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Analog and Digital Electronics Lab

Lab Project Report

University of Engineering and Technology


Submitted by
Muhammad Awais (Reg. No.: 2014-EE-414)

Ahsan Ijaz (Reg. No.: 2014-EE-422)

Muhammad Umair Tariq (Reg. No.: 2014-EE-436)

Umer Farooq (Reg. No.: 2014-EE-452)

Submitted to: Sir Nasir

Subject: Analog and Digital Electronics Lab
Title: Power Amplifier
Department: Electrical Engineering(EE)


TITLE Page No.

Theory and Principles 1

Project Work and Performance 6
Experimental Procedure 12
Performance of Project 17
Workbench Verifications 20
Table 21
Result(Project Images) 22

Lab Project Report
Power Amplifier
Theory and Principles

An Amplifier receives a signal from some pickup transducer or other

input source and provides a larger version of the signal to some output device
or to another amplifier stage. An input transducer signal is generally small (a
few milli volts from a cassette or CD input or a few micro volts from an
antenna) and needs to be amplified sufficiently to operate an output device
(speaker or other power handling device).In small signal amplifiers, the main
factors are usually amplification linearity and magnitude of gain, since signal
voltage and current are small in a small-signal amplifier, the amount of power-
handling capacity and power efficiency are of little concern.

A voltage amplifier provides voltage amplification primarily to increase the

voltage of the input signal. An audio amplifier is designed for use in
reproducing audio frequencies. This category subdivides into small signal
amplification, and power amps which are optimised for driving speakers,
sometimes with multiple amps grouped together as separate or bridgeable
channels to accommodate different audio reproduction requirements.

A special type of amplifier is widely used in instruments and for signal

processing, among many other varied uses. These are known as operational
amplifiers, (or op-amps).

Figure 1

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This is because this type of amplifier is used in circuits that perform
mathematical algorithmic functions, or operations on input signals to obtain
specific types of output signals. A typical op-amp has differential inputs (one
inverting, one non-inverting relative to the output) and one output. An
idealised op-amp has the following characteristics:

infinite input impedance (so as to not load circuitry it is sampling as a

control input)
Zero output impedance
Infinite gain
Zero propagation delay
The performance of an op-amp with these characteristics would be entirely
defined by the (usually passive) components forming a negative feedback loop
around it, that is, the amplifier itself has no effect on the output.
Today, op-amps are usually provided as integrated circuits, rather than
constructed from discrete components. All real-world op-amps fall short of the
idealised specification above but some modern components have remarkable
performance and come close in some respects.
A bipolar junction transistor (BJT or bipolar transistor) is a type
of transistor that relies on the contact of two types of semiconductor for its
operation. BJTs can be used as amplifiers, switches, or in oscillators. BJTs can
be found either as individual discrete components, or in large numbers as parts
of integrated circuits.
Bipolar transistors are so named because their operation involves
both electrons and holes. These two kinds of charge carriers are characteristic of
the two kinds of doped semiconductor material; electrons are majority charge
carriers in n-type semiconductors, whereas holes are majority charge carriers in
p-type semiconductors. In contrast, unipolar transistors such as the transistors
have only one kind of charge carrier.
Charge flow in a BJT is due to diffusion of charge carriers across a junction
between two regions of different charge concentrations. The regions of a BJT
are called emitter, collector, and base. A discrete transistor has three leads for
connection to these regions.

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Figure 2

Typically, the emitter region is heavily doped compared to the other two layers,
whereas the majority charge carrier concentrations in base and collector layers
are about the same.By design, most of the BJT collector current is due to the
flow of charges injected from a high-concentration emitter into the base where
there are minority carriers that diffuse toward the collector, and so BJTs are
classified as minority-carrier devices.

Types of Transistor:
There are two types of bi polar junction transistors .

1 N-P-N Bipolar Junction Transistor

2 P-N-P Bipolar Junction Transistor
Working Principle of BJT:
An n-p-n transistor biased in the active region (transistor biasing), the BE
junction is forward biased whereas the CB junction is reversed biased. The
width of the depletion region of the BE junction is small as compared to that of
the CB junction. The forward bias at the BE junction reduces the barrier
potential and causes the electrons to flow from the emitter to base. As the base
is thin and lightly doped it consists of very few holes so some of the electrons
from the emitter (about 2%) recombine with the holes present in the base region
and flow out of the base terminal. This constitutes the base current, it flows due
to recombination of electrons and holes (Note that the direction of conventional
current flow is opposite to that of flow of electrons). The remaining large
number of electrons will cross the reverse biased collector junction to constitute
the collector current. Here, the majority charge carriers are electrons. The
operation of a p-n-p transistor is same as of the n-p-n, the only difference is that
the majority charge carriers are holes instead of electrons. Only a small part
current flows due to majority carriers and most of the current flows due to
minority charge carriers in a BJT. Hence, they are called as minority carrier

