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E-Business Entity Models

MBAEX 9607 Managing E-Business

July 21, 2017


1
What is an E-Business Entity Model

E-Business Entity model describes the set of business entities


involved and transactional relationships among them.

The model also describes

type of transaction undertaken


sources of revenue
potential benefits accruing to the involved business
participants.

2
E-business models based on the relationship of Entities

E-Business has been primarily classified into four categories based


upon the Entities (transaction parties) involved in a transaction
Business Consumer

B2B
Business

B2C
Cisco, GEIS Mustafa, FabMart
IndiaMart IndiaTimes.com
Consumer

C2B C2C
PriceLine.com BaaZee.com

3
Relation Between B2B and B2C Model

The relation between B2B and B2C models is shown in


following figure.
B2B covers business transactions along the various interactions
existing in the value chain from producers of raw materials to
retailers.
B2C reflects only the interactions between a consumer and a retailer.

Raw material Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Consumer


producer

B2B B2C
4
Business-to-Business (B2B) Entity Model

Definition
Business-to-Business (B2B) is that model of e-commerce where a company
conducts its trading and other commercial activity through the Internet and
customer is another business itself. I.e., B2B facilitates inter-organizational
interaction and transaction.

Examples
MetalSite.com, VerticalNet.com, SHOP2gether.com

Potential
B2B forms a major constituent of the total E-Business volumes. This is
because the value per transaction in a B2B scenario is much higher when
compared with Business to Consumer (B2C) type of transaction.
5
Business-to-Business (B2B) Entity model (Contd ....)

Involved Business Entities


This type of E-Business requires two or more business entities interacting
with each other directly, or through an intermediary. The intermediaries in
B2B may be market makers and directory service providers, who assist in
matching buyers and sellers and striking a deal.

Usefulness
The business application of B2B transaction type can be utilized to facilitate
almost all facets of interactions among organizations, such as inventory
management, channel management, distribution management, order
fulfillment and delivery and payment management.

6
Three types of B2B Entity Model

The B2B entity model can be classified into three transaction type
Supplier-Centric,
Buyer-Centric,
Intermediary- Centric.

B2B

Supplier- Buyer- Intermediary -


Centric Centric Centric
7
Three types of B2B Entity Model (Contd.)

Supplier centric B2B

The supplier sets up the E-Marketplace.


Various customer/ buyer interact with the supplier at its E-Marketplace
Done by a dominant supplier in the domain of products it supplies.
The supplier provides customized solution and pricing to fit the needs of
buyers business.
The supplier also institute different pricing schemes for buyers depending upon
volume and loyalty count.
Examples:
Intel
Cisco Connection Online (CCO) 8

Three types of B2B Entity Model (Contd.)

Buyer-centric B2B
Buyer with high volume purchase capacity create an E-Marketplace for
purchase and acquisition
Used by buyer for
Placing requests for quotations (RFQs)
Carrying out the entire purchase process.
Utilized by high volume and well-recognized buyers, as they may have
adequate capacity and business volumes to attract suppliers
Examples:
United States Government
General Electric Information System
9

Three types of B2B Entity Model (Contd.)

Intermediary-centric B2B
A third party sets up the E-Marketplace
Attracts both the buyer and seller businesses to interact with each other.
The role of the intermediary is that of an E-Market maker.
Fulfills the role by electronically connecting many different buyers and
sellers through its database of potential suppliers and buyers,
Acts as a hub for both suppliers and buyer
Buyers place their request for the quotations and sellers respond by bidding
electronically, leading to a match and ultimately to a final transaction
The buyers and sellers, both benefit from the increased options in terms of
pricing, quality, availability and delivery of goods.
10

Three types of B2B Entity Model (Contd.)

Intermediary-centric B2B
Benefits achieved by this specific model over two previous models
Intermediary company represent a large number of members in that
specific market segment
Reduces the need for buyers and sellers to contact a large number of
potential partners on their own.
The information available from the intermediary's database allows
Screen out unsuitable partners
Compare the offerings of many different potential partners
Examples of Intermediary-centric B2B :
Honeywell International (Myplant.com)
India Mart,Com
General Electric's Trading Process Network (TPN)
11
Tools used B2B Enterprises

Pricing
Pricing is used as a tool to generate sales on the Internet. E-businesses
use it by giving substantial discounts.
Companies also have started giving things free on the Internet in order to
get a critical mass of buyer.

