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As I write this acknowledgement, I must mention that this is not just a formal
acknowledgement but also a sincere note of thanks and also regard from my side. I
feel a deep sense of gratitude and affection for those who helped and guided me in
this project.
It gives me an immense pleasure to express my gratitude to Ms. Vijaya Professor in
Management, Fairfield Institute Of Management And Technology for sharing her
expertise and providing valuable guidance from time to time. She played pioneer
role in the completion of my project and kept an anxious eye on my work. She guided
me so that I track on the right path.
I also owe my thanks to all other staff members of Fairfield Institute Of Management
And Technology who helped me in my research work.
In the end, I dedicate this effort of mine to those persons who are light of our life:
my family and my friends who have been behind every successful endeavor in my

Arun Singh
(BBA 3th Sem)
ENROLLMENT NO. 00851401716

I, Arun Singh hereby declare that the project work entitled Customers attitude towards:
Manyavar Brand, submitted to Fairfield Institute of Management And Technology,
New Delhi, is a record of an original work done by me under the guidance of Ms. Vijaya, Faculty,
Fairfield Institute of Management nd Technology, New Delhi, and this project work has not
performed the basis for the award of any degree or diploma and similar project if any.

Place: Arun Singh

Date: 00851401715

This is to certified that the project titled Customers attitude towards: Manyavar
Brandsubmitted by Arun Singh to Fairfield Institute Of Management And Technology
in Partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the BBA. Degree in an original piece of work
carried out under my guidance and may be submitted for evaluation.
The assistance rendered during the study has been duly acknowledged.
No part of this has ever been submitted for any other degree.

Place: Ms. Vijaya

Date: (Faculty Guide)


Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Industry overview

Chapter 2 Company Profile

Chapter 3 Literature review
Chapter 4 Research Methodology
Chapter 5 Data analysis
Chapter 6 Finding, Conclusion, Suggestions and Limitations
Sample Questionnaire


The textile industry is primary concerned with the design and production of yarn cloth, clothing, and
their distribution. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry.
Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year 2007, the global yield was 25 million
tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. There are five stages.
Cultivating and Harvesting
Preparatory Processes
Spinning- giving yarn
Weaving- giving fabrics
Finishing- giving textiles
Synthetic fibre
Artificial fibres can be made by extruding a polymer, through a spinneret into a medium where it
hardens. Wet spinning (rayon) uses a coagulating medium. In dry spinning (acetate and triacetate), the
polymer is contained in a solvent that evaporates in the heated exit chamber. In melt spinning (nylons
and polyesters) the extruded polymer is cooled in gas or air and then sets. All these fibres will be of
great length, often kilometres long.
Artificial fibres can be processed as long fibres or batched and cut so they can be processed like a
natural fibre.
Natural fibres
Natural fibres are either from animals (sheep goat, rabbit,) mineral (asbestos) or from plants
(cotton, flax, sisal). These vegetable fibres can come from the seed (cotton), the stem (known as bast
fibres: flax, Hemp, Jute) or the leaf (sisal). Without exception, many processes are needed before a
clean even staple is obtained- each with a specific name. With the exception of silk, each of these fibres
is short being only centimeters in length, and each has a rough surface that enables it to bond with
similar staples.

Cottage stage
There are some indications that weaving was already known in the Palaeolithic. An indistinct textile
impression has been found at Pavlov, Moravia. Neolithic textiles were found in pile
dwellings excavations in Switzerland and at El Fayum, Egypt at a site which dates to about 5000 BC.
In Roman times, wool, linen and leather clothed the European population, and silk, imported along
the Silk Road from China, was an extravagant luxury. The use of flax fibre in the manufacturing of
cloth in Northern Europe dates back to Neolithic times.
During the late medieval period, cotton began to be imported into northern Europe. Without any
knowledge of what it came from, other than that it was a plant, noting its similarities to wool, people
in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep. John Mandeville,
writing in 1350, stated as fact the now-preposterous belief: "There grew in India a wonderful tree which
bore tiny lambs on the endes of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to
allow the lambs to feed when they are hungry." This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in many
European languages, such as German Baumwolle, which translates as "tree wool". By the end of the
16th century, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions of Asia and the Americas.
The main steps in the production of cloth are producing the fibre, preparing it, converting it to yarn,
converting yarn to cloth, and then finishing the cloth. The cloth is then taken to the manufacturer of
garments. The preparation of the fibres differs the most, depending on the fibre used. Flax
requires retting and dressing, while wool requires carding and washing.
The spinning and weaving processes are very similar between fibres, however.
Spinning evolved from twisting the fibres by hand, to using a drop spindle, to using a spinning wheel.
Spindles or parts of them have been found in archaeological sites and may represent one of the first
pieces of technology available. They were invented in the Indian subcontinent between 500 and 1000

A woman in Dhaka clad in fine Bengali muslin, 18th century.

