimed in Europe as
masterpieces of Filipino painting. In 1884, Luna won the first Gold Medal at the
Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes for his Spolarium. This monumental painting
shows fallen gladiators being dragged to an unseen pile of corpses in a chamber
beneath the Roman arena.

Spoliarium,Art Manila
After World War II, the Neo-Realist school of painting emerged, with such
notable members as Vicente Manansala, Hernando R. Ocampo, Victor Edades,
Arturo Rogerio Luz, Jose T. Joya, and others.

The name of Jose Joya (1931 - 1995) is synonymous to the best in Philippine
abstract expressionist art. He produced an excellent body of bold and lyrical works.

3. Defines Contemporary arts

contemporary arts in URL:
the Phil Definition of Contemporary Arts
(CAR11/12CAP-Ob-3) What is Contemporary Arts?
Contemporary just means "art that has been and continues to be created during our
In other words, contemporary to us.

Modern Art: Art from the Impressionists (say, around 1880) up until the 1960s or '70s.

Contemporary Art: Art from the 1960s or '70s up until this very minute.
First, because it was around 1970 that the terms "Postmodern" and "Postmodernism"
popped up -- meaning, we must assume, that the art world had had its fill of Modern Art
starting right then.
Secondly, 1970 seems to be the last bastion of easily classified artistic movements. If
you look at the outline of Modern Art, and compare it to the outline of Contemporary Art,
you'll quickly notice that there are far more entries on the former page.
This, in spite of the fact that Contemporary Art enjoys far more working artists
making far more art. (It may be that Contemporary artists are mostly working in "movements"
that cannot be classified, due to there being around ten artists in any given "movement",
none of which have shot off an email saying that there's a new "movement" and "could you
please tell others?")
On a more serious note, while it may be hard to classify emergent movements,
Contemporary art -- collectively -- is much more socially conscious than any previous era has
been. A whole lot of art from the last 30 years has been connected with one issue or another:
feminism, multiculturalism, globalization, bio-engineering and AIDS awareness all come
readily to mind as subject matter.

National Artist of the Philippines (All Arts Form)

Source: URL:
National Artist of the Philippines

National Artists of the Philippines (Filipino: Pambansang Alagad ng Sining ng

Pilipinas) is an order bestowed by the Philippines on Filipinos who have made
significant contributions to the development of Philippine art. Originally instituted as
an Award, it was elevated to the status of Order in 2003.[1]

The Order is administered by the Cultural Center of the Philippines by virtue of

President Ferdinand Marcos's Proclamation 1001 of April 2, 1972 and the National
Commission for Culture and the Arts. The first award was posthumously conferred on
Filipino painter Fernando Amorsolo.

The Roster of National Artists (Contemporary Artists)