Use of application service provider (ASP)


Software companies is offering their packages through the Web
Customer also need not use even a hard disk and all critical application
data is kept on the Web and can be accessed from anywhere in the world
These services are being offered at an hourly rate.

12
Tools used B2B Enterprises

Use of generic models


Efficiency
Personalized attention to various business customers
Partnership with organizations to take care of the individual elements of
the customer

Use of comparison shopping


Browse through hundreds of sites to find the cheapest product to
suit their specifications. This would never have been possible
without the Internet.

13
Advantages of B2B Entity Model

Major advantages of B2B Entity model


By using B2B Model business can reengineer their supply chain and
partnership
B2B will offer easy access to following types of information, which help
business organization to take better decisions:
Information about Product - Price, Sales history
Information about Suppliers - Product line and lead-time, sales terms
and conditions
Information about Production process -Capacity and product plan
Information about Customers Buying history and forecast
Information about Competitors Market share, product offerings
Information about Sales and marketing Promotions of new products
14
Advantages of B2B Entity Model (Contd..)

Additional advantages of B2B


A cost reduction technique for the company by eliminating mediator
Focused sales promotion by directly interacting with customer buying
patterns
Online customers can be more loyal than other customers and do not like to
shift to another site
Buyer can get the product at a cheap deal, as there are many competitors in
an online Marketplace
B2B is a medium of facilitating procurement management and reduced cycle
time.

15
Advantages of B2B Entity Model (Contd..)

Additional advantages of B2B (Contd)


Electronic funds transfer-using EDI can be done between to
organizations.
B2B helps in lowering the cost for selling and marketing.
It shortens the selling cycle.
Just In Time(JIT) delivery to ensure that materials or supplies arrive at a
facility just when they are needed.
Tracking of good in shipment help of B2B E-Business technology
commerce.

16
Example Of B2B Supplier Centric E-Business
Cisco Connection Online (1)
Cisco has been exploiting the benefits of the supplier-centric electronic
commerce for several years. Cisco system is the leading supplier of computer
networking equipment. It has close to 70% of the market share & its products
are sold and deployed in around 75 countries.
In the early years customers used Cisco Connection Online (CCO) by dialing
up the public data communication network to access product information and
solutions to common problems. In the following year, Cisco's launch of its web
site with company and product information, discussion forums, and a feedback
mechanism to identify the future needs of customers, in addition to information
sharing and providing solutions to their problems. Customers posted their
questions in this open forum, Cisco engineers and others who may have faced
the same problem earlier provided the answers .Cisco website also added tools
for downloading the software patches and new releases of software.
Today, over 90% of customer orders are completed via the CCO, its electronic
commerce site, resulting in 99% percent order accuracy in the first try, saving
time and money 17
Example Of B2B Supplier Centric E-Business
Cisco Connection Online (2)
Later, Cisco added two agents: the Pricing and the Status agents. The Pricing
agents puts the power of price discovery in the hands of registered partners,
these registered customers can look at the prices of suitable products in local
currencies. The status agent enables customers to check the status of an order.
With the introduction of these two agents thousands of queries that were either
handled through phone or fax have migrated to the web, with customers
getting near instantaneous response. Cisco runs mirror sites to speed up
responses and reduce the traffic congestion problem from European and other
communities outside the United States.
Today Cisco, through its web site, offers a full-fledged online market place,
complete with partner and re-seller registration, information center for
products, online pricing and ordering, software delivery over the internet,
status checking, online service and support and training in multiple languages.
Today more than 70% of Cisco's customer support is delivered over the
network, resulting in tremendous cost savings, improved customer
relationship, and service leadership.. 18
Example Of B2B Supplier Centric E-Business
Cisco Connection Online (3)

By implementing a virtual supply chain the company has been able to reduce
inventory levels by 45%, and reduce the time to market its products by
approximately 12 weeks. The operating cost savings resulting from its shift to
virtual manufacturing have been estimated at over US $ 175 million. The
company has already deployed an e-learning solution and can train up to 3000,
people, dispersed worldwide, in a single online session. The move to adopt an e-
learning solution for sales and technical staff will save around 60% of the
training costs incurred by the company.
Online technical assistance to users, through the Technical Assistance Center
(TAC) web site of the Cisco, provides real-time assistance. The site handles over
80% of the support questions, with a majority of them resulting in a satisfactory
close out in a single interaction.