Up until the 18th century, Mughalistan was the most important center of manufacturing in international
trade. Up until 1750, India produced about 25% of the world's industrial output. The largest
manufacturing industry in Mughalistan (16th to 18th centuries) was textile manufacturing,
particularly cotton textile manufacturing, which included the production of piece goods, calicos,
and muslins, available unbleached and in a variety of colours. The cotton textile industry was
responsible for a large part of the empire's international trade. Bengal had a 25% share of the global
textile trade in the early 18th century. Bengal cotton textiles were the most important manufactured
goods in world trade in the 18th century, consumed across the world from the Americas to Japan. The
most important center of cotton production was the Bengal Subah province, particularly around its
capital city of Dhaka.
Bengal accounted for more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks imported by the Dutch from
Asia and marketed it to the world Bengali silk and cotton textiles were exported in large quantities to
Europe, Asia, and Japan, and Bengali muslin textiles from Dhaka were sold in Central Asia, where they
were known as "daka" textiles.[10] Indian textiles dominated the Indian Ocean trade for centuries, were
sold in the Atlantic Ocean trade, and had a 38% share of the West African trade in the early 18th
century, while Bengal calicos were major force in Europe, and Bengal textiles accounted for 30% of
total English trade with Southern Europe in the early 18th century.
In early modern Europe, there was significant demand for textiles from Mughalistan,
including cotton textiles and silk products. European fashion, for example, became increasingly
dependent on Mughalistan textiles and silks. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Mughalistan
accounted for 95% of British imports from Asia.
Industrial revolution
The woven fabric portion of the textile industry grew out of the industrial revolution in the 18th century
as mass production of yarn and cloth became a mainstream industry.
In 1734 in Bury, Lancashire, John Kay invented the flying shuttle one of the first of a series of
inventions associated with the cotton woven fabric industry. The flying shuttle increased the width of
cotton cloth and speed of production of a single weaver at a loom .Resistance by workers to the
perceived threat to jobs delayed the widespread introduction of this technology, even though the higher
rate of production generated an increased demand for spun cotton.

In 1761, the Duke of Bridgewater's canal connected Manchester to the coal fields of Worsley and in
1762, Matthew Boulton opened the Soho Foundry engineering works in Handsworth, Birmingham.
His partnership with Scottish engineer James Watt resulted, in 1775, in the commercial production of
the more efficient Watt steam engine which used a separate condenser.
In 1764, James Hargreaves is credited as inventor of the spinning jenny which multiplied the spun
thread production capacity of a single worker initially eightfold and subsequently much further.
Others credit the invention to Thomas Highs. Industrial unrest and a failure to patent the invention until
1770 forced Hargreaves from Blackburn, but his lack of protection of the idea allowed the concept to
be exploited by others. As a result, there were over 20,000 spinning jennies in use by the time of his
death. Also in 1764, Thorp Mill, the first water-powered cotton mill in the world was constructed
at Royton, Lancashire, and was used for carding cotton. With the spinning and weaving process now
mechanized, cotton mills cropped up all over the North West of England.
The stocking frame invented in 1589 for silk became viable when in 1759, Jedidiah introduced an
attachment for the frame which produced what became known as the Derby Rib, that produced a knit
and purl stitch. This allowed stockings to be manufactured in silk and later in cotton. In 1768, Hammond
modified the stocking frame to weave weft-knitted openworks or nets by crossing over the loops, using
a mobile tickler bar- this led in 1781 to Thomas Frost's square net. Cotton had been too coarse for lace,
but by 1805 Houldsworths of Manchester were producing reliable 300 count cotton thread.
19th century developments
With the Cartwright Loom, the Spinning Mule and the Boulton & Watt steam engine, the pieces were
in place to build a mechanised woven fabric textile industry. From this point there were no new
inventions, but a continuous improvement in technology as the mill-owner strove to reduce cost and
improve quality. Developments in the transport infrastructure; that is the canals and after 1831 the
railways facilitated the import of raw materials and export of finished cloth.
Firstly, the use of water power to drive mills was supplemented by steam driven water pumps, and then
superseded completely by the steam engines. For example, Samuel Greg joined his uncle's firm of
textile merchants, and, on taking over the company in 1782, he sought out a site to establish a mill.
Quarry Bank Mill was built on the River Bollin at Styal in Cheshire. It was initially powered by a water
wheel, but installed steam engines in 1810. Quarry Bank Mill in Cheshire still exists as a well-
preserved museum, having been in use from its construction in 1784 until 1959. It also illustrates how
the mill owners exploited child labour, taking orphans from nearby Manchester to work the cotton. It
shows that these children were housed, clothed, fed and provided with some education. In 1830, the
average power of a mill engine was 48 hp, but Quarry Bank mill installed a new 100 hp water
wheel. William Fairbairn addressed the problem of line-shafting and was responsible for improving the
efficiency of the mill. In 1815 he replaced the wooden turning shafts that drove the machines at 50rpm,
to wrought iron shafting working at 250 rpm, these were a third of the weight of the previous ones and
absorbed less power.
A Roberts loom in a weaving shed in 1835. Note the wrought iron shafting, fixed to the cast iron
Secondly, in 1830, using an 1822 patent, Richard Roberts manufactured the first loom with a cast
iron frame, the Roberts Loom. In 1842 James Bullough and William Kenworthy, made the Lancashire
Loom, a semiautomatic power loom: although it is self-acting, it has to be stopped to recharge empty
shuttles. It was the mainstay of the Lancashire cotton industry for a century, until the Northrop
Loom (invented in 1894, with an automatic weft replenishment function) gained ascendancy.