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Figure 3

Cascaded System(Connections)
The two-port systems approach is particularly useful for cascaded systems such
as that appearing in the following figure, where AV1, AV2, AV3, and so on, are
the voltage gains of each stage under loaded conditions.That is, Av1 is
determined with the input impedance to AV2 acting as the load on AV1.For
AV2, AV1 will determine the signal strength and source impedance at the input
to AV2 .The total gain of the system is then determined by the product of the
individual gains as follows:

and the total current gain is given by

No matter how perfect the system design, the application of a succeeding stage
or load to a two-port system will affect the voltage gain. Therefore, there is no
possibility of a situation where AV1, AV2, and so on, are simply the no-load

Figure 4

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Darlington System(Connections)
A very popular connection of two bipolar junction transistors for operation as
one super beta transistor is the Darlington connection shown in the following
figure. The main feature of the Darlington connection is that the composite
transistor acts as a single unit with a current gain that is the product of the
current gains of the individual transistors. If the connection is made using two
separate transistors having current gains of beta1 and beta2, the Darlington
connection provides a current gain of

Figure 5

The configuration was first introduced by Dr. Sidney Darlington in 1953.

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Project Work & Performance
o 1K
o 47K
o 2.2K
o 10K
o 1000 F
o 47 F
o 10 F
o 1000 pF
Bridge Rectifier
PCB sheet
DC supply(24 volts)

Functions of Different Components

A resistor is a passive two terminal electrical component implements electrical
resistance as a circuit element. Resistors act to reduce current flow, and, at the
same time, act to lower voltage levels within circuits. In electronic circuits,
resistors are used to limit current flow, to adjust signal levels, bias active
elements, and terminate transmission lines among other uses. High-power
resistors, that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat, may be used
as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test loads
for generators. Fixed resistors have resistances that only change slightly with
temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust
circuit elements (such as a volume control or a lamp dimmer), or as sensing
devices for heat, light, humidity, force, or chemical activity.

Resistors are versatile tool for the limitation of current. They belong to a passive
category of elements. Resistors come in different sizes and their rating are
described using a sequence of specific colors known as color codes. A typical
resistor is shown in the figure below.

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Figure 6


A capacitor is a passive two terminal electrical component used to store

electrical energy temporarily in an electric field. The forms of practical
capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors (plates)
separated by a dielectric(i.e. an insulator that can store energy by
becoming polarized). The conductors can be thin films, foils or sintered beads
of metal or conductive electrolyte, etc. The non conducting dielectric acts to
increase the capacitor's charge capacity. A dielectric can be glass, ceramic,
plastic film, air, vacuum, paper, mica, oxide layer etc. Capacitors are widely
used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike
a resistor, an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy. Instead, a capacitor
stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field between its plates.


A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts primarily in one

direction (asymmetric conductance). it has low (ideally zero)resistance to the
flow of current in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the
other. A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is
a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a pn junction connected to
two electrical terminals.

Figure 7

Bridge Rectifier
The half-wave rectifier chopped off half our signal. A full-wave rectifier does more clever
trick: it flips the - half of the signal up into the + range. When used in a power supply, the

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full-wave rectifier allows us to convert almost all the incoming AC power to DC.

Figure 8

This type of single phase rectifier uses four individual rectifying diodes connected in a closed
loop bridge configuration to produce the desired output. The main advantage of this bridge
circuit is that it does not require a special centre tapped transformer, thereby reducing its size
and cost. The single secondary winding is connected to one side of the diode bridge network
and the load to the other side as shown below.

Figure 9

Full-wave Rectifier with Smoothing Capacitor

Figure 10

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PCB sheet

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically

connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other
features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate.
PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper layers)
or multi-layer(outer and inner layers). Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher
component density. Conductors on different layers are connected with plated-
through holes called vias. Advanced PCBs may contain components capacitors,
resistors or active devices - embedded in the substrate. Printed circuit boards are
used in all but the simplest electronic products. Alternatives to PCBs
include wire wrap and point-to-point construction. PCBs require the additional
design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be
automated. Manufacturing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with
other wiring methods as components are mounted and wired with one single
part. Furthermore, operator wiring errors are eliminated.

Figure 11

DC Supply

A power supply is an electronic device that supplies electric energy to

an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert one
form of electrical energy to another and, as a result, power supplies are
sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are
discrete, stand-alone devices, whereas others are built into larger devices along
with their loads. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop
computer sand consumer electronics devices. Every power supply must obtain
the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while
performing that task, from an energy source.

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A Speaker is a slang term for loud speaker driver designed to produce low
frequency sounds, typically from around 40 hertz up to about a kilohertz or
higher. The most common design for a woofer is the electro dynamic driver,
which typically uses a stiff paper cone, driven by a voice coil which is
surrounded by a magnetic field. The voice coil is attached by adhesives to the
back of the speaker cone. The voice coil and magnet form a linear electric
motor. When current flows through the voice coil, the coil moves in relation to
the frame according to Fleming's left hand rule, causing the coil to push or pull
on the driver cone in a piston-like way. The resulting motion of the cone creates
sound waves as it moves.