19
Example Of B2B Buyer Centric E-Business
General Electric Information System (1)

The General Electric Information Systems (GEIS) is one the most diversified
companies with leading status in manufacturing home appliances, power
generation, aircraft engines, industrial materials, TV broadcasting, and capital
services, and is one of top ten corporations in the United States. The process of
managing the tendering process, suppliers' database and providing timely
information to suppliers was a cumbersome task due to the shear volume of
procurement.
The General Electric Information Systems (GEIS) initiated a web site for posting
invitations for tenders and other accompanying documents to streamline its
procurement process.

20
Example Of B2B Buyer Centric E-Business
General Electric Information System (2)
In the new process, the company posted a single copy of the online downloadable
Documents, and notified GE's suppliers through e-mail. The company's suppliers
were expected to download the Request For Quotations (RFQs) through the
Internet and submit their bids electronically. A single online posting of the tender
document and e-mail notifications to selected suppliers along with their subsequent
online bidding not only saves time but has also offered tremendous savings in
processing costs. Also, it has increased competition as any supplier from any part
of the world can access the site and bid. In order to be able to bid all they require is
an Internet connection and the Trading Process Network (TPN) software download,
which is free of charge.
The company experimented with a pilot implementation to automate procurement
at GE's Lighting Unit in Cleveland. It resulted in an immediate payoff of 10 to 15
percent reduction in prices, due to the openness of the web. Also, the purchasing
cycle was cut to half from fourteen days to seven days. The deployment of e-
commerce based procurement solutions has reduced transaction costs for both
General Electric and also its suppliers. Thus it creates a level playing field for21
small businesses and offers them an opportunity to compete.
Example Of B2B Intermediary Centric E-Business
IndiaMart.com (1)

IndiaMart.com has been serving as a third party electronic marketplace for


Indian exporters and manufacturers. The company implemented a Business-to-
Business (B2B) electronic marketplace in 1996, at a time when electronic
commerce awareness had just begun to unfold.
IndiaMart.com planned to capitalize on the opportunity of becoming a third
party market maker that connects Indian exporters with buyers abroad. During
the start-up period IndiaMart did not have any supplier base, thus getting buyers
was a challenging task. On the other hand attracting suppliers to join a
marketplace that did not have potential buyers was no less of a challenge.
IndiaMart tackled the issue by creating business catalogues and placing them on
the net during the initial period. As a result, suppliers got free listing and
exposure

22
Example Of B2B Intermediary Centric E-Business
IndiaMart.com (2)

IndiaMart further added the feature of free query forwarding in addition to free
listing, as the free listing service was available at many sites. The queries
received by IndiaMart were forwarded through e-mail, fax, phone or regular
postal service to exporters, depending upon the nature of facilities available
with them. The forwarding of queries through e-mail did not entail much
expense, but phone, fax, and postal services did. However, it was essential to
demonstrate the power and reach of the Internet to exporters and suppliers who
were not even familiar with computers.

23
Example Of B2B Intermediary Centric E-Business
IndiaMart.com (3)

The strategy paid off in long run. As suppliers started receiving queries,
they were interested in making a bigger presence on the IndiaMart.com
e-marketplace. The development of web based catalogues and contents
for these suppliers, exporters, and tour operators formed an important
revenue stream in the early years.

Towards the end of 2001, out of 1200 catalogues displayed on IndiaMart


60-70% belonged to travel, handicrafts, apparel and auto. But, over a
period, the volume of enquiries has taken a a sudden large increase and
suppliers with no e-mail connectivity have drastically come down. The
IndiaMart.com e-marketplace consists of 60,000 businesses, classified in
450 product and service categories.

24
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Entity Model

Definition
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) is a model where a business organization
undertakes commercial transaction directly with individual consumers. It is
also called E-Retail or E-Tail because it is actually retail sales over the
Internet. The selling businesses offer a set of merchandise at given prices,
discounts, and shipping and delivery options.

