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Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191

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Fluidstructure interaction of FRP wind turbine blades under aerodynamic effect

Ya-Jung Lee a,, Yu-Ti Jhan a, Cheng-Hsien Chung b
Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
R&D Department, United Ship Design & Development Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Structural analysis of FRP wind turbine blades must take into account phenomena associated with aero-
Received 17 June 2011 dynamics as well as uidstructure coupling, because aerodynamic loading causes blades to bend mostly
Received in revised form 20 January 2012 in the apwise direction, and simultaneously causes foil sections to rotate to create new uid elds
Accepted 14 February 2012
around the foils. This study developed an analytical process for calculating uidstructure interaction,
Available online 3 March 2012
while considering the effects of aerodynamic pressure and nite element analysis in the design of wind
turbine blades. In addition, we calculated turbine power efciency to evaluate the results of uid
structure interaction displaying approximately power capacity loss of 17% at a wind speed of 25 m/s,
C. Analytical modeling
C. Finite element analysis (FEA)
and proposed three feasible improvements to enhance the performance of wind turbines. The presented
C. Laminate mechanics study provided a comprehensible means by which to interpret changes in the aeroelastic response of
blades, and was helpful to modify the original wind turbine model.
2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction rotational energy, it also causes the structure to bend out of the
rotational plane as well as produces the phenomenon in which sec-
In recent years, many countries have experienced shortages in tions of the blade are twisted out of original. Deformation of the
traditional energy resources as well as the adverse effects of air blades caused by bending or twisting directly alters the uid eld
pollution caused by excessive consumption of fossil fuels. In surrounding the blade, and then adjusting the load prole. Fluid
response, governments have passed legislation and provided subsi- structure interactions reach convergence at a particular constant
dization to encourage the development of the sustainable energy wind speed, whereupon the blades appear to be in a stable rota-
alternatives. Wind is an alternative energy source with enormous tional state. This interaction is an aeroelastic phenomenon, causing
potential for its efciency and cost-benets. Many countries, blades to deviate from their original design. If such factors were
including the US, China, and Germany have substantially increased not considered in the design of the blades, the turbines would be
the total power capacity of wind turbines in recent years [1,2]. The unable to achieve their projected power generation. Many
previous generation of kW-class wind turbines is being replaced by researchers have investigated the bendtwist of blades with a
installations with MW-class capacity, and the dimensions of wind response to aerodynamic load, and uidstructure interactional
turbines have increased in response to the demands for increased procedures for the FRP blades have even been established. Mezyk
power generation capacity. The diameter of turbine blades has [3] approached the problem of aerodynamic load using an iterative
grown from approximately 20 m for 750 kW devices, to 40 m for blade element momentum (BEM) method to identify the angle of
2 MW turbine installations. Mainstream manufacturers of wind attack in his optimization of blade designing. Liu [4] also exercised
turbine blades have adopted composite materials. Unfortunately, the modied BEM program to calculate aerodynamic loads and
problems associated with ber reinforced plastic (FRP) blades, such analyzed motions of turbine blades with dynamic stall model.
as structural strength, manufacturing, and transportation difcul- Goeij [5], Lobitz [6], Locke [7] and Paquette [8] discussed bend
ties increase in complexity as the size of blades increases. twist coupling by changing the orientation of bers in the span-
Turbine blades are long, thin, composite structures moving wise direction to determine the effect on the structural
within the rotational plane of wind turbines to produce mechanical characteristics of turbine blades. In addition, Maheri [9] used iter-
energy. Motion is caused by a pressure differential created ative calculations to establish coupled aero-structural simulations,
between the two sides of the blades as air ows across the foil sec- and then applied a genetic algorithm to enhance the overall design
tions. Although the wind load on the surface of the blades produces of turbine blades [10]. Beyene [11] explored the aeroelastic behav-
ior of exible blades employing uidstructure iterative calcula-
Corresponding author. Address: 73, Chow-Shan Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Tel.: tions. Lin [12] presented a combined analytical and FE beam
+886 2 3366 5773; fax: +886 2 2392 9885. model to investigate the mechanical behavior of blades. Other
E-mail address: (Y.-J. Lee). technical data regarding aerodynamic loading and aeroelasticity

