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1. What are the 2 types of over voltages?

Lightning over voltages, Switching over voltages.

2. Explain the various regions of the cloud.

The upper regions of the cloud are positively charged, whereas the lower region and the
base are predominantly negative except the local region near the base and the head which is

3. Mention the different theories of charge formation.

Simpsons theory, Reynoldss theory and Masons theory

4. What does a thunder cloud consist?

A thunder cloud consists of super cooled water droplets moving upwards and large
hailstones moving downwards.

5. Mention the requirements for the thunder clouds and charge formation of air currents.

Moisture and specific temperature range

6. What is back flashover?

When a direct lightning stroke occurs on a tower, the tower has to carry huge impulse
currents. If the tower footing resistance is considerable, the potential of the tower rises to a large
value, steeply with respect to the line and consequently a flashover may take place along the
insulator strings .This is known as back flashover.

7. State the parameters and the characteristics of the lightning strokes.

Amplitude of the current, the rate of rise, the probability distribution of them and the
wave shapes of the lightning voltages and currents.

8. Define Isokeraunic level or thunderstorm days.

It is defined as the number of days in a year when the thunder is heard or recorded in a
particular location. Often it does not distinguish between the ground strokes and the cloud-to-
cloud strokes.
9. State the factors influence the lightning induced voltages on transmission lines.

The ground conductivity, the leader stroke current and the corona.

10. State the attenuation and distortion of travelling waves.

The decrease in the magnitude of the wave as it propagates along the line is called
attenuation. The elongation or change of wave shapes that occur is called distortion.

11. When over voltages are generated in EHV system?

Over voltages are generated in EHV systems when there is a sudden release of internal
energy stored either in the electrostatic form or in the electromagnetic form.

12. What are the causes for power frequency and its harmonic over voltages?

Sudden loss of loads, Disconnection of inductive loads or connection of capacitive loads,

Ferranti effect, unsymmetrical faults and saturation in transformers etc.

13. What are the uses of shunt reactors?

-used to limit the voltage rise due to Ferranti effect.

-used to reduce surges caused due to sudden energizing.

14. What is ground wire?

Ground wire is a conductor run parallel to the main conductor of the transmission line
supported on the same tower and earthed at every equally and regularly spaced towers. It is run
above the main conductor of the line.

15. What is the use of ground wire?

It shields the transmission line conductor from induced charges, from clouds as well as
from a lightning discharge.

16. What is an expulsion gap?

Expulsion gap is a device which consists of a spark gap together with an arc quenching
device which extinguishes the current arc when the gap breaks over due to overvoltage.

17. Mention the parts of an expulsion gap.

It consists of a rod gap in air in air in series with a second gap enclosed within a fiber
18. What is a protector tube?

It is a device which consists of a rod or spark gap in air formed by the line conductor and
its high voltage terminal. It is mounted underneath the line conductor on a tower.

19. How are the insulation level and the protective safety margin arrived?

Selecting the risk of failure, the statistical safety factor and by firing the withstand level
of any equipment or apparatus corresponding to 90% or 95% of the withstand voltage.

20. Define Basic Impulse Level.

It is defined as the minimum insulation impulse withstands voltage of any power

equipment or apparatus. The BIL of a power system is usually chosen as 25% to 30% more than
the protective level offered by the protective devices.

21. State the main disadvantages of Zinc Oxide arrester.

It is the continuous flow of power frequency current and the consequent power loss.

22. Mention the various insulation levels in a substation?

The bus bar insulation is the highest to ensure the continuity of supply in a substation.
The circuit breakers, isolators, instrument and relay transformers are given the next lower
limiting level. The power transformers are the costliest and sensitive device and the insulation
level for it is the lowest.

23. What are surge arresters?

They are non-linear resistors in series with spark gaps which act as fast switches.

24. What are the various types of surge arresters used for EHV and UHV systems?

Silicon carbide arresters with spark gaps, Silicon carbide arresters with current limiting
gaps and the gapless metal oxide arresters.

25. Write the equation of surge admittance and surge impedance of the transmission line.

Y(S) = C/L ((S+ - ) (S+ + ))1/2

Z(S) = L/C ((S+-)(S+-)) 1/2
Where is the attenuation constant and is the wavelength constant.

1) What are the causes for switching and power frequency over voltage?
How they are controlled in power system?
Transmission line voltages of above 400 KV the over voltages are generated due to magnitude of
lightning over voltages. This over voltages exists for a long time so it is dangerous to the system.
Switching over voltage increases with system voltage.