Roberts self-acting mule with quadrant gearing

Thirdly, also in 1830, Richard Roberts patented the first self-acting mule. Stalybridge mule spinners
strike was in 1824; this stimulated research into the problem of applying power to the winding stroke
of the mule. The draw while spinning had been assisted by power, but the push of the wind had been
done manually by the spinner, the mule could be operated by semiskilled labour. Before 1830, the
spinner would operate a partially powered mule with a maximum of 400 spindles; after, self-acting
mules with up to 1300 spindles could be built.

Number of looms in the UK

Year 1803 1820 1829 1833 1857

Looms 2400 14650 55500 100000 250000

The industrial revolution changed the nature of work and society The three key drivers in these changes
were textile manufacturing, iron founding and steam power. The geographical focus of textile
manufacture in Britain was Manchester and the small towns of the Pennines and southern Lancashire.
Textile production in England peaked in 1926, and as mills were decommissioned, many of the
scrapped mules and looms were bought up and reinstated in India.
20th century

Modern ring spinning frame

Major changes came to the textile industry during the 20th century, with continuing technological
innovations in machinery, synthetic fibre, logistics, and globalization of the business. The business
model that had dominated the industry for centuries was to change radically. Cotton and wool producers
were not the only source for fibres, as chemical companies created new synthetic fibres that had superior
qualities for many uses, such as rayon, invented in 1910, and DuPont's nylon, invented in 1935 as in
inexpensive silk substitute, and used for products ranging from women's stockings to tooth brushes and
military parachutes.
The variety of synthetic fibres used in manufacturing fibre grew steadily throughout the 20th century.
In the 1920s, the computer was invented; in the 1940s, acetate, modacrylic, metal fibres,
and saran were developed; acrylic, polyester, and spandex were introduced in the 1950s. Polyester
became hugely popular in the apparel market, and by the late 1970s, more polyester was sold in the
United States than cotton.
By the late 1980s, the apparel segment was no longer the largest market for fibre products, with
industrial and home furnishings together representing a larger proportion of the fibre market. Industry
integration and global manufacturing led to many small firms closing for good during the 1970s and
1980s in the United States; during those decades, 95 percent of the looms in North Carolina, South
Carolina and Georgia shut down, and Alabama and Virginia also saw many factories close.

The brand started to grow in 2001 by supplying to different Multi-Brand Outlets (MBOs). It was
in 2008 though that the second Exclusive Brand Outlet store was launched as a result of low real
estate prices that were realistic due to economic slowdown. The brand has since opened 2 stores


Motto Earn your Respect

Formation 1999

Type Privately Owned

Headquarters Kolkata, India

Leader Ravi Modi

Key people Chief Visualizer: Shilpi Modi (Wife of Ravi Modi)

Vedant Fashions Pvt. Ltd.


every week on an average. In 2012, the brand launched its 200th store in Delhi spanning over
21,000 sq. ft.[4] In 2014, it opened its second largest store in Lower Parel, Mumbai at 16,000 sq.
Manyavar is a men's ethnic wear brand founded by Entrepreneur Ravi Modi in 1999 under his
company Vedant Fashions. It offers Sherwanis, Kurtas, and indo-western wear for men. The brand
started with a 150 sq feet shop in Kolkata and has now expanded to over 350 stores across 180
cities in India and Abroad.
The brand started to grow in 2001 by supplying to different Multi-Brand Outlets (MBOs). It was
in 2008 though that the second Exclusive Brand Outlet store was launched as a result of low real
estate prices that were realistic due to economic slowdown. The brand has since opened 2 stores
every week on an average. In 2012, the brand launched its 200th store in Delhi spanning over
21,000 sq. ft. In 2014, it opened its second largest store in Lower Parel, Mumbai at 16,000 sq. ft.
Manyavar was a key sponsor of three teams in Indian Premier League: Kolkata Knight Riders,
Delhi Daredevils, Hyderabad Sunrisers. Every season key players from these teams were seen
wearing Manyavar outfits for advertisements. Promotion through IPL has really benefited the
organization in terms of brand awareness.
The brand was also a title sponsor for the Bangladesh football league for the 2014-2015 season.
Manas, a foundation started by Ravi Modi is a social organization that funds heart surgeries for
the less privileged. The organization also helps run multiple schools through EKAL as well as
supports the tribal community by providing medical and financial relief.
Most Admired Brand of The Year (2015)

'Highest Job Creator' and 'Best Financial Performance' award, ET Bengal Corporate awards
'Emerging Leader', CMA Management Excellence for Mr.Ravi Modi, MD at Vendant
Fashions (2015)

ET Bengal Corporate Awards (2014)

Pioneer in Ethnic Retail Business at Asia Retail Congress (2014)

Fastest Growing Company (2013)