1359-8368/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Y.-J. Lee et al. / Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191 2181

in wind turbine blades has been described in the review article 2 MW turbine using shell elements, founded in ABAQUS simulation
[13]. Most studies related to the structural response of blades to software, (Fig. 2). The model employed two shear webs extending
aerodynamic load have failed to consider the aeroelastic character- from the station 2585%, located at positions one-third and two-
istics, which affect turbine efciency. Despite the number of stud- thirds of the cord length of the foil sections.
ies analyzing the aeroelasticity of blades and uidstructure
interaction, most have done so with a simplied model depicting 2.2. Material coefcient and distribution of laminates
the blade as a beam composed of several nodes with aerodynamic
load exerted by concentrated forces. These simplied models were Blades are usually produced with glass ber reinforced with
unable to accurately depict the twisting response of blades under polyester or carbon ber and epoxy resin. The bending moment
aerodynamic load. Accordingly, this study focused on developing caused by the wind makes up the primary load on the blades,
procedures for analyzing uidstructure interaction under the con- which the spar cap is designed to resist. Hence, the laminates used
sideration of aerodynamic pressure loading on the surfaces of FEA for the spar cap are designed to stiffen the blade, and unidirec-
blade model. It is crucial to fully comprehend the response of tional weaved ber is often lain in the span-wise direction to
blades in wind elds to improve geometry and develop the struc- achieve this purpose. The shear web is primarily intended to resist
tural design of wind turbine blades. The following discussion de- shear force within the cross-section of the foil when the blade is
scribes the procedures by which uidstructure interaction is under the bending load. It establishes a closed section with the skin
evaluated with regard to turbine power capacity as well as the to improve the anti-torsional characteristics of the foil sections.
relationship between the inow angle of attack and the rotation The skin part represents the shape of the foil section, providing suf-
of foil sections. We also describe a number of improvements that cient pressure differential when uid ows across them. To min-
could be made to enhance the operational performance of wind imize weight, the shear web and skin are often designed as
turbines. sandwich structures. Fig. 3 shows the material distribution used
in the spar cap, root, shear web, and skin. The blade root region
2. Wind turbine blade model is designed to withstand extremely large bending moment and
clamping forces in the hub region when the rotor is operating.
2.1. The FEA model of wind turbine blades Therefore, many layers of unidirectional ber are used in the root
area. The core material used in this research was Divinycell H-60
The blades in this study comprised several foil sections, and the produced by DIAB Corporation, and biaxial (DB800) or tri-axial
series of foils with their relative positions are illustrated in Fig. 1a. (DBL1169) ber weaves were utilized to form the sandwich struc-
The sections near the root of the blade (station = 0%) employed the ture. The number of ber laminates and the core thickness gradu-
DU foil developed by the Delft University of Technology, and ally reduced in the span-wise direction from the root region to the
the foil developed by the NACA was used in the stations closer to tip of the blade. The coefcients of FRP and core were derived
the tip of the blade (station = 100%). The main reason for choosing according to material tests in the laboratory as well as provided
these two foil designs was that the structural demands near the by the manufacturer, (Table 1).
root of blade are the highest, while the tip has to be more aerody-
namic than other regions. The twist angle of the blade was de- 3. The implementation of aerodynamic loading to blade
signed from the root section foils at approximately 11, gradually structures
changing along the span-wise direction to 0 in the tip region.
Blades are typically hollow, thin-walled structures, the cross-sec- 3.1. Conrmation of turbine operating conditions
tion of which can be divided into three parts [1419]: skin, shear
web and spar cap as shown in Fig. 1b. Each of these parts possesses The operating conditions of wind turbines must be veried to
an individual material designing concept and is described in a later correctly determine the aerodynamic load on each section of the
section. Hence, we established an FEA model, 40-m blade for a blades as uid ows across the surface [20]. Fig. 4 shows the

Fig. 1. (a) Foil series and (b) typical classications of blade sections.
2182 Y.-J. Lee et al. / Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191

Fig. 2. The FEA blade model in ABAQUS.