Year Awardee Category Notes

1972 Fernando C. Amorsolo Visual Arts - Painting
Francisca Reyes Aquino Dance
Carlos "Botong" V.
Visual Arts - Painting posthumous
1973 Amado V. Hernndez Literature
Antonio J. Molina Music
Juan Nakpl Architecture
Guillermo E. Tolentino Visual Arts - Sculpture
Jos Garca Villa Literature
Napolen V. Abueva Visual Arts - Sculpture
Leonor Orosa-Goquingco Dance
Lamberto V. Avellana Film and Theater
1976 Nick Joaqun Literature
Jovita Fuentes Music
Victorio C. Edades Visual Arts - Painting
Pablo Antonio Architecture posthumous
1981 Vicente S. Manansala Visual Arts - Painting conferment
Carlos P. Rmulo Literature
1982 posthumous
Gerardo de Len Film
Honorata "Atang" de la
1987 Theater and Music
Antonio R. Buenaventura Music
Lucrecia Reyes rtula Dance
1989 Lucrecia R. Kasilag Music
Francisco Arcellana Literature
1990 Csar Legaspi Visual Arts - Painting
Leandro V. Locsin Architecture
Hernndo R. Ocampo Visual Arts - Painting
Lucio D. San Pedro Music
Lino Brocka Film
Felipe Padilla de Len Music
Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero Theater
1997 conferment
Rolando S. Tnio Theater and Literature
N. V. M. Gonzlez Literature
Levi Celrio Music & Literature
Arturo R. Luz Visual Arts - Painting
Jos Maceda Music
Carlos Quirino Historical Literature
J. Elizalde Navarro Visual Arts - Painting posthumous
Ernani Joson Cuenco conferment
1999 Andrea O. Veneracin
Edith L. Tiempo Literature
Daisy Avellana Theater
Ishmael Bernl Film posthumous
Severino Montano Theater conferment
F. Sionl Jos Literature
Ang Kiukok
Visual Arts - Painting posthumous
Jos T. Joya
Virgilio S. Almario
2003 Literature
Alejndro R. Roces
Eddie S. Romero Film and Broadcast Arts
Salvador F. Bernl Theater and Design
BenCab Visual Arts - Painting
Abdulmari Asia Imao Visual Arts - Sculpture
Bienvenido Lumbera Literature
Ramn Obusan Dance
2006 I.P. Santos Architecture - Landscape
Fernando Poe, Jr. Film
Architecture, Design and posthumous
Ramn Valera Allied Arts - Fashion conferment
2009* Manuel Conde Film and Broadcast Arts posthumous
Lzaro Francisco Literature conferment
Visual Arts - Painting,
Federico Aguilar Alcuz
Sculpture and Mixed Media
Alice Reyes Dance
Francisco Coching Visual Arts
Cirilo F. Bautista Literature
Francisco Feliciano Music
Ramn Santos Music
Jos Mara Zaragoza Architecture
Proclaimed in 2009 but conferment delayed due to a controversy. Order was later
bestowed to candidate in a ceremony at Malacaang Palace in November 2013. [6]
Music Visual Arts
o Levi Celrio o Napolen V. Abueva
o Ernani Joson Cuenco (Sculpture)
o Felipe Padilla de Len o Fernando C. Amorsolo
o Francisco Feliciano (Painting)
o Lucrecia R. Kasilag o BenCab (Painting)
o Jos Maceda o Francisco Coching
o Antonio J. Molina o Victorio C. Edades
o Lucio D. San Pedro (Painting)
o Ramn Santos o Carlos "Botong" V.
o Andrea O. Veneracin Francisco (Painting)
o Antonio R. Buenaventura o Abdulmari Asia Imao
o Jovita Fuentes (Sculpture)
Dance o Jos T. Joya (Painting)
o Francisca Reyes Aquino o Ang Kiukok (Painting)
o Leonor Orosa-Goquingco o Csar Legaspi (Painting)
o Ramn Obusan o Arturo R. Luz (Painting)
o Alice Reyes o Vicente S. Manansala
o Lucrecia Reyes rtula (Painting)
o J. Elizalde Navarro
Theater (Painting)
o Daisy Avellana o Hernndo R. Ocampo
o Honorata "Atang" de la (Painting)
Rama o Guillermo E. Tolentino
o Rolando S. Tnio (Sculpture)
o Salvador F. Bernl (Set o Federico Aguilar Alcuz
Design) (Painting, Sculpture, and
o Lamberto V. Avellana Mixed Media)
o Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero Literature
o Severino Montano o Francisco Arcellana
Architecture o
o Pablo Antonio o Virgilio S. Almario
o Juan Nakpl o Cirilo F. Bautista
o Leandro V. Locsn o N. V. M. Gonzalez
o I. P. Santos o Amado V. Hernndez
o Jos Mara Zaragoza o Nick Joaqun
Architecture, Design and Allied o F. Sionl Jos
Arts - Fashion Design o Bienvenido Lumbera
o Ramn Valera o Alejndro R. Roces
Historical Literature o Carlos P. Rmulo
o Carlos Quirino o Edith L. Tiempo
o Jos Garca Villa
o Lzaro Francisco
o Lino Brocka
o Ishmael Bernl
o Gerardo de Len
o Eddie S. Romero
o Fernando Poe, Jr.
o Manuel Conde
Over the years there have been several controversies involving the awarding of
National Artist or involving awardees.