Most Outstanding Performer in Retail Business (East India), EIRS Kolkata (2013)

Asia's young retailer award, for Mr.Ravi Modi at Asia Retail Congress (2012)

Most Admired Mens Indian Wear Brand of the Year at IFF, Mumbai (2012, 2011)


To share, celebrate and evolve the Manyavar movement. A reflection of Mr. Ravi Modis grit, a
global vision and a nurturing spirit, the creative spark of Mrs. Shilpi Modi, our Chief Visualizer
of merchandise and design, together with sales, production and operation groups driven by a
collective mission: to be an authority in Celebration Wear.Our goal for 2020 is to have 10,00,000
square feet of Manyavar retail space, 5,00,000 sq. ft. of Mohey retail space, 600 exclusive store
including 100 flagship & 50 global stores at 300 cities across India and abroad. We are aiming for
a production capacity of 6 million pieces per annum.

Manyavar envisions leading the category towards a global perspective, beyond cultural and ethnic
sensibilities. This means new sections, new products and new concepts for the world citizen .


It all began in a 1000 square feet office space with Rs.10,000 as capital. Manyavar was
conceptualized in 1999, since then Manyavar has expanded its reach to 170+ cities in India, U.A.E,
Bangladesh, Nepal and U.S.A.
2007-08 saw the launch of an Exclusive Business Outlet format as Manyavar opens its first EBO
outlet outside Kolkata, in Bhubaneshwar.
2010 marked the inauguration of the 100th store in Santa Cruz, Mumbai.
2011 was a highlight with the establishment of Manas Foundation, a non-profit, charitable
organization dedicated to support heart surgeries in children.
In the same year, we crossed borders with the opening of our first international store in Dubai,
followed by Bangladesh.
2012 hit the 200 stores mark. Indias largest EBO was inaugurated in Karol Bagh, New Delhi.
Manyavar collaborates with Indian Premier Leaugue to partner Kolkata Knight Riders. The years
high was the launch of
2013 , we extended our reach to more than 100 cities. The 300th store opened in Quest Mall,
Kolkata. Our association with IPL grew stronger with sponsoring Kolkata Knight Riders, Delhi
Daredevils, and Sunrisers Hyderabad.
2014 started on a high with the opening of our 333rd store - the grandest Manyavar store in
Mumbai. We partnered Indian Super League as Associate Sponsors. Our film advertisements aired
across India making us a national brand.
2015 marked the opening of our 400 th store in Hazrathanj, Lucknow
2016 will go down in history with the launch of our Womens Celebration Wear label - Mohey.
Manyavar opened in New Jersey, USA
6 countries, 160 cities, 400+ stores and a new brand in 8 years.
It began as a dream, and the journey continues
Manyavar Creations Private Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of Vedant Fashions Private
Limited, who owns the brand Manyavar and Mohey.
2016 Images Most Admired Retailer of the Year: Menswear Indian by Images Retail Awards
2016 Effective retail through Supply Chain by Asia Retail Congress
2016 Mr. Ravi Modi awarded Retail Leadership Award,100 Most Influential Retail Leaders by
Asia Retail Congress
2016 Highest Job Creator by ET Bengal Corporate Awards
2015 The Best Brand Of the year, Mens Ethnic Wear by CMAI, Apex
2015 Images Award for Excellence in Supply Chain Management & Fulfillment by Images Retail
Tech Awards 2015
2015 Ravi Modi, Entrepreneur of the Year in Manufacturing Textile Business by Franchise India
2015 Fastest Growing Retailer by Indian Chamber of Commerce at ICC Retail Awards
2015 Ravi Modi, Bravery and Entrepreneur Award by Parwaz Media Group
2015 National Retailer of the Year, Indian Retail Awards
2015 Most Admired Brand of the year, India Fashion Forum (IFF), Mumbai
2015 Ravi Modi, Emerging Leader by CMA Management Excellence Awards
2015 Best Financial Performance and Highest Job Creator awards by ET Bengal Corporate
2014 Fastest Growing Company, ET Bengal Corporate Awards
2014 Pioneer in Ethnic Retail Business, Asia Retail Congress
2013 Fastest Growing Company, ET Bengal Corporate Awards
2013 Most Outstanding Performer in Retail Business, East India Retail Summit (EIRS), Kolkata
2013 Retail Leadership Award to Ravi Modi, Asia Retail Congress
2013 Most Admired Mens Ethnic Wear Brand of the Year, India Fashion Forum (IFF), Mumbai
2012 Most Admired Retailer of the Year (East India) at East India Retail Summit (EIRS), Kolkata
2012 Ravi Modi-Youngest Jewel of Rajasthan
2012 Most Admired Indian Wear Brand of the Year, India Fashion Forum (IFF), Mumbai
2012 Ravi Modi, Youngest Retailer of the Year, Asia Retail Congress, Mumbai
2011 Among 100 Best Brands in India (across all categories) by Power Brand, Planman Marcom,
an organisation led by Prof. ArindamChaudhuri. Felicitation in London.
2011 Most Admired Mens Ethnic Wear Brand of the Year, India Fashion Forum (IFF), Mumbai
2010 Most Admired Ethnic Wear Brand from East India, East India Retail Summit (EIRS),
2009 Critics Choice for Pioneering Effort in Category Creation, India Fashion Forum (IFF),
2008-2010 Central Icons Award for Iconic Mens ethnic brand by Pantaloons India Ltd.
2004-2008 Central Icons Award for Best Mens ethnic wear Brand at Central Icons
Literature review