Fig. 3. Composition of laminates of wind turbine blades (a) root and spar cap and (b) shear web and skin.

Table 1
Material coefcients.

Material name E1 (N/m2) E2 (N/m2) G12 (N/m2) m12 Density (kg/m3) Thickness (m)
L900 3.32  1010 1.40  1010 1.00  109 0.24 1.80  103 6.68  104
DB800 1.20  1010 1.20  1010 1.00  109 0.51 1.80  103 5.98  104
DBL1169 2.46  1010 1.66  1010 1.00  109 0.60 1.70  103 8.84  104
Core_H-60 6.00  107 6.00  107 0.40 60 *
The thickness of core could be cut according to the designing request.

output power, pitch control angle, rotor speed and power coef- ceeded 25 m/s, the wind turbine stopped operating to protect the
cient relative to wind speed for the initial design of the 2 MW wind power generator. Accordingly, the study selected two operating
turbine [21]. The data shows that the wind turbine initially gener- conditions: the maximum wind speed without pitch control stage
ated electricity when the wind speed reached 3 m/s and then be- at 10 m/s and maximum pitch angle at 25 m/s, both of which af-
gan controlling the pitch when the wind speed exceeded 10 m/s, fected the inow attack angle of blades obviously, to calculate
to limit the rotational speed and maintain the generator within the aerodynamic load on the blades (Table 2).
normal operating conditions. At this point, the turbine reached
the maximum rotor speed of 16.75 rpm. Moreover, the global pitch 3.2. Angle of attack and pressure coefcient
angle of blades gradually increased as the wind speed increased
from 10 m/s to 25 m/s, with the maximum global pitch angle of After determining the operating conditions of the turbine, the
27 at a wind speed of 25 m/s. However, the power coefcient de- ow angle of attack for each blade section was calculated accord-
creased from approximately 0.470.04. When wind speed ex- ing to the interaction between axial velocity induced by inow
Y.-J. Lee et al. / Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191 2183

Fig. 4. Initial design of 2 MW wind turbine, (a) output power, (b) pitch control angle, (c) rotor speed and (d) power coefcient relative to wind speed.

Table 2 3.3. Pressure load on blade structures

Operating conditions of 2 MW wind turbine blade in various wind speeds.