2009 National Artist of the Philippines controversy

In August 2009, the conferment of the Order of National Artists on seven

individuals by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo[7] became controversial when it was
revealed that musician Ramon Santos had been dropped from the list of nominees
short-listed in May that year by the selection committee, and that four other individuals
had been nominated via "Presidents prerogative": Cecilla Guidote-Alvarez (Theater),
Magno Jos "Carlo Capars (Visual Arts and Film), Francisco Maosa (Architecture),
and Jos Pitoy Moreno (Fashion Design).[4][8]

Members of the Philippine art communityincluding a number of living

members of the Orderprotested that the proclamation politicised the title of National
Artist, and made it "a way for President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to accommodate her
allies." Specific protests were raised regarding the nomination of Guidote-Alvarez,
who was also Executive Director of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts,
because it was purportedly a breach of protocol and delicadeza (propriety), and of
Capars, on the grounds that he was unqualified for nomination under the both the
Visual Arts and the Film categories.[8][9] On July 16, 2013, the controversy finally ended
after the Supreme Court of the Philippines voted 12-1-2 that voided the four

On June 20, 2014, five years after he was originally shortlisted in 2009, Dr.
Ramon Santos was finally conferred National Artist for Music by President Benigno S.
Aquino III.[5]
4. Researches on
various art forms National Artist of the Philippines (All Arts Form)
(CAR11/121AC-Ob-4) Source: URL:
4. Researches on Kulay-Diwa Gallery of Philippine Contemporary Art
various art forms Source: URL:
(CAR11/121AC-Ob-4) Diwa_Gallery_of_Philippine_Contemporary_Art
4. Researches on e. Bicol Artist in Literature- Merlinda Carullo Bobis
various contempo- URL:
rary art
4. Researches on f. Film Making Remembering Lino Brocka, a great Bicolano Artist
various art forms URL:
CAR11/12TPP-0c-e- Topic: Albay reenergizes abaca industry
11) Albay reenergizes abaca industry
(CAR11/12TPP-0c-e- By George Bp Supetran | Updated July 18, 2010 - 12:00am
(CAR 11/12TPP-0c-e- MANILA, Philippines - Mention Albay and immediately abaca comes to mind, in
13) addition to the picturesque perfect-cone Mayon Volcano, the iconic tourist attraction
in this charming province in the Bicol region.

An indigenous plant that thrives in tropical climate and rich volcanic soil, abaca is one
of the most versatile and sturdiest fibers in the world which can last up to a century.

Abaca can be made into cordage, handbags, baskets, storage containers, lighting
fixtures, home furnishings and novelty items, and its versatility accounts for its high
market demand.
With an 84-percent share of the worlds abaca fiber production, the Philippines is
considered the international abaca capital since the Spanish era, with Albay as center
of the trade.

In 2009, Bicol is the countrys highest abaca producer with 14,140 metric tons,
topping Eastern Visayas and Davao regions. About 43,000 hectares in the region are
planted with abaca, with an average yield of 383 kilograms per hectare.

Also known as Manila hemp, abaca fiber, in the form of woven cloth known as
sinamay has been long used as clothing in many parts of the country.

However, calamities such as pest infestation, typhoons and volcanic eruptions, and
lack of government support over the years, have dampened the once vibrant abaca

This age-old craft saw another glimmer of hope with the holding of the recent Abaca
Pinukpok Fashion Show organized by Albay Governor Joey Salceda to relive the glory
of the once proud fiber.

Taking center stage is the breakthrough pinukpok fiber as modeled by the

provinces local officials from various political affiliations in a unique display of unity
and commitment. Also doing the catwalk were provincial department heads, regional
officers of key government agencies, and commanders of the police and Armed
Forces in Bicol.