Company marketing strategy is an important and crucial constituent for the global market.
Marketing strategies can vary from country to country, brand to brand and organization to
organization. In order to achieve a satisfactory and adequate marketing strategy which has a
positive outcome on global and overall firm success, the marketing department within a company
should bear in mind all the different marketing mix strategies that can influence the comprehensive
result and the cumulative firm success. When launching a product into foreign markets companies
can use a conventional marketing mix or adapt the existing marketing mix, to satisfy the country
they are carrying out their business activities in. the link between standardization/adaptation and
company performance is complicated and possibly influenced by other factors (Shilke, Reiman,
Thomas, 2009, Solberg, Durrieu, 2008). It should be emphasized that the influence of
standardization/adaptation decisions of international marketing strategy on company performance
is named also as one of the most topical research objects of international business (Griffith,
Cavusgil, Xu, 2008). Therefore inconsistent results of empirical research works and limited
research contexts confirm that the link between standardization/adaption decisions of international
marketing strategy and company performance are a topical object of scientific research (Ryans,
Griffith, White, 2003, Theodosiou, Leonidou, 2003). International marketing solutions become
particularly relevant for enterprises that operate in a global business environment and that look for
survival or business development opportunities. Latterly more attention is given to the link
between international marketing strategy and company performance in scientific literature on the
subject of international marketing (Samiee, Roth, 1992; Cavusgil, Zou, 1994; ODonnell, Jeong,
2000; Katsikeas, Samiee & Theodosiou, 2006, Solberg, Durrieu, 2008; Shilke, Reiman, Thomas,
2009). Company performance is one of the most important aspects when assessing the suitability
of certain strategies (Jain, 1989). However, despite the importance of international marketing
strategy for company performance, the number of scientific research works that analyse the
mentioned link is limited, and results of the research works are contradictory (Katsikeas, Samiee
& Theodosiou, 2006.). By conducting etailed literature review we will explore the concept of
marketing strategy discussing its value, consequently creating foundation for a conceptual model
and empirical study.
Marketing strategy is a significant driving force that distinguishes the success of many
organizations not only by well-developed marketing strategies outlining where, when, and how
the firm will compete but also by their ability to execute the marketing strategy decision options
chosen (e.g. Day and Wensley 1988; Varadarajan 2010). The appropriate and effectively
implemented marketing strategies are required to productively guide the deployment of the limited
available resources via the firms marketing capabilities in pursuit of desired goals and objectives
(Black and Boal 1994; Varadarajan and Clark 1994). The literature reveals two distinct but related
features to marketing strategy content: marketing strategy decisions and marketing strategy
decision implementation. Hence, decision makers responsible for the marketing strategy must
select which available resources the firm should deploy, where to deploy them appropriately, and
set and signal priorities in terms of achieving the various goals and objectives of the firm (Slater
1995). These marketing strategies toward firm performance may be either formal, top-down
strategies (Varadarajan and Clark 1994) or emergent or improvisational strategies (Moorman and
Miner 1998). A firms marketing strategy content therefore involves explicit or implicit decisions
regarding goal setting, target market selection, positional advantage to be pursued, and timing to
attain firm performance (e.g., Day 1994; Varadarajan 2010). Well-defined strategic marketing
objectives are critical feature of marketing strategy in which managers must make decisions about
what the objectives and priorities of the firm are, translate these objectives and vision of the firm
into marketing-related goal criteria, and set and articulate the desired achievement levels on each
goal. This can be complicated to realize by the fact that many goal criteria and levels may be
incompatible or at least non-complementary in the pursuit of achieving firm performance. For
instance, the firms growth revenue and margin growth are difficult to achieve simultaneously
(Morgan et al. 2009). Managers, therefore, have to prioritize objectives that may be in conflict.
Since most definitions of strategy concern plans for how desired objectives are to be achieved,
such goal setting is clearly important in determining subsequent marketing strategy content
decisions. Indeed such goal selection decisions may be one of the most important manifestations
of strategic choice within the marketing strategy content (Child 1972). Another important feature
of marketing strategy content is the selection of the market. This deals with the segmentation and
targeting decisions of the classic STP framework of marketing strategy, which revolves on market
segmentation, target and positioning. Specifically, this marketing strategy content decision
determines where the firm will seek to compete in order to meet the strategic marketing objectives
stipulated. Value proposition is also a significant feature of the marketing strategy as it is
responsible for the choosing of the specific product and/or service offerings to be delivered into
the target market with the objective of exceeding the customers expectations (Slater 1995). The
decision surrounding the value proposition is therefore a measurement of the value offering that
managers consider will create adequate demand at required price points among target customers
to allow the firm to achieve its strategic marketing objectives arranged to total firm performance.
The assumption here is that the value proposition can be delivered by the firm as envisaged and
that the delivered value proposition is perceived by customers in the way that decision makers
anticipate in getting positive returns. This decision of the marketing strategy content therefore
determines which specific resources and capabilities are required to be combined and transformed
to develop and deliver the value offering that consequently leads to firm performance. In order for
a marketing strategy to offer subsequent amount of value and achieve performance it should be
well-timed with market requirements. Therefore, Timing is an important marketing strategy
decision when examining new market targets or value propositions is the timing of entry or launch
(e.g., Green et al. 1995; Lieberman and Montgomery 1998). Nonetheless, even if a marketing
strategy does not involve such changes to target markets or value propositions, timing is still an
important component of most marketing strategies especially in nowadays-rapid changing
consumer tastes and preferences, which are accelerated by ever changing technologies. Literature
reveals that most firms also have specific timeframes associated with their strategic marketing
goals or regular planning horizons that provide time objectives and constraints within which
marketing plans may be formulated and executed. Such important time considerations can often
impact other marketing strategy content decisions. For example, when a marketing strategy must
be developed to deliver a return on investment in 1 year versus 2 years, then different market
segmentation, targeting, and value proposition decisions may be appropriate (e.g., Green et al.

