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MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN MEAT , MILK , AND EGGS

Disusun oleh:

Kusuma Pertiwi Sitorus (31s16004)

Grace RL Tambunan(31s16010)

Imelda Sianipar(31s16030

TENIK BIOPROSES

INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI DEL

2016/2017

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All humans need food as energy intake for growth and development. Therefore, the need for food
is increasing which resulted the producers must improve the quality of their products, especially such as
milk and meat. Therefore done is the treatment of animals. The drug or metabolite is left in the body after
its administration for a longer time is called a residue. After animal treatment the residue will be left in
the body of the person who eats meat, eggs, or milk from the animal. Concentration of drug residues may
be highest in body fat, liver and kidney. If this residue is present in large amounts then it is very
dangerous for the health of the body. It is therefore necessary to reduce residuals. . Some drug residues
can destroy beneficial micro flora present in the gastro-intestinal tract especially children, leading to
indigestion. Drug residue causes drug resistance. Drug resistance is a bacterial tolerance to illicit drugs,
which makes the drug ineffective in killing bacteria. It is this bacterial resistance that causes this problem
to be serious for handling. Not only has the disease in children these residues can also be karsiogenik that
causes cancer. For example sulphamethazin residues containing meat, preserved with sodium nitrite can
develop the Trizine complex, which has considerable carcinogenic potential (Mitchell, 1984). Rapid
microbiological tests are used to detect the presence of antimicrobial residues in animal tissue. The Swab
Test on Premises (STOP) is used for all types of red meat except for female bob, whereas Calf Antibiotic
and Sulpha Test (CAST) are used. Pre-Harvesting Antibiotic Screening Test (PHAST), an in-plant screen
test, was developed in 1989 to improve the ability of an antibiotic detection program. PHAST has greater
sensitivity and can detect a variety of antibiotics (USDA / FSIS, 1998). This microbial inhibitory test is
easy to do and does not cost much. It is advisable to use renal samples rather than muscle samples as test
materials for microbiological identification of antimicrobial residues in carcasses. To determine the
presence of antibiotic residues contained it is necessary to check the milk and meat it can be tested
inhibition of microbes. Microbiological tests for detecting antibiotic residues use the Bacillus genus, due
to their high sensitivity to the majority of antibiotics. Microbiological tests are widely used to detect
antibiotic residues in meat, milk and eggs to maintain better health and quality of health. In this study the
microbiological inhibition test of the Swab Test on Animal Food (STAF) was developed indigenously for
animal food screening for antibiotic residues.

In this test, isolated Bacillus subtilis isolate cultures are used as test microorganisms because of
their high sensitivity to detect common antibiotics used in animal abnormalities. Then this microorganism
will grow and will be examined separately for morphological, cultural, and biochemical tests. The steps
are preparation of pure isolate spore isolates, reparation of spore suspension works, and collection of
muscle, kidney, liver,and milk and egg samples

And for the Bacillus spore processing there are two methods that is done by the method of
pouring Bacillus spores into each plate, then let it harden. After that cool the plate, this plate will last for
10 days. Both methods of overlaying by adding and mixing 1 ml of spores bacillus, then poured on each
plate. Then spread it on a plate containing it for simple nutrition, chill to harden. The hardened plate is
then sealed in a plastic bag. For muscle samples, swabs back and forth to shorten the tissues, for milk and
egg samples, swab dipped in milk and egg yolk for 30 seconds, this plate will warm up, then place the
Neomycin disk.

After get the data from the research, there are 3 results that can be directly from 3 examples of
ingredients i.e. beef, lamb and dairy. The results from beef samples indicate that there are about 31.6% of
meat from Pakistani regions positively containing residual antibiotics in the kidneys, liver and muscles.

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Of the three organs that have the highest residual level are the kidneys because the kidneys are the
auxiliary organs of residual antibiotic expenditure. Results from the sample of lamb meat showed that
approximately 43.3% of the positive indicated residual antibiotics. And on milk samples were about
41.6% positive indicated residual antibiotics. The results of STAF testing on animal food samples
indicate the high number of antibiotic residues. Another major cause of high antibiotic residues is no
consideration of drug withdrawal time. In Pakistan where the research is carried out unfortunately there is
no system for detecting antibiotic residues in animal foods. Usually research to detect antibiotic residues
that are on the poultry, eggs and milk by using spectrophotometer. However, the investigators used an
easier method by using local Bacillus subtitles JS2004 as a test organism. In milk samples to determine
the presence of antibiotic residues are usually done with the help of microbial inhibitors. There are two
methods used in the research that is STAF plate method and overlay method. However the overlay
method is considered the best method. The inhibitory zone around the neomycin control disk is optimized
using different spore suspension concentrations. Since this is the final concentration of the spore
suspension used in the test, the zone around the neomycin disc is optimized. STOP (Swab Test on
Premises) and PHAST (Pre-Harvesting Antibiotic Screening Test) are used to detect residual antibiotics
only on red meat, but modifications are made to also detect drug residues in poultry, eggs and milk. In
addition, the two previous tests were not able to detect sulfonamides because in this test, in order that
Muller Hinton was used as a testing medium as in the STAF Nutrient agar test. From the sample in one
plate at the same time. One plate screening method for microbiological detection of antibiotic residues by
inhibition of Edium growth, at pH 7, is containing trimethoprim for better detection of Sulphonamide.
Sensitivity is determined for 16 antimicrobial agents often used in farms (Koenen-Dierick et al., 1995).
The performance of this method is evaluated by determining Minimum Barrier Concentrations
(Minimums) of 66 commonly used drugs and determining the variation between antimicrobial control
standards. The method described is technically simple, cost-effective, robust, and suitable for large
sample throughput and for frozen, soft or fresh tissue. From the research conducted there are 3 results that
can be directly from 3 examples of ingredients i.e. beef, lamb and dairy. The results from beef samples
indicate that there are about 31.6% of meat from Pakistani regions positively containing residual
antibiotics in the kidneys, liver and muscles. Of the three organs that have the highest residual level are
the kidneys because the kidneys are the auxiliary organs of residual antibiotic expenditure. Results from
the sample of lamb meat showed that approximately 43.3% of the positive indicated residual antibiotics.
And on milk samples were about 41.6% positive indicated residual antibiotics. Apparently based on
STAF test results on poultry and egg samples one way to treat various bacterial diseases in poultry is
chemotherapy antibiotics Poultry samples including 20 samples of each liver, muscle and kidney tissue
are used to detect antibiotic residues. Among the highest residual occurrences are found in the kidneys, in
liver and muscle, and poultry eggs.