Examples
Dell Computers (//www. dell.com), Mustafa (www.Mustafa.com), Amazon
(www.amazon.com), Fabmart (www.fabmart.com)

25
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Entity Model (Contd.)

Variation of B2C Model


Virtual Merchants
In this model E-tailers offer traditional or Web-specific products or
services only over the Internet. Examples of virtual merchants include
amazon.com (books, electronics, toys, and music).

High Value Content


In this model high value content is provided to consumers for a
subscription fee. Examples- Wall Street Journal (financial news and
articles)

26
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Entity Model (Contd.)

Variation of B2C Model


Virtual Malls
Websites that host many online merchants. Virtual malls typically charge
setup, listing, or transaction fees to online merchants, and may include
transaction handling services and marketing options. Example: excite.com.

Catalogue Merchants
Successful traditional mail-order business who supplement with an online
shopping site, or move completely to Web-based ordering. Examples
include avon.com (cosmetics and fragrances)

27
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Entity Model (Contd.)

High Potential Area of B2C Entity Model


The B2C model of electronic commerce transaction is ideally suited for
the following types of merchandise:
Goods that can be easily transformed into digital format, such as books,
music clips and videos, and software packages
Items that follow standard specifications, like printer ribbons, ink
cartridges etc.
Highly rated branded items or items with return security: such as Dell and
Compaq computers, electronic gadgets from Sony, etc.
Items sold in packets that cannot be opened even in physical stores, e.g.,
Kodak film rolls
Relatively cheap items where savings outweigh risks
28
Items that can be experienced online, such as music, videos etc
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Entity Model (Contd.)

The B2C Processes

1. Customer identifies a need 7. Merchant processes the order


2. Searches for the product or 8. Credit card is processed
services to satisfy the needs
9. Operation Management on
3. Customer visit a virtual mall merchant side
4. Customer registers 10. Shipment & Delivery by
5. Customer negotiate prices with merchant
merchant 11. Customer receives
6. Customer buys Product 12. After Sale Services

29
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Entity Model (Contd.)

Major advantages of B2C Entity Model


More choices & Better Prices
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) model offers consumers the capability to
browse, select, and buy merchandise online, from a wider -variety of
sellers and at better prices.
Overcoming Time & Geographic Boundary
In this environment the sellers and consumers both benefit through the
round the clock shopping & accessibility from any part of the world
Reduced operational costs
Selling through the Web means cutting down on paper costs, customer
support costs, advertising costs, and order processing costs.
30
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Entity Model (Contd.)

Major advantages of B2C Entity Model


Customer convenience
Searchable content, shopping carts, promotions, and interactive and user-friendly
interfaces facilitate customer convenience, thus generating more business.
Customers can also see order status, delivery status online.
Knowledge management
Through database systems and information management business gain increased
opportunity for effective direct marketing, customizations, and online
customer service.

31
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Entity Model (Contd.)

Disadvantages of B2C

The competition is so vast on the web. There can literally be thousands


of places a customer can go to purchase the same product that a
business offers.
Technology problems can cause business website to not operate
properly, causing to loose customers and sales.
Some consumers are still somewhat fearful of sending their credit card
number over the Internet.

32
Example Of B2C E-Business
Mustafa.com (1)
Mustafa, a popular departmental store in Singapore with Indians, stocks over
100,000 items, spread over 2 buildings with 4 floors each. The store has been a
popular stop-over for buying items like appliances, electronics, jewelry, apparels
and gifts for people who transiting through Singapore because the goods sold in
the store cater to Indian requirements and also because the store takes care of
shipping the goods to India.
The store had a fair bit of computerization going on even prior to 1995, in
terms of bar-coded items, cash registers, and inventory and purchase order
management system. In 1995, it put up a static information only web site for
potential visitors. In September 1997, Mustafa decided to move on to a
transactional site where international visitors can browse through store catalogs
and place orders in advance. Thus, offering a convenience to harried visitors who
have to rush through the shopping during transit.
In the new model customers can place the order in advance and specify the
transit date. On the day of transit, the goods are delivered to the airport; sent
directly as an air package that is part of the transiting passenger's additional 33
Consumer -to- Business (C2B) Entity Model

Definition
Transaction, originated by the customer with a set of requirement
specifications and specific price for a commodity, service, or item.
Responsibility of the business entity to match the requirements of the
consumers to the best possible extent.
Consumer-to-Business (C2B) enables a consumer to determine the price
of a product and/or service offered by a company.