Literature reveals that most studies concentrate on factors that influence the selection of a certain
strategy, and they seek to recognize forces that stimulate standardization or adaptation.
Nevertheless, the validity of the choice of standardization or adaptation strategy is determined by
its potential to improve company performance (Samie & Roth, 1992). Jain (1989) states that
suitability of an international marketing strategy is confirmed by the strategys influence on the
company performance economic and strategic benefit, received due to implementation of the
chosen strategy.

Adaptation transpires when firms adjust their market strategies when entering foreign markets,
even in an era of globalization where many brands and products are nearly universally prevalent.
Those adaptation decisions cleave into an adaptation strategy that can influence the firms
competitiveness and, in turn, its performance in foreign markets in terms of sales, financial and
customer performance. Adaptation strategies encompass changing the pricing method,
promotional mix and packaging of a product, or even the product itself, in order to fit the needs
and preferences of a particular export market. Adaptation happens when any element of the
marketing strategy is modified to achieve a competitive advantage when entering a foreign market
and thus attain firm performance. Adaptation strategies may not be so complex but a simple
tweaking of the logo and the colours of the packaging can achieve the marketing objectives, or
may involve developing new products better fitted to the local palate or new financing models
more fitting for the local economy or market. Proponents of the international marketing adaptation
approach, emphasize the significance of customization to meet varied customer requirements. The
central basis of the adaptation school of thought is that when entering a foreign market, marketers
must consider all environmental factors and constraints such as religion, language, climate, race,
occupations, education, taste, different laws, cultures, and societies (Czinkota and Ronkainen,
1998). However, researchers have distinguished important source of constraints that are hard to
measure such as cultural differences rooted in history, education, religion, values and attitudes,
manners and customs, aesthetics as well as variations in taste, needs and wants, economics and
legal systems in the export markets. In adaptation approach multinational companies should have
to find out how they must adjust an entire marketing strategy and, including how they sell,
distribute it, in order to fit new market demands (Vrontis and Thrassou, 2007). It is crucial for
marketers to adjust the marketing mix and marketing strategy to suit local tastes, meet special
market needs and consumers non-identical requirements (Vrontis and Thrassou, 2007). The
mechanisms to implementing a successful adaptation strategy as a follow; once a firm has taken
the strategic decision to adapt its marketing strategy, it must make an assessment of its objectives
and resources in light of the characteristics of the new foreign market it is entering. At this stage,
the input from experts familiar with the new market is crucial in developing an effective strategy.
In the example of a new product introduction in the domestic market, the adapted marketing
strategy must be articulated in terms of the marketing strategy elements namely product, price,
distribution and promotional aspects, all coordinated to achieve specific objectives within the new

The opposite of adaptation is standardization approach of marketing. Firms following a

standardization approach enter foreign markets using the same promotional mix, packages and
presentations that were used in the domestic market to lure customers in the export market.
Because making new advertisements, packages and product lines is expensive, standardization
requires less investment compared to adaptation approach of marketing. The view of the
standardization standpoint (as proposed by Jain, 1989; Levitt, 1983) posit that there is a union of
cultures with comparable environmental and customer interest around the globe that calls for
standardized products across export markets. The proponents
3.1. Objectives of the Study:

1. To understand the marketing and distribution strategy of Manyavar.

2. To find out the factors affecting consumer relationship management.
3. To determine various parameter to collect information through questionnaire of consumer.
4. The scope of my study is to observe the degree of satisfaction levels of the Consumer
relationship management as well as the technique adopted by Corporation bank.

RESEARCH is a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in
any branch of knowledge.


This chapter deals with the methodology adopted in conducting the study. The chapter is
organized as follows; research design, sources of data, population and sampling, research
instrument (data collection technique), administration of instrument and analysis of data.