Wind speed Rotor speed Angle of pitch Designed power The load input for the FEA software, ABAQUS, was the continu-
(m/s) (rpm) control () (MW) ous loading equation of pressure distribution. The loading form dif-
10 16.75 0 1.5 fered from other means currently in use, in which hypothetical or
25 16.75 27 2.0 calculated aerodynamic load concentrate at various positions of
the blade. Simplied loading methods are sometimes used for sim-
ple tests of blade stiffness or for the initial blade design, but are
incapable of providing actual loaded response regarding the blade
and rotational velocity. Blade element momentum theory (BEM) structures when the turbine blades bear the wind pressure load.
was developed by integrating momentum theory with blade ele- Hence the pressure loading equations for each station are deter-
ment theory and has been applied extensively to analyze the aero- mined by regressive calculations of upper and lower surface and
dynamic conditions of wind turbine blades [3,4]. The Prandtls tip- importing these into ABAQUS. Fig. 6 shows regressive results for
loss factor was utilized to modify the axial (a) and angular (a0 ) station 85% and 35% at one moment of blade motion conditions,
induction factors in the research. in which the horizontal axis is the position of chord length (differ-
For each section foil, aerodynamic characteristics such as lift or ent stations have different chord lengths) and the vertical axis is
pressure coefcients could be acquired through experiments or the pressure difference. As mentioned earlier, uid calculations
calculation, when the angle of attack was known. Xfoil was devel- are executed for ten foils, and the blade model is separated into
oped by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a 2-D uid twenty regions (ten pressure sides and ten suction sides), to sus-
calculation program, and has been proven by experiments at an- tain these twenty pressure loading conditions. For example, the
gles of attack smaller than the stall angle. The study selected Xfoil 0% (root) to 10% region of the blade inputs the same pressure load-
as the analytic tool to compute the aerodynamic properties of each ing equation from the regressive result of the 5% section; and the
foil under various inow angles of attack owing to the calculation 90100% region (tip) would utilize the regressive result of the
efciency of the whole procedure, despite the fact that it is incapa- 95% section. Fig. 7 displays a blade with continuous distributive
ble of performing the 3-D uid calculations provided by commer- load in ABAQUS. Otherwise, the centrifugal force caused by the
cially software such as Fluent. rotational motion of the blade and the gravitational force resulting
from the weight of the blade are also included in the analytic pro-
P  P1 cedure. Six degrees of freedom on the nodes around the circular
Cp 1 1 root of the blade are xed as the boundary condition of the blade
q V2
2 1 1
According to Eq. (1), the actual pressure difference should take the
pressure coefcient Cp, calculated by Xfoil, ow density q1 and in- 4. Analytic procedure of uidstructure interaction
ow velocity V1 into account. Pressure coefcient distribution for
various foil sections as well as various relative inow angles of at- Fig. 8 shows the analytic procedure for calculating the uid
tack as computed by Xfoil using a Reynolds number 3  106 deter- structure interaction of wind turbine blades under aerodynamic
mined mainly by the chord length and inow velocity in various loading. After conrming the blade geometry, the FEA model
sections of the blades. The distributions of pressure coefcient for was constructed in FEA software. Data related to composite lam-
ten foil sections from stations 595% (Fig. 1a) had to be calculated inate materials, including material coefcients, various ber
during each stage of the uidstructure interactive process. It also weaves, the number of laminates, and the thickness of the core
means that the wind loading situation was somewhat simplied material, then had to be entered into the FEA program. The fol-
by the calculated aerodynamic results of these ten foil sections. lowing steps from Decide turbine operating condition to Calcu-
Fig. 5 shows the pressure distribution vectors of two different DU late regressive equations of pressure in Fig. 8 are related to the
series under various angles of attack. external wind loading caused by aerodynamic effects. A detailed
2184 Y.-J. Lee et al. / Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191

Fig. 5. Pressure coefcient distribution vector calculated by Xfoil at Re = 3  106 (a) DU00-W-350, u = 9 and (b) DU93-W-210, u = 3.5.

Fig. 6. Regressive curves of pressure load distribution, station (a) 85% and (b) 35%.

Fig. 7. Wind pressure loading on the surface of the blades.

Y.-J. Lee et al. / Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191 2185

description of each has been stated previously. Wind load con-

tributes to bending deformation of blades and the rotation of foil
sections. Foil sections could have an initial twist angle of h, and
rotate to another state with new twist angle h0 after the effect
of aerodynamic loading, as shown in Fig. 9. The new state then
induces a new aerodynamic distributive force on the blade itself.
Hence, the rotation-reload response continues until the blade is
stabilized. This phenomenon is known as the aeroelastic effect
on wind turbine blades. Therefore, FEA geometric variations had
to be conrmed after executing each FEA calculation. If any foil
section did not converge, the calculations for aerodynamic load-
ing had to be repeated. The calculations related to this interaction
were repeated until all sections converged on the smallest angle
of attack that would not inuence the aerodynamic loading distri-
bution, thereby attaining a stable status for the blade. The conver-
gent conditions in the study refer to experimental relationships
between angle of attack and lift coefcient for each foil, as shown
in Fig. 10. Notably, the data for the DU and NACA series experi-
ments indicated that the ratio of lift coefcient to angle of attack
Fig. 9. Schema of foil section rotation.
was approximately 0.1 below the stall region. This means the lift
force would increase by approximately 10%, if the inow angle of
attack increased by 1, because the increment of lift coefcient 5. Results of interactive calculations
was nearly 0.1. Accordingly, the convergent conditions of the
blade dened as a change in the angle of attack was less than 5.1. Rotation angle and displacement of each foil section
0.1, and therefore the variation in loading conditions would be
limited to less than approximately 1%. Otherwise, after these cal- Fig. 11 displays the bended blade under a 25 m/s wind load, and
culations, the chord length and camber line for each foil section wind turbine nacelle would design an elevation angle to prevent
had to be veried to determine whether or not they had changed. bending deformation of blade structures from damaging the tower.
If the shape of the foil was altered, the aerodynamic characteris- Bending deformation in the apwise direction was not signicantly
tics would be changed [11]. Finally, if the blade reached a stable related to 40 m blade length, as shown in Fig. 12. The displacement
state, the stress conditions related to various elements of the of the blade tip under wind speeds of 25 m/s was 0.18 m in the rst
blade model would be checked to determine the likelihood of fail- calculation and swayed to 0.13 m at the nal interaction. Fig. 13
ure. The model laminates had to be reapportioned in the event shows the twist angle variation of each foil section at a wind speed
that any element met the criterion of failure. The TasiWu failure of 25 m/s. In the initial design, twist angle was approximately 0 at
criterion was selected for this study to perform failure verica- the tip section (station = 100%) and gradually increased to 11.6 in
tion. When all elements were free from the likelihood of failure, the root region (station = 5%). The rotational deformation near the
the interactive analysis procedure was completed. root stations (525%) was only approximately 0.10.3, because of