Figure 12

Amplifier and Speaker Power Requirements

If an amplifier with 50 watts of rated output power into 8-ohm speakers, and
that combination produces reasonably clean and loud music, then by doubling
the amplifier power to 100 watts per channel, the system would then play twice
as loud. Although it's not the easiest thing to comprehend, doubling the
amplifier power does not double the loudness. Because effect of R L is very
necessary. Therefore, a 100 watt amplifier will produce sound only slightly
louder than a 50-watt amplifier. If we want to increase loudness to a reasonable
level then we have to apply RL from 12 to 15 ohm instead of 8 ohm.

Speaker power

The best method when matching speakers to amplifiers is to use the "RMS"
power ratings instead of Max/Peak power ratings. It's important to note that
most speaker manufactures publish two different power ratings:

Sample Amplifier Power Rating Chart

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No. of Each Speaker Rating Total Speaker Rating Recommended Amplifier Power
Speakers (RMS) (RMS) (RMS)
1 100 watts 100 watts 30-100 watts
2 100 watts 200 watts 60-200 watts
3 100 watts 300 watts 90-300 watts
4 100 watts 400 watts 120-400 watts
Table 1


A TIP31 is a standard type of NPN bipolar junction transistor used for medium
power applications.A TIP31 is complementary to a TIP32 PNP bipolar
transistor. TIP31 transistors are designated as TIP31A, TIP31B, TIP31 to
indicate increasing collector-base and collector-emitter breakdown voltage

Figure 13

2N3904 transistor

The 2N3904 is a common NPN bipolar junction transistor used for general
purpose low-power amplifying or switching applications. The type was
registered by Motorola Semiconductor in the mid-sixties, together with the
complementary PNP type 2N3906, and represented a significant
performance/cost improvement, with the plastic TO-92 case replacing metal
cans. It is designed for low current and power, medium voltage, and can operate
at moderately high speeds.

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Experimental Procedure
PCB Design
PCB design is usually done by converting your circuits schematic
diagram into a PCB layout using PCB layout software. There are many
cool open source software packages for PCB layout creation and design.

Figure 14

STEP 1: Take printout of circuit board layout

Take a print out of your PCB layout using the laser printer and the A4 photo
paper/glossy paper. Keep in mind the following points:

You should take the mirror print out.

Select the output in black both from the PCB design software and printer
driver settings.
Make sure that the printout is made on the glossy side of the paper.

Figure 15

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STEP 2: Cutting the copper plate for the circuit board
Cut the copper board according to the size of layout using a hacksaw or a cutter.

Figure 16

STEP 3: Transferring the PCB print onto the copper plate

Method 1 Iron on glossy paper method (for complex circuits): Transfer the
printed image (taken from a laser printer) from the photo paper to the board.
Make sure to flip top layer horizontally. Put the copper surface of the board on
the printed layout. Ensure that the board is aligned correctly along the borders
of the printed layout. And use tape to hold the board and the printed paper in
the correct position.

Figure 17

STEP 4: Ironing the circuit from the paper onto the PCB plate
After printing on glossy paper, we iron it image side down to copper side.
Heat up the electric iron to the maximum temperature.

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Put the board and photo paper arrangement on a clean wooden
table (covered with a table cloth) with the back of the photo paper facing
Using pliers or a spatula, hold one end and keep it steady. Then put the hot
iron on the other end for about 10 seconds. Now, iron the photo paper all
along using the tip and applying little pressure for about 5 to 15 mins.
Pay attention towards the edges of the board you need to apply pressure,
do the ironing slowly.
Doing a long hard press seems to work better than moving the iron around.
Here, the heat from the iron transfers the ink printed on the glossy paper to
the copper plate.

Figure 18

After ironing, place printed plate in luke warm water for around 10
minutes. Paper will dissolve, then remove paper gently. Remove the
paper off by peeling it from a low angle.

STEP 5: Etching the plate

You need to be really careful while performing this step.

First put rubber or plastic gloves.

Place some newspaper on the bottom so that the etching solution does not
spoil your floor.
Take a plastic box and fill it up with some water.
Dissolve 2-3 tea spoon of ferric chloride power in the water.
Dip the PCB into the etching solution (Ferric chloride solution, FeCl3) for
approximately 30 mins.
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The FeCl3 reacts with the unmasked copper and removes the unwanted
copper from the PCB.
This process is called as Etching. Use pliers to take out the PCB and check
if the entire unmasked area has been etched or not. In case it is not etched
leave it for some more time in the solution.

Figure 19

Gently move the plastic box to and fro so that etching solution reacts with the
exposed copper. The reaction is given as

Cu + FeCl3 CuCl3 + Fe

Figure 20

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STEP 6: Cleaning, disposing and final touches for the circuit board
Be careful while disposing the etching solution, since its toxic to fish and other
water organisms.
A few drops of thinner (nail polish remover works well) on a pinch of cotton
wool will remove completely the toner/ink on the plate, exposing the copper
surface. Rinse carefully and dry with a clean cloth or kitchen paper. Trim to
final size and smoothen edges with sandpaper.

Figure 21

Now, drill holes using a PCB driller like this: PCB driller and solder all cool

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Performance of Project
Circuit diagram

Figure 22


Figure 23

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Figure 24

PCB SCREEN(Diptrace)

Figure 25

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Figure 26

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Workbench Verification

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Result(Project Images)

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