So-called because of the process of hammering the fiber to soften it, pinukpok is
blended with cotton, silk, pia or polyester to produce high-end fabrics. It is then
woven manually and fed to a rotary press machine to make it a fine and seamless
Local designer Dan Clint Klang Klang Arispe took on the enormous task of designing
more than 200 pinukpok evening gowns and barongs for local officials, Miss Polangui
beauty pageant candidates, and the Magayon Dancers dance troupe to bring out the
natural elegance of Albays pride.

With the rousing success of the fashion show, conceived only two weeks before,
Salceda expressed optimism in staging a bigger event in Manila this year to sustain the

The fiber has been showcased in previous trade fairs and fashion shows, the most
notable of which was Rampago Pinukpok spearheaded by Bicols Regional
Development Council, which featured the couture collection of top Bicolano
designers, with the special participation of noted designer Renee Salud.

With the provincial top honcho as leading fashion model, Salceda is confident that
Albays fashionable golden fiber will tickle the fancy of the countrys top designers
and exporters to take the abaca industry to greater heights.

Topic: Bicol literature at the crossroads

Source: URL:
(CAR 11/12TPP-0c-e-
13) Bicol literature at the crossroads by: Juan Escandor Jr.@inquirerdotnet
Philippine Daily Inquirer 11:04 PM June 6th, 2012

Short of a distinctive definition of Bicol literature, writers attending the fourth

quadrennial Bicol writers conference Pagsurat Bikol on April 29-30 at Ateneo de
Naga University take comfort in the fact that Bicol is in their hearts and minds when
they weave pieces of literary work.
Bicol literature is poetry, novel or fiction written about Bicol. Not necessarily in
the Bicol language, not necessarily published in Bicol, and not necessarily by a
Bicolano, but its about Bicol. Meaning, if its a short story, the setting is in Bicol or its
character is a Bicolano. Its about Bicol, Marne Kilates said.
Kilates, a native of Daraga town in Albay, has three books of poetry in his
name and is a translator of the works of National Artists Rio Alma and Bienvenido
Lumbera.A Palanca awardee and, later, its judge, he became a recipient of the
Southeast Asian writers award handed down by the thai monarchy.
Indie filmmaker and novelist Alvin Yapan, who hails from Pili, Camarines Sur,
agreed that Bicol literature is any literary work pertaining to Bicol, adding that it must
also be an instrument in enriching the regions culture.
Tito G. Valiente, a member of the film critics group Manunuri ng Pelikulang
Pilipino, scholar of Japanese films, newspaper columnist and director of the Institute
of Bikol Culture and History of Ateneo de Naga University, said the definition of Bicol
literature has evolved through history.
Bicol literature is always a literature of displacement, he said, as Filipinos are
displaced because they have been colonized and uprooted from the original culture.
Childrens book author Christine Bellen, who grew up in Bacacay, Albay, saw
Bicol sensibility in Bicol literature, but that Bicol literature must be asserted the way
feminists asserted their identity to gain emancipation.
Bicol literature, however, is also in the crossroads of standardizing its spelling.
Jose Obias, journalist, author of a book about the Our Lady of Peafrancia and
educated in the seminary, suggested the selective adoption of the Spanish spelling.
But Paz Verdades Santos, who taught literature at De La Salle University and
author of several books, disagreed.
It is apparent that it should no longer be the old Spanish spelling with qui for
k (aqui/aki (child)) and the Spanish g+ for ng (gnonian/ngonian) even if some of
the older writers prefer that (Spanish spelling), she said.
Santos said she generally goes for the simpler syllabic spelling based on
pronunciation, like Filipino.
Even the spelling of Bicol has evolved to Bikol, which most Bicol writers use in
their published works, said Kristian Cordero, an award-winning poet and fiction
Santos said the usual answer to the question of two spellings is Bicol is the
region and Bikol is the language.
I prefer to use Bikol consistently though, whether it is the region, the language,
the people, and whether writing in English, Filipino or Bikol, she said.
She said that based on her monitoring of literary books by Bicolano authors, including
childrens books, self-published books, translations and second editions in various
languages published from 2008 to 2012, the body of works has reached more than 60.