Examples
www.Priceline.com,
www. ReverseAuction.com

34
Consumer -to- Business (C2B) Entity Model

Major advantages of C2B:-


Consumers get a choice of a wide variety of commodities and services.

Consumers also get the opportunity to specify the range of prices they
can afford or are willing to pay for a particular item, service, or
commodity.

Reduces the bargaining time

Increases the flexibility

Creates ease at the point of sale for both the merchant and the consumer.

35
Example Of C2B Entity Model
Priceline.com (1)
Priceline.com is one of the earliest examples of C2B electronic commerce
exchange. Priceline.com implements a mechanism that offers to sell products
below retail prices without eroding it. By implementing a mechanism to sell
products below retail prices it facilitates and makes it possible to move the excess
inventory without diminishing the brands' retail price.
In the case of Priceline.com, a consumer bargain hunting for an airline ticket
indicates his choice of source and destination cities, along with the number of hops
and the fare, which he or she wishes to pay for the ticket and the service. Then
sellers decide weather to fulfill the request or not . Priceline.com uses software that
acts as a "fare search engine and tries to match the buyer's request with an airline
that is willing to fulfill it.
As soon as the buyer enters his travel plan, flexibility and the price, the backend
Oracle database stores the requests and initiates a search on the fare search engine.
The search engine connects to the Computer Reservation Systems (CRSs) of all
participating airlines and submits the query. If any airline is willing to offer a seat
at the named price on the given dates a match is found and reservations are made. 36
Consumer -to- Consumer (C2C) Entity Model

Definition
Provides the opportunity for trading of products and/or
services amongst consumers who are connected through the
Internet
Examples
ebay.com,
InfoRocket.com,
TraderOnline.com

37
Consumer -to- Consumer (C2C) Entity Model (Contd.)

Traditional economic activities corresponding to 'classified


advertisement' and auctions of personal possessions form the basis for
the category
Much of the transactions in this category correspond to small gift items,
craft merchandise,
Items that are normally sold through 'flea' markets or bazaars, where
individuals sell their goods to other individuals at a market determined
prices are dominant
C2C,models the exchange systems with a modified form of deal making.
Large virtual consumer trading community is developed for deal making
The consumer operates by the rules of this community to compete,
check, and decide his own basic selling and/or buying prices.
38
Consumer -to- Consumer (C2C) Entity Model (Contd.)

Advantages of C2C:
Broader market
Eliminates intermediary
Constantly changing and updating

Disadvantages of C2C
No quality control
No payment guarantee
Hard to pay for using checks, ATM, cards, etc but future this is
likely to change.

39
Example Of C2C Entity Mode
BaaZee.com (1)

BaaZee.com, founded in March 2000, is a popular Indian auction site. In the initial
stages, the company offered merchandise, from a number of offline merchants, for
public bidding to its members. Later, it expanded the business by widening the
range of products and enabling its member consumers to buy and sell goods
amongst each other.
Thus the company supports both B2C as well as C2C auction models. Currently,
the low value items such as books and music contribute 32% of the revenue; travel
contributes 12-13%, 20% of revenue comes from mobile phones, 15% form
electronic gadgets, and 20% of the revenue is contributed by information
technology products. The auction process involves three entities, the seller, the
buyer and the auction house. BaaZee.com consists of nearly ten thousand sellers,
one million buyers, and an electronic auction house implemented by
BaaZee.com. It charges the seller 3% of the sales value for every transaction
completed.
40
Example Of C2C Entity Mode
BaaZee.com (2)

