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Department of Business Management


Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

13th week course material:


a. Project closure
b. International projects, project oversight, and agile project

Dr. Yani Rahmawati


yanirahmawati@mb.its.ac.id

PROJECT CLOSURE

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GENERAL PROCESS

1. Wrap-up closure tasks are noted first. These tasks


represent all the tasks that must be cleaned up before
the project is terminated.
2. Evaluation of project performance is next.

3. Finally, lessons learned or retrospective methods are


examined in detail.

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PROJECT CLOSURE DELIVERABLES


The major wrap-up task is to ensure the project is approved and accepted by the customer.
Other wrap-up activities : closing accounts, paying bills, reassigning equipment and
personnel, finding new opportunities for project staff, closing facilities, and the final report.

Retrospectives of lessons learned are


Wrapping up the project designed to improve performance on
current and future projects.

Evaluation of
performance and
management of the
project.

Evaluation : team, individual team members, and project manager performance.


Vendors and the customer may provide external input.
Evaluation of the major players provides important information for the future.
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TYPES OF PROJECT CLOSURE

NORMAL
The most common circumstance for project closure is simply a
completed project.

For many development projects, the end involves handing off the
final design to production and the creation of a new product or
service line.

For other internal IT projects, such as system upgrades or creation


of new inventory control systems, the end occurs when the output
is incorporated into ongoing operations.

Some modifications in scope, cost, and schedule probably occurred


during implementation.

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TYPES OF PROJECT CLOSURE

PREMATURE
For a few projects, the project may be completed early with some
parts of the project eliminated.

For example, in a new product development project, a marketing


manager may insist on production models before testing.

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TYPES OF PROJECT CLOSURE

PERPETUAL
Some projects never seem to end.

The major characteristic of this kind of project is constant add-


ons, suggesting a poorly conceived project scope.

At some point the review group should recommend methods for


bringing final closure to this type of project or the initiation of
another project.

For example, adding a new feature to an old project could replace


a segment of a project that appears to be perpetual.

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TYPES OF PROJECT CLOSURE

FAILED PROJECT
Failed projects are usually easy to identify and easy for a review
group to close down.

However, every effort should be made to communicate the


technical (or other) reasons for termination of the project; in any
event project participants should not be left with an embarrassing
stigma of working on a project that failed.

Many projects will fail because of circumstances beyond the control


of the project team.

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TYPES OF PROJECT CLOSURE

CHANGED PRIORITY
Organizations priorities often change and strategy shifts
directions.
For example, during the 200810 financial crisis organizations
shifted their focus from money-making projects to cost savings
projects. The oversight group continually revises project selection
priorities to reflect changes in organizational direction.
Projects in process may need to be altered or cancelled.
Thus, a project may start with a high priority but see its rank erode
or crash during its project life cycle as conditions change.
When priorities change, projects in process may need to be altered
or cancelled.

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WRAP-UP CLOSURE ACTIVITIES

Implementing closedown includes the following six major activities:

1. Getting delivery acceptance from the customer.

2. Shutting down resources and releasing to new uses.

3. Reassigning project team members.

4. Closing accounts and seeing all bills are paid.

5. Delivering the project to the customer.

6. Creating a final report

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WRAP-UP CLOSURE ACTIVITIES

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POST-IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION

The purpose of project evaluation is to assess how well the project


team, team members, and project manager performed.

Evaluations of individuals are still left to supervisors of the team


members home department.

Most organizations do not go beyond these measures, although


they are important and critical. Organizations should consider
evaluating the team-building process, effectiveness of group
decision and problem-solving processes, group cohesion, trust
among team members, and quality of information exchanged.

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POST-IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION

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POST-IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION

Here are some general tips for conducting performance reviews:


Always begin the process by asking the individual to evaluate his or
her contributions to the project. First, this approach may yield
valuable information that you were not aware of. Second, the approach
may provide an early warning for situations in which there is disparity in
assessments. Finally, this method reduces the judgmental nature of
the discussion.
Avoid drawing comparisons with other team members; rather, assess
the individual in terms of established standards and expectations.
Comparisons tend to undermine cohesion and divert attention away
from what the individual needs to do to improve performance.
When you have to be critical, focus the criticism on specific examples
of behaviour rather than on the individual personally. Describe in
specific terms how the behaviour affected the project.

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POST-IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION

Be consistent and fair in your treatment of all team members.


Nothing breeds resentment more than if, through the grapevine,
individuals feel they are being held to a different standard than are
other project members.

Treat the review as only one point in an ongoing process. Use it to


reach an agreement as to how the individual can improve his or her
performance.