Fig. 8. The process of analyzing uidstructure interaction with regard to wind turbine blades under aerodynamic load.
2186 Y.-J. Lee et al. / Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191

Fig. 10. Chart of aCL, (a) DU91-W2-250 and (b) NACA 64-3-618.

its high stiffness. However, the twist angle in the tip region reached ative value as the pitch angle increased from 0 to 27. Table 3
1.2 from 0, signicantly inuencing the power generation ef- shows the calculation results of inow attack angle at each foil sec-
ciency of the wind turbine. Fig. 14a and b exhibits the variations tion. At a wind speed of 10 m/s, the initial inow angle of attack
in displacement and twist angle at sections from 65% to 100% at was positive and foil sections had a slightly negative rotation, as
a wind speed of 10 m/s. The blade reached a stable state after only Fig. 15a displays. Hence, the convergent attack angle slightly in-
one interaction due to the slight aerodynamic load, with displace- creased. The blade had a maximum pitch angle control, 27
ment at the tip of approximately 0.17 m as well as slight negative (Fig. 4b), and lowest power coefcient Cp during the whole opera-
rotation of foil sections. Otherwise, the shape of each foil section tion range (Fig. 4d) at a wind speed of 25 m/s. The initial angle of
remained constant under each loading condition in the research. attack at 7595% foil station were negative (Table 3) and the blade
Eq. (1) shows pressure load on the surface of the blade is pro- displayed a positive rotation (Fig. 12a) as the uidstructure calcu-
portional to the square of wind speed, and higher wind speed is ex- lation was convergent. Hence, the converged attack angle dis-
pected to be accompanied by a higher degree of bending and played a larger negative angle than the original, as Fig. 15b
rotational deformation of blades. Two analytic cases, 10 m/s and illustrated. Other sections (065%) with an initial positive angle
25 m/s, displayed approximately the same bending deformation of attack converged in a smaller attack angle or negative one, as
because the wind turbine started the pitch angle control to de- Fig. 15c illustrated. Positive rotation of foil sections at a wind speed
crease the load on the blade surfaces as over 10 m/s wind speed. of 25 m/s decreased the lift characteristic of blades as well as the
The inow angle of attack gradually decreased, even become neg- power efciency of a wind turbine.

Fig. 11. The original and deformed blade.

Y.-J. Lee et al. / Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191 2187

Fig. 12. Calculations of interactions related to displacement of foil sections at 25 m/s wind speed.

Fig. 13. Calculations of interactions related to twist angle of foil sections at 25 m/s wind speed.

Fig. 14. Calculations of interactions related to (a) displacement and (b) twist angle of foil sections at 10 m/s wind speed.