Baazee.com extends bidding on the auction facility only to registered members;


others can only browse through the items on auction. The registration process is
free of charge.
In order to list items for auctioning on BaaZee. com, one acquire a verified user
status. The company supports both an automatic as a manual user verification
process. For automatic verification the credit card number has to be provided.
Baazee. com also supports a manual verification process but that requires a
telephone number on which the user can be contacted. The customer support team
verifies the information and changes the status of a member to a verified user.
Only verified users, either with credit card number information or with the
manual process, can put up items for auctioning. BaaZee.com undertakes to
protect the credit card number and personal information. Fees for successfully
completed auctions on BaaZee.com can be paid through credit card, demand
draft, or pay order. 41
Example Of C2C Entity Mode
BaaZee.com (3)
Registered members can bid for items up on sale, going as high as they like.
Baazee.com keeps members informed through e-mail, anytime they have been
outbid by some other user or they have won a bid
To sell an item, an auction has to be set up. The setting up of an auction requires
filling up a form to describe the item. This description includes relevant product
and auction details, such as category, description, start price, auction duration, and
acceptable shipping and payment methods. A good photo of the item attached to
the information may provide some degree of look and feel and attracts bidders.
For each of these items the seller states the minimum acceptable price called
reserve price. Once the auction process is on and a bid has been placed the seller
cannot modify any quantity or the terms and conditions associated with the item.
If potential buyers have questions regarding the item being sold, they use the "ask
the seller" button. An e-mail containing the question is sent to the seller, the seller
may respond to it. Throughout the entire process, the buyer and seller do not see
each other's e-mail addresses or personal details. 42
Example Of C2C Entity Mode
BaaZee.com (4)

As soon as the auction process is over, as per the pre-fixed stage or time and the
seller has procured the highest bid above the reserved price, the buyer and seller
receive e-mail announcing the buyer and giving them details of payment and
delivery term.

43
What is E-Government?

E-Government used to refer to the use of information and communication


technology to provide and improve government services, transactions and
interactions with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.

Classification-
E-Government Entities can be grouped as
Government-to-Citizen (G2C)
Government -to-Business(G2B)
Government-to-Government (G2G)
Government-to-Employees (G2E)
44
What is E-Government?

45
E-Government

Benefits-
It is convenient and cost-effective for public and businesses
Get easy access to the most current information available without having
to spend time, energy and money to get it.
Improved accounting and record keeping can be achieved through
computerization
Information and forms can be easily accessed, resulting quicker
processing time.
Linked information can now be stored in databases versus hardcopies
stored in various locations.
Individuals with disabilities or conditions no longer have to be mobile to
interact with government and can be in the comfort of their own homes46
E-Government

Problems
Effects of Internet-based governments are often difficult to
gauge or unsatisfactory although a prodigious amount of money
has been spent on the development and implementation of E-
government
Once e-government begins to develop and become more
sophisticated, citizens will be forced to interact electronically
with the government on a larger scale. This could potentially
lead to a lack of privacy for civilians as their government
obtains more and more information on them.
An e-government site that provides web access and support often
does not offer the potential to reach many users including
those who live in remote areas or have low education proficiency
or exist on poverty line incomes.
47
E-Government Entity Models

Government-to-Citizen (G2C)
Government-to-Citizen is the online non-commercial interaction
between local and central Government and private individuals.
This also called Individuals-to-Administration Model (I2A model)
Individuals filing tax returns at the government web site is an
example of the Entity Model
It can help reduce hassles and avoid queues in government offices
and enhance productivity.

48
E-Government Entity Models

Business -to- Government (B2G)-


Business-to-government (B2G) is the concept that businesses and
government agencies can use central Web sites to exchange
information and do business with each other more efficiently than
they usually can off the Web.
Example,
Web site offering B2G services could provide businesses with a single
place to locate applications and tax forms
For lower levels of government (city, state, country, and so forth);
provide the ability to send in filled-out forms and payments; update
corporate information; request answers to specific questions; and so
forth.
49
E-Government Entity Models

Government -to- Business (B2G) (Continued)


B2G may also include e-procurement services, in which businesses learn
about the purchasing needs of govt. agencies and give responses of
agency's request proposal. B2G may also support the idea of a virtual
workplace in which a business and govt. agency could coordinate the
work on a contracted project by sharing a common site to coordinate
online meetings, review plans, and manage progress.

Government-to-Government(G2G)
Government-to-Government is the online interaction between
Government organizations, departments, and authorities and with other
Government organizations, departments, and authorities.