The project is a systematic presentation consisting of the enunciated problem, formulated

hypothesis, collected facts of data, analyzed facts and proposed conclusions in form of
recommendations. The data has been collected from both the sources primary and secondary

3.2.1. Research Design

The research was based on assessing the marketing and distribution strategy. The design was
an exploratory study which used closed observation in analyzing consumer relationship
The study was based on the use of questionnaires. These approaches were used because
they were satisfactory tools for collecting data for the sample population to investigate the topic
under study.

A research design is the arrangement of the condition for collection and analysis of data in
a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.

A research design is the specification of methods and procedure for acquiring the
information needed to structure or to solve problems. It is the overall operation pattern or
framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which source and
be what procedures.

What is study about?

What is study being made?

Where will the study be carried out?

What type of data is required?

Where can the required data be found?

What will be the sample design?

Technique of data collection.

How will data be analyzed?

3.2.2 Sources of Data

Both primary and secondary source of data were used in conducting the research. Primary Sources

In getting primary data there are several approaches available to gathering data. In order to
collect reliable and valid information, the researcher goes to the market place and collect data from
different customers of Manyavar. The method used in collecting the primary data was

The purpose of using questionnaire was to identify and assess the affect the Consumer
Behavior. A set of questionnaire was prepared with close ended questions. Secondary Sources

The study also made use of secondary data in collecting information. The sources of the
secondary data include books, internet search, articles, and journals among others. This helped to
identify how others have defined and measured key concepts, the data sources that of others used
and this helped to discover how this research project is related to other studies.

3.3.3. Sample Size

A sample size of 112 was chosen from the market. This was based on the Consumer behavior
and to ensure that the sampled was representative enough to draw conclusion through pie chart.

3.3.4. Sampling Techniques

The convenience sampling technique was used to select respondents from the market.

3.3.5. Data Collection Instrument

The researcher used questionnaire. The researcher prepared the questionnaires to be

responded by the consumers. The questions were designed to make the purpose of the study
successful after the results have been ascertained. This instrument gave expected information about
the customer relationship management.

3.3.6. Administration of Instruments

Copies of the questionnaire were distributed to consumers at market place. After some
time, the researcher went back and collected the answered questionnaires. The researcher
explained the questions to the respondents thoroughly after copies of the questionnaire were given
them. The purpose of this was to help the respondents to understand the purpose of the research,
and to do away with suspicions, partialities and also to be able to provide their independent
opinions on the questionnaire items given them. To have a valid and reliable data, the researcher
ensured that the questions were well formulated which allows error minimization.

3.3.7. Data Analysis

The collected data were statistically analyzed, using the pie-chart and tables.
Representations like tables and charts were used to ensure easy and quick interpretation of data.
Responses were expressed in percentages. Data from the completed questionnaire were checked
for consistency. The items were grouped based on the responses given by the respondent. This
method was used because it is the best instrument to identify, compare, describe and reach a
The analysis of the data is done as per the survey finding. The data is represented graphically in
percentage. The percentage of the people opinion were analyzed and expressed in the form of pie
charts and bar graphs :

Data interpretation and analysis

Question 1= are you aware about the manyavar-a clothing brand ?
a. Yes
b. No



According to the survey 90% people are aware about manayavar whereas 10% are not aware about
Question 2 : Do you buy from manyavar?
a. Yes
b. No

no, 49%

yes, 59%

According to the survey 59% of the people are willing to buy from manayavar ,whereas 41% are
not wiling.
Question 3 frequency of purchase from manayvar ?
a. Once a month
b. Once in six month
c. Once in a year
d. No fixed time

once a month,

no fixed time, 45%

once in six month,


once in a year,

According to the survey people who purchase from manayavar once in a month is 30%
,who purchase once in six months is 15% , who buy once in year is 10% and whose time
period is not fixed is 45%.
Question4: where do you like to go for shopping ?
a. Super market
b. Malls
c. Traditional stores
d. Online shopping

1, 20%

According to survey people who like to go to malls for shopping is 35% , who like to go to super
market is 20% , who like to shop from traditional shops is 20% and rest of 25% like online
Question5: according to you manyavar stores is easily available in your locality ?
a. Yes
b. No
c. No idea

no idea


According to the above diagram 45% people have no idea about the locality of manyavar stores ,
30% rate it as yes where as 25% people rated as no .
Question6: are you aware about the promotional activities adopted by manyavar?
A. Yes
B. No

no , 35%, 39%

yes , 55%, 61%

According to the survey 55% people are aware about the promotional activities are
adopted by manyavar where as 35% are not aware of promotional activities
Question7: do you think the promotional strategies adopted by manyavar has triggered its sales?


According to the survey 50% people think had promotional strategies adopted by manyavar have
triggered its sales , 28% people disagreed by the statement and 22% people think may be its true.
Question8: do you think price of manyavar products are reasonable in comparison to its
A. Yes
B. No
C. No idea

no idea 30%


According to the survey 30% people think that the price of manyavar product are reasonable ,35%
people think they are not reasonable and rest 35% people have no idea.
Question 9: are you satisfied with the fiber quality of manyavar ?
a. Yes
b. No

no , 25%, 25%

yes , 75%, 75%

According to the survey 75% people are satisfied whereas 25% are not satisfied.
Question10 : rate the following attribute that induce/ attract you to buy from manyavar ? (1- for
low ,5- high)
a. Design
b. Price
c. Colour
d. Quality
e. material

25% design




According to the survey 31% people rate the manyavar in 2 by design,12% people rate it acc to its
price, 19% as colour ,13% as its quality and rest 25% rate it as 4 by its material.