5.2. Evaluation of power efciency

Table 3
Calculation results of inow attack angle at each foil section.
The projections for the power capacity in the initial design differ
Foil section (%) Wind speed 10 m/s Wind speed 25 m/s
from the calculated values, after taking the bending and torsional
deformation of the blades into account. Eq. (2) shows that the mag- Initial () Converged () Initial () Converged ()
nitude of power capacity (P) depends on the product of rotor rota- 5 59.38 59.38 44.47 43.48
tional speed (X) and the summed torque of each blade section 15 26.07 26.06 25.19 24.14
(dQ). In addition, the torque in each of the blade elements depends 25 11.21 11.23 14.93 13.78
35 8.89 8.94 9.80 8.72
on relative wind velocity (Urel), lift coefcient (Cl) and the relative 45 7.04 7.10 5.48 4.45
inow angle (u) between relative inow direction and the rota- 55 5.34 5.38 2.02 0.93
tional plane, as illustrated in Eq. (3) and Fig. 16a. Fig. 16b shows 65 6.57 6.65 0.01 1.27
the concept of blade element theory, indicating that blade analysis 75 5.64 5.70 2.19 3.67
85 5.81 5.88 3.69 5.50
could be segmented into individual calculations for each element
95 5.60 5.65 5.10 7.11
of the blade. The parameters in Eq. (3) are all directly or indirectly
2188 Y.-J. Lee et al. / Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191

Fig. 15. Schema of (a) positive attack angle/negative rotation, (b) negative attack angle/positive rotation, and (c) positive attack angle/positive rotation of foil section.

Fig. 16. Scheme of (a) force components on blade sections and (b) blade element theory.
Y.-J. Lee et al. / Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191 2189

Table 4
Evaluation of power capacity.

Wind speed (m/s) Rotor speed Pitch angle Max. rotated angle Initial design capacity Calculated capacity Evaluation of efciency
(rpm) () () (MW) (MW) (%)
25 16.75 27 1.13 2 1.66 17
10 16.75 0 0.06* 1.5 1.3 13.3
The minus rotated angle means foil section rotates towards the rotor rotating plane.

relative to twist angle (h) and/or to the angle of attack (a). Accord- by BEM method, including the consideration of uidstructure
ingly, any change in twist angle has a direct inuence on the power interaction, was just 1.3 MW and 1.66 MW, for a percentage loss
capacity of the wind turbine. of 13.3% and 17%, respectively (Table 4). Analytic results indicate
that designing the blades to achieve projected targets must not ne-
glect aerodynamic pressure load and calculations regarding uid
P n X  dQ 2
0 structure interaction.

5.3. Improving power efciency

dQ qU 2rel C l sin u  C d cos ucrdr 3
2 The reason of power efciency loss was the aeroelastic phenom-
According to the designated output capacity in Fig. 4a, the ena were not simultaneously considered in the initial design of the
power capacity was 1.5 MW and 2.0 MW at wind speeds of blade. Hence, the study proposed three feasible methods for
10 m/s and 25 m/s, respectively. However, the capacity calculated enhancing power output capacity.

Fig. 17. Fiber orientation rotated to (a) the leading edge and (b) the trailing edge.
2190 Y.-J. Lee et al. / Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191

Table 5
Evaluation of power capacity for ber orientation (25 m/s, 16.75 rpm, pitch angle = 27).

Fiber orientation Blade tip displacement (m) Max. rotated angle () Calculated capacity (MW) Efciency evaluation*
0 0.13 1.13 1.66 1
Leading edge 20 0.23 0.37 1.85 11.45%
Trailing edge 20 0.16 1.34 1.59 4.22%
The evaluation percentage was calculated by comparing each with 0 orientation.

Table 6
Inow attack angle at foil sections of blades with various ber orientation (25 m/s, 16.75 rpm, pitch angle = 27).

Foil section (%) Initial Converged

Original () Original () Leading edge 20 () Trailing edge 20 ()
5 44.47 43.48 43.50 43.46
15 25.19 24.14 24.18 24.16
25 14.93 13.78 13.86 13.77
35 9.80 8.72 8.83 8.68
45 5.48 4.45 4.63 4.38
55 2.02 0.93 1.19 0.81
65 0.01 1.27 0.89 1.44
75 2.19 3.67 2.99 3.85
85 3.69 5.50 4.86 5.7
95 5.10 7.11 6.39 7.31