Sources of switching surges:

Opening and closing of switchgears

High rate of rise of restriking voltage in circuit breakers
Damped normal frequency voltage components
High frequencies of the system
Restriking and recovery voltage of successive reflected waves

Characteristics of switching surges

De energization of lines, cables, capacitor banks

Disconnecting of unloaded transformers, reactors etc.,
Switching off the loads suddenly
Short circuit due to,
Line-line fault
Line to ground fault
L-L-L-G fault

Shape of switching surge

Power frequency with its harmonics
The relative magnitude is 2.4. P.u. for transformer energization and 1.4. to 2.0. P.u. for switching
the transmission lines.

Switching over voltages in EHV and UHV system

Switching over voltages are Sudden release of internal energy stored due to electrostatic and
electromagnetic form. The causes are,

Interruption of low inductive currents by high speed circuit breaker

Interruption of small capacitive currents by switching off the unloaded lines
Ferro resonance conditions
Interruption of fault current when fault is cleared
Single pole closing of C.B.
Resistance switching in C.B.
Switching operation of series connected capacitor to line compensation
Sparking of lightning arrester in receiving end.

Power frequency over voltages in EHV and UHV system

Power frequency over voltages are caused due to tap changing operation by magnetic or ferro-
resonance phenomenon in transformers by resonating series capacitor with shunt reactors Causes
of power frequency over voltages are

Sudden load rejections

Disconnection of inductive loads or connection of capacitive loads
Ferranti effect
Un symmetrical faults
Saturation in transformers
Tap changing operations

Measures to control the switching and power frequency over voltages

We can reduce the switching over voltages up to 2.5. p.u by using the following methods

a) One or multi step energization of lines by inserting resistors

b) Phase controlled closing of circuit breaker with sensors
c) Drain the trapped charges before reclosing of the lines
d) Shunt reactors
e) Lighting arrestors or surge diverters

One or multi step energization of lines by inserting resistors

Inserting a series resistance with C.B. contacts and short circuit the same resistance after
a few cycles.
Due to this switching transient reduces.
To avoid the reaching high over voltage there should be pre insertion of resistance

Phase controlled closing of circuit breaker with sensors

Life of circuit breaker depends upon the number of operation of the circuit breaker.
Over voltage is avoided by closing the three phase exactly at the same instant by phase
controlled techniques

Drain the trapped charges before reclosing of the lines

Electric charge will be stored in capacitor and line conductors due to sudden switch off of
the transmission line
These charges are drained by line insulators or through potential transformers
The most effective method is inserting a resistor before and after closure of the C.B. or

Shunt reactors
These reactors used to limit the voltage rise due to FERRANTI EFFECT in EHV
Reduces sudden surges due to switching.
It will produce oscillations in capacitance of the system.
For limiting the over voltages resistors are connected in series with these reactors

Lightning arrestors

Protect the equipment from lightning

Provided in the substations, power stations, big industries, and tallest buildings

2) Describe about the lightning phenomena of the system

Lightning is an electric discharge in the form of a spark or flash originating in a charged cloud.
It has now been known fora long time that thunder clouds are charged, and that the negative
charge centre is located in the lower part of the cloud where the temperature is about - 50C,
and that the main positive charge centre is located several kilometres higher up, where the
temperature is usually below - 200C. In the majority of storm clouds, there is also a localised
positively charged region near the base of the cloud where the temperature is 00C. Figure 3.1
shows such a cloud located above a overhead transmission line.

Figure 3.1 - Induced charges on transmission line

Fields of about 1000 V/m exist near the centre of a single bipolar cloud in which charges of
about 20 C are3 separated by distances of about 3 km, and indicate the total potential
difference between the main charge centres to be between 100 and 1000 MV. The energy
dissipated in a lightning flash is therefore of the order of 1000 to 10,000 MJ, much of which is
spent in heating up a narrow air column surrounding the discharge, the temperature rising to

about 15,000 0C in a few tens of microseconds. Vertical separation of the positive and
negative charge centres is about 2 - 5 km, and the charges involved are 10 30 C. The
average current dissipated by lightning is of the order of kilo-amperes. During an average
lightning storm, a total of the order of kilo-coulombs of charge would be generated,

between the 00C and the -40 0C levels, in volume of about 50 km .