10) Images Source: URL :
(CAR 11/12TPP-0c-e-
Long before the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines to see natives in the most
arresting fabrics worn in a tribal manner, Chinese traders exchanged silk for these
durable wovens. Here are the 8 top indigenous weaves that may someday go global.
Say hello to our national fabrications and their exotic names, they are durable and
weather friendly colorful fabrics which was practical yet strikingly beautiful.
It can happen, already local designer Patis Tesoro, for instance, has met with
Salvatore Ferragamo, Valentino and Giorgio Armani who are interested in pia,
known internationally as pineapple organza.


Among cultures in the Philippines, Tapis may generally refer to a single

rectangular piece of cloth one wraps around oneself as clothing, but usually
specifically applies to a colorful hand-woven wraparound skirt which was
commonly used by women throughout the Philippines before the arrival of
European colonizers, and which is used by some indigenous tribes today. The
tapis worn by the Cordilleran women of Northern Luzon, known locally as the
alampay, is the most prominent example.

It is worn by wrapping the cloth around ones waist and holding the
ends together with the use of a tightly tied sash. It generally reaches down to
knee length, and the weaving pattern of describes the culture and temperament
of the wearers tribe.


Nalak is a special kind of hand-woven abaca fabric unique to the ethnic

Tboli tribe of Southern Mindanao in the Philippines. The rich color comes
from vegetable dyes and the natural pigments from tree barks. There arent
many tinalak weavers anymore, in fact Philippine cultural institutions have
declared the weavers from the Tboli tribe as national creative artists to support
their weaving tradition
The material used to make the abel fabrics are cotton yarn locally called
sagut. The northern Philippines, particularly, grew cotton plants whose flowers were
then intricately and lengthily processed in the homes to produce yarn. On the whole,
abel-weaving follows a very intricate process from preparing and dyeing the yarn, to
arranging different colors of yarn to produce the desired design, and operating the
wooden handloom with the synchronized movement of both hands and feet.Abel Iloco
can be made into structured fashion forward garments because it has a strong weave
and it can be cut on the bias and has a good drape.
It is known throughout the country and overseas for their durability. As a
whole, products from Ilocos handlooms are utilitarian: for that matter, traditional crafts
of the Ilocanos are meant for day-to-day rugged wear.Dr. Antonio Morga, A Spanish
chronicler, wrote in 1610 in his Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas that the American Plain
Indians heavily favored the thick and coarse type of cotton blankets coming from the
Ilocos, presumably shipped to Mexico via the galleon trade.



Pia fiber is the ingenious fabric derived from the leaves of the Spanish
Red Pineapple, and is the finest of all Philippine hand-woven fabrics.

Pineapple fibers are an ivory-white color and naturally glossy. This

delicate and dreamy cloth is translucent, soft and fine with a high luster.

The traditional decoration for this fabric is a style of hand embroidery

called calado. An embroidered pia garment is called pia calado. These
handwoven fabrics are colored with vegetable dyes originating from leaves, and
bark of different trees.

Pina fiber is often blended with cotton, abaca, and silk to create
wonderful light, breezy fabrics. When woven with silk, its called pia seda or
pia-silk. Pia jusi is blended with jusi (abaca or silk) for strength and
sheerness and is less expensive than 100% pia.

The Hablon handloom-weaving industry is making a comeback in Miagao,
Iloilo. Hablon refers to the hand woven textile, made of jusi (banana fiber), pia
(pineapple fiber), locally grown silk threads, cotton, rayon, and other indigenous
materials that creates an attractive textile of emerald, lavender, pink, tangerine, and
crimson colors. Traditionally known for products such as the multi-colored, checkered
patadyong skirt, bandanas, and household items (mosquito nets, blankets, table runners,
etc.), Hablon fabric is emerging into a versatile and unique textile, currently making
waves in the Philippine and international haute couture particulary by designer Nono
Palmos for Nora Aunor.