5.3.1. Method 1: Pre-twist design of blade geometry from the uidstructure interactive calculations mentioned previ-
Complete the rst time of structure analysis associated with ously. Changing the ber orientation 20 to the leading edge en-
uidstructure interactions and then deliver the twisting data to abled the blade section to rotate 0.37, and the calculated
geometric designer to modify the blade geometry with a pre-twist capacity enhanced by approximately 11.5% over that of the original
angle. In other words, the blade twists according to updated geom- capacity of 1.66 MW. The reason of power enhancement was that
etry, providing power generation performance superior to that of the converged attack angle at blades with 20 orientation to the
the original. However, to optimize the pre-twist design, this meth- leading edge was larger than the original blade as Table 6 shows.
od requires lots of interaction between the designers of blade A notable consequence is that arranging the ber away from the
geometry and structures. However, the pre-twist blade would direction of the main-axis to the leading or trailing edge caused
not provide optimal power output across the entire range of oper- the power capacity of the wind turbine to diverge with that of
ation with wind speeds of 325 m/s because the structural analysis the original design.
were performed under only a single wind speed condition. Clearly, The above mentioned improvements have their own advanta-
using this method to design the blades requires that the typical ges, drawbacks, and unique features. Accordingly feasibility solu-
range of wind speed at the target location be accurately assessed. tions for the optimization of blade design providing a high
operational efciency under the consideration of aerodynamic
5.3.2. Method 2: Correction of pitch angle control load and uidstructure interaction requires practical engineer-
Chart (b) in Fig. 4 shows the original pitch angle control trajec- ing experience and the participation of specialists in various
tory and adjusting the global pitch angle of blades at each wind elds.
speed could compensate for the power loss. Table 4 shows that
the maximum rotational angle was 1.13 at 25 m/s wind speed 6. Conclusions
and nearly no rotation at 10 m/s wind speed. Hence, the corrected
trajectory was modied to approximately 01. Otherwise, the This study analyzed the structural response of wind turbine
pitch control is directed to the entire blade, with only one angle va- blades under aerodynamic pressure load as well as uidstructure
lue entered into the control system. Consequently, although this interaction, to determine the aeroelastic effect. The main conclu-
correction improved on the original power output, power ef- sions of this research are listed below.
ciency was still lost due to the various twisting result of each foil
section.  The study established the analytic procedure for calculating and
evaluating aeroelastic phenomena associated with wind turbine
5.3.3. Method 3: The adjustment of ber orientation blades which integrated BEM and Xfoil program, FEA calcula-
FRP blades are composed of ber and resin, and the extension, tion, and the failure diagnosis of blade elements. Transforming
bending, and coupling stiffness depends on the orientation of the aerodynamic coefcients into pressure load acting on the blade
bers in accordance with classical laminated plate theory. Many surfaces provided an actual response of blade structures,
researchers have attempted to enhance turbine operating ef- enabling to realize the aeroelastic phenomena of wind turbine
ciency by utilizing the bendingcoupling properties of composite blades. The calculation results clearly show that blades exhibit
materials [58,10]. In the third improvement, the orientation of rotation in the foil sections as well as apwise deformation
the bers with unidirectional brous weave in the spar cap region and stabilize after several iterations.
was changed to a 20 angle relative to the span-wise direction as  The effect of uidstructure interaction on blades was dis-
described in the literature. Fig. 17a and b shows the ber rotated cussed by analyzing turbine power capacity. The power evalua-
from the main-axis to the leading edge and to the trailing edge tion, relative to the rotational angle in the foil sections, provided
respectively. Table 5 shows the simulation results were derived a more comprehensible means by which to interpret changes in
Y.-J. Lee et al. / Composites: Part B 43 (2012) 21802191 2191

the structural response of blades. The twist behavior of blades [7] Locke J, Valencia U. Design studies for twist-coupled wind turbine blades.
SAND2004-0522; June 2004.
after the uidstructure interaction affects the power capacity
[8] Paquette J, Dam JV, Hughes S. Structural testing of 9 m carbon ber wind
of wind turbines signicantly. turbine research blades. NREL/CP-500-40985; January 2007.
 Three suggestions for the improvement of wind turbine [9] Maheri A, Noroozi S, Vinney J. Combined analytical/FEA-based coupled aero
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