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RETROSPECTIVE

Lessons learned represent an analysis carried out during and


shortly after the project life cycle; they attempt to capture positive
and negative project learning.

Although the past processes have been useful for closure and
lessons learned, sadly their real value has not been exploited.

Large, multinational companies with projects spread across the


globe have been disappointed in their failure to effectively mine
lessons learned.

Smaller organizations observed, they too were not reaping the


golden rewards of lessons learned.

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INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS

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Projects are frequently classified as domestic, overseas, foreign, or global.

A domestic project is one performed in its native country for a resident firm
(a construction firm building a bridge in its state).

An overseas project is one executed in a foreign country for a native firm (a


Swedish company building a truck factory in the United States for their native
company).

A foreign project is executed in a foreign country for a foreign firm (a U.S.


firm developing an information system in Malaysia for Malaysian banks).

A global project consists of teams formed from professionals spanning


multiple countries, continents, and cultures with their work integrated for the
entire enterprise (e.g., multinational enterprise developing a global distribution
system).

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ENVIRONMETAL FACTORS

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PROJECT SITE SELECTION

As the project manager studies the factors contributing to site


selection, he will see that inherent in all of these factors is the risk
level senior management and directors are willing to accept for
the potential rewards of a successful international project.

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CULTURAL SHOCK
Honeymoon Gradual adjustment
You start your overseas You begin to over-
assignment with a sense come your sense of
of excitement. isolation and figure
out how to get things
done in the new
Irritability and hostility culture. You acquire a
Your initial enthusiasm new perspective of
is exhausted, and you what is possible and
begin to notice that regain confidence in
differences are greater your ability to work in
than you first imagined. the culture.
You become frustrated,
begin to lose confidence
in your abilities to
communicate and work Adaptation
effectively in the You recover from your sense of psychological disorientation and begin
different culture. to function and communicate in the new culture

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PROJECT OVERSIGHT

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Project oversight can be defined as a set of principles and processes


to guide and improve the management of projects.

The intent is to ensure projects meet the needs of the organization


through standards, procedures, accountability, efficient allocation of
resources, and continuous improvement in the management of
projects. A second purpose is to support the project manager.

The typical activities of project oversight cover two dimensions:


organization and project.

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At the Organization Level :

1. Project selection.

2. Portfolio management.

3. Improving the way all projects are managed over time.

4. Assessing and elevating the maturity level of the organizations


project management system.

5. Using the balanced scorecard approach to review progress on


strategic priorities.

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At the Project Level

1. Review projects objectives.

2. Decide on issues raised by the project manager such as resource


needs and escalation.

3. Track and assist the project to resolve bottlenecks.

4. Review status reports from the project manager.

5. Audit and review lessons learned.

6. Authorize any major deviations from the original scope.

7. Cancel the project.

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AGILE PROJECT

Fundamentally, Agile PM is related to the rolling wave planning and


scheduling project methodology.

That is, the final project design is not known in great detail and is
continuously developed through a series of incremental iterations
over time.

Iterations are short time frames (time boxes) that typically last
from one to four weeks.

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AGILE PROJECT

The goal of each iteration is to develop a workable product that satisfies one or more
desired product features to demonstrate to the customer and other key stakeholders.

At the end of each iteration, stakeholders and customers review progress and re-evaluate
priorities to ensure alignment with customer needs and company goals.

Adjustments are made and a different iterative cycle begins.

Each new iteration considers the work of the previous iterations and adds new
capabilities to the evolving product to produce a next, expanded version of the product.
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AGILE PRINCIPLES
1. Focus on customer valueEmploy business-driven prioritizations
of requirements and features.
2. Iterative and incremental deliveryCreate a flow of value to
customers by chunking project delivery into small, functioning
increments.
3. Experimentation and adaptationTest assumptions early and
build working prototypes to solicit customer feedback and refine
product requirements.
4. Self-organizationTeam members decide amongst themselves
who and what should be done.
5. Continuous improvementTeams reflect, learn, and adapt to
change; work informs the plan.

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SCRUM

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SCRUM
Daily Scrum

The heartbeat of an Agile project is the daily meetings which are commonly referred to
as the Scrum. Each work day at the same time and place, team members stand in a
circle and take turns answering the following key questions:

1. What have you done since the last Scrum?

2. What will you do between now and the next Scrum?

3. What is getting in the way (blocks) you from performing your work as effectively as
possible?

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References

Most of materials in this lecture are adopted from:


Larson, E.W., and Gray, C.F., (2014), Project Management: The
Managerial Process, 6th Ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

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