3. Banaca
Once used to make common products such as slippers and ropes, the abaca is
repurposed into a luxury eco textile.A pioneer in the local eco-fashion movement,
designer Fernandina Dita Sandico Ong sustainably produced her signature fabric
from the exotic plant musa textilis. She christened it banaca, because abaca belongs
to the banana family called Musaceae.
Im leveling up the look by adding more embellishments and coming up with
bigger wraps, she says. Sandico Ong is underscoring her forte as the Wrap Artiste.

Jusi originated during the Spanish colonial period. Also from pineapple,
this is a sheer stronger and tighter weave than pina and is tradionally worn
as Barong Tagalogs
1. Halo-Halo

Our indigenous fabrics really become world class when our young designers mix all elements,
infusing pina, hablon, abel iloco in modern fashion. Our fashion editorials using all of the
above. Also fashion shows in US and Europe where media, buyers and audience were stunned
by our local textiles and wovens, the colors, embroidery that they have never seen before.
Topic: Improved abaca varieties towards better production

10. Researches on Source:

techniques an
Improved abaca varieties towards better production
practises applied to
contemporary Arts Published: Tuesday, 14 July 2015
CAR11/12TPP-0c-e- Written by Sharie Al-Faiha A. Abustan, DOST-PCAARRD S&T Media Service

11. Identifies local Abaca: Weaving more opportunities into farmers lives. Abaca, known worldwide as
materials used in Manila Hemp, is an economically important crop indigenous to the Philippines. It is
creating arts
the lifeblood of more than 200,000 farming families from 56 abaca growing provinces
11) in the country.

Abaca is also a top export commodity of the country with an average of US$80 million
annual export earnings. It has high demand in the global trade as raw materials for
cordage, textile, handicrafts, and specialty papers. Just recently, it has found its niche
in the automobile industry as the strongest natural fiber material for dashboards and
car interiors.

Supplying 85% of the total world abaca fiber production, the Philippines prides itself
as the worlds top producer of abaca fiber. Despite its dominance in the world market,
however, the country is confronted by the reality that abaca remains a poor mans
crop. The small farmers get meager income from abaca production which eventually
forces them to shift to other crops.

Confronted by these concerns, coupled with many industry problems, abaca

production in the country declined in the past years. As Ecuador tails behind in terms
of production, the Philippine abaca industry is in the risk of losing its leadership in the
abaca global scene if certain concerns in abaca production are not immediately

Some of the ills that confront the Philippine abaca industry include poor technology
adoption of farmers, lack of high-yielding and virus-resistant planting materials, and
prevalence of pest and diseases pressures most notorious of which is the abaca
bunchy top virus (ABTV).

In a bid to address these concerns, the government, through the Department of

Science and Technology-Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural
Resources Research and Development (DOST-PCAARRD), banked on certain S&T
interventions. One of these major initiatives is the development and promotion of
improved abaca varieties to strengthen commercial production.

After many years of research and field tests, researchers from the University of the
Philippines Los Baos (UPLB) led by Dr. Antonio G. Lalusin were able to develop high
yielding and ABTV-resistant abaca hybrids. These hybrids are more vigorous, could
produce a yield of 1.56 mt/ha/yr, and give 20-30% higher fiber recovery than
traditional varieties.
Since traditional varieties are very susceptible to the dreaded ABTV disease, the new
UPLB abaca resistant hybrids are considered very promising in rehabilitating abaca
plantations affected by the ABTV disease.

The high yielding and ABTV-resistant hybrids project is an R&D initiative under the
PCAARRDs Industry Strategic S&T Plan for Abaca. Specifically, it is expected to
contribute in achieving a higher fiber yield from 0.53 mt/ha to 1.2 mt/ha and
increased fiber recovery from 1% to 1.5% by 2020.

The project on abaca production is a collaborative work among UPLB, Visayas State
University, University of Southern Mindanao, Bicol University, Western Mindanao
State University, University of Southeastern Philippines, Caraga State University,
Catanduanes State University, University of Eastern Philippines, and Philippine Fiber
Industry Development Authority.