Government-to-Employees (G2E)
Government-to- Employees is the online interaction between Government
organizations and its employees. 50
E-Government & E-Governance

Definition of E-Government

E-Government may be defined as the integration of information and


communication technology, in public administration, i.e. to various
government processes, operations, and structures with the purpose of
enhancing transparency, efficiency, accountability and citizen
participation. It facilitates:

Greater level of efficiency and effectiveness in government activities


and process
Enhances quality of public services
Simplifies administrative processes
Improves access to information
Increases communication between various government agencies.
Strengthen support to public policy
Enables seamless government
E-Government & E-Governance (Contd..)

Definition of e-Governance

Electronic governance, shortly known as e-governance refers to the


utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) for
providing government services, disseminating information,
communication activities, and incorporation of miscellaneous stand
alone system and services between different models, processes and
interaction within the overall structure.

E-governance is a tool, that makes available various government


services to citizens in a convenient way, such as:

Better provision of government services


Improved interaction with different groups
Citizen empowerment through access to information
Efficient government management
Comparison between E-Government & E-Governance

BASIS FOR COMPARISON E-GOVERNMENT E-GOVERNANCE


Meaning The application of ICT, with the e-Governance refers to the use of
aim of supporting government ICT in enhancing the range and
operations, aware citizens and quality of information and
deliver services is called as e- services delivered to the public, in
Government. an effective manner.

What it it? System Functionality

Communication Protocol One way communication protocol Two way communication protocol

53
Difference between E-Government & E-Governance

By E-Government we mean the application of ICT in


government operations, as a tool to make better government.
E-Governance, on the other hand, implies the use of ICT in
transforming and supporting functions and structures of the
system.

E-Government is a system, E-Governance is a function

E-Government is a one-way communication protocol. On the


contrary, e-Governance is a two-way communication
protocol.
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B2B2C & C2B2C Entity Models

Business-to-Business-to-Consumer
Describes transactions in which a business sells a service or product to a
consumer using another business as an intermediary.
Example
Maytag.com allows consumers to choose the features they want in
durable goods. These are then shipped to the retailers, which also
function as services centers and return centers( if the durable goods prove
to be not so durable).

Consumer-to-Business-to-Consumer
Describes transactions in which a consumer sells a service or product to
another consumer using a business as an intermediary.
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Education-to-Students (E2S) Entity Model

Description
E2S model envisages an educational institute providing learning
experience to students through the web site. A student have to register
for online education program at these sites.

Benefits
Potential for mass education programs
Overcoming problems related to geographical boundaries and of
students in commuting to their learning places.
Students from far off places can attend on-line" class and can
access online tutorials and even appear for online examinations.
Experts in respective fields, spread across a wide geographical
region can come together at the E2S site to share their knowledge
and experience with the students. 56
Education-to-Students (E2S) Entity Model (Contd.)

Example
Barnes and Noble the well known bookstores in USA with
acknowledged web presence in planning to join hands with others in
creating an online University "Barnes and Noble University" that
would offer online learning experience through their site bn.com.

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Business-to-Employee (B2E) Entity Model

Focus of business is the employee, rather than the consumer


or other businesses
Business uses an intra-business network to provide services
to their employees.
For an employee, searching for a particular type of
information from the vast information base of the company
is a time consuming task
(B2E) application offers employees a highly customized
corporate information.
The term "B2E" is frequently used to refer to the B2E portal
which is a customized home page for everyone within an 58
organization.
Business-to-Employee (B2E) Entity Model (Contd)

B2E portal is sometimes considered to be synonymous with an


intranet, but it differs in its focus.
The intranet's focus is the organization; the B2E portal focus is
the individual.
The B2E portal is designed to include not only everything that
an employee might hope to find on an intranet (such as a
corporate information) but also any personal information and
links that the employee might want (such as stocks information
or even games).
B2E encompasses everything that businesses do to attract and
retain well-qualified staff in a competitive market.
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Business-to-Employee (B2E) Entity Model (Contd)

Wipro Technologies, a diversified information technology product


and service provider, rolled out a B2E application Channel.
Basic features include .

affinity clubs; Corporate communication


message boards; Knowledge sharing
Internet chat; Self-service applications such as
intranet searches; leave management
benefits management
Personalization engine compensation planning
internal career management60
Take home assignment

Question

Define and describe the Business to Business (B2B) Entity


based E-Business Models model. Discuss all components of
the business model for this type of firms
Submit on or before August 1st, 2017 in hard copy or soft
copy format

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