On the basis of my findings 90% people are aware about of manayavar whereas
10% people are not aware about manayavar.
According to the findings 59% of people are willing to buy from manayavar
whereas 41% are not willing to buy from manayavar.
As per findings People who purchase from manayavar once in the month is 30%
who purchase once in six months is 15% , who buy once in year is 10% and whose
time period is not fixed is 45% .
On the basis of finding people who like to go to malls for shopping is 35% , who
like to go to super market is 20% , who like to shop from traditional shops is 20%
and rest of 25% like online shopping
According to the above findings there are 45% of people have no idea about the
locality of manyavar stores , 30% rate it as yes where as 25% people rated as no .
As per my findings 55% people are aware about the promotional activities are
adopted by manyavar where as 35% are not aware of promotional activities
On the basis of my findings 50% people think had promotional strategies adopted
by manyavar have triggered its sales , 28% people disagreed by the statement and
22% people think may be its true.
As per my findings 30% people think that the price of manyavar product are
reasonable ,35% people think they are not reasonable and rest 35% people have no
On the basis of my finding 75% people are satisfied whereas 25% are not satisfied.
According to the my finding 31% people rate the manyavar in 2 by design,12%
people rate it acc to its price, 19% as colour ,13% as its quality and rest 25% rate it
as 4 by its material.
6.2 Conclusions

According to the response obtained most of the consumers (74%) of Manyavar products belong to
the age group of 25-45 years. The age group below 25 years contains only 10% consumers and
above 45 years contains 16% consumers of Manyavar.

In most of the cases 75% respondents earn more than Rs. 20000 per month while 25% earn less
than Rs. 20000 per month who is consumers Manyavar products.

Most of the respondents prefer Manyavar products due their high quality and some them prefer
because of their no side effect feature. In most of the cases (61%) respondents said that their
complaints got redressed but 39% of consumers claimed that their complaints were not even

86% respondents were satisfied with Manyavar products and 14% of them were not satisfied.

6.3 Suggestions
On the basis of the study undertaken I would like to suggest the following points to the company
Manyavar should focus more on its products category.
Manyavar should control the prices of its products so that every class can afford them.
Manyavar should modify its features other than quality.
Grievances Redressal of customers should be taken care of properly.
Trial packs should be given to consumers.
There should be an option of online shopping and home delivery.
There should be an office of Manyavar in most of the cities
6.4 Limitations of the Study

Following are the important limitation faced by me during the tenure of the research work
Geographical scope of the study was limited to a small area, Delhi only, which may not represent
the whole sector of India. Hence findings may differ from other parts of India.
Size of the sample is 100, which is of course small in comparison to entire population.
It is almost impossible to obtain data from each & every respondent covered in sample. There are
some respondents who refuse to give information.
Due to limitation of time only few people were selected for the study. So the sample of consumer
was not enough to generalize the findings of the study.
The chance of biased response cannot be eliminated through all necessary steps were taken to
avoid the same.
There can be many interpretations and explanation to the data collected. This is empirical study
and the research and the research provides the explanations as understand by the researcher
The source of the data for the study was primary data with the help of self-administered
questionnaire. Hence the chances of unbiased information are less.
The data taken from the secondary source like internet, newspaper, books may lack some proper
explanation or may be not correctly interpreted.
Gupta C.B., Consumer Buying Pattern, Marketing Management, Chapter 8, Page No
103 108, Sultan Chand Publications, New Delhi,
Kumar A. & Meenakshi N., Consumer Behaviour, A Textbook of Marketing and
Practices, Chapter 6, Page No 89 95,
The Times of India
The Hindustan Times

Question 1= are you aware about the manyavar-a clothing brand ?

c. Yes
d. No

Question 2 : Do you buy from manyavar?

c. Yes
d. No

Question 3 frequency of purchase from manayvar ?

e. Once a month
f. Once in six month
g. Once in a year
h. No fixed time

Question4: where do you like to go for shopping ?

e. Super market
f. Malls
g. Traditional stores
h. Online shopping

Question5: according to you manyavar stores is easily available in your locality ?

d. Yes
e. No
f. No idea

Question6: are you aware about the promotional activities adopted by manyavar?
C. Yes
D. No
Question7: do you think the promotional strategies adopted by manyavar has triggered its sales?

Question8: do you think price of manyavar products are reasonable in comparison to its
D. Yes
E. No
F. No idea

Question 9: are you satisfied with the fiber quality of manyavar ?

c. Yes
d. No

Question10 : rate the following attribute that induce/ attract you to buy from manyavar ? (1- for
low ,5- high)
f. Design
g. Price
h. Colour
i. Quality
j. material