Currently, the research team are mass producing and promoting the use of hybrids in
major abaca producing provinces such as Sorsogon, Catanduanes, Leyte, Southern
Leyte, Northern Samar, Western Samar, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Surigao del
Sur, and Sulu. Once fully commercialized, 1,568 hectares of abaca farms is targeted
for rehabilitation out of the project.

By rehabilitating abaca farms with high yielding and virus-resistant hybrids, DOST-
PCAARRD and its partners hope to usher in better opportunities for the local farmers,
processors, and other industry stakeholders. Through the adoption of these UPLB
hybrids, the government aims to ease the plight of poor abaca farmers and help
improve their income and social status.

The initiative on the improvement of abaca production as supported by PCAARRD is

one of its commitment under DOSTs Outcome Oneto provide science-based know-
how and tools that will enable the agricultural sector to raise productivity to world-
class standards.

PCAARRDs commitment to Outcome One will be showcased by the Council in its

participation to the National Science and Technology Week (NSTW) on July 24-28 at
SMX Mall of Asia, Pasay City.

The 2015 NSTW adopts the theme Philippines: A Science Nation Innovating for Global

PCAARRD, on the other hand, adopts Strategic Industry Program for Agri-Aqua
Growth (SIPAG) ni Juan as its theme to bolster its commitment to Outcome One.

10. Researches on The Council pursues this commitment through its Industry Strategic S&T Plans, among
techniques an
performance other programs, hence the tagline SIPAG ni Juan.
practises applied to
contemporary Arts

11. Identifies local

materials used in
creating arts Topic: Art of the Philippines
Source: URL:
12. Critiques
available materials On Potteries
and appropriate
techniques Manufacture of Kalinga potteries
12) The first step in the manufacture of pots is the acquisition of the starting
material, clay. The clay is then pounded, added with enough amount of water, to reach
the wanted flexibility, and placed in a rotating plate. Using the hand-modeling and coil-
13. Justifies the use
and-scrape techniques, the height, thickness and shape of the pot is established. After
of materials and the
this, the rim is designed by placing a wet rag on top of it and then rotating it in the
application of other direction. Furthermore, scraping of the walls can also be done if the walls
techniques produced are too thick.
(CAR 11/12TPP-0c-e-
13) The pot, after the modeling stage, is then dried for a short period of time before
the base is shaped. Also, after additional heating, small amounts of clay are added
inside and outside the clay to maintain the evenness of the surface. A polishing step
can also be done through the use of a polishing stone. In some cases, pots are also
painted with red hematite paint for some stylized design.

Pottery Functions [10]

Pots are ceramic vessels that are made by molding clay into its wanted shape
and then leaving it in an environment with an elevated temperature thereby making it
solid and sturdy. It is widely recognized as one of better tools that humans invented
since it managed to store the surplus of food Neolithic humans gathered.

In the book Pottery Function: A Use-Alteration Perspective, the author, James

Skibo, reasoned out why the use of pots is far more advantageous than baskets and
other organic containers. He said that since potteries are commonly made in clay, heat
has little to none effect on the container, and its contents, and that it protects the food
from moisture and pests. Furthermore, its range of storable contents is far wider than
baskets and animal skins since it can store both liquid and dry goods.

Also, Rice, in his book Pottery Analysis, classified ceramic vessels into 17
categories depending on various factors that concern the use and production of the tool.
One of these is the content wherein he further divided a type of pot into four depending
on the state (liquid or solid) and temperature (hot or cold) of the food inside it. He also
said that a ceramic has three main uses. These three are storage, processing, and

Based from these three uses that Rice gave, Skibo further characterized the
usage of ceramic vessels by dividing the tools function into two, (1) intended use and
(2) actual use.

Intended use, as the name implies, is how the tools supposed to be used. This
is the basis of the manufacture of the ceramic vessel since the form follows the
function. On the other hand, actual use is how the tool was used. This sometimes
disregards the pots form as long it